Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Dental Caries Susceptibility: The predisposition to tooth decay (DENTAL CARIES).DMF Index: "Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.Dental Caries Activity Tests: Diagnostic tests conducted in order to measure the increment of active DENTAL CARIES over a period of time.Dental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Root Caries: Dental caries involving the tooth root, cementum, or cervical area of the tooth.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Tooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Diet, Cariogenic: A diet that contributes to the development and advancement of DENTAL CARIES.Oral Hygiene Index: A combination of the debris index and the dental calculus index to determine the status of oral hygiene.Oral Hygiene: The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Cariostatic Agents: Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Fluoridation: Practice of adding fluoride to water for the purpose of preventing tooth decay and cavities.Toothbrushing: The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)Pit and Fissure Sealants: Agents used to occlude dental enamel pits and fissures in the prevention of dental caries.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Fluorosis, Dental: A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Dental Restoration, Permanent: A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Cariogenic Agents: Substances that promote DENTAL CARIES.Toothpastes: Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Insurance, Dental: Insurance providing coverage for dental care.Fluorides, Topical: Fluorides, usually in pastes or gels, used for topical application to reduce the incidence of DENTAL CARIES.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Dentition, Permanent: The 32 teeth of adulthood that either replace or are added to the complement of deciduous teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Dental Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Dental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.Streptococcus sobrinus: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from the human tooth surface. Strains have been shown to be cariogenic in experimental animals and may be associated with human dental caries.Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Care for Aged: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of the elderly for proper maintenance or treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.School Dentistry: Preventive dental services provided for students in primary and secondary schools.Dental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Tooth Loss: The failure to retain teeth as a result of disease or injury.Dental Care for Disabled: Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).Dental Enamel: A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Preventive Dentistry: The branch of dentistry concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance and promotion of oral health.Dental Fissures: Deep grooves or clefts in the surface of teeth equivalent to class 1 cavities in Black's classification of dental caries.Periodontal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.Dental Anxiety: Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.Radiography, Dental: Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.General Practice, Dental: Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Dental Auxiliaries: Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.Dental Arch: The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.Dental Amalgam: An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.Tooth Remineralization: Therapeutic technique for replacement of minerals in partially decalcified teeth.Dental Records: Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Transillumination: Passage of light through body tissues or cavities for examination of internal structures.Tooth DiseasesDental Offices: The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.Dental Plaque Index: An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Toothache: Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.Dentists: Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Dental Staff: Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Chewing Gum: A preparation of chicle, sometimes mixed with other plastic substances, sweetened and flavored. It is masticated usually for pleasure as a candy substitute but it sometimes acts as a vehicle for the administration of medication.Dental Equipment: The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)Tooth Demineralization: A tooth's loss of minerals, such as calcium in hydroxyapatite from the tooth matrix, caused by acidic exposure. An example of the occurrence of demineralization is in the formation of dental caries.Dental Atraumatic Restorative Treatment: Treatment modality for DENTAL CARIES that uses manual excavation method and GLASS IONOMER CEMENTS. Because of its noninvasiveness and no need for expensive equipment and anesthesia it is promoted as an approach in places where dental care is not readily available.Mouth, Edentulous: Total lack of teeth through disease or extraction.Dental Service, Hospital: Hospital department providing dental care.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Dental Pulp Diseases: Endodontic diseases of the DENTAL PULP inside the tooth, which is distinguished from PERIAPICAL DISEASES of the tissue surrounding the root.Candy: Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.Mouthwashes: Solutions for rinsing the mouth, possessing cleansing, germicidal, or palliative properties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Dentist's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice in dentistry related to diagnosis and treatment.Dental Assistants: Individuals who assist the dentist or the dental hygienist.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Education, Dental, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.Xylitol: A five-carbon sugar alcohol derived from XYLOSE by reduction of the carbonyl group. It is as sweet as sucrose and used as a noncariogenic sweetener.Dental Enamel Hypoplasia: An acquired or hereditary condition due to deficiency in the formation of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS). It is usually characterized by defective, thin, or malformed DENTAL ENAMEL. Risk factors for enamel hypoplasia include gene mutations, nutritional deficiencies, diseases, and environmental factors.Dental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Periodontal Index: A numerical rating scale for classifying the periodontal status of a person or population with a single figure which takes into consideration prevalence as well as severity of the condition. It is based upon probe measurement of periodontal pockets and on gingival tissue status.Gingivitis: Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.Radiography, Bitewing: Technique involving the passage of X-rays through oral structures to create a film record while a central tab or wing of dental X-ray film is being held between upper and lower teeth.Dental Devices, Home Care: Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Group Practice, Dental: Any group of three or more full-time dentists, organized in a legally recognized entity for the provision of dental care, sharing space, equipment, personnel and records for both patient care and business management, and who have a predetermined arrangement for the distribution of income.Stomatognathic Diseases: General or unspecified diseases of the stomatognathic system, comprising the mouth, teeth, jaws, and pharynx.Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.Dentistry: The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.Ethics, Dental: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Societies, Dental: Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Licensure, Dental: The granting of a license to practice dentistry.Tooth Discoloration: Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)Laboratories, Dental: Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.Diagnosis, Oral: Examination of the mouth and teeth toward the identification and diagnosis of intraoral disease or manifestation of non-oral conditions.Mouth DiseasesDental Prophylaxis: Treatment for the prevention of periodontal diseases or other dental diseases by the cleaning of the teeth in the dental office using the procedures of DENTAL SCALING and DENTAL POLISHING. The treatment may include plaque detection, removal of supra- and subgingival plaque and calculus, application of caries-preventing agents, checking of restorations and prostheses and correcting overhanging margins and proximal contours of restorations, and checking for signs of food impaction.Dental Pellicle: A thin protein film on the surface of DENTAL ENAMEL. It is widely believed to result from the selective adsorption of precursor proteins present in SALIVA onto tooth surfaces, and to reduce microbial adherence to the TEETH.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Specialties, Dental: Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.Dental Calculus: Abnormal concretion or calcified deposit that forms around the teeth or dental prostheses.Fees, Dental: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Radiography, Dental, Digital: A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)Pulpitis: Inflammation of the DENTAL PULP, usually due to bacterial infection in dental caries, tooth fracture, or other conditions causing exposure of the pulp to bacterial invasion. Chemical irritants, thermal factors, hyperemic changes, and other factors may also cause pulpitis.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Dental Technicians: Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.Cuspid: The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)Tooth Wear: Loss of the tooth substance by chemical or mechanical processesTooth Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth.Dental Restoration Repair: The process of repairing broken or worn parts of a PERMANENT DENTAL RESTORATION.BrazilXerostomia: Decreased salivary flow.Practice Management, Dental: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Social Marginalization: Individuals or groups, excluded from participation in the economic, social, and political activities of membership in a community.Dental Cavity Preparation: An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)Dental Sac: Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.Bicuspid: One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)Bottle Feeding: Use of nursing bottles for feeding. Applies to humans and animals.Crowns: A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.Evidence-Based Dentistry: An approach or process of practicing oral health care that requires the judicious integration of systematic assessments of clinical relevant scientific evidence, relating to the patient's oral and medical condition and history, with the dentist's clinical expertise and the patient's treatment needs and preferences. (from J Am Dent Assoc 134: 689, 2003)Pediatric Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of children, proper maintenance, and treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Dentifrices: Any preparations used for cleansing teeth; they usually contain an abrasive, detergent, binder and flavoring agent and may exist in the form of liquid, paste or powder; may also contain medicaments and caries preventives.Tooth Injuries: Traumatic or other damage to teeth including fractures (TOOTH FRACTURES) or displacements (TOOTH LUXATION).Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Dentition, Mixed: The complement of teeth in the jaws after the eruption of some of the permanent teeth but before all the deciduous teeth are absent. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Comprehensive Dental Care: Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.Esthetics, Dental: Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)Dental Deposits: Accumulations of microflora that lead to pathological plaque and calculus which cause PERIODONTAL DISEASES. It can be considered a type of BIOFILMS. It is subtly distinguished from the protective DENTAL PELLICLE.Photography, Dental: Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Jaw, Edentulous, Partially: Absence of teeth from a portion of the mandible and/or maxilla.Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.Tooth Eruption: The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)IndiaTelepathy: The knowledge or communication by one person with the mental processes of another through channels other than known physical or perceptual processes.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Binomial Distribution: The probability distribution associated with two mutually exclusive outcomes; used to model cumulative incidence rates and prevalence rates. The Bernoulli distribution is a special case of binomial distribution.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Schools, Nursery: Schools for children usually under five years of age.Infection Control, Dental: Efforts to prevent and control the spread of infections within dental health facilities or those involving provision of dental care.Dental Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.Dental Papilla: Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.Dental Occlusion: The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)Dental Prosthesis: An artificial replacement for one or more natural teeth or part of a tooth, or associated structures, ranging from a portion of a tooth to a complete denture. The dental prosthesis is used for cosmetic or functional reasons, or both. DENTURES and specific types of dentures are also available. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p244 & Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p643)Dental Informatics: The application of computer and information sciences to improve dental practice, research, education and management.Dental Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Dental Pulp Exposure: The result of pathological changes in the hard tissue of a tooth caused by carious lesions, mechanical factors, or trauma, which render the pulp susceptible to bacterial invasion from the external environment.Mobile Health Units: Movable or portable facilities in which diagnostic and therapeutic services are provided to the community.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Dental Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of dental care.Tooth Erosion: Progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p296)Dentistry, Operative: That phase of clinical dentistry concerned with the restoration of parts of existing teeth that are defective through disease, trauma, or abnormal development, to the state of normal function, health, and esthetics, including preventive, diagnostic, biological, mechanical, and therapeutic techniques, as well as material and instrument science and application. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 2d ed, p237)Tooth Crown: The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Dental Waste: Any waste product generated by a dental office, surgery, clinic, or laboratory including amalgams, saliva, and rinse water.Dental Implantation: The grafting or inserting of a prosthetic device of alloplastic material into the oral tissue beneath the mucosal or periosteal layer or within the bone. Its purpose is to provide support and retention to a partial or complete denture.Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Economics, Dental: Economic aspects of the dental profession and dental care.Composite Resins: Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.Northern Territory: Territory in north central Australia, between the states of Queensland and Western Australia. Its capital is Darwin.Community Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Periapical Abscess: Acute or chronic inflammation of tissues surrounding the apical portion of a tooth, associated with the collection of pus, resulting from infection following pulp infection through a carious lesion or as a result of an injury causing pulp necrosis. (Dorland, 27th ed)Public Health Dentistry: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Malocclusion: Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Snacks: Foods eaten between MEALTIMES.Dental Scaling: Removal of dental plaque and dental calculus from the surface of a tooth, from the surface of a tooth apical to the gingival margin accumulated in periodontal pockets, or from the surface coronal to the gingival margin.Periapical Periodontitis: Inflammation of the PERIAPICAL TISSUE. It includes general, unspecified, or acute nonsuppurative inflammation. Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL GRANULOMA. Suppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL ABSCESS.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
  • The average number of decayed, missing, and filled primary tooth surfaces (dmfs) and severe early childhood caries (S-ECC: dmfs ≥6) were investigated at age 5 years. (aappublications.org)
  • The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of an oral health educative intervention in preventing early childhood caries (ECC). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A program of motivational interviewing plus enhanced community services in prevention of early childhood caries vs. enhanced community services alone for American Indian mothers and their children will reduce the childrens' decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces measure over a 3-year period. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Motivational interviewing sessions will involve home visits concentrating on the mitigation of behavioral risk factors for early childhood caries , provided shortly after childbirth, and at 6, 12, and 18 months. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Enhanced community services will involve the development of culturally appropriate messages related to the mitigation of behavioral risk factors for early childhood caries through public service announcements and brochures. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and severity of early childhood caries (ECC) and severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) in 3-year-old Lithuanian children. (mdpi.com)
  • Slabšinskienė E, Milčiuvienė S, Narbutaitė J, Vasiliauskienė I, Andruškevičienė V, Bendoraitienė E-A, Saldūnaitė K. Severe early childhood caries and behavioral risk factors among 3-year-old children in Lithuania. (mdpi.com)
  • The study was carried out in 88 children with severe early childhood caries (dmfs≥age +1) who were referred to the investigators' clinic. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Children of newcomers to Canada have been identified as at moderately high risk for developing early childhood caries (ECC). (jcda.ca)
  • Early childhood caries (ECC) is a particularly damaging form of tooth decay observed in the toddler and preschool population. (jcda.ca)
  • Early Childhood Caries is a rapidly progressing disease leading to severe pain, anxiety, sepsis and sleep loss, and is a major health problem particularly for disadvantaged populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There is currently a lack of research exploring the interactions between risk and protective factors in the development of early childhood caries, in particular the effects of infant feeding practises. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Early childhood caries (ECC) remains a significant public health problem and evidence ( Yengopal 2009 ) and has suggested that casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) may improve the effectiveness of fluoridated toothpaste. (nationalelfservice.net)
  • During 1999--2002, among children aged 2--11 years, 41% had dental caries in their primary teeth. (cdc.gov)
  • Forty-two percent of children and adolescents aged 6--19 years and approximately 90% of adults had dental caries in their permanent teeth. (cdc.gov)
  • The findings of this report indicate that the dental caries status of permanent teeth has improved since the 1988--1994 survey. (cdc.gov)
  • These data provide information for public health professionals in designing interventions to improve oral health and to reduce disparities in oral health, for researchers in assessing factors associated with disparities and dental caries in primary teeth, and in designing timely surveillance tools to monitor total fluoride exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Nonalignment of the teeth on the jaws may cause dental caries due to the accumulation of dental plaques resulting from difficult-to-reach areas in the mouth. (intechopen.com)
  • This purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the literature and update our current understanding of the impact of present cancer therapies on the dental apparatus (teeth and periodontium) since the 1989 NIH Development Consensus Conference on the Oral Complications of Cancer Therapies. (springer.com)
  • This review will focus on the acute and chronic effects of cancer therapy on the dental apparatus (i.e., teeth and periodontium). (springer.com)
  • While fluoride is accepted as an effective method to prevent caries, the excessive consumption of fluoride can put bones and teeth at risk of developing fluorosis [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Results: Children with congenital heart disease had significantly more caries in their primary teeth than the control group. (diva-portal.org)
  • Data on decayed/missing/filled teeth, caries-free rates and treatment needs were collected from 18 946 children using WHO standard methods. (who.int)
  • The varnish was reapplied in all the teeth (primary and permanent dentitions) every 3 months (initially and after 3,6 and 9 months), and the caries increments were compared at 12 months. (isciii.es)
  • Description of the prior art Dental research has developed substantial evidence that beyond the age of forty years loss of teeth is predominantly the result of periodontal involvement rather than dental caries. (google.com)
  • The most important single factor contributing to periodontal disease is the accumulation of dental calculus (e.g., salivary tartar) on the teeth. (google.com)
  • The examinations of cleaned and dried teeth in both settings were carried out using a dental mirror and ball-ended probe, under natural light in the epidemiological setting examinations and under artificial light during the clinical setting examinations. (quintpub.com)
  • In this study, researchers at Tokyo Medical and Dental University examined the teeth of 20,000 students and showed clearly that they had been harmed by fluoride. (veganbodybuilding.com)
  • That fluorides have not been shown to benefit teeth should not come as a surprise to the dental profession. (veganbodybuilding.com)
  • Soon after establishing his dental practice in Colorado Springs, Colorado, in 1901, Dr. Frederick S. McKay noted an unusual permanent stain or 'mottled enamel' (termed 'Colorado brown stain' by area residents) on the teeth of many of his patients (6). (whale.to)
  • McKay also observed that teeth affected by this condition seemed less susceptible to dental caries (7). (whale.to)
  • Caries of the tooth crown is still predominantly a disease of children and adolescents, although caries of the root surface of the teeth, secondary to exposure of the root by recession of the gingivae, is becoming more prevalent among older adults (Miller et al. (nap.edu)
  • 1987). Less is known about the causes of root caries than about caries of the tooth crown, but possible risk factors include increased longevity of the population and longer retention of teeth in adults (Carlos, 1984). (nap.edu)
  • After the teeth isolation with cotton rolls, changes in the dentin sensitivity to tactile (dental explorer), thermal stimuli (drops of melted ice) and air stimuli (blast from dental syringe) will be evaluated. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The only dental fluorosis in any manner attributable to optimally fluoridated water is mild to very mild, a barely detectable effect which causes no adversity on cosmetics, form, function, or health of teeth. (thelundreport.org)
  • The decay-missing-filled (DMF) index or decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index is one of the most common methods in oral epidemiology for assessing dental caries prevalence as well as dental treatment needs among populations and has been used for about 75 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • This index is based on in-field clinical examination of individuals by using a probe, mirror and cotton rolls, and simply counts the number of decayed, missing (due to caries only) and restored teeth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Logistic regression analyses showed that increasing age, the presence of debris on teeth, parents believing their child has dental problems and the presence of enamel hypoplasia were significantly and independently associated with ECC and S-ECC ( p ≤ 0.05). (jcda.ca)
  • The graphic below compares dental caries on permanent teeth for the different age groups. (wordpress.com)
  • Intra-oral photographs were taken and reviewed to measure Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth (DMFT) and dental erosion. (lawandicome.co)
  • This review suggests that the use of fluoride supplements is associated with a reduction in caries increment when compared with no fluoride supplement in permanent teeth. (nationalelfservice.net)
  • Dental fluorosis was measured by Dean's Index (6-categories of severity), where classification was based on the two teeth most affected by fluorosis. (bu.edu)
  • Other covariates were socio-demographic characteristics, self-perceived mouth/teeth condition (1-item), and previous dental visit (time and reason). (bu.edu)
  • Results: The prevalence of dental caries in permanent teeth in urban and rural areas was 56.8%, 77.6%, respectively. (ijmrhs.com)
  • Have teeth been falling out en masse? (jonbarron.org)
  • To prevent one new caries lesion, clinicians need to treat four primary teeth (one patient) or 12.1 permanent molars (three patients) with SDF. (cdeworld.com)
  • Secondary outcome measures were number of decayed, missing, or filled teeth (dmfs) in caries-active children, number of episodes of pain, and number of extracted teeth. (nih.gov)
  • There was no significant difference in the number of episodes of pain between groups ( P = 0.81) or in the number of teeth extracted in caries-active children ( P = 0.95). (nih.gov)
  • Except for the number of missing teeth, which was significantly higher in the group of patients who had been treated for squamous cell carcinoma, the caries indicators did not differ significantly by sex, diagnosis or radiotherapy dose. (quintpub.com)
  • They had more decayed teeth but fewer restorations, indicating reduced access to dental care. (edu.au)
  • The aim of this study wasto investigate the caries experience and pattern in primary and permanent teeth in alongitudinal study. (iasj.net)
  • Exposure to fluoride throughout life is effective in preventing dental caries. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, the parents were asked to provide a complete residential history for their child, and to answer questions about the child's use of fluorides in the form of drops, tablets, treatments in the dental office or school-based fluoride programs. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Fluoride ingested during dental development, until the age of six years, may promote the development of fluorosis. (mdpi.com)
  • Multiple mechanisms, including direct fluoride-related effects on ameloblasts (secretory and maturation phases), indirect fluoride-related effects on the forming matrix (nucleation and crystal growth in all stages of enamel formation), and calcium homeostasis, can result in dental fluorosis depending on the dose and duration of fluoride exposure [ 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Fluoride is the most frequently used chemotherapeutic agent to combat dental caries. (dentalcare.com)
  • 2,800 ppm sodium fluoride dentifrice has demonstrated 20.4% greater caries reduction compared to a regular 1,100 ppm sodium fluoride dentifrice (Biesbrock et al. (dentalcare.com)
  • The caries demineralization-remineralization balance described above is valid for all fluoride compounds which allow dissociation of the fluoride ion in the oral cavity. (dentalcare.com)
  • Stabilized stannous fluoride may offer additional anti-caries benefits through the anti-bacterial actions of stannous which reduce the production of plaque acids (Kasturi et al. (dentalcare.com)
  • The following study summaries represent a sample of research demonstrating the benefits of stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice for caries protection. (dentalcare.com)
  • These compositions serve to clean and polish dental hard tissue in a novel manner such that accumulations of pellicle and materia alba and occurrence and reformation of calculus on oral hard tissue are markedly reduced and also enhance the effectiveness of anticariogenic adjuvants such as fluoride, stannous, zirconium ions, or combinations thereof. (google.com)
  • After 6 years, children in the milk-fluoridation program had a significant (34%) reduction in dental caries experience compared to those in the comparison community (i.e., received school milk without added fluoride) (DMFS: 1.06 vs. 1.60). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fluoride can be delivered to individuals as a dental preventive measure through a variety of mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One of the largest studies into fluoride levels and dental caries ever carried out comes from Japan. (veganbodybuilding.com)
  • Fluoride ingestion delays tooth eruption and this may account for some of the differences seen in the past between fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas (i.e. dental decay is simply postponed). (nofluoride.com)
  • This level of damage to the tooth enamel (dental fluorosis) is 4 -5 times higher than the original goal of those who launched the fluoridation program who thought at 1 ppm fluoride, they could limit dental fluorosis to 10% of the population in its mildest category. (nofluoride.com)
  • Recipient(s) will receive an email with a link to 'Caries affected by calcium and fluoride in drinking water and family income' and will not need an account to access the content. (iwaponline.com)
  • This study broadens previous studies on how caries is associated with fluoride and calcium in drinking water and with family income by quantifying the combined effect of the three independent variables. (iwaponline.com)
  • A general linear model describes this relationship with high significance and the model confirms the important protective effect of calcium and fluoride, independently against caries. (iwaponline.com)
  • From the model, the relative importance of fluoride and calcium to protect against caries is quantified. (iwaponline.com)
  • Figure 1 gives a survey of the distribution of caries measured as DMF-S in the municipalities in Denmark in 2004 together with the distributions of the calcium and fluoride in drinking water. (iwaponline.com)
  • investigated the effect of fluoride, income and gender on caries among 5-year-old and 12-year-old school children in 2004 in Denmark. (iwaponline.com)
  • This study aimed at quantifying the combined effect of calcium, fluoride and family income on dental caries in Denmark by 2004 by using linear models. (iwaponline.com)
  • A 2-year double-blind randomized three-treatment controlled parallel-group clinical study compared the anti-caries efficacy of two dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound (di-calcium phosphate or calcium carbonate) and 1,450 ppm fluoride (F), as sodium monofluorophosphate, to a control dentifrice containing 1,450 ppm F, as sodium fluoride, in a silica base. (researchgate.net)
  • Is fluoride ingestion and topical fluorides the principal factors involved in the decline of tooth decay in the last 50 years or are there other factors involved in the decreasing caries rates? (fluoridation.com)
  • The aim of this Cochrane review was to evaluate the efficacy of fluoride supplements for preventing dental caries in children. (nationalelfservice.net)
  • The thrust of the articles: that the lack of fluoride in bottled water is causing a decline in dental health. (jonbarron.org)
  • One claim is that dental researchers have shown that just introducing fluoride into a previously unfluoridated city's drinking water supply can reduce its inhabitants' rate of tooth decay between 40 and 70 percent. (jonbarron.org)
  • In fact, there is no good statistical evidence that fluoride (either in your water or your toothpaste) makes one iota of difference in terms of dental health. (jonbarron.org)
  • The use of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) for management of dental caries has gained considerable attention due to recent regulatory clearance in the United States. (cdeworld.com)
  • Consistent results in many high-quality clinical trials and clearance by the US Food and Drug Administration have driven a reemergence of interest in 38% silver diamine fluoride (SDF) for managing dental caries. (cdeworld.com)
  • Their original intent was for prevention: 'both [silver and fluoride] ions increase the resistance of enamel to dental caries. (cdeworld.com)
  • The aim of this study was to see if adding the daily application of a CPP-ACP-containing paste for 1 yr is superior to regular fluoride toothbrushing alone in preventing caries in high-caries-risk pre-school children. (nationalelfservice.net)
  • The setting was 22 dental practices in Northern Ireland, and children were randomly assigned by a clinical trials unit (CTU) (using computer-generated random numbers, with allocation concealed from the dental practice until each child was recruited) to the intervention (22,600-ppm fluoride varnish, toothbrush, 50-mL tube of 1,450 ppm fluoride toothpaste, and standardized, evidence-based prevention advice) or advice-only control at 6-monthly intervals. (nih.gov)
  • Multiple regression analyses revealed that three variables - GI (probably an indicator of toothbrushing behaviour with a fluoride-containing toothpaste), salivary concentration of lactobacilli and frequency of ingestion of confectionery/sugary foods - were indepen-dently and positively related to caries experience. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • WFP in Gimhae City, Korea reduced the prevalence of dental caries and is recommended as a public oral health program where a fluoride-containing toothpastes are commonly used. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Featherstone JDB: Prevention and reversal of dental caries: role of low level fluoride. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Davis GN: Cost and benefit of fluoride in the prevention of dental caries Geneva. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Spencer AJ: Contribution of fluoride vehicles to change in caries severity in Austalian adolescents. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Chlorhexidine Varnish Application and Fluoride Self-administration for Dental Caries Control in Head and Neck Irradiated Patients. (quintpub.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the application of a chlorhexidine varnish every three months and the daily use of a high-concentration fluoride in a group of head and neck irradiated patients, and to compare the rise in caries in this group with that of a control group. (quintpub.com)
  • We determined the clinical/radiological DMFS index and measured the salivary flow and pH in stimulated whole saliva at the outset of the study and after three years of three-monthly applications of a 1% chlorhexidine and thymol containing varnish (Cervitec), and self-administered high-concentration fluoride. (quintpub.com)
  • The prevalence of ECC was 50.6% with a mean dmft of 2.1 (SD, 0.1) and a mean dmfs of 3.4 (SD, 0.2). (mdpi.com)
  • The prevalence of S-ECC was 6.5% with a mean dmft of 7.8 (SD, 0.1) and dmfs of 18.1 (SD, 0.6). (mdpi.com)
  • No statistically significant differences were found between the mean dmft or dmfs scores of the two groups (overweight and non-overweight), even after correction for the effect of the potential confounders sex, socio-economic status and ethnicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Results: The mean dmfs in the youngest children (5-7.5 yrs) was 11.81 (SD 11.19) and the mean dmft 5.16 (SD 3.93). (uva.nl)
  • Background: Expressing caries prevalence as mean DMFT value dose not correctly reflects the skewed distribution, leaving high caries groups undiscovered in the population, based on these features, a new index called Significant Caries Index (SiC) was proposed by WHO to draw attention to individuals with the highest caries scores in each population. (ijmrhs.com)
  • There has been a highly significant increase in caries experience proportionally with increasing age (P=0.0020). (bvsalud.org)
  • One hundred and twenty children of age group between 7 14 years reporting to the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Bapuji Dental College and Hospital, Davangere, were included as subjects of this study. (indmedica.com)
  • In Dentistry, management and leadership seem to play an increasingly important role in facing the new challenges of the dental market. (bvsalud.org)
  • Derek Richards is the Director of the Centre for Evidence-based Dentistry, Editor of the Evidence-based Dentistry Journal, Consultant in Dental Public Health with Forth Valley Health Board and Honorary Senior Lecturer at Dundee & Glasgow Dental Schools. (nationalelfservice.net)
  • The children with congenital heart disease had received more caries prevention based on the use of fluorides than the control group. (diva-portal.org)
  • Direct comparisons of SDF applied once per year with alternative treatments show that SDF is more effective than other topical fluorides placed two to four times per year and more cost-effective than dental sealants. (cdeworld.com)
  • 2,500 ppm sodium monofluorophosphate dentifrice has demonstrated a 16-20% greater reduction in caries (DMFS) compared to 1,000 ppm (Stephen et al. (dentalcare.com)
  • One study showed no effect, the other a substantial reduction in caries increment). (nationalelfservice.net)
  • Children in the selected classes whose parents had given signed consent were examined for dental caries and other oral health conditions by 14 dental teams trained and calibrated by NIDR staff according to standardized written diagnostic criteria (National Caries Program: NIDR, 1981). (fluoridealert.org)
  • The oral health status will be recorded by visible dental plaque index. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Similarly, people with more positive attitude toward oral health are influenced better by education on dental care ( 13 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Objectives: The aim of this study was to establish the oral health status of children living throughout the Interior of Suriname in order to define needs for dental care in line with WHO goals and guidelines. (uva.nl)
  • Forty-seven adults with ASD, (25 men, 22 women, mean age 33 years) and of normal intelligence and 69 age- and sex-matched typical controls completed a dental examination and questionnaires on oral health, dental hygiene, dietary habits and previous contacts with dental care. (springer.com)
  • Written reminders of dental appointments and written and verbal report on oral health status and oral hygiene instructions are recommended. (springer.com)
  • These data will inform advocacy efforts to improve access to dental care and tailor early childhood oral health promotion and ECC prevention activities for refugees and recent immigrants. (jcda.ca)
  • Studies suggest that awareness of the importance of early childhood oral health among some new immigrant parents to Canada is low and that they are less likely to seek preventive dental care. (jcda.ca)
  • These trends in oral health are important in dispelling the myth that oral health problems are largely solved and that future investments in dental care and health promotion are not warranted. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Oral health is a part of general health and hence affects the total well being of individuals assessment of oral health in important in deciding a treatment plan or dental public health programme 1 . (ispub.com)
  • Field work like school dental check -up , diagnostic Camps in rural areas to asses the oral health status of village people emergency treatment & health education including possible preventive care. (pravara.com)
  • The aim and objective of this study was to establish the relationship of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) as assessed by the Child Perception Questionnaire (CPQ 11-14) with the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and the child's apprehension with his/her dental appearance and how upset the child would feel if he/she is unable to obtain orthodontic treatment. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Conclusion: The results show that in general, although the seriousness of oral health was high among the participants, the perceived benefit of dental treatment was relatively low. (quintessenz.de)
  • In-person interviews were conducted in the interviewees' homes using a structured questionnaire which included 7 questions on subjective dental health status and the 14 questions of the Oral Health Impact Profile 14 (OHIP- 14). (quintessenz.de)
  • and 3) to investigate the influence of dental fluorosis and caries on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among people aged 16-49 in the United States. (bu.edu)
  • The lower DMFS scores explain the better perception of oral health (lower OHRQoL scores) in higher fluorosis severity groups. (bu.edu)
  • Krol DK: Dental saries, oral health, and pediatricians. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Dental caries are considered a significant dental public health problem in Mexico and are often observed in low-socioeconomic status populations [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • 7-9 In search of contributing factors to higher caries rates in children with ADHD, researchers have also investigated factors such as poor oral hygiene, high consumption of sugar-containing foods and beverages demographics, low IQ, low socioeconomic status of parents, dental anxiety, and pathophysiologic changes. (cdeworld.com)
  • Increased amount of dental plaque containing cariogenic bacteria is the main etiologic factor in decalcification of enamel during orthodontic treatment. (intechopen.com)
  • Dental caries is an infectious, communicable, multifactorial disease in which bacteria dissolve the enamel surface of a tooth (1). (whale.to)
  • The identification of a possible etiologic agent for mottled enamel led to the establishment in 1931 of the Dental Hygiene Unit at the National Institute of Health headed by Dr. H. Trendley Dean. (whale.to)
  • Adopting the term 'fluorosis' to replace 'mottled enamel,' Dean conducted extensive observational epidemiologic surveys and by 1942 had documented the prevalence of dental fluorosis for much of the United States (9). (whale.to)
  • Takeuchi (1961) provided time-trend data supportive of Sreebny's cross-sectional findings and reported that the prevalence of dental caries in Japanese children decreased precipitously during the late 1940s in association with the severe reduction in sugar supplies during World War II. (nap.edu)