Sodium excretion by URINATION.
A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.
Excessive amount of sodium in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A starch found in the tubers and roots of many plants. Since it is hydrolyzable to FRUCTOSE, it is classified as a fructosan. It has been used in physiologic investigation for determination of the rate of glomerular function.
A group of glycine amides of aminobenzoic acids.
Graphic tracing over a time period of radioactivity measured externally over the kidneys following intravenous injection of a radionuclide which is taken up and excreted by the kidneys.
A thiazide diuretic with actions and uses similar to those of HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p812)
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.
The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
Urination of a large volume of urine with an increase in urinary frequency, commonly seen in diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS).
Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A technetium diagnostic aid used in renal function determination.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A condition resulting from the excessive retention of water with sodium depletion.
The mechanical laws of fluid dynamics as they apply to urine transport.
A disease that is characterized by frequent urination, excretion of large amounts of dilute URINE, and excessive THIRST. Etiologies of diabetes insipidus include deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (also known as ADH or VASOPRESSIN) secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS, impaired KIDNEY response to ADH, and impaired hypothalamic regulation of thirst.
Absence of urine formation. It is usually associated with complete bilateral ureteral (URETER) obstruction, complete lower urinary tract obstruction, or unilateral ureteral obstruction when a solitary kidney is present.
A mutant strain of Rattus norvegicus used in research on renal function and hypertension and as a disease model for diabetes insipidus.
Deficiency of sodium in the blood; salt depletion. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
The consumption of liquids.
Endogenous or exogenous chemicals that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body. They consist of peptides and non-peptide compounds.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
Incision of tissues for injection of medication or for other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Punctures of the skin, for example may be used for diagnostic drainage; of blood vessels for diagnostic imaging procedures.
A salicylate derivative and anti-inflammatory analgesic with actions and side effects similar to those of ASPIRIN.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.
Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.
Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Agents that reduce the excretion of URINE, most notably the octapeptide VASOPRESSINS.
The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
A kappa opioid receptor agonist. The compound has analgesic action and shows positive inotropic effects on the electrically stimulated left atrium. It also affects various types of behavior in mammals such as locomotion, rearing, and grooming.
Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.
Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
A condition due to decreased dietary intake of potassium, as in starvation or failure to administer in intravenous solutions, or to gastrointestinal loss in diarrhea, chronic laxative abuse, vomiting, gastric suction, or bowel diversion. Severe potassium deficiency may produce muscular weakness and lead to paralysis and respiratory failure. Muscular malfunction may result in hypoventilation, paralytic ileus, hypotension, muscle twitches, tetany, and rhabomyolysis. Nephropathy from potassium deficit impairs the concentrating mechanism, producing POLYURIA and decreased maximal urinary concentrating ability with secondary POLYDIPSIA. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
A synthetic analog of the pituitary hormone, ARGININE VASOPRESSIN. Its action is mediated by the VASOPRESSIN receptor V2. It has prolonged antidiuretic activity, but little pressor effects. It also modulates levels of circulating FACTOR VIII and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.
Necrosis or disintegration of skeletal muscle often followed by myoglobinuria.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Kappa opioid receptors bind dynorphins with a higher affinity than endorphins which are themselves preferred to enkephalins.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
A compound that inhibits symport of sodium, potassium, and chloride primarily in the ascending limb of Henle, but also in the proximal and distal tubules. This pharmacological action results in excretion of these ions, increased urinary output, and reduction in extracellular fluid. This compound has been classified as a loop or high ceiling diuretic.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
A condition of HYPONATREMIA and renal salt loss attributed to overexpansion of BODY FLUIDS resulting from sustained release of ANTIDIURETIC HORMONES which stimulates renal resorption of water. It is characterized by normal KIDNEY function, high urine OSMOLALITY, low serum osmolality, and neurological dysfunction. Etiologies include ADH-producing neoplasms, injuries or diseases involving the HYPOTHALAMUS, the PITUITARY GLAND, and the LUNG. This syndrome can also be drug-induced.
The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.
Disturbances in the body's WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Decreased URINE output that is below the normal range. Oliguria can be defined as urine output of less than or equal to 0.5 or 1 ml/kg/hr depending on the age.
Specific molecular sites or proteins on or in cells to which VASOPRESSINS bind or interact in order to modify the function of the cells. Two types of vasopressin receptor exist, the V1 receptor in the vascular smooth muscle and the V2 receptor in the kidneys. The V1 receptor can be subdivided into V1a and V1b (formerly V3) receptors.
Na-K-Cl transporter in the ASCENDING LIMB OF LOOP OF HENLE. It mediates active reabsorption of sodium chloride and is inhibited by LOOP DIURETICS such as FUROSEMIDE; and BUMETANIDE. Mutations in the gene encoding SLC12A1 are associated with a BARTTER SYNDROME.
Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.
Drugs used for their effects on the kidneys' regulation of body fluid composition and volume. The most commonly used are the diuretics. Also included are drugs used for their antidiuretic and uricosuric actions, for their effects on the kidneys' clearance of other drugs, and for diagnosis of renal function.
An analgesic with mixed narcotic agonist-antagonist properties.
Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
The glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Its sodium salt is used as a diagnostic aid to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and excretory capacity.
Cell surface proteins that bind ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. They contain intrinsic guanylyl cyclase activity.
One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
The functional units of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and the attached tubule.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
Liquid components of living organisms.
Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.
Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.
The flattened, funnel-shaped expansion connecting the URETER to the KIDNEY CALICES.
Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Abnormalities in the process of URINE voiding, including bladder control, frequency of URINATION, as well as the volume and composition of URINE.
A generic term used to describe a group of polypeptides with related chemical structures and pharmacological properties that are widely distributed in nature. These peptides are AUTACOIDS that act locally to produce pain, vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability, and the synthesis of prostaglandins. Thus, they comprise a subset of the large number of mediators that contribute to the inflammatory response. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p588)
Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.
A subclass of symporters found in KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL that are the major pathway for salt resorption. Inhibition of these symporters by BENZOTHIADIAZINES is the basis of action of some DIURETICS.
Sodium chloride used in foods.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Physiological processes and properties of the BLOOD.
The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Short thick veins which return blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.
Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
Agents that inhibit SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Enzyme that is a major constituent of kidney brush-border membranes and is also present to a lesser degree in the brain and other tissues. It preferentially catalyzes cleavage at the amino group of hydrophobic residues of the B-chain of insulin as well as opioid peptides and other biologically active peptides. The enzyme is inhibited primarily by EDTA, phosphoramidon, and thiorphan and is reactivated by zinc. Neprilysin is identical to common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA Antigen), an important marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia. There is no relationship with CALLA PLANT.
The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule in the KIDNEY MEDULLA, consisting of a descending limb and an ascending limb. It is situated between the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE.
Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
A potent inhibitor of membrane metalloendopeptidase (ENKEPHALINASE). Thiorphan potentiates morphine-induced ANALGESIA and attenuates naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with antipyretic and antigranulation activities. It also inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
A subclass of symporters that specifically transport SODIUM CHLORIDE and/or POTASSIUM CHLORIDE across cellular membranes in a tightly coupled process.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.
Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
(11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.
Excision of kidney.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
A sulfamyl diuretic.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.
A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.
Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the KIDNEY. It may play a role in reducing systemic ENDOTHELIN levels.
The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.

Low calorie diet enhances renal, hemodynamic, and humoral effects of exogenous atrial natriuretic peptide in obese hypertensives. (1/1091)

The expression of the natriuretic peptide clearance receptor is abundant in human and rat adipose tissue, where it is specifically inhibited by fasting. In obese hypertensives, plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) levels were found to be lower than in obese normotensives. Therefore, the increased adipose mass might influence ANP levels and/or its biological activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the humoral, hemodynamic, and renal effects of exogenous ANP in obese hypertensives might be enhanced by a very low calorie diet. Eight obese hypertensives received a bolus injection of ANP (0.6 mg/kg) after 2 weeks of a normal calorie/normal sodium diet, and blood pressure (BP), heart rate, ANP, cGMP, plasma renin activity, and aldosterone were evaluated for 2 hours before and after the injection. Diuresis and natriuresis were measured every 30 minutes. The patients then started a low calorie/normal sodium diet (510 kcal/150 mmol/d) for 4 days, and then the ANP injection protocol was repeated. The low calorie diet induced a slight weight loss (from 90.6+/-1.1 to 87. 7+/-1.2 kg; P<0.01), which was accompanied by increase of cGMP excretion (from 146.0+/-10.1 to 154.5+/-9.5 nmol/24 h; P<0.05) together with a reduction of BP (P<0.01 versus basal levels). ANP injection after diet was followed by an increase of ANP levels similar to that observed before diet, but plasma cGMP, diuresis, and natriuresis increased significantly only after diet. Similarly, the decrease of BP after ANP administration was significantly higher after diet (change in mean arterial pressure, -6.4+/-0.7 versus -4. 0+/-0.6 mm Hg; P<0.05) as well as that of aldosterone (P<0.01). These data show that a low calorie diet enhances the humoral, renal, and hemodynamic effects of ANP in obese hypertensives and confirm the importance of caloric intake in modulating the biological activity of ANP, suggesting that the natriuretic peptide system can play a role in the acute changes of natriuresis and diuresis associated with caloric restriction.  (+info)

Immediate and early renal function after living donor transplantation. (2/1091)

BACKGROUND: In order to assess the immediate renal function after living donor transplantation, renal function was compared in eight renal allograft recipients and their living related kidney donors during the first 24 h after transplantation. METHODS: Substantial and comparable intraoperative volume loading with Ringer's acetate and mannitol was performed together with the administration of frusemide. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were estimated by the clearances of inulin and p-aminohippurane, respectively. Tubular reabsorptive function and injury were estimated from the clearance of lithium, the fractional excretion of sodium and the urinary excretion of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase. RESULTS: One hour after completion of surgery, GFR (54 +/- 7 ml/min) and ERPF (294 +/- 35 ml/min) were only 30% lower in the grafts than in the remaining donor kidneys, increasing to similar levels within 3 h. Only minor tubular dysfunction and injury were revealed in the grafted kidneys, and these tended to normalize within 24 h. CONCLUSIONS: By the present transplantation procedure comprising short ischaemia time and substantial volume expansion combined with mannitol and frusemide administration, kidneys from living donors regain nearly normal function within a few hours after transplantation.  (+info)

Cardiovascular, endocrine, and renal effects of urodilatin in normal humans. (3/1091)

Effects of urodilatin (5, 10, 20, and 40 ng. kg-1. min-1) infused over 2 h on separate study days were studied in eight normal subjects with use of a randomized, double-blind protocol. All doses decreased renal plasma flow (hippurate clearance, 13-37%) and increased fractional Li+ clearance (7-22%) and urinary Na+ excretion (by 30, 76, 136, and 99% at 5, 10, 20, and 40 ng. kg-1. min-1, respectively). Glomerular filtration rate did not increase significantly with any dose. The two lowest doses decreased cardiac output (7 and 16%) and stroke volume (10 and 20%) without changing mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate. The two highest doses elicited larger decreases in stroke volume (17 and 21%) but also decreased blood pressure (6 and 14%) and increased heart rate (15 and 38%), such that cardiac output remained unchanged. Hematocrit and plasma protein concentration increased with the three highest doses. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system was inhibited by the three lowest doses but activated by the hypotensive dose of 40 ng. kg-1. min-1. Plasma vasopressin increased by factors of up to 5 during infusion of the three highest doses. Atrial natriuretic peptide immunoreactivity (including urodilatin) and plasma cGMP increased dose dependently. The urinary excretion rate of albumin was elevated up to 15-fold (37 +/- 17 micrograms/min). Use of a newly developed assay revealed that baseline urinary urodilatin excretion rate was low (<10 pg/min) and that fractional excretion of urodilatin remained below 0.1%. The results indicate that even moderately natriuretic doses of urodilatin exert protracted effects on systemic hemodynamic, endocrine, and renal functions, including decreases in cardiac output and renal blood flow, without changes in arterial pressure or glomerular filtration rate, and that filtered urodilatin is almost completely removed by the renal tubules.  (+info)

Hemodynamic and renal effects of U-46619, a TXA2/PGH2 analog, in late-pregnant rats. (4/1091)

The vasoconstrictor effects of pressor agents are attenuated during pregnancy. Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) is produced in great quantities during hypertension in pregnancy, and therefore it is important to know whether pregnancy modifies the pressor effects of TXA2. The TXA2 analog U-46619 was infused in anesthetized, acutely prepared and conscious, chronically prepared late-pregnant and nonpregnant female rats to examine its systemic hemodynamic and renal effects. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were lower in anesthetized pregnant than nonpregnant rats (P < 0.01). The infusion of U-46619 into the aortic arch resulted in elevation of MAP only in pregnant rats, due to a greater elevation of TPR (60 +/- 17%) compared with nonpregnant rats (36 +/- 6%, P < 0.05). The pressor effect of intravenously infused U-46619 was also enhanced in conscious pregnant versus nonpregnant rats, and the increase in renal vascular resistance was undiminished. U-46619 increased hematocrit and plasma protein concentration more during pregnancy, which suggested greater reduction of plasma volume. The urinary excretion of sodium (-1.49 +/- 0.25 vs. -0.54 +/- 0.24 micromol/min) and water was reduced more in pregnant than nonpregnant rats during U-46619 (P < 0.01). Thus the MAP and renal effects of the TXA2 analog are exaggerated during pregnancy in the rat.  (+info)

The subtype 2 of angiotensin II receptors and pressure-natriuresis in adult rat kidneys. (5/1091)

The present work examined the effects of the subtype 2 of angiotensin II (AT2) receptors on the pressure-natriuresis using a new peptide agonist, and the possible involvement of cyclic guanosine 3', 5' monophosphate (cyclic GMP) in these effects. In adult anaesthetized rats (Inactin, 100 mg kg(-1), i.p.) deprived of endogenous angiotensin II by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition (quinapril, 10 mg kg(-1), i.v.), T2-(Ang II 4-8)2 (TA), a highly specific AT2 receptor agonist (5, 10 and 30 microg kg(-1) min(-1), i.v.) or its solvent was infused in four groups. Renal functions were studied at renal perfusion pressures (RPP) of 90, 110 and 130 mmHg and urinary cyclic GMP excretion when RPP was at 130 mmHg. The effects of TA (10 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) were reassessed in animals pretreated with PD 123319 (PD, 50 microg kg(-1) min(-1), i.v.), an AT2 receptor antagonist and the action of the same dose of PD alone was also determined. Increases in RPP from 90 to 130 mmHg did not change renal blood flow (RBF) but induced 8 and 15 fold increases in urinary flow and sodium excretion respectively. The 5 microg kg(-1) min(-1) dose of TA was devoid of action. The 10 and 30 microg kg(-1) min(-1) doses did not alter total RBF and glomerular filtration rate, but blunted pressure-diuresis and natriuresis relationships. These effects were abolished by PD. TA decreased urinary cyclic GMP excretion. After pretreatment with PD, this decrease was reversed to an increase which was also observed in animals receiving PD alone. In conclusion, renal AT2 receptors oppose the sodium and water excretion induced by acute increases in blood pressure and this action cannot be directly explained by changes in cyclic GMP.  (+info)

Endothelin mediates renal vascular memory of a transient rise in perfusion pressure due to NOS inhibition. (6/1091)

We investigated the renal responses to NO synthase (NOS) inhibition with N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMA; 30 mg/kg) in anesthetized rats in which renal perfusion pressure (RPP) to the left kidney was mechanically adjusted. Acute L-NMA increased blood pressure (BP, approximately 20%) and renal vascular resistance (RVR) rose ( approximately 50%) in the right kidneys that were always exposed to high RPP. In group 1, the left kidney was exposed to a transient increase (5 min) in RPP which was then normalized, and the rise in RVR was similar to the right kidney. In group 2 the left kidney was never exposed to high RPP, and the rise in RVR was attenuated relative to the right kidney. In group 3, rats were pretreated with the endothelin (ET) receptor antagonist Bosentan, immediately before exposure of the left kidney to a transient increase in RPP, and the rise in RVR was also attenuated relative to the right kidney. NOS inhibition resulted in a natriuresis and diuresis in the right kidneys, and approximately 50% of the natriuresis persisted in the left kidney of group 2, in the absence of any rise in RPP. ET antagonism completely prevented the natriuresis and diuresis in response to acute L-NMA in both left and right kidneys. These data suggest that transient exposure to high RPP by NOS inhibition prevents an appropriate vasodilatory response when RPP is lowered, due to the intrarenal action of ET.  (+info)

Central injections of capsaicin cause antidiuresis mediated through neurokinin-1 receptors in rat hypothalamus and vasopressin release. (7/1091)

Intracerebroventricular injections of capsaicin at 100-500 nmol elicited dose-dependent decreases in urine outflow volume in anesthetized, hydrated rats. The capsaicin (500 nmol)-induced antidiuresis was inhibited by pretreatment with CP96345 (30 nmol, a neurokinin-1-receptor antagonist), but not by that with phenoxybenzamine (20 nmol, an alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist), timolol (100 nmol, a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist) or atropine (300 nmol, a muscarinic antagonist) into the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON). Intravenous injections of d(CH2)5-D-Tyr(Et)VAVP (50 microg/kg, a vasopressin-receptor antagonist) completely blocked the antidiuresis. In intra-SON microdialysis experiments, acetylcholine concentration in the perfusate of the capsaicin-injected rats was not different from that of the vehicle-injected rats. These findings suggested that capsaicin stimulated substance P release in the SON and caused the antidiuresis as a result of the increased release of vasopressin into the circulation from the neurohypophysis mediated through neurokinin-1 receptors in the SON.  (+info)

Brain mineralocorticoid receptor control of blood pressure and kidney function in normotensive rats. (8/1091)

Brain mineralocorticoid receptors appear to contribute to mineralocorticoid hypertension and may be involved in blood pressure control in normotensive rats. We examined the effect of blockade of central mineralocorticoid receptors with the use of a selective antagonist (RU28318) on cardiovascular and renal function in conscious normotensive rats. The contribution of renal innervation was evaluated in rats with bilaterally denervated kidneys. Young adult, male Wistar rats were trained for systolic blood pressure measurement by a tail sphygmographic method and accustomed to metabolic cages for collection of urine. One week before experimentation, an intracerebroventricular cannula was implanted. Systolic blood pressure was diminished 30 minutes after an intracerebroventricular dose of 10 ng of RU28318. The effect was maximal at 8 hours and was still present after 24 hours. Blood pressure returned to the basal level by 48 hours. During the period 0 to 8 hours after intracerebroventricular injection, rats treated with the antagonist showed an increase in diuresis and urinary electrolyte excretion. No significant effect on plasma renin activity, measured 8 and 30 hours after administration of RU28318, was observed. In denervated rats, the decrease in systolic blood pressure after administration of RU28318 was reduced. The difference was statistically significant compared with controls at 2 hours but not at 8 hours, and blood pressure returned to the basal value by 24 hours. The increases in diuresis and urinary electrolyte excretion induced by RU28318 were abolished in denervated rats. These results show that brain mineralocorticoid receptors are involved in blood pressure regulation and kidney function homeostasis in conscious normotensive rats. The renal nerves appear to participate in the brain mineralocorticoid receptor control of blood pressure.  (+info)

We explain Urine Formation with video tutorials and quizzes, using our Many Ways(TM) approach from multiple teachers.|p|This lesson will introduce the process of urine formation and give an introduction to the 3 steps involved in the process.|/p|
Biology Assignment Help, Urine formation by excretory organs, Normal 0 false false false EN-IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
Applying Your Knowledge A.Where is urine stored? B.Which structure passes urine to the outside of the body? C.Which structure transports urine to the bladder? D.Where is urine produced? 1. Ureters 2. Bladder 3. Kidney 4. Urethra
This test is based on the exploration of the tubular response to an acute fluid load. After overnight fast, all participants received twenty cc/Kg of mineralized water per os and two liters of intravenous hypotonic solution (0.66%) infused in two hours. Three blood samples are drawn (at 0, 60 and 120 minutes) and also urine samples are collected from each person at baseline and at 30 (±5) minutes intervals during the whole test. From the obtained blood and urine samples creatinine and osmolarity are measured, and then from the data corresponding to the most hypotonic urine sample (maximum dilution) and its corresponding blood sample three renal physiological parameters (proximal sodium clearance, free water clearance, sodium TALH reabsorption) are analyzed. Since patient inclusion follow up period is one ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Solute excretion in prevention of norepinephrine (NE)-induced acute renal failure (ARF). AU - Cronin, R.. AU - Henrich, W.. AU - Nix, K.. PY - 1979/1/1. Y1 - 1979/1/1. UR - UR - M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:17144461991. VL - 27. SP - 764A. JO - Journal of Investigative Medicine. JF - Journal of Investigative Medicine. SN - 1081-5589. IS - 5. ER - ...
Each kidney has about a million nephrons, where urine formation takes place. At any given time, about 20 percent of the blood is going through the kidneys to be filtered so that the body can eliminate waste and maintain hydration, blood pH and proper levels of blood substances.
The presence of a relatively large osmolal gap due to excess organic solute is diagnostic in the appropriate clinical setting. Symptomatic patients are treated depending on plasma osmolality and volum... more
Learn in-depth information on Osmolal Gap Blood Test, on why the laboratory test is performed, specimen collected, the significance of the results, and its use in diagnosing medical conditions.
The water that is pulled out of the body due to alcohols diuretic effect is from 1. cerebral tissue. 2. skeletal muscle. 3. fat stores. 4. cerebrospinal fluid.
article{265516, author = {Gasthuys, Frank and Martens, Ann and GOOSSENS, L and De Moor, Antoine}, journal = {Journal Ass. vet. Anaesth., 23}, language = {eng}, pages = {6--10}, title = {A quantitative and qualitative study of the diuretic effects of romifidine in the horse}, year = {1996 ...
NuAire Metabolic cages Rodent, Innovive Rodent metabolic cages, Metabolic Cages Rodent harvardapparatus, Metabolic Cage Rodent VWR, Allentown Rodent Metabolic Cage, Labconco Rodent metabolic cages Thermofisher
Jed Fiebelkorn of Fly Fisherman offers some tips on water-loaded fly casting. A great technique to quickly pick up and fire longer distances.
Diuretic   A diuretic is any drug that elevates the rate of bodily urine excretion (diuresis). There are several categories of diuretics. All diuretics
TY - JOUR. T1 - mPGES-1 deletion impairs diuretic response to acute water loading. AU - Soodvilai, Sunhapas. AU - Jia, Zhanjun. AU - Wang, Mong Heng. AU - Dong, Zheng. AU - Yang, Tianxin. PY - 2009/5. Y1 - 2009/5. N2 - PGE2 has an established role in renal water handling. The present study was undertaken to examine the role of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) in the diuretic response to acute and chronic water loading. Compared with wild-type (+/+) controls, mPGES-1 -/- mice exhibited impaired ability to excrete an acute, but not chronic water load. In response to acute water loading, urinary PGE2 excretion in the +/+ mice increased at 2 h, in parallel with increased urine flow. In contrast, the -/- mice exhibited a delayed increase in urinary PGE2 excretion, coinciding with the stimulation of renal medullary mRNA expression of cytosolic prostaglandin E synthase but not mPGES-2. At baseline, renal aquaporin-2 (AQP2) expression in mPGES-1 -/- mice was enhanced compared with the +/+ ...
1. The relationship between osmolal clearance (Cosm) and the reabsorption of solute free water (Tch2o) was examined during mannitol and hypertonic saline diureses in both normocalcaemic and hypercalcaemic rabbits.. 2. At high values for Cosm (2-4 ml/min) in normocalcaemic rabbits Tch2o during saline diuresis exceeded that during mannitol diuresis as previously shown.. 3. Prolonged hypercalcaemia (72-96 h) reduced Tch2o in both mannitol and saline diureses.. 4. Brief hypercalcaemia (18-24 h) abolished the increment in Tch2o normally seen during saline, as compared with mannitol diuresis. This impairment of Tch2o during saline diuresis occurred at a time after the start of hypercalcaemia when Tch2o during mannitol diuresis was still unaffected.. 5. The results cannot be attributed to an effect of hypercalcaemia on membrane permeability to water, and are best explained by a reversible limitation of sodium transport in Henles loop. This interpretation is supported by the fact that the ...
Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare disease leading to severe hypercalcemia due to hyperparathyroidism. Surgery is the primary treatment option. A more progressive form of the disease is characterized by parathyrotoxicosis, and subsequent hypercalcemia is the most common cause of death. We report a case presenting with severe hypercalcemia due to parathyrotoxicosis from parathyroid carcinoma treated for the first time using the monoclonal antibody denosumab as a rescue therapy and present long-term follow-up data. The 71-year-old patient presented with severe hypercalcemia due to metastatic parathyroid carcinoma. Despite undergoing treatment with bisphosphonates, cinacalcet hydrochloride, and forced diuresis, the patient`s condition deteriorated rapidly due to resistant hypercalcemia. Surgery performed because of spinal metastasis and forced diuresis lowered calcium levels, albeit they remained in the hypercalcemic range and significantly increased when forced diuresis was stopped. Considering a ...
Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare disease leading to severe hypercalcemia due to hyperparathyroidism. Surgery is the primary treatment option. A more progressive form of the disease is characterized by parathyrotoxicosis, and subsequent hypercalcemia is the most common cause of death. We report a case presenting with severe hypercalcemia due to parathyrotoxicosis from parathyroid carcinoma treated for the first time using the monoclonal antibody denosumab as a rescue therapy and present long-term follow-up data. The 71-year-old patient presented with severe hypercalcemia due to metastatic parathyroid carcinoma. Despite undergoing treatment with bisphosphonates, cinacalcet hydrochloride, and forced diuresis, the patient`s condition deteriorated rapidly due to resistant hypercalcemia. Surgery performed because of spinal metastasis and forced diuresis lowered calcium levels, albeit they remained in the hypercalcemic range and significantly increased when forced diuresis was stopped. Considering a ...
Solutions producing osmotic diuresis | I.v. solutions | Blood substitutes and perfusion solutions Brokerage service for pharmaceutical and parapharmaceutical products active ingredients and precursors..
The effect of lowering the pressure of oxygen from 80 to 34 mm Hg was examined in anesthetized dogs that were undergoing a water diuresis. This degree of hypoxia was associated with an antidiuresis as urine osmolality (Uosm) increased from 107 to 316 mosmol/kg H2O (P < 0.001) and plasma arginine vasopressin increased from 0.06 to 7.5 μU/ml, (P < 0.05). However, hypoxia was not associated with significant changes in cardiac output (CO, from 4.2 to 4.7 liters/ min), mean arterial pressure (MAP, from 143 to 149 mm Hg), glomerular filtration rate (GFR, from 46 to 42 ml/min), solute excretion rate (SV, from 302 to 297 mosmol/min), or filtration fraction (from 0.26 to 0.27, NS). Hypoxia was associated with an increase in renal vascular resistance (from 0.49 to 0.58 mm Hg/ml per min, P < 0.01). The magnitude of hypoxia-induced antidiuresis was the same in innervated kidneys and denervated kidneys. To further examine the role of vasopressin in this antidiuresis, hypoxia was induced in hypophysectomized ...
1. Isolated rat kidneys were perfused at a constant perfusion pressure of 90 mmHg to study the natriuretic effects of atriopeptin III (AP-III) and to compare these effects with those of frusemide. AP-III (1 μg) or frusemide (1 mg) were added to the perfusate (100 ml) after two 15 min control collection periods.. 2. Compared with the control group, AP-III and frusemide increased urinary sodium excretion (UNaV, 5.6 ± 1.1 and 4.6 ± 0.6 vs control 1.8 ± 0.3 μmol min−1 g−1, mean ± sem, P , 0.01 and P , 0.05, respectively), fractional sodium excretion (FENa, 4.8 ± 1.1 and 6.7 ± 0.8 vs control 2.0 ± 0.2%, P , 0.05 and P , 0.001, respectively) and potassium excretion (UKV, 3.2 ± 0.3 and 3.0 ± 0.3 vs control 1.5 ± 0.3 μmol min−1 g−1, both P , 0.01). However, AP-III, but not frusemide, increased glomerular filtration rate (820 ± 55 vs 590 ± 24 μl min−1 g−1, P , 0.01) and urine flow rate (V 97.5 ± 8.0 vs 44.1 ± 5.2 μl min−1 g−1, P , 0.001). Calculated distal delivery of ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Acute clearance studies were performed in normal subjects to establish the site(s) and mechanism of action of the new diuretic agent, bumetanide (3-n-butylamino-4-phenoxy-5-sulfamylbenzoic acid), in the human kidney. When the drug was administered during water diuresis, solute-free water formation was unchanged associated with a peak increment in fractional sodium excretion of approximately 15% of filtered load. However, studies performed in hydropenic subjects demonstrated a virtual abolition of free water reabsorption. The diuretic caused a mild phosphaturia which did not appear to be related to alterations in parathyroid hormone. Furthermore, whereas net hydrogen ion excretion and urinary pH were unchanged, the excretion of ammonium ion, titratable acidity and bicarbonate all increased mildly. Taken together, the data suggest that the primary site of action of bumetanide is the medullary portion of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle, but that in addition, bumetanide inhibits the ...
A urine flow test calculates the speed of urine flow over time. It may be used to check how the bladder and sphincter are working. For this test, you will urinate into a special funnel that is connected to a measuring instrument. The instrument calculates the amount of urine, rate of flow in seconds, and the length of time until all urine has been passed. This information helps evaluate how well the lower urinary tract is working. It also helps figure out if there is a blockage of normal urine outflow.
Many vegetables have diuretic benefits, a fundamental quality when it comes to avoiding fluid retention and helping to eliminate toxins naturally. Discover the ones that have the greatest effect.
Learn about the details of the flow processes within the kidney including such aspects as filtration, reabsorption, and excretion in the nephron. It also shows the molecular sequence of ion...
All information, data, and material contained, presented, or provided on is for educational purposes only. It is not to be construed or intended as providing medical or legal advice. Decisions you make about your familys healthcare are important and should be made in consultation with a competent medical professional. We are not physicians and do not claim to be ...
The present invention provides an apparatus including: a container that receives urine; and a urine amount measuring device that measures the weight of the urine received by the container; wherein the urine amount measuring device has: a mounting plate, which is a plate on which the container is mounted; a measuring portion that measures the weight of the container mounted on the mounting plate multiple times at given time intervals; and an output portion that outputs a result of the measurement performed by the measuring portion, and the apparatus has a fixing structure that is situated in at least a bottom portion of the container and a mounting face of the mounting plate and that detachably fixes the container on the mounting plate.
Carrots are often thought of for their benefit to eyesight, but they do have a host of other benefits, and being a natural diuretic is one of them. Carrots are great because they come in a few different varieties depending on how you want to use them. Baby carrots are great for having as a snack or going on top of salads. Regular sized carrots can get sliced and chopped for use in recipes or cooked up as a side dish to a meal. No matter how you go about eating them, youll still get all of the nutrients as well as the diuretic effect they provide. ...
In order to get the diuretic effects of fruit, you should eat two portions everyday. Here are some of the best natural diuretics: fruit.
we must use nuclease free water in PCR reaction so as to prevent degredation of DNA. ... Also use of nuclease free water helps avoid DNA degradation by nucleases
1 Answer (question resolved) - Posted in: prilosec, generic, prostate, urine - Answer: From my review of Prilosec decreased urine flow is not listed ...
Buy Free Water art prints by Priska Wettstein at Shop Thousands of Canvas and Framed Wall Art Prints and Posters at Imagekind.
More than 600 people took part in Aqua Dash, so far raising over £8,000 to support our toddler groups and family support services.
A widespread belief is that caffeine has a diuretic effect when consumed and will induce dehydration if used by athletes or those who perform strenuous exercise. Discuss the pathophysiology behind this belief. Share your thoughts on whether you agree or disagree that caffeine can induce dehydration. Support your answer with evidence-based literature.. ...
A diuretic is any substance that promotes the production of urine. This includes forced diuresis. There are several categories of diuretics. All diuretics increase the excretion of water from bodies, although each class does so in a distinct way.. Women naturally retain more water weight than men and can some times have weight cutting struggles. Whether Lee took the banned substance or not remains to be seen however her tweet does suggest an admission of guilt.. is reporting that Lees urine test came back positive for the substances canrenone and/or spironolactone.. Lee has been temporarily suspended until a hearing is held. Under Nevada Athletic Commission rules, a first-time offender testing positive for diuretics faces a two-year suspension and a 30 to 40 percent fine of his/her purse. Lee earned a disclosed $3,000 payday at Invicta FC 16.. ...
A diuretic is a substance that removes water from the body by promoting urine formation and the loss of salt (sodium).. Caffeine and alcohol are common diuretics.. Diuretic medicines include furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide, metolazone, and spironolactone. These medicines may be used as part of treatment for conditions that cause swelling from water retention (edema), such as heart failure, hypertension, or liver or kidney disease. ...
Biology Assignment Help, What is the function of the antidiuretic hormone, What is the function of the antidiuretic hormone? Where is it made and which are the stimuli that enhance or decrease its secretion? The antidiuretic hormone is secreted by the hypophysis (also called as pituitary) and it acts in the nephron tubu
Price match guarantee on generic medications. 5-5 stars based on 57 reviews Perhaps youdo best when you can visualize the term with the appropriate body system. Available at …. 20 mg. Under good indicator of a course or buckling. Licensed Physicians ~ Prescribed Online, Shipped FedEx Overnight  food-borne assay rigid Intracranial stents may prevent further information he is not from areas of the head at birth Especially basal cisterns buy lasix on line related symptoms, physical symptoms. Lasix Online ~ Buy Cheap Lasix Online with FREE Prescription From Our U. 30 Tablets. One large fetus vs partial answer is less saline may be just anterior and following accidental deaths, the point of the metatarsophalangeal joints; and allow patients dislike them.. Lasix without. Buy Lasix Online at Only $0. No matter how you choose to learn and recall these. Is used to treat edema syndrome of various origins, pulmonary edema, renal failure, hypertension, and also is prescribed for forced diuresis ...
Renal parenchyma is the kidney part where filtration and urine formation occur.SLE is one of causes of renal parenchymal disease.
Property Property value (as page type) with input value UBPROP:0000001 A tuft of capillaries found in a Bowmans capsule in which waste products are filtered from the blood and urine formation is initiated.[AAO] xsd:string contains invalid characters or is incomplete and therefore can cause unexpected results during a query or annotation process. ...
Urine Flow Test What is a urine flow test? A urine flow test calculates the speed of urine flow over time. It may be used to check how the bladder and sphincter are working. The bladder is part of the urinary tract. Its a hollow muscular organ that relaxes and expands to store urine. It then contracts and flattens to empty urine through the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body (urethra). The sphincter muscle is a circular muscle. It closes tightly, like a rubber band, around the bla...
What is lasix ?. Lasix is a cheap but very effective diuretic product which is used for about 50 years. The main active ingredient is Furosemide which has been synthesized in 1962 and approved by FDA to treat edema syndrome.. Lasix is very effective at the early stage of the edema development and is irreplaceable during severe cases. Furosemide provides a strong diuretic effect within 30 minutes after the consumption.. Lasix differs from the analogical products because it stimulates natural processes of the liquid excretion from the body and prevents the further disorder of the water balance. It excretes the liquid with urine after the second application.. Lasix increases excretion of sodium from the body which retains the excessive liquid. Other minerals are also excreted with sodium, and therefore it is necessary to control a mineral balance during the use of Furosemide.. The maximal diuretic effect of Lasix occurs in 1 hour after the use but it lasts for a short period, within 3-4 hours. A ...
Judging from the way you worded it, it sounds like you have this problem when you drink diet only. This could be you are allergic to the Aspartame or whatever other artificial sweetener they have added. Or you body is just trying to get rid of the toxins or other chemicals your body doesn’t like. Most pop contains caffeine and this to can cause this diuretic affect. If drinking diet is the only time you experience this, I definitely suggest you stop drinking diet. Aspartame has been known to cause pain and other difficulties. In fact many of the people were mistakenly diagnosed with MS, Fiber Fibromyalgiaand other diseases when actually...
CARDIOVASCULAR and vasopressin (A VP) responses to hcmorrhagc wcrc studicd in rats with lesions of the hypothalamic supraoptic nuclei (SONL). Bleeding caused hypotension and increase in heart rate (HR) and A VP. SONL rats failed to fully recover from bleeding as compared to normal rats. Plasma A VP in SONL rats was in the normal in basal conditions, but failed to increase to levels attained in normal rats throughout the post-hemorrhage period. These data suggcst that the supraoptic nuclei are the primary regulatory sitcs for A VP release in rcsponse to hemorrhage and that lack of adequate A VP release significantly retards blood pressure recovery after bleeding ...
Citation Information : Yim K. Hypernatremia due to Urea-Induced Osmotic Diuresis: Physiology at the Bedside. Indian J Crit Care Med 2018; 22 (9):664-669. DOI: 10.4103/ijccm.IJCCM_266_18 License: CC BY-ND 3.0 Published Online: 00-09-2018 Copyright Statement: Copyright © 2018; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Frank Iversen, Chuanxu Yang, Frederik Dagnæs-Hansen, David H Schaffert, Jørgen Kjems, Shan Gao].
Active Life: 6-8 hours (Diuretic effects) Drug Class: Loop Diuretic (Oral) Average Dose: 40-80 mg total in a 12 hour period Acne: No Water Retention: Obviously not High Blood Pressure: No Liver Toxic:
BioAssay record AID 484643 submitted by ChEMBL: Increase of urinary volume in normal Sprague-Dawley rat at 10 mg/kg, po subsequently dosed orally with 50% aqueous glucose solution measured up to 24 hrs relative to control.
Is it in bad taste to bring your favorite water on board? My medication has a diuretic effect on me and I am always thirsty. I drink lots (I mean lots!
25 yrs old Male asked about Excess Urine clear like water, 1 doctor answered this and 34 people found it useful. Get your query answered 24*7 only on | Practo Consult
The diuretic formula is a superior combination of standardized herbal extracts that promote urine flow and flush away waste, reducing the puffiness of edema and gently stimulating the bodys cleansing system.
Diurin (Frusemide) contains the active ingredients frusemide / furosemide. It belongs to a group of medicines known as diuretics. Diurin (Frusemide) is used to treat patients with severe kidney problems.
Minivalve International supply miniature elastomeric valve components to OEMs in the medical, automotive, home appliance, water handling and food and packaging industry.
A strong diuretic medicine or water tablet used to remove excess fluid from the body, information about furosemide dosage and side effects.
Get Furosemide - Frumil, Lasix. Medikamente Ohne Rezept Im Ausland Kaufen. Rezeptfrei Medikamente Bestellen., Apotheke Preisvergleich.
Chronic Partial Urinary Obstruction or Post-Obstructive Diuresis (urethral obstruction, like a urinary stone lodged in the ...
... diuresis, sound is not very good? one is the morning despite the pain, I [url=]Cheap ... diuresis, sound is not very good? one is the morning despite the pain, I [url=]Cheap ...
  • Osmotic diuresis is increased urination due to the presence of certain substances in the fluid filtered by the kidneys. (
  • Osmotic diuresis is the increase of urination rate caused by the presence of certain substances in the small tubes of the kidneys. (
  • The substances cause an increase in the osmotic pressure within the tubule, causing retention of water within the lumen, and thus reduces the reabsorption of water, increasing urine output (i.e. diuresis). (
  • Sodium, chloride and potassium are excreted in osmotic diuresis, originating from diabetes mellitus (DM). (
  • Osmotic diuresis results in dehydration from polyuria and the classic polydipsia (excessive thirst) associated with DM. (
  • In osmotic diuresis , for example, substances build up in the tubules of the kidneys, interfering with the reabsorption of water and causing an elevated level of water in the bloodstream, which in turn causes the kidneys to increase urine output. (
  • A rapid post-prandial diuresis takes place in order to maintain the osmotic and ionic balance, and to recover mobility to escape from predators ( Coast, 2009 ). (
  • A report in 1960 that osmotic diuresis prevented acute renal failure after aortic cross-clamping popularized the use of mannitol as a therapeutic agent (4-6). (
  • The urinary excretion pattern showed a tendency for sodium retention at the expense of potassium and chloride loss from the beginning of diuresis, and a striking feature was an early reduction of plasma volume and a rise in serum colloid osmotic pressure which was maintained unaltered during the continued significant loss of interstitial fluid. (
  • Maher, Schreiner, and Waters (4) more recently described a patient in whom they showed that diuresis was due to the osmotic effect of urea. (
  • Accumulation of urea and other non-reabsorbable solutes resulting in an osmotic diuresis. (
  • citation needed] The most common cause of polyuria in both adults and children is uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, which causes osmotic diuresis, when glucose levels are so high that glucose is excreted in the urine. (
  • Objective Oral NaCl intake produces stronger natriuresis and diuresis than venous infusion of same amount, indicating the existence of renal-gastric axis. (
  • Result Gastrin infusing WKY rats via renal artery induced natriuresis and diuresis, which was blocked in the presence of CI988, a gastrin receptor blocker. (
  • Lower dosages of gastrin or fenoldopam failed to induce natriuresis and diuresis alone, while putting together induced the effects. (
  • Natriuresis and diuresis was partially blocked by SCH23390 or CI988, indicating the interaction between gastrin and D1-like receptor. (
  • There were no differences in glomerular filtration rate or surface nephron function which could account for the greater diuresis and natriuresis from the hydronephrotic kidney, thus confirming the importance of an abnormality in deep nephron or medullary function in post-obstructive diuresis. (
  • Inability of indomethacin to modify hydrochlorothiazide diuresis and natriuresis by the chimpanzee kidney. (
  • Natriuresis and diuresis decreased by about 50% while creatinine excretion rate and urinary osmolality did not change. (
  • We found parallel changes in the excretion of ANP's second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in a dose-response-related manner to natriuresis respectively diuresis. (
  • The decrease of diuresis, natriuresis and cGMP excretion demonstrate the beneficial effects of nCPAP treatment on the cardiovascular system. (
  • One of the most basic and powerful mechanisms for control of blood volume and extracellular fluid volume, as well as for the maintenance of sodium and fluid balance, is the effect of blood pressure on sodium and water excretion-called the pressure natriuresis and pressure diuresis mechanisms, respectively. (
  • Pressure diuresis refers to the effect of increased blood pressure to raise urinary volume excretion, whereas pressure natriuresis refers to the rise in sodium excretion that occurs with elevated blood pres-sure. (
  • Because pressure diuresis and natriuresis usually occur in parallel, we refer to these mechanisms simply as "pressure natriuresis" in the following discussion. (
  • Chronic taurine treatment ameliorated the reduction in saline-induced diuresis and natriuresis by both the UNX control and the UNX glucose intolerant rat. (
  • Mozaffari, MS & Schaffer, SW 2002, ' Chronic taurine treatment ameliorates reduction in saline-induced diuresis and natriuresis ', Kidney International , vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 1750-1759. (
  • In dTGR, pressure-natriuresis-diuresis relationships were shifted approximately 40 mmHg rightward. (
  • In dTGR with neurohormonal factors controlled, RBF was decreased and pressure-natriuresis-diuresis curves were not different compared to dTGR curves without these interventions. (
  • For forced alkaline diuresis, sodium bicarbonate is added to the infusion fluid to make blood and, in turn, urine alkaline. (
  • Forced alkaline diuresis has been used to increase the excretion of acidic drugs like salicylates and phenobarbitone, and is recommended for rhabdomyolysis. (
  • Alkaline diuresis should not be attempted in patients who have evidence of pulmonary oedema or those with renal failure. (
  • Forced alkaline diuresis in acute copper sulphate poisoning. (
  • On November 6, 2017, a one-room clinic at UNC Hospitals Heart and Vascular Center at Meadowmont officially opened with two diuresis chairs. (
  • 2017. (
  • Sometimes a connotative difference is felt between diuresis in the sense of appropriate increase (as in successful diuretic therapy that is controlling symptoms well) and polyuria in the sense of inappropriate increase, that is, excess (as in failed oral antihyperglycemic therapy that must be stepped up to achieve control). (
  • Anti-diuretic hormone, or ADH, is the hormone responsible for preventing excessive diuresis. (
  • Earley (2) reported a patient in whom impaired response to anti-diuretic hormone appeared to be the major cause of the diuresis. (
  • A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis , the increased production of urine . (
  • 1. In order to clarify further the phenomenon of post-obstructive diuresis, clearance and micro-puncture experiments were done before and after relief of partial ureteral obstruction in rats with a solitary hydronephrotic kidney. (
  • Decreased tubular reabsorption in deeper nephrons and collecting ducts appeared to be of major importance in the post-obstructive diuresis after relief of chronic obstruction. (
  • Water reabsorption in the distal nephron was decreased in such animals, as well as in urea-loaded rats with a remnant kidney, indicating the probable mechanism by which urea diuresis potentiates the phenomenon of post-obstructive diuresis. (
  • Patients who develop post obstructive diuresis need to be monitored closely. (
  • The urinary excretion pattern and the changes in body composition during early furosemide diuresis were studied in 10 patients with congestive heart failure with particular reference to volume and osmoregulation. (
  • The current invention describes formulations for oral, controlled release furosemide that reduce the rapid spike in diuresis associated with immediate release formulations of furosemide while maintaining cumulative urine output. (
  • A once daily oral furosemide formulation has been optimized that demonstrates gradual, rather than punctuated, diuresis without sacrificing the therapeutic goal of increasing overall urine output per dose. (
  • Start a journey of diuresis with furosemide, dose 40 times the serum creatinine. (
  • Diuresis (/ˌdaɪjʊˈriːsɪs/) is increased urination and the physiologic process that produces such an increase. (
  • For example, people at high altitude look for signs of diuresis to indicate that they are adapting well to the conditions at altitude, and it is also a common side effect of some prescription drugs. (
  • Now that we have established the average, normal, frequency, let's look at some signs of diuresis. (
  • If you have a lot of work to do, or you expect resistance, add a thiazide (e.g. metolazone), and if more than a couple days of diuresis is expected, add spironoloctone as well to limit potassium wasting. (
  • Certain types of exercise can cause diuresis, and it can also be caused by a wide range of health conditions and the use of certain drugs or medications. (
  • if i have a type 2 diabetes and i know that i need to go to urinate almost every hour can i take or drink a slimming coffee that says may cause diuresis? (
  • What can cause Diuresis? (
  • Some medical conditions can cause diuresis, such as polydipsia which creates an increased thirst in the affected individual, forcing them to drink too many fluids, eventually causing diuresis. (
  • Magnesium Sulfate: Another Cause of a Solute Diuresis. (
  • Glomerular etiology, cardiac systolic dysfunction, severe malnutrition, emergency dialysis initiation and lack of permanent vascular access were proved to be associated with significant low diuresis.Age, gender, estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the presence of systemic hypertension did not influence the amount of daily diuresis.Factors influencing residual diuresis may be distinct from those that influence residual GFR. (
  • Residual diuresis influences long-term evolution of the hemodialyzed patient, modifying the prognosis even if optimal Kt/ V is achieved. (
  • In CKD stage 5 patients, residual diuresis presents large variations in conditions of comparable low GFR. (
  • Factors influencing residual diuresis may be distinct from those that influence residual GFR. (
  • 2. At high values for C osm (2-4 ml/min) in normocalcaemic rabbits T c h 2 o during saline diuresis exceeded that during mannitol diuresis as previously shown. (
  • 4. Brief hypercalcaemia (18-24 h) abolished the increment in T c h 2 o normally seen during saline, as compared with mannitol diuresis. (
  • This impairment of T c h 2 o during saline diuresis occurred at a time after the start of hypercalcaemia when T c h 2 o during mannitol diuresis was still unaffected. (
  • In the present study, normotensive F344 rats had a blunted pressure diuresis relationship, compared with Lewis rats. (
  • BBG also reduced the pressure diuresis threshold in F344 rats, but did not alter its slope. (
  • 7. An increased arterial pressure increases urine output by way of pressure diuresis. (
  • As long as kidney function is normal and the pressure diuresis mechanism is operating effectively, large changes in salt and water intake can be accom-modated with only slight changes in blood volume, extracellular fluid volume, cardiac output, and arterial pressure. (
  • It can also be caused by exposure to cold or prolonged submersion, in which case it is known as immersion diuresis, as the body constricts blood vessels to conserve heat, leading the kidneys to produce more urine. (
  • Cold diuresis is the occurrence of increased urine production on exposure to cold, which also partially explains immersion diuresis. (
  • It is also unknown to what extent the moderate diuresis that often occurs during the first few days of hospitalization contributes to the normal or nearly normal hemodynamic measurements obtained in certain patients with cardiac impairment who are thought clinically to have signs and symptoms of pulmonary congestion. (
  • When caffeine is used in conjunction with SAH, diuresis occurs, but hyperhydration is still achieved albeit at lower levels when compared to SAH alone. (
  • Diuresis occurs as a complication of metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, and hypercalcemia. (
  • [1] [2] That is, the reduction in blood pressure is not due to decreased blood volume resulting from increased urine production, but occurs through other mechanisms and at lower doses than that required to produce diuresis. (
  • High-altitude diuresis occurs at altitudes above 10,000 feet (3,000 m) and is a desirable indicator of adaptation to high altitudes. (
  • Age, gender, estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the presence of systemic hypertension did not influence the amount of daily diuresis. (
  • Indapamide was specifically designed with this in mind, and has a larger therapeutic window for hypertension (without pronounced diuresis) than most other diuretics. (
  • Urinary free cortisol is not affected by short-term water diuresis [Letter]. (
  • How much "urinary free cortisol" is really cortisol during water diuresis in healthy individuals? (
  • Urinary excretion of prostanoids in the course of changes in diuresis over short and long terms respectively]. (
  • Since the first studies of the diuresis after relief of urinary-tract obstruction by Wilson, Reisman, and Moyer (1), this phenomenon has received much attention. (
  • A diuresis renal scan is performed to assess if your kidneys have an obstruction and to study the entire renal excretory system. (
  • The definition of diuresis in the Spanish dictionary is excretion of urine. (
  • In rebound diuresis, patients produce a large amount of urine as they recover from renal failure. (
  • Worsening Renal Function in Patients With Acute Heart Failure Undergoing Aggressive Diuresis Is Not Associated With Tubular Injury. (
  • Author's reply to: Insight of forced diuresis with matched controlled hydration strategy to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiovascular intervention. (
  • Accordingly, the circulatory response to moderate diuresis resulting in a loss of weight averaging 3.4 kg was investigated in 15 patients with heart disease. (
  • Despite the reductions in cardiac output, all but one of the patients studied achieved substantial clinical improvement from the diuresis. (
  • Historically, patients needing intravenous (IV) diuresis have presented to the ED for this treatment, and many are then admitted. (
  • Over a six-week period, these patients received diuresis outpatient services. (
  • For a number of patients, we have already been able to facilitate earlier hospital discharges because we were able to continue to serve their diuresis needs in the outpatient setting. (
  • Determining factors of diuresis in chronic kidney disease patients initiating hemodialysis. (
  • Patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) begin chronic hemodialysis with variable diuresis levels correlated to a comparable low glomerular filtration rate. (
  • Echocardiographic predictors of change in renal function with intravenous diuresis for decompensated heart failure. (
  • 1. The relationship between osmolal clearance (C osm ) and the reabsorption of solute free water ( T c h 2 o) was examined during mannitol and hypertonic saline diureses in both normocalcaemic and hypercalcaemic rabbits. (
  • 4. There was a greater diuresis in post-obstructive rats with a marked increase in blood urea concentration. (
  • Diuresis renography using Tc-99m MAG-3 clarifies the significance of hydronephrosis and/or hydro-ureter. (
  • A critical appraisal of diuresis renography in the evaluation and management of neonatal hydronephrosis. (
  • This novel option would facilitate more prompt diuresis management to avoid Solute-induced polyuria can be seen in hospitalized The fulltext of this. (
  • The kallikrein-kinin system and prostaglandins in the kidney: their relation to forosemide-induced diuresis and to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in man. (
  • Diuresis is controlled by antidiuretics such as vasopressin, angiotensin II and aldosterone. (
  • We found two small studies that investigated effectiveness and safety of percussion (striking or tapping the body, usually using a device called a percussor), diuresis ( therapy to increase urine flow), and inversion therapy (placing the patient at an inverted angle) for treating lower pole kidney stones. (
  • name the hormone that is produced in inadequate amounts resulting in excessive diuresis without high blood glucose levels. (
  • diuresis (dy-yoor- ee -sis) n. increased secretion of urine by the kidneys. (
  • Diuresis is an increase in the production of urine by the kidneys, which typically results in a corresponding increase in urine expelled by the body. (
  • Thus, determining the temporal aspects of caffeine induced diuresis when used in conjunction with SAH may lead to superior pre-exercise nutritional strategies. (
  • To investigate the time-course of caffeine-induced diuresis during a 90 min SAH protocol. (
  • however, caffeine induced diuresis occurred only during the initial 15 min following consumption of the treatments. (
  • Another meaning of diuresis in the dictionary is also the amount of urine produced in a given time. (
  • The present study emphasizes the main determining factors of diuresis in a cohort of stage 5 CKD subjects at the beginning of hemodialysis. (
  • Although the evidence we found suggested that percussion, diuresis, and inversion therapy may help the passage of lower pole kidney stones after shock wave lithotripsy, this finding was based on very limited evidence of moderate quality. (
  • Limited evidence from two small studies indicated that percussion, diuresis, and inversion therapy may be safe and effective therapies to assist clearance of lower pole kidney stone fragments following shock wave lithotripsy. (
  • Moses, AM, van Gemert, M & Miller, M 1974, ' Evidence that glyburide-induced diuresis is not mediated by inhibition of ADH ', Hormone Research in Paediatrics , vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 359-366. (
  • citation needed] Forced diuresis (increased urine formation by diuretics and fluid) may enhance the excretion of certain drugs in urine and is used to treat drug overdose or poisoning of these drugs and hemorrhagic cystitis. (
  • High ceiling diuretics may cause a substantial diuresis - up to 20% [3] of the filtered load of NaCl (salt) and water. (
  • If this is found to the cause of the diuresis, it is usually welcome news because it shows improvement in kidney function. (
  • Given that hematophagous insects ingest large quantities of blood in a single meal, they must undergo a rapid post-prandial diuresis in order to maintain homeostasis. (
  • medical citation needed] For forced acid diuresis, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is sometimes used. (
  • At rest in the supine position mean pulmonary arterial wedge pressure fell after diuresis from an average of 24 to 13 mm Hg. (
  • Glomerular etiology, cardiac systolic dysfunction, severe malnutrition, emergency dialysis initiation and lack of permanent vascular access were proved to be associated with significant low diuresis. (