Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Photoperiod: The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Darkness: The absence of light.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Moon: The natural satellite of the planet Earth. It includes the lunar cycles or phases, the lunar month, lunar landscapes, geography, and soil.Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.Murinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the Old World MICE and RATS.Melatonin: A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Period Circadian Proteins: Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Octodon: A genus of diurnal rats in the family Octodonidae, found in South America. The species Octodon degus is frequently used for research.Tidal Waves: Water waves caused by the gravitational interactions between the EARTH; MOON; and SUN.Hawks: Common name for many members of the FALCONIFORMES order, family Accipitridae, generally smaller than EAGLES, and containing short, rounded wings and a long tail.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Pineal Gland: A light-sensitive neuroendocrine organ attached to the roof of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain. The pineal gland secretes MELATONIN, other BIOGENIC AMINES and NEUROPEPTIDES.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Chronobiology Disorders: Disruptions of the rhythmic cycle of bodily functions or activities.Biological Processes: Biological activities and function of the whole organism in human, animal, microorgansims, and plants, and of the biosphere.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Telemetry: Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)CLOCK Proteins: Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that contain intrinsic HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE activity and play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. Clock proteins combine with Arntl proteins to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation. This transcriptional activation also sets into motion a time-dependent feedback loop which in turn down-regulates the expression of clock proteins.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Enuresis: Involuntary discharge of URINE after expected age of completed development of urinary control. This can happen during the daytime (DIURNAL ENURESIS) while one is awake or during sleep (NOCTURNAL ENURESIS). Enuresis can be in children or in adults (as persistent primary enuresis and secondary adult-onset enuresis).Biological Clocks: The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.Tonometry, Ocular: Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Cholestyramine Resin: A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory: Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy.Prostaglandins F, Synthetic: Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins F that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGF.Drug Chronotherapy: The adaptation of drug administration to the known variations in biological RHYTHMICITY, such as CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS. The treatment is aimed at supporting normal rhythms, or modifying the timing of therapy to achieve maximal efficacy and minimal adverse effect.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Seasonal Affective Disorder: A syndrome characterized by depressions that recur annually at the same time each year, usually during the winter months. Other symptoms include anxiety, irritability, decreased energy, increased appetite (carbohydrate cravings), increased duration of sleep, and weight gain. SAD (seasonal affective disorder) can be treated by daily exposure to bright artificial lights (PHOTOTHERAPY), during the season of recurrence.Metabolic Phenomena: The CHEMICAL PROCESSES that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism and related temporal, spatial, qualitative, and quantitative concepts.Killifishes: Small oviparous fishes in the family Cyprinodontidae, usually striped or barred black. They are much used in mosquito control.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Axial Length, Eye: The distance between the anterior and posterior poles of the eye, measured either by ULTRASONOGRAPHY or by partial coherence interferometry.Activity Cycles: Bouts of physical irritability or movement alternating with periods of quiescence. It includes biochemical activity and hormonal activity which may be cellular. These cycles are shorter than 24 hours and include sleep-wakefulness cycles and the periodic activation of the digestive system.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.ARNTL Transcription Factors: Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. They combine with CLOCK PROTEINS to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation.Muridae: A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.Glaucoma, Open-Angle: Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.Sleep Deprivation: The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.Thevetia: A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. Members contain thevetin.Rod Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Diurnal Enuresis: Involuntary discharge of URINE during the daytime while one is awake.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Raptors: BIRDS that hunt and kill other animals, especially higher vertebrates, for food. They include the FALCONIFORMES order, or diurnal birds of prey, comprised of EAGLES, falcons, HAWKS, and others, as well as the STRIGIFORMES order, or nocturnal birds of prey, which includes OWLS.Cryptochromes: Flavoproteins that function as circadian rhythm signaling proteins in ANIMALS and as blue-light photoreceptors in PLANTS. They are structurally-related to DNA PHOTOLYASES and it is believed that both classes of proteins may have originated from an earlier protein that played a role in protecting primitive organisms from the cyclical exposure to UV LIGHT.Timolol: A beta-adrenergic antagonist similar in action to PROPRANOLOL. The levo-isomer is the more active. Timolol has been proposed as an antihypertensive, antiarrhythmic, antiangina, and antiglaucoma agent. It is also used in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS and tremor.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1: The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Dark Adaptation: Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.17-Hydroxycorticosteroids: A group of hydroxycorticosteroids bearing a hydroxy group at the 17-position. Urinary excretion of these compounds is used as an index of adrenal function. They are used systemically in the free alcohol form, but with esterification of the hydroxy groups, topical effectiveness is increased.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Crassulaceae: The stonecrop plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida that grow in warm, dry regions. The leaves are thick. The flower clusters are red, yellow, or white.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Opsins: Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.LizardsCompound Eye, Arthropod: Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.Sciuridae: A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Eriogonum: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Pteridium: A plant genus of the family DENNSTAEDTIACEAE. Members contain ptaquiloside, braxin A1, and braxin B. The name is similar to brake fern (PTERIS).Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Lighting: The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.Lemur: A genus of the family Lemuridae consisting of five species: L. catta (ring-tailed lemur), L. fulvus, L. macaco (acoumba or black lemur), L. mongoz (mongoose lemur), and L. variegatus (white lemur). Most members of this genus occur in forested areas on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands.Receptors, Melatonin: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for and mediate the effects of MELATONIN. Activation of melatonin receptors has been associated with decreased intracellular CYCLIC AMP and increased hydrolysis of PHOSPHOINOSITIDES.Emmetropia: The condition of where images are correctly brought to a focus on the retina.Cactaceae: The cactus plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. Cacti are succulent perennial plants well adapted to dry regions.Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm: Dyssomnias associated with disruption of the normal 24 hour sleep wake cycle secondary to travel (e.g., JET LAG SYNDROME), shift work, or other causes.Chironomidae: A family of nonbiting midges, in the order DIPTERA. Salivary glands of the genus Chironomus are used in studies of cellular genetics and biochemistry.Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Tryptamines: Decarboxylated monoamine derivatives of TRYPTOPHAN.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Ocular Hypertension: A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Vapor Pressure: The contribution to barometric PRESSURE of gaseous substance in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phase.Jet Lag Syndrome: A chronobiologic disorder resulting from rapid travel across a number of time zones, characterized by insomnia or hypersomnolence, fatigue, behavioral symptoms, headaches, and gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Cooper, Sleep, 1994, pp593-8)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Pulvinus: A group of cells at the base of a leaf in certain plants that, by rapidly losing water, brings about changes in the position of the leaves. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Chronotherapy: The adaptation of therapeutic approaches such as pharmacological (DRUG CHRONOTHERAPY), surgical, radiological, or physical to the known variations in biological RHYTHMICITY, such as CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS. The treatment is aimed at supporting normal rhythms, or modifying the timing of therapy to achieve maximal efficacy and minimal adverse effect.Aristolochia: A plant genus of the family ARISTOLOCHIACEAE. Species of this genus have been used in traditional medicine but they contain aristolochic acid which is associated with nephropathy. These are sometimes called 'snakeroot' but that name is also used with a number of other plants such as POLYGALA; SANICULA; ASARUM; ARISTOLOCHIA; AGERATINA; and others.Light Signal Transduction: The conversion of absorbed light energy into molecular signals.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA-Reductases, NADP-dependent: Specific hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductases that utilize the cofactor NAD. In liver enzymes of this class are involved in cholesterol biosynthesis.Deoxyepinephrine: Sympathomimetic, vasoconstrictor agent.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Psittaciformes: An order of BIRDS comprised of several families and more than 300 species. It includes COCKATOOS; PARROTS; PARAKEETS; macaws; and BUDGERIGARS.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Midline Thalamic Nuclei: Small, nonspecific nerve cells scattered in the periventricular GRAY MATTER, separating the medial part of the thalamus from the EPENDYMA of the THIRD VENTRICLE. The group includes the paraventricular nucleus, paratenial nucleus, reuniens nucleus, rhomboidal nucleus, and subfascular nucleus.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Allostasis: Biological adaptation, such as the rise of EPINEPHRINE in response to exercise, stress or perceived danger, followed by a fall of epinephrine during RELAXATION. Allostasis is the achievement of stability by turning on and turning off the allostatic systems including the IMMUNE SYSTEM; the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM and NEUROENDOCRINE SYSTEMS.Lemuridae: A family of the order PRIMATES, suborder Strepsirhini (PROSIMII), containing four genera which inhabit Madagascar and the Comoro Island. Most of the lemurs prefer wooded areas. The four genera are Hapalemur, LEMUR, Lepilemur, and Varecia.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Cloprostenol: A synthetic prostaglandin F2alpha analog. The compound has luteolytic effects and is used for the synchronization of estrus in cattle.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Interferometry: Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Feedback, Physiological: A mechanism of communication with a physiological system for homeostasis, adaptation, etc. Physiological feedback is mediated through extensive feedback mechanisms that use physiological cues as feedback loop signals to control other systems.Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Sterculiaceae: A plant family of the order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves of Sterculiaceae are alternate and simple or palmately compound. Flowers have three to five sepals and five or no petals.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Aotus trivirgatus: A species in the family AOTIDAE, inhabiting the forested regions of Central and South America (from Panama to the Amazon). Vocalizations occur primarily at night when they are active, thus they are also known as Northern night monkeys.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Polydipsia: Excessive thirst manifested by excessive fluid intake. It is characteristic of many diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS; and NEPHROGENIC DIABETES INSIPIDUS. The condition may be psychogenic in origin.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Starch Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of glucose from ADPglucose to glucose-containing polysaccharides in 1,4-alpha-linkages. EC 2.4.1.21.Electrocardiography, Ambulatory: Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device ("real-time" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.Ytterbium: Ytterbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Yb, atomic number 70, and atomic weight 173. Ytterbium has been used in lasers and as a portable x-ray source.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Sleep Stages: Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Glucose Transporter Type 5: A hexose transporter that mediates FRUCTOSE transport in SKELETAL MUSCLE and ADIPOCYTES and is responsible for luminal uptake of dietary fructose in the SMALL INTESTINE.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Air Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to air travel. It includes the physiologic and psychologic beneficial or adverse effects.Mice, Inbred C57BLOryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Sleep, REM: A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.Work Schedule Tolerance: Physiological or psychological effects of periods of work which may be fixed or flexible such as flexitime, work shifts, and rotating shifts.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Genetic Pleiotropy: A phenomenon in which multiple and diverse phenotypic outcomes are influenced by a single gene (or single gene product.)Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Citrus sinensis: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar orange fruit which is also a source of orange oil.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Color Vision: Function of the human eye that is used in bright illumination or in daylight (at photopic intensities). Photopic vision is performed by the three types of RETINAL CONE PHOTORECEPTORS with varied peak absorption wavelengths in the color spectrum (from violet to red, 400 - 700 nm).Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Refractive Errors: Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group D, Member 1: A DNA-binding orphan nuclear receptor that negatively regulates expression of ARNTL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and plays a role as a regulatory component of the circadian clock system. The Nr1d1 nuclear receptor expression is cyclically-regulated by a feedback loop involving its positive regulation by CLOCK PROTEIN; BMAL1 PROTEIN heterodimers and its negative regulation by CRYPTOCHROME and PERIOD PROTEINS.Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase: A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.Pupil: The aperture in the iris through which light passes.Mevalonic AcidKalanchoe: A plant genus of the family CRASSULACEAE. Members contain bryophyllins (also called bryotoxins) which are bufadienolides (BUFANOLIDES) that have insecticidal activity.Phloem: Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.Nocturnal Enuresis: Involuntary discharge of URINE during sleep at night after expected age of completed development of urinary control.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.beta-Endorphin: A 31-amino acid peptide that is the C-terminal fragment of BETA-LIPOTROPIN. It acts on OPIOID RECEPTORS and is an analgesic. Its first four amino acids at the N-terminal are identical to the tetrapeptide sequence of METHIONINE ENKEPHALIN and LEUCINE ENKEPHALIN.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Viburnum: A plant genus in the family CAPRIFOLIACEAE. The common name derives from its traditional use for menstrual cramps. It is a source of viburnine, valerianic acid, vibsanin, and ursolic acid. Note that true cranberry is VACCINIUM MACROCARPON.
This helps diurnal birds to produce larger clutches than related non-migratory species that remain in the tropics. As the days ... Other barriers, such as mountain ranges, can also cause funnelling, particularly of large diurnal migrants. This is a notable ...
Hindi, Assamese & Mizo: ? Terrestrial and arboreal; diurnal; found in many types of forested land, tree trunks, branches and ...
Hindi & Assamese: ? Terrestrial & arboreal; diurnal; found in many types of forested land. prefers dense and bushy hill forest ...
Vietnamese: ? Terrestrial & arboreal; diurnal; naturally found in forest, but can be found in treed neighborhoods and city ...
Hindi & Assamese: ? Khmer (Cambodian): ? Laotian: ? Malay: ? Thai: ? Vietnamese: ? Terrestrial and arboreal; diurnal; inhabits ...
Diurnal Economy. To the park... Afternoon. Revised Eclectic Review 'March'" The Eclectic reviewed more American literature than ...
Welsh, J.H. (1938). "Diurnal rhythms". The Quarterly Review of Biology. 13 (2): 123-139. doi:10.1086/394554. Pittendrigh, C.S ...
Since the middle of the first millennium BC the diurnal rotation of the fixed stars has been used to determine mean solar time ... s.v. solar time, apparent; diurnal motion; apparent place. Yallop, B. D. and Hohenkerk, C. Y. (August 1989). Solar Location ... "A post-Pathfinder evaluation of areocentric solar coordinates with improved timing recipes for Mars seasonal/diurnal climate ... constructed mathematically from very long baseline interferometry observations of the diurnal motions of radio sources located ...
It is diurnal. Males call from low positions (0.3-0.6 m (1-2 ft) above the ground) on tree trunks and bushes at night, and ...
Lechwe are diurnal. They gather in herds which can include many thousands of individuals. Herds are usually all of one sex but ...
They are diurnal. Fruits are small, globe-shaped and plain. They are dehiscent through the large basal pore, green to brownish ...
They are diurnal. At night they sleep in cracks, developing a specific coloration of camouflage, in brown tones, and turning ...
It is diurnal. X. flavipunctatus is exploited in parts of it range to support snake farms and pigs and for use in snake wine. ...
Adults are diurnal. They can be seen perched on low foliage during the day and can be active even in early morning after ...
They are diurnal. During nights and cold days, they bury underground. They are solitary animals and territorial. Males and ...
Groups of ground hornbills have territories of 2-100 square miles (5.2-259.0 km2). They are diurnal. The breeding season of the ...
They are diurnal. This species is native to Mexico (Coahuila de Zaragoza, Nuevo León). Nathaniel Lord Britton, Joseph Nelson ...
It is diurnal. This species has been observed in several kinds of tropical forest, subtropical moist forest, and mangrove ...
They are diurnal. They are also very wary animals; at the slightest hint of danger, they slip into the water and hide. Northern ...
It is diurnal. Males are generally known by their remarkable blue colour on the ventral surface of their necks. The Reptile ...
It is diurnal. Adults are common in alpine tundra. It feeds on nectar of a Penstemon species on the Beartooth Plateau, Montana ...
They are diurnal; although peak activity occurs during the early morning and late afternoon or evening, resting usually occurs ... Unlike other diurnal primates, which usually carry their infants with them, ruffed lemur mothers will stash their young by ... Ruffed lemurs are diurnal and arboreal quadrupeds, often observed leaping through the upper canopy of the seasonal tropical ... Ruffed lemurs are active primarily during the day (diurnal), during which time they feed primarily on fruits and nectar, often ...
They are diurnal. IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group (2008). "Cephalophus nigrifrons rubidus". IUCN Red List of Threatened ...
They are diurnal. Although often found near the ground, they have cryptic colouration and climb trees when threatened. Günther ...
Diurnal and highly active. Has a very nasty temper and will strike repeatedly if molested. Never appreciates captivity and will ...
Diurnal ("daily") may refer to: Diurnal cycle, any pattern that recurs daily Diurnality, the behavior of animals and plants ... Diurnal chart, a chart for a given date, based on the natal chart Diurnal planet, a planet in a sect for which the Sun is above ... that are active in the daytime Diurnal phase shift, a phase shift of electromagnetic signals Diurnal temperature variation, a ... the horizon Diurnal sign, a sign in the zodiac Salisbury Diurnal. ...
The Diurnal Offices: These brief diurnal or daytime offices punctuate the day with prayer. They are prayed in the setting in ... Reciting the "diurnal," or day office, of Terce, Sext and None may be one of the easiest ways for a modern individual to ... The diurnal offices stand in contrast to the Major Hours, which include Matins (Morning Prayer), Lauds and Vespers, as well as ... There are two principal hours (Morning Prayer and Evening Prayer), three diurnal or daytime hours (mid-morning, mid-day, and ...
Diurnal motion definition, the apparent daily motion, caused by the earths rotation, of celestial bodies across the sky. See ... In fact, the Fathers said that at the end of the world the diurnal motion would cease, and there would be no more time. ... And would there then be a diurnal motion of that Primum Mobile which is so great and beyond them all immense and profound? ... It is a very old motive, and is sometimes regarded as a dial symbolising the diurnal motion of the earth. ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Many aspects of immune systems show diurnal variations depending on environmental and physical conditions, which are driven by ... Diurnal variations in immunity exist widely in nature.. *Diurnal variations in immunity show differences between species, for ... Diurnal Variations in Immunity. Yue Zhao, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore, Singapore Qingfeng ... Diurnal variations in immunity are regulated by clock genes.. *Disruptions of circadian oscillations of immune system are ...
Diurnal variation of hepatic antioxidant gene expression in mice.. Xu YQ1, Zhang D, Jin T, Cai DJ, Wu Q, Lu Y, Liu J, Klaassen ...
Objective The objective of this study is to examine the diurnal variability of C-reactive protein (CRP) in obstructive sleep ... Diurnal rhythm. The CRP levels throughout the day are graphed in Figs. 1 and 2 according to group. Model results, including ... The purpose of this study is to examine the diurnal pattern of CRP in individuals with OSA and to compare that pattern to that ... By obtaining samples every 2 h during the 24-h period, we were able to demonstrate a diurnal difference in CRP levels in OSA, ...
Background This study was aimed to examine circadian variations of hepatic antioxidant components, including the Nrf2- pathway, the glutathione (GSH) system, antioxidant enzymes and metallothionein in mouse liver. Methods and Results Adult mice were housed in light- and temperature-controlled facilities for 2 weeks, and livers were collected every 4 h during the 24 h period. Total RNA was isolated, purified, and subjected to real-time RT-PCR analysis. Hepatic mRNA levels of Nrf2, Keap1, Nqo1 and Gclc were higher in the light-phase than the dark-phase, and were female-predominant. Hepatic GSH presented marked circadian fluctuations, along with glutathione S-transferases (GST-α1, GST-µ, GST-π) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx1). The expressions of GPx1, GST-µ and GST-π mRNA were also higher in females. Antioxidant enzymes Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1), catalase (CAT), cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) and heme oxygenase-1 (Ho-1) showed circadian rhythms, with higher expressions of Cox-2 and CAT in
Diurnal Temperature Cycle. The Earth has a daily pattern of heating and cooling. The hottest part of the land surface moves ...
July 5th, 2010 , Tags: Cook (John), Debunking, Debunking The Skeptics Handbook, Diurnal Temperature Range (DTR), Hot Spot, ... July 9th, 2013 , Tags: Diurnal Temperature Range (DTR), SkepticalScience (debunking), Urban Heat Island Effect , Category: ... Its also known as Diurnal Temperature Range, and the theory is that extra CO2 keeps us warm all night. ...
Hall Philips Lansbergen Simon Marius Ferdinand Reich Copernican theory Tychonic theory diurnal rotation of the earth Coriolis ...
Diurnal Variation in Tear Osmolarity. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study ... Time Frame: 1 Day (AM and PM Diurnal) ]. Secondary Outcome Measures : *Ocular Improvement [ Time Frame: 31 Days ]. Improvement ... Investigator Sponsored, Pilot Study to Assess the Diurnal Variation in Tear Osmolarity as a Predictor of Dry Eye Disease ...
Methods for measuring populations of small, diurnal forest birds. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-278. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of ...
Methods and systems involving diurnal computing are provided.. In this regard, diurnal computing refers to computing during ... The use of local and system times along with the ambient light sensor, offer the system 200 the ability to operate with diurnal ... This invention relates generally to a methods and systems involving diurnal computing. ...
The California pocket mouse, Perognathus californicus, compensates for food supplies which are less than the normal requirement by undergoing a variable period of daily torpor. At an ambient temperature of 15°C, the body temperature of a torpid mouse drops to 16°C, and the metabolism falls to 15 percent of the basal rate. Several other species of pocket mice also show this phenomenon. ...
Diurnal variation of retinal thickness measured by optical coherence tomography in normal adults. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. ... Diurnal variation of retinal thickness measured by optical coherence tomography in normal adults. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. ... Assessing Diurnal Variation in Choroidal Thickness. Milton C. Chew, MBBS; Louis W. Lim, MBBS; Kai Xiong Cheong, MBBS; Srinivas ... Diurnal variation of choroidal thickness in normal, healthy subjects measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography. ...
Orbscan pachymetry: implications of a repeated measures and diurnal variation analysis.. Lattimore MR Jr1, Kaupp S, Schallhorn ... Additionally, the data not only indicate a diurnal variation of corneal hydration over time, but also imply the presence of a ... A plot of thickness by corneal location and time of day exhibited a diurnal pattern, with the peripheral cornea exhibiting ... diurnal-based hydration gradient across the peripheral cornea, both of which can have significance for PRK, since excimer ...
... and diurnal animals are active during the day. In addition, both sorts of animals are adapted to the differing light levels and ... Diurnal animals also have better visual acuity. Cones are better than rods at producing a sharp retinal image. Many diurnal ... Diurnal animals tend to have better color vision because their eyes contain cells called cones. Different cone cells pick up ... Nocturnal animals are active during the night, and diurnal animals are active during the day. In addition, both sorts of ...
A Pilot Study on Diurnal Variation. This study has been terminated. (Participants found the study procedures to be too ... Diurnal variations of Phe levels have been observed in PKU patients in a 24-hour period. ... This study on PKU patients diurnal variation will also provide important information as to the current method of blood Phe ... This self-controlled, prospective, pilot study is designed to gather information regarding the diurnal variation (changes that ...
Effects of Chronic Diurnal Disruption and Acute Inflammatory Challenge on Mice with Latent Murine Gammaherpesvirus Infection ... We hypothesized that exposure to repeated cycles of diurnal disruption, mimicking SW, influences viral clearance, latent viral ... These findings suggest that exposure to repeated chronic diurnal disruption and an acute inflammatory challenge during latent ...
a waterbuck is a diurnal antelope from Western and Central Africa? More interesting facts on Diurnal Include this on your site/ ... Diurnal arc, time expressed as right ascension. This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the same title. If an ... the Silky Sifaka is a white, diurnal rainforest sifaka found solely within a small area of northeastern Madagascar? ... Animals that are active during the day are called diurnal. They hunt or feed during the day and sleep during the night. ...
Stephen Gill: Extricating the Diurnal Impulse. Posted on January 20, 2018. May 4, 2020. by Brad Feuerhelm ... One world is that of the diurnal in which the sun illuminates movements, moments and the audacity of life rummaging through ...
Plants have adapted to the diurnal light-dark cycle by establishing elaborate transcriptional programs that coordinate many ... Kingdom-wide comparison reveals the evolution of diurnal gene expression in Archaeplastida Nat Commun. 2019 Feb 13;10(1):737. ... We performed a comparative transcriptome analysis of the diurnal cycle of nine members of Archaeplastida, and we observed that ... Plants have adapted to the diurnal light-dark cycle by establishing elaborate transcriptional programs that coordinate many ...
Significance of Diurnal Intraocular Pressure Measurement The Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology1(2):65-66, March/April 2012 ... Home , March/April 2012 - Volume 1 - Issue 2 , Significance of Diurnal Intraocular Pressure Measurement ... Significance of Diurnal Intraocular Pressure Measurement. Leung, Christopher K. MD, MB ChB ...
Volume 45 of A diurnal of remarkable occurrents that have passed within ... Scotland since the death of king James iv till 1575 ... A Diurnal of Remarkable Occurrents that Have Passed Within the Country of .... Thomas Thomson. Full view - 1833. ... A Diurnal of Remarkable Occurrents that Have Passed Within the Country of .... Thomas Thomson. Full view - 1833. ... A diurnal of remarkable occurrents that have passed within ... Scotland since the death of king James iv till 1575 [ed. by T. ...
  • Baseline morning and evening serum cortisol and ACTH concentrations, and diurnal changes in hormone levels, were measured in 30 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) but without concurrent depressive disorder and a control group of 15 weight-, age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. (prohealth.com)
  • The diurnal change in cortisol levels was significantly less in CFS than in controls (p (prohealth.com)
  • In CFS subjects, evening levels of cortisol correlated significantly with measures of general health and physical functioning, while diurnal change in cortisol was positively correlated with measures of functional improvement over the past year and current social functioning. (prohealth.com)
  • Diurnal Group PLC ( LON:DNL ) rocketed nearly 200% higher on Thursday after the hormonal diseases specialist announced the grant of a second US patent for Chronocort, a cortisol replacement product for the life-long treatment of congenital adrenal insufficiency and adrenal insufficiency. (proactiveinvestors.co.uk)
  • In Anglican and Methodist Christianity, the Diurnal offices (Ecclesiastical Latin: horæ diurnæ) are the canonical hours prayed during the daytime. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Diurnal Offices: These brief diurnal or daytime offices punctuate the day with prayer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Daytime accidental wetting is more likely than bed-wetting to develop after a child has had bladder control for at least 6 months to 1 year ( secondary diurnal enuresis). (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • Daytime accidental wetting (diurnal enuresis) is common in younger children. (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • We key our investigation on the ascending and descending mode equator crossing times for daytime and nighttime land-surface temperature variations from March 2000 through 2010 (MODIS-Terra) and July 2002 through 2012 (MODIS-Aqua) and assess the diurnal land-surface temperature range changes at those sampling times. (scirp.org)
  • We identify changes in the diurnal range trends linked to increase of daytime and nighttime land-surface temperatures from March 2000 through 2010 and decrease in daytime and nighttime land-surface temperatures from July 2002 through 2012. (scirp.org)
  • The most recent decrease in daytime and nighttime land-surface temperatures and diurnal range will affect Arctic and other associated energy and mass cycles. (scirp.org)
  • Using a state-of-the-art satellite product and regional atmospheric model, the well-defined diurnal cycle is detected around Lake Malawi with harmonic and principle component analyses: the precipitation is intense during midnight to morning over Lake Malawi and the precipitation peaks in the daytime over the surrounding area. (hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net)
  • Plants have adapted to the diurnal light-dark cycle by establishing elaborate transcriptional programs that coordinate many metabolic, physiological, and developmental responses to the external environment. (nih.gov)
  • We performed a comparative transcriptome analysis of the diurnal cycle of nine members of Archaeplastida, and we observed that, despite large phylogenetic distances and dramatic differences in morphology and lifestyle, diurnal transcriptional programs of these organisms are similar. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, we also found that TBI increased CB1R and CB2R in the contralateral hemisphere and disrupted the CB1R diurnal cycle. (mdpi.com)
  • But the simulations showed a significant diurnal cycle of 0.2 in the dust AOD that could not be inferred from the MODIS Deep Blue satellite retrievals due to their time of overpass. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The AROME AOD diurnal cycle have been compared to the new SEVIRI AOD retrievals in June 2011 and shows simlar AOD diurnal cycle. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The under-sampling of the diurnal cycle by satellites like MODIS plus the impact of cloud masks on the space-borne AOD retrievals induce an underestimation of 0.28 (~40%) over the convective regions and an overestimation of 0.1 (17%) over morning source areas like Bodélé. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Estradiol and the diurnal cycle thus interact to induce shifts in both GABA transmission and postsynaptic response that would produce appropriate changes in GnRH neuron firing activity and hormone release. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we investigate the relationship of estradiol, the diurnal cycle, and GABA transmission directly at the level of the GnRH neuron. (jneurosci.org)
  • To uncover the diurnal pattern of this stimulatory input to the HPA axis, we blocked the inhibitory input of the SCN by infusions of the VP V 1 -antagonist at five different time points of the day/night cycle. (jneurosci.org)
  • In this study, we examined the impact of harvest time during the diurnal cycle and fruit sap components on USB development. (frontiersin.org)
  • 1995: Long-term changes of the diurnal temperature cycle: Implications about. (nasa.gov)
  • Hansen, J. , M. Sato , and R. Ruedy , 1995: Long-term changes of the diurnal temperature cycle: Implications about mechanisms of global climate change. (nasa.gov)
  • We use a global climate model to investigate the impact of a wide range of radiative forcing and feedback mechanisms on the diurnal cycle of surface air temperature. (nasa.gov)
  • Tropospheric aerosols can account for part of the continentally-located forcing, but alone they do not damp the diurnal cycle as observed. (nasa.gov)
  • Only an increase of continental cloud cover, possibly a consequence of anthropogenic aerosols, can damp the diurnal cycle by an amount comparable to observations. (nasa.gov)
  • article{ha09800r, author={Hansen, J. and Sato, M. and Ruedy, R.}, title={Long-term changes of the diurnal temperature cycle: Implications about mechanisms of global climate change}, year={1995}, journal={Atmos. (nasa.gov)
  • Observations from 35 tropical moorings are used to characterize the diurnal cycle in salinity at 1 m depth. (ucsd.edu)
  • Sun-synchronous passive satellite aerosol observations from the solar spectrum only provide a small sampling of the full diurnal cycle. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • This diurnal cycle in the precipitation around the lake is associated with the lake-land breeze circulation. (hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net)
  • It is controlled largely by a diurnal cycle due to the thermal heat contrast between water surface and land surface in the tropics (e.g. (hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net)
  • This study is focused on the diurnal cycle of dust radiative forcing along with dust loading and surface temperature. (confex.com)
  • It is expected that a diurnal cycle of dust radiative forcing is closely related to those of dust loading and surface temperature. (confex.com)
  • The effective sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly due to the diurnal warm layer often reaches 0.8°C in the afternoon, with a daily mean of 0.2°C, rectifying the diurnal cycle onto longer time scales. (ametsoc.org)
  • On the remaining days, with low solar radiation and high wind speeds, a residual diurnal cycle is observed by the Seaglider, with a diurnal harmonic of temperature that decreases linearly with depth. (ametsoc.org)
  • In freely moving rats the diurnal in electrolyte excretion was studied. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Despite this, little is known about the possible diurnal variations in urinary Tx-M and PGI-M in healthy human subjects, and how the urinary levels of Tx-M and PGI-M in single samples reflect their respective 24 h excretion rates. (portlandpress.com)
  • 1. The diurnal excretion of sodium and potassium was observed in young people, with and without a genetic predisposition to hypertension, both in the presence and absence of psychological stress. (portlandpress.com)
  • The purpose of the present study, therefore, was to determine whether there are diurnal changes in postprandial glucose tolerance, SI, and glucose fluxes in subjects with C-peptide-negative type 1 diabetes while controlling for meal macronutrient composition and caloric content and levels of physical activity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Analysis is carried out of the diurnal dynamics of the aerosol optical thickness of the atmosphere τ A (λ) and the aerosol extinction coefficients in the near-ground layer α(λ) in the wavelength range λ = 0.44 - 1.06 μm, as well as of the vertical turbulent heat flux, measured simultaneously in June 2004 in the region of Tomsk. (spie.org)
  • Comparisons between the benchmark simulation and an idealized simulation in which Lake Malawi is removed reveal that the diurnal variations in precipitation are substantially amplified by the presence of Lake Malawi. (hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net)
  • These findings suggest that exposure to repeated chronic diurnal disruption and an acute inflammatory challenge during latent MuGHV infection, in the context of impaired host immune competence, contribute to enhanced viral reactivity and an increased viral load that might trigger 'sickness behavior' symptoms of infectious disease and perhaps contribute to chronic fatigue syndrome. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Diurnal and seasonal behavior patterns among adults of Protoxaea gloriosa (Hymenoptera, Oxaeidae). (amnh.org)
  • Studer, B. Genetic Diversity of Diurnal Carbohydrate Accumulation in White Clover ( Trifolium repens L.). Agronomy 2018 , 8 , 47. (mdpi.com)
  • In a previous study, the current authors have shown that intermittent diurnal NIMV reduces hypercapnia and hypoxaemia in patients with severe COPD 3 . (ersjournals.com)
  • The prevalence and mechanisms of diurnal hypercapnia in subjects with sleep apnea syndrome are not well known, particularly in the morbidly obese. (eurekamag.com)
  • Diurnal variations in immunity are regulated by clock genes. (els.net)
  • Our findings of differential diurnal expression of cardiac renin-angiotensin system genes in SHR and WKY rats appear to explain the discrepancies between prior studies. (ahajournals.org)
  • Hence, our study provides evidence for the universality of diurnal gene expression and elucidates its evolutionary history among different photosynthetic eukaryotes. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the diurnal pattern of CRP in individuals with OSA and to compare that pattern to that observed in otherwise healthy individuals with normal sleep. (springer.com)
  • We also examined differences in the diurnal patterns of postprandial insulin action between healthy ( 1 ) and type 1 diabetic subjects while applying an identical study design in both groups. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The objectives of this study were to list diurnal bird visitors of Caryocar brasiliense flowers and evaluate temporal distribution as well as agonistic interactions between birds. (scielo.br)
  • The study assessed the prevalence of diurnal bruxism among information technology (IT) professionals and explored plausible predictors associated with the parafunctional habit. (hindawi.com)
  • The study revealed that stress and less work experience were associated with diurnal bruxism among IT professionals in Bangalore city. (hindawi.com)
  • This study describes the effects of these turbidity events on the Hawaiian reef coral Montipora capitata using in situ diurnal measurements of turbidity, light levels, and chlorophyll fluorescence yield via pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) fluorometry. (usgs.gov)
  • A distinct diurnal pattern was observed for the maximum photosynthetic rate ( P * max ), being maximal at noon, while periodicity of the maximum light utilization coefficient ( α *) was less obvious. (springer.com)
  • A pre-tested questionnaire that included questions related to work, stress symptoms and diurnal bruxism was completed by each participant. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, the diurnal relationship between electron transport rate ( ETR ) and irradiance was measured in five cultivars of rice ( Oryza sativa ) in canopy conditions with PAM fluorescence under natural solar radiation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Diurnal courses of sun-induced fluorescence yield (FSyield) and the photochemical reflectance index of corn were derived from high-resolution spectrometric measurements and their potential as proxies for LUE was investigated. (wur.nl)
  • Considering structural and physiological effects, this research shows for the first time that including sun-induced fluorescence into modeling approaches improves their results in predicting diurnal courses of GPP. (wur.nl)
  • Its diurnal harmonic has an exponential vertical structure with a depth scale of 4-5 m (dependent on chlorophyll concentration), consistent with forcing by absorption of solar radiation. (ametsoc.org)
  • Our aim was to compare the diurnal blood pressure patterns of people with Type 1 diabetes on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD, n=9) or haemodialysis (n=10) to diabetic patients with normo-albuminuria (n=12) or micro-albuminuria (n=15). (biomedsearch.com)
  • In afternoon trading, Diurnal was easily the London market's top gainer, up 195% today to 63.50p, although the shares were trading at around 178p a year ago. (proactiveinvestors.co.uk)
  • We recently demonstrated a diurnal pattern to insulin action (i.e., insulin sensitivity [SI]) in healthy individuals with higher SI at breakfast than at dinner. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Although there was no statistical difference ( P = 0.34) in SI between meals in type 1 diabetic subjects, the diurnal pattern of SI taken across the three meals in its entirety differed ( P = 0.016) from that of healthy subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The results suggest that in contrast to healthy subjects, SI diurnal pattern in type 1 diabetes is specific to the individual and cannot be extrapolated to the type 1 diabetic population as a whole, implying that artificial pancreas algorithms may need to be personalized. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Although most, if not all, individuals with type 1 diabetes do not secrete insulin in response to a meal, a diurnal pattern to postprandial insulin action, if present, would need to be incorporated into an ideal closed-loop control algorithm. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • As a result, the pattern of diurnal salinity variations is not only dependent on the strength of the forcing terms, but also on the phasing of winds and convective overturning. (ucsd.edu)
  • Comparisons between salinity observations from moorings and from the Aquarius satellite (level 2 version 3.0 data) reveal that the typical difference between ascending-node and descending-node Aquarius salinity is an order of magnitude greater than the observed diurnal salinity anomalies at 1 m depth. (ucsd.edu)