A group of DITERPENES cyclized into 2-rings with a side-chain.
Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
A plant genus of the family ANNONACEAE. Members contain 8-oxopolyalthiaine.
A plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members are mostly vines and shrubs and they contain isoquinoline alkaloids, some of which have been used as arrow poisons.
A plant genus of the family MENISPERMACEAE. Members have been used in AYURVEDIC MEDICINE. Hypoglycemic effect has been reported.
A group of DITERPENES cyclized into 3-ring PHENANTHRENES.
An oil-resistant synthetic rubber made by the polymerization of chloroprene.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Other plants called broom include CYTISUS; SPARTIUM; and BROMUS.
A group of DITERPENES cyclized into four rings.
A large plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. They have a milky sap and a female flower consisting of a single pistil, surrounded by numerous male flowers of one stamen each. Euphorbia hirta is rarely called milkweed but that name is normally used for ASCLEPIAS.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The common name of "Bird-Of-Paradise" is also used for other plants such as Heliconia (HELICONIACEAE) and Strelitzia (STRELITZIACEAE) and some birds. The common name of "Cat's-Claw" is more often used with UNCARIA. The common name of "Pernambuco" also refers to a state in Brazil. Furanoditerpenoid lactones and caesalpin are produced by members of this genus.
A genus in the mint family (LAMIACEAE).
A plant family of the order Lamiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are opposite or whorled. The flowers are aggregated in spikes, clusters, or racemes.
A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE which should not be confused with other cedar and cypress trees of THUJA or CUPRESSUS genera.
A plant genus of the family CISTACEAE. The common name of rock rose is also sometimes used with the closely related Helianthemum genus (CISTACEAE).
A plant family of the order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta (conifers). They are mainly resinous, aromatic evergreen trees.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that contains pimarane-type diterpenes. Several species of Orthosiphon are also called Java tea.
A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mainly trees and shrubs. Many members contain mucilage and COUMARINS.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain scandenolide (a sesquiterpene lactone) and germacranolides.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.
A plant genus of the family TAXODIACEAE. Its POLLEN is one of the major ALLERGENS.
A plant genus in the family CAPRIFOLIACEAE. The common name derives from its traditional use for menstrual cramps. It is a source of viburnine, valerianic acid, vibsanin, and ursolic acid. Note that true cranberry is VACCINIUM MACROCARPON.
SESQUITERPENES cyclized into two adjoining rings, one being 7-carbons and the other is 5-carbons.
A plant genus of the family FLACOURTIACEAE. Members contain casearins which are clerodane type DITERPENES.
A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. Members contain thyrsiflorin and other scopadulane (labdane) type DITERPENES.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A plant species of the Salvia genus known as a spice and medicinal plant.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
The figwort plant family of the order Lamiales. The family is characterized by bisexual flowers with tubular corollas (fused petals) that are bilaterally symmetrical (two-lips) and have four stamens in most, two of which are usually shorter.
A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members of this genus produce imperialine, a steroidal alkaloid which acts at muscarinic receptors.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Paraguay" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. Paraguay is a country located in the central part of South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Bolivia to the north and west, and Brazil to the east and northeast. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help!
A genus of trees in the Lamiaceae family containing assorted flavonoids with possible analgesic and antineoplastic properties. The fruit of these trees is used in herbal preparations.
A plant division. They are simple plants that lack vascular tissue and possess rudimentary rootlike organs (rhizoids). Like MOSSES, liverworts have alternation of generations between haploid gamete-bearing forms (gametophytes) and diploid spore-bearing forms (sporophytes).
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta.
A plant genus of the family ARISTOLOCHIACEAE. Species of this genus have been used in traditional medicine but they contain aristolochic acid which is associated with nephropathy. These are sometimes called 'snakeroot' but that name is also used with a number of other plants such as POLYGALA; SANICULA; ASARUM; ARISTOLOCHIA; AGERATINA; and others.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
A plant genus of the LAMIACEAE family. It is known as a spice and medicinal plant.
A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE. The common name of dragon's blood is also used for DRACAENA and Daemonorops (ARECACEAE). Croton tiglium is the source of CROTON OIL.
A beverage made from ground COFFEA beans (SEEDS) infused in hot water. It generally contains CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE unless it is decaffeinated.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Natural trans-crotonin: the antiulcerogenic effect of another diterpene isolated from the bark of Croton cajucara Benth. (1/93)

The nor-clerodane diterpene trans-crotonin isolated from the bark of Croton cajucara BENTH. was investigated for its ability to prevent the formation of gastric-mucosa ulceration in different experimental models in mice. The results obtained from crotonin were compared with those obtained with another diterpene, DHC (trans-dehydrocrotonin) in the same models. When previously administered (p.o.) at the dose of 100 mg/kg, crotonin, as well as DHC, significantly reduced (p<0.05) gastric injury induced by stress (72, 67%), indomethacin/bethanechol (78, 29%) and pylorus ligature (35, 30%). In the HCl/ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model, at oral doses of 100 and 250 mg/kg, crotonin significantly prevented (p<0.05) the formation of gastric lesions by 51 and 56%, respectively, when compared to the control group. Gastric injury was also of significantly less magnitude in the DHC treatment group (p<0.05). In the pylorus-ligature model, crotonin (p.o.), like cimetidine, increased the volume of gastric juice when compared to the control group (p<0.05). No significant modifications where found in gastric parameters such as pH or total acid content after oral crotonin treatment. However, systemic alterations were observed when crotonin (100 mg/kg) was previously administered intraduodenally to mice. We observed significant changes (p<0.001) in gastric-juice parameters such as an increase in volume and a decrease in gastric acidity. Those pre-treated with crotonin as well as with DHC did not increase free mucus production (p>0.05). The results suggest that crotonin presents a significant anti-ulcer effect when assessed in these ulcer-induced models. As with DHC, the antiulcerogenic effects of crotonin are probably related to anti-secretory or/and gastroprotective properties of this substance. In light of results obtained with DHC and natural trans-crotonin in the present study, we concluded that the A-ring of both diterpenes is not directly involved in the antiulcerogenic activity.  (+info)

Salvinorin A: a potent naturally occurring nonnitrogenous kappa opioid selective agonist. (2/93)

Salvia divinorum, whose main active ingredient is the neoclerodane diterpene Salvinorin A, is a hallucinogenic plant in the mint family that has been used in traditional spiritual practices for its psychoactive properties by the Mazatecs of Oaxaca, Mexico. More recently, S. divinorum extracts and Salvinorin A have become more widely used in the U.S. as legal hallucinogens. We discovered that Salvinorin A potently and selectively inhibited (3)H-bremazocine binding to cloned kappa opioid receptors. Salvinorin A had no significant activity against a battery of 50 receptors, transporters, and ion channels and showed a distinctive profile compared with the prototypic hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide. Functional studies demonstrated that Salvinorin A is a potent kappa opioid agonist at cloned kappa opioid receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney-293 cells and at native kappa opioid receptors expressed in guinea pig brain. Importantly, Salvinorin A had no actions at the 5-HT(2A) serotonin receptor, the principal molecular target responsible for the actions of classical hallucinogens. Salvinorin A thus represents, to our knowledge, the first naturally occurring nonnitrogenous opioid-receptor subtype-selective agonist. Because Salvinorin A is a psychotomimetic selective for kappa opioid receptors, kappa opioid-selective antagonists may represent novel psychotherapeutic compounds for diseases manifested by perceptual distortions (e.g., schizophrenia, dementia, and bipolar disorders). Additionally, these results suggest that kappa opioid receptors play a prominent role in the modulation of human perception.  (+info)

A new ent-clerodane diterpene from the aerial parts of Baccharis gaudichaudiana. (3/93)

A new ent-clerodane diterpene, named bacchariol (1) was isolated from the aerial parts of Baccharis gaudichaudiana DC. (Compositae), together with known ent-clerodane diterpenes (2, 3), eight known flavonoids (4-11) and 3, 5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (12). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses. Flavonoids (7, 8, 11) and 12 showed moderate scavenging activities toward 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals.  (+info)

In vitro antileishmanial effects of antibacterial diterpenes from two Ethiopian Premna species: P. schimperi and P. oligotricha. (4/93)

BACKGROUND: Three antibacterial diterpenes: (5R,8R,9S,10R)-12-oxo-ent-3,13(16)-clerodien-15-oic acid (1), 16-hydroxy-clerod-3,13(14)-diene-15,16-olide (2) and ent-12-oxolabda-8,13(16)-dien-15-oic acid (3) were previously isolated form Premna schimperi and P. oligotricha. Since andrographolide and other structurally related diterpenes were shown to have antileishmanial activity, the aim of the present study was to assess the in vitro effect of premna diterpenes against Leishmania aethiopica; the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ethiopia. RESULTS: The diterpenes showed potent concentration-dependant suppressive effect on the viability of axenically cultured amastigotes of L. aethiopica. The clerodane diterpenes 1 and 2 were most active (LD50 values 1.08 and 4.12 microg/ml respectively) followed by andrographolide and 3. Compounds 1 and 2 appear to be over 20 and 10-times respectively more selective to leishmania amastigotes than the permissive host cell line, THP-1 cells or the promastigotes stage of the parasites. CONCLUSION: The clerodane diterpenes (1, 2) which were more potent and selective than labdanes (andrographolide and 3) are promising for further studies and/or development.  (+info)

Two new cytotoxic clerodane diterpenoids from Casearia membranacea. (5/93)

In addition to casearlucin A (3), two new clerodane diterpenes, caseamembrols A (1) and B (2) have been isolated from the leaves and twigs of Casearia membranacea by bioassay-guided fractionation. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1-3 exhibited significant cytotoxicity against human prostate (PC-3) cancer cells.  (+info)

Salvinorin A, an active component of the hallucinogenic sage salvia divinorum is a highly efficacious kappa-opioid receptor agonist: structural and functional considerations. (6/93)

The diterpene salvinorin A from Salvia divinorum has recently been reported to be a high-affinity and selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist (Roth et al., 2002). Salvinorin A and selected derivatives were found to be potent and efficacious agonists in several measures of agonist activity using cloned human kappa-opioid receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney-293 cells. Thus, salvinorin A, salvinorinyl-2-propionate, and salvinorinyl-2-heptanoate were found to be either full (salvinorin A) or partial (2-propionate, 2-heptanoate) agonists for inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP production. Additional studies of agonist potency and efficacy of salvinorin A, performed by cotransfecting either the chimeric G proteins Gaq-i5 or the universal G protein Ga16 and quantification of agonist-evoked intracellular calcium mobilization, affirmed that salvinorin A was a potent and effective kappa-opioid agonist. Results from structure-function studies suggested that the nature of the substituent at the 2-position of salvinorin A was critical for kappa-opioid receptor binding and activation. Because issues of receptor reserve complicate estimates of agonist efficacy and potency, we also examined the agonist actions of salvinorin A by measuring potassium conductance through G protein-gated K(+) channels coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes, a system in which receptor reserve is minimal. Salvinorin A was found to be a full agonist, being significantly more efficacious than (trans)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl] benzeneacetamide methane-sulfonate hydrate (U50488) or (trans)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl] benzeneacetamide methane-sulfonate hydrate (U69593) (two standard kappa-opioid agonists) and similar in efficacy to dynorphin A (the naturally occurring peptide ligand for kappa-opioid receptors). Salvinorin A thus represents the first known naturally occurring non-nitrogenous full agonist at kappa-opioid receptors.  (+info)

Two new diterpenoids from Ballota limbata. (7/93)

Two new clerodane-type diterpenoids trivially named as ballotenic acid (1) and ballodiolic acid (2) have been isolated from Ballota limbata along with three the known compounds; beta-amyrin, oleanolic acid, and beta-sitosterol. The structure elucidation of the new compounds was based primarily on two-dimensional (2D)-NMR techniques including correlation spectroscopy (COSY), heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC), heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC), and nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) experiments. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed inhibitory potential against lipoxygenase enzyme in a concentration-dependent fashion with IC(50) values of 99.6 microM and 38.3 microM, respectively.  (+info)

Localization of salvinorin A and related compounds in glandular trichomes of the psychoactive sage, Salvia divinorum. (8/93)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Salvia divinorum produces several closely related neoclerodane diterpenes. The most abundant of these, salvinorin A, is responsible for the psychoactive properties of the plant. To determine where these compounds occur in the plant, various organs, tissues and glandular secretions were chemically analysed. A microscopic survey of the S. divinorum plant was performed to examine the various types of trichomes present and to determine their distribution. METHODS: Chemical analyses were performed using thin layer chromatographic and histochemical techniques. Trichomes were examined using conventional light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. KEY RESULTS: It was found that neoclerodane diterpenes are secreted as components of a resin that accumulates in peltate glandular trichomes, specifically in the subcuticular space that exists between the trichome head cells and the cuticle that encloses them. Four main types of trichomes were observed: peltate glandular trichomes, short-stalked capitate glandular trichomes, long-stalked capitate glandular trichomes and non-glandular trichomes. Their morphology and distribution is described. Peltate glandular trichomes were only found on the abaxial surfaces of the leaves, stems, rachises, bracts, pedicles and calyces. This was consistent with chemical analyses, which showed the presence of neoclerodane diterpenes in these organs, but not in parts of the plant where peltate glandular trichomes are absent. CONCLUSIONS: Salvinorin A and related compounds are secreted as components of a complex resin that accumulates in the subcuticular space of peltate glandular trichomes.  (+info)

Clerodane diterpenes are a type of diterpene, which is a class of naturally occurring organic compounds that contain 20 carbon atoms arranged in a particular structure. Diterpenes are synthesized by a variety of plants and some animals, and they have diverse biological activities.

Clerodane diterpenes are named after the plant genus Clerodendron, which contains many species that produce these compounds. These compounds have a characteristic carbon skeleton known as the clerodane skeleton, which is characterized by a bridged bicyclic structure.

Clerodane diterpenes have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities. Some clerodane diterpenes have been found to inhibit the growth of certain types of cancer cells, while others have been shown to have immunomodulatory effects. However, more research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and potential therapeutic uses.

Diterpenes are a class of naturally occurring compounds that are composed of four isoprene units, which is a type of hydrocarbon. They are synthesized by a wide variety of plants and animals, and are found in many different types of organisms, including fungi, insects, and marine organisms.

Diterpenes have a variety of biological activities and are used in medicine for their therapeutic effects. Some diterpenes have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antiviral properties, and are used to treat a range of conditions, including respiratory infections, skin disorders, and cancer.

Diterpenes can be further classified into different subgroups based on their chemical structure and biological activity. Some examples of diterpenes include the phytocannabinoids found in cannabis plants, such as THC and CBD, and the paclitaxel, a diterpene found in the bark of the Pacific yew tree that is used to treat cancer.

It's important to note that while some diterpenes have therapeutic potential, others may be toxic or have adverse effects, so it is essential to use them under the guidance and supervision of a healthcare professional.

"Polyalthia" is a genus of flowering plants in the family Annonaceae, which is known for its tropical trees and shrubs. It's not a medical term, but a taxonomic category used in the classification of plants. The plants in this genus are native to Southeast Asia, Australia, and Pacific islands. They typically produce large, fleshy fruits that contain numerous seeds. Some species of Polyalthia have been used in traditional medicine in various cultures, although more research is needed to confirm their medicinal properties and safety.

Menispermaceae is not a medical term, but a botanical term referring to a family of flowering plants. It includes around 70 genera and 450-550 species of woody vines, shrubs, and small trees. Some members of this family contain alkaloids and have been used in traditional medicine in various parts of the world. However, it is important to note that the use of these plants as medicine should be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can also contain toxic compounds.

Tinospora is a genus of plants, and its scientific name is *Tinospora crispa*. It is a climbing shrub that is native to tropical regions of Asia, Africa, and Australia. In the context of medicine, Tinospora is used in various traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), for its alleged medicinal properties.

The primary active constituents of Tinospora are a group of compounds known as alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, and polysaccharides. These compounds have been reported to possess various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antipyretic, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects.

In Ayurveda, Tinospora is known as "Guduchi" and is used in various formulations to treat a wide range of health conditions, including fever, diabetes, liver disorders, arthritis, and skin diseases. In TCM, Tinospora is used to strengthen the immune system, improve digestion, and relieve pain.

However, it's important to note that while Tinospora has been used in traditional medicine for centuries, its efficacy and safety have not been fully established by scientific research. Therefore, it's recommended to consult with a healthcare professional before using any herbal remedies or supplements containing Tinospora.

Abietanes are a subclass of diterpenes, which are a type of organic compound consisting of four isoprene units and having the chemical formula C20H32. Diterpenes are synthesized by a wide variety of plants and some animals, and they have diverse biological activities.

Abietanes are characterized by a distinctive carbon skeleton that contains three six-membered rings arranged in a linear fashion, with the fourth ring being a five-membered ring. This particular structure is derived from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), a precursor to many diterpenes.

Abietanes are found in various natural sources, including pine resin, where they exist as resin acids such as abietic acid, pimaric acid, and isopimaric acid. These compounds have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities. However, more research is needed to fully understand the therapeutic potential of abietanes and to develop safe and effective treatments based on these compounds.

Neoprene is not a medical term, but it is a material that is used in some medical applications. Neoprene is a type of synthetic rubber that is known for its flexibility, durability, and resistance to heat, water, and chemicals. It is often used in the manufacture of medical devices such as braces, supports, and protective gear.

In medical terms, neoprene may be referred to as a component of a device or material used in medical applications. For example, a neoprene sleeve may be used as a compression garment for venous insufficiency or lymphedema management. Neoprene is also sometimes used in the manufacture of medical gloves and other protective equipment due to its resistance to chemicals and other substances.

However, it's important to note that some people may have allergic reactions to neoprene, causing skin irritation or other symptoms. Therefore, healthcare providers should consider patients' individual needs and potential allergies when selecting medical devices made of neoprene or other materials.

'Baccharis' is a genus of flowering plants in the daisy family, Asteraceae. It includes around 300 species, many of which are native to the Americas. Some common names for Baccharis plants include broomsedge, coyote brush, and silverling. These plants can vary in size and appearance, but they often have small, clustered flowers and narrow, linear leaves. While some species of Baccharis have medicinal uses, such as being used to treat skin conditions or wounds, it is important to note that the safety and effectiveness of these uses has not been thoroughly studied and should be approached with caution. Additionally, some species of Baccharis may contain toxic compounds and should not be ingested without consulting a medical professional.

Diterpenes, kaurane refers to a class of diterpenoids with a unique chemical structure called a kaurane skeleton. Diterpenes are a type of terpene, which are natural compounds derived from isoprene units. Kaurane diterpenes are characterized by a particular carbon skeleton consisting of five six-membered rings, including four cyclohexane rings and one cyclopentane ring.

Kaurane diterpenes can be found in various plants, including those used in traditional medicine. Some kaurane diterpenes have been reported to possess biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and cytotoxic effects. However, more research is needed to fully understand their therapeutic potential and safety profile.

Euphorbia is a genus of plants that belongs to the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae). It contains around 2,000 species of shrubs, trees, and herbs that are found worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. Many euphorbias are known for their milky sap, which can be toxic or irritating to the skin and mucous membranes. Some species of euphorbia are cultivated as ornamental plants due to their attractive flowers and foliage, while others have medicinal or industrial uses. However, it's important to note that some euphorbias can be invasive and harmful to local ecosystems, so care should be taken when handling or growing them.

'Caesalpinia' is a genus of flowering plants in the pea family, Fabaceae. It includes several species that are native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Some common names for plants in this genus include poison ivy, pencil cactus, and Brazilian rosewood.

Many species of Caesalpinia contain toxic compounds and can cause skin irritation or other adverse health effects if ingested or come into contact with the skin. For example, the sap of some species can cause a rash similar to poison ivy. It is important to use caution when handling these plants and to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms after coming into contact with them.

It is worth noting that 'Caesalpinia' is a taxonomic category used in the classification of plants, and it does not have a specific medical definition. If you are looking for information about a specific medical condition or treatment, I would recommend consulting a healthcare professional or searching for information from a reputable medical source.

"Salvia" is a genus of plants that includes over 900 species, with some commonly known as sage. However, in a medical context, the term "Salvia" often refers to Salvia divinorum, a specific species of this plant. Salvia divinorum, also known as sage of the diviners, is a psychoactive herb that can produce hallucinations and other altered mental states when ingested, usually by smoking or chewing the leaves. It contains a chemical called salvinorin A, which is believed to be responsible for its psychoactive effects.

It's important to note that while Salvia divinorum has been used in traditional healing practices in some cultures, it can also have dangerous side effects and its use is regulated in many parts of the world. It should only be used under medical supervision and with a clear understanding of its potential risks.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Verbenaceae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in botany, referring to the Verbena family of plants, which includes various species of trees, shrubs, and herbs. Some members of this family have been used in traditional medicine, but "Verbenaceae" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Chamaecyparis is a genus of evergreen coniferous trees in the family Cupressaceae. It includes several species commonly known as cypress or false cypress, which are native to eastern Asia and North America. These trees are characterized by their flattened sprays of scale-like leaves, small cones, and distinctive bark patterns. They are often grown as ornamental plants due to their attractive appearance and ability to thrive in a variety of climates.

There is no specific medical definition associated with Chamaecyparis, as it is not a term used in medicine. However, some compounds derived from these trees have been studied for their potential medicinal properties. For example, certain essential oils extracted from Chamaecyparis species have been found to have antimicrobial and insecticidal effects, although more research is needed to determine their safety and efficacy as treatments for human diseases.

'Cistus' is a term that refers to a genus of plants commonly known as rockroses. These plants are native to the Mediterranean region and have pink, white, or red flowers. They belong to the family Cistaceae. While 'Cistus' is a plant genus and not a medical term, extracts from some species of Cistus have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, such as treating skin conditions and wounds. However, it is important to note that the medical efficacy and safety of these uses have not been thoroughly studied or proven by modern scientific research.

Cupressaceae is a family of coniferous plants, also known as the cypress family. It includes a variety of genera such as *Cupressus* (cypress), *Juniperus* (juniper), *Thuja* (arborvitae or cedar), and *Chamaecyparis* (false cypress or Port Orford cedar). These plants are characterized by their small, scale-like leaves, and many produce cones that contain seeds. Some species in this family have economic importance as timber, ornamental plants, or for their essential oils.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plant Bark" is not a term with a specific medical definition. In general, the bark refers to the outermost covering of a tree or other plant, which serves as protection and provides a barrier against external threats. It is composed of layers including the inner bark (phloem), which transports nutrients throughout the plant, and the outer bark (periderm), which is made up of dead cells that form a protective layer.

While some plants or plant parts do have medicinal properties and are used in various forms of traditional or alternative medicine, "Plant Bark" by itself does not have any specific medical connotations. If you're referring to a specific type of plant bark with potential medicinal uses, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate response.

Orthosiphon is a genus of plants in the family Lamiaceae, also known as the mint or deadnettle family. The most common species is Orthosiphon stamineus, also known as Cat's Whiskers or Java Tea. This plant is native to Southeast Asia and some parts of Australia.

In a medical context, Orthosiphon stamineus is used in traditional medicine for its diuretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial properties. The leaves and stems of the plant are dried and prepared as an herbal infusion or decoction to treat various health conditions such as kidney stones, urinary tract infections, and high blood pressure. However, it is important to note that the scientific evidence supporting these claims is limited, and more research is needed to establish its safety and efficacy.

Thymelaeaceae is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in botany. It refers to a family of flowering plants that includes around 50 genera and about 800 species. Some members of this family have been used in traditional medicine, but it's important to note that the use of specific plant species for medicinal purposes should be under the guidance of healthcare professionals, as they can provide information on safe usage, potential interactions with other medications, and appropriate dosages.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mikania" is not a medical term. It is actually the name of a genus of plants in the family Asteraceae, also known as the daisy family. The most well-known species is Mikania micrantha, which is native to Central and South America but has become an invasive weed in many other parts of the world, including Southeast Asia, Africa, and the Pacific Islands. It is often referred to by the common name "climbing hempvine" or "mile-a-minute weed."

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I'd be happy to try to help answer those for you!

A plant extract is a preparation containing chemical constituents that have been extracted from a plant using a solvent. The resulting extract may contain a single compound or a mixture of several compounds, depending on the extraction process and the specific plant material used. These extracts are often used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food and beverage, due to their potential therapeutic or beneficial properties. The composition of plant extracts can vary widely, and it is important to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy before use in any application.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

Aerial parts of plants refer to the above-ground portions of a plant, including leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits. These parts are often used in medicine, either in their entirety or as isolated extracts, to take advantage of their medicinal properties. The specific components of aerial parts that are used in medicine can vary depending on the plant species and the desired therapeutic effects. For example, the leaves of some plants may contain active compounds that have anti-inflammatory or analgesic properties, while the flowers of others may be rich in antioxidants or compounds with sedative effects. In general, aerial parts of plants are used in herbal medicine to treat a wide range of conditions, including respiratory, digestive, and nervous system disorders, as well as skin conditions and infections.

"Thuja" is a botanical term for a genus of evergreen trees and shrubs, also known as arborvitae or western red cedar. It belongs to the family Cupressaceae. While it has some traditional medicinal uses, there isn't a widely accepted medical definition for "Thuja" in modern medicine.

Historically, preparations made from Thuja occidentalis (eastern white cedar) have been used in alternative and traditional medicine, such as homeopathy. The leaves and twigs are often used to make teas, tinctures, or essential oils. However, it's important to note that the use of Thuja for medicinal purposes can have potential side effects and toxicities, and its effectiveness is not always supported by scientific evidence. Always consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new treatment.

Anthozoa is a major class of marine animals, which are exclusively aquatic and almost entirely restricted to shallow waters. They are classified within the phylum Cnidaria, which also includes corals, jellyfish, sea anemones, and hydroids. Anthozoans are characterized by their lack of medusa stage in their life cycle, as they exist solely as polyps.

This class is divided into two main subclasses: Hexacorallia (also known as Zoantharia) and Octocorallia (also known as Alcyonaria). The primary differences between these subclasses lie in the structure of their polyps and the composition of their skeletons.

1. Hexacorallia: These are commonly referred to as 'stony' or 'hard' corals, due to their calcium carbonate-based skeletons. They have a simple polyp structure with six-fold symmetry (hence the name Hexacorallia), featuring 6 tentacles around the mouth opening. Examples of Hexacorallia include reef-building corals, sea fans, and black corals.
2. Octocorallia: These are also called 'soft' corals or 'leather' corals because they lack a calcium carbonate skeleton. Instead, their supporting structures consist of proteins and other organic compounds. Octocorallia polyps exhibit eight-fold symmetry (hence the name Octocorallia), with eight tentacles around the mouth opening. Examples of Octocorallia include sea fans, sea whips, and blue corals.

Anthozoa species are primarily found in tropical and subtropical oceans, but some can be found in colder, deeper waters as well. They play a crucial role in marine ecosystems by providing habitats and shelter for various other marine organisms, particularly on coral reefs. Additionally, they contribute to the formation of limestone deposits through their calcium carbonate-based skeletons.

"Cryptomeria" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is actually the scientific name for a type of evergreen tree, also known as Japanese cedar. In some cases, Cryptomeria pollen may cause allergic reactions in susceptible individuals, leading to symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, and itchy eyes. However, it is not a medical condition itself.

"Viburnum" is not a medical term, but a genus of shrubs and small trees that belong to the Adoxaceae family. These plants are commonly known as "viburnums," and they have various uses in horticulture due to their attractive flowers, fruits, and foliage.

While there may be some medicinal uses for certain species of Viburnum, it is not a term that would typically appear in a medical context or definition. If you're looking for information about the medicinal properties of specific plants within the Viburnum genus, I would recommend consulting a reliable source on herbal medicine or speaking with a healthcare professional who has expertise in this area.

Sesquiterpenes are a class of terpenes, which are large and diverse group of naturally occurring organic compounds derived from isoprene, a five-carbon molecule. Sesquiterpenes are composed of three isoprene units, making them 15-carbon structures. They are synthesized in plants, fungi, and some insects, and can be found in various essential oils, resins, and other natural products.

Guaiane is a subclass of sesquiterpenes characterized by a particular carbon skeleton structure. Guaiane-type sesquiterpenes contain a unique bicyclic ring system with a five-membered ring fused to a seven-membered ring. This class of compounds includes various natural products, some of which have been found to exhibit biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic effects.

Examples of guaiane sesquiterpenes include:

1. Guaiol: A compound found in the wood of the guaiacum tree, it has been used in traditional medicine for its anti-inflammatory properties.
2. Bulnesin: A compound isolated from the bulnesia sarmientoi tree, it has shown potential as an anticancer agent.
3. Elephantopusin: A compound found in elephantopus mollis, it has been studied for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

It is important to note that while these compounds have demonstrated biological activities, further research is necessary to fully understand their mechanisms of action and potential therapeutic applications.

"Casearia" is a genus of flowering plants in the family Salicaceae, which includes around 150-200 species. These plants are commonly known as shrubs or small trees and are native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world. The leaves of Casearia plants are typically simple and opposite, with serrated or entire margins. The flowers are small and greenish-white, and the fruit is a drupe that contains one or two seeds.

Some species of Casearia have been used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments, such as skin conditions, fever, and diarrhea. However, it's important to note that the safety and efficacy of using these plants for medicinal purposes have not been thoroughly studied or proven through scientific research. Therefore, it is not recommended to use any plant or herbal remedy without consulting a qualified healthcare professional first.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Scoparia" is not a recognized medical term in human or veterinary medicine. It is most likely a botanical name, as Scoparia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Plantaginaceae. If you have a specific medical context in which this term was used, I would be happy to help further if I can.

Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds produced by a variety of plants, including cannabis. They are responsible for the distinctive aromas and flavors found in different strains of cannabis. Terpenes have been found to have various therapeutic benefits, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antimicrobial properties. Some terpenes may also enhance the psychoactive effects of THC, the main psychoactive compound in cannabis. It's important to note that more research is needed to fully understand the potential medical benefits and risks associated with terpenes.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that provides information about the biochemical composition of tissues, including their metabolic state. It is often used in conjunction with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to analyze various metabolites within body tissues, such as the brain, heart, liver, and muscles.

During MRS, a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer are used to produce detailed images and data about the concentration of specific metabolites in the targeted tissue or organ. This technique can help detect abnormalities related to energy metabolism, neurotransmitter levels, pH balance, and other biochemical processes, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases.

There are different types of MRS, such as Proton (^1^H) MRS, Phosphorus-31 (^31^P) MRS, and Carbon-13 (^13^C) MRS, each focusing on specific elements or metabolites within the body. The choice of MRS technique depends on the clinical question being addressed and the type of information needed for diagnosis or monitoring purposes.

'Salvia officinalis', also known as garden sage or common sage, is not a medical condition but an herb that has been used in traditional medicine. Here's the botanical definition:

Salvia officinalis, commonly known as sage, garden sage, or common sage, is a perennial, evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers. It belongs to the Lamiaceae family, also known as the mint family. The plant is native to the Mediterranean region and has been cultivated throughout the world for its aromatic leaves, which are used in cooking, cosmetics, and medicinal preparations.

In traditional medicine, sage leaves have been used to treat various conditions, such as sore throats, coughs, colds, and digestive issues. However, it is essential to note that the effectiveness of sage for these uses has not been thoroughly studied in clinical trials, and its use should not replace conventional medical care. Always consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new treatment or therapy.

Medicinal plants are defined as those plants that contain naturally occurring chemical compounds which can be used for therapeutic purposes, either directly or indirectly. These plants have been used for centuries in various traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Chinese medicine, and Native American medicine, to prevent or treat various health conditions.

Medicinal plants contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, including alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, and saponins, among others. These compounds have been found to possess various pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities.

Medicinal plants can be used in various forms, including whole plant material, extracts, essential oils, and isolated compounds. They can be administered through different routes, such as oral, topical, or respiratory, depending on the desired therapeutic effect.

It is important to note that while medicinal plants have been used safely and effectively for centuries, they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Some medicinal plants can interact with prescription medications or have adverse effects if used inappropriately.

In a medical context, "resins, plant" refer to the sticky, often aromatic substances produced by certain plants. These resins are typically composed of a mixture of volatile oils, terpenes, and rosin acids. They may be present in various parts of the plant, including leaves, stems, and roots, and are often found in specialized structures such as glands or ducts.

Plant resins have been used for centuries in traditional medicine and other applications. Some resins have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, or analgesic properties and have been used to treat a variety of ailments, including skin conditions, respiratory infections, and pain.

Examples of plant resins with medicinal uses include:

* Frankincense (Boswellia spp.) resin has been used in traditional medicine to treat inflammation, arthritis, and asthma.
* Myrrh (Commiphora spp.) resin has been used as an antiseptic, astringent, and anti-inflammatory agent.
* Pine resin has been used topically for its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties.

It's important to note that while some plant resins have demonstrated medicinal benefits, they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Some resins can have adverse effects or interact with medications, and it's essential to ensure their safe and effective use.

Scrophulariaceae is a family of plants commonly known as the Figwort or Snapdragon family. It was once a large and diverse group, but many of its members have been reclassified into different families in recent years based on molecular evidence. The family still includes a number of well-known garden plants such as foxgloves (Digitalis), snapdragons (Antirrhinum), and penstemons (Penstemon).

The plants in Scrophulariaceae are typically herbaceous, although some are shrubs or small trees. They are characterized by their two-lipped flowers, with the upper lip usually forming a hood and the lower lip often having three lobes. The stamens and style are often enclosed within the flower and only emerge when it is fully open.

Scrophulariaceae has been reported to contain various chemical compounds with potential medicinal properties, such as cardiac glycosides in Digitalis species, which have been used to treat heart conditions. However, it's important to note that the use of these plants for medicinal purposes should only be done under the guidance and supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, as they can also contain toxic compounds that may cause harm if not used correctly.

Phaeophyta is a taxonomic division that refers to a group of complex, multicellular brown algae found in marine environments. These algae are characterized by their pigmentation, which includes fucoxanthin, chlorophyll-a, and chlorophyll-c, giving them a brown color. They have diverse morphology, ranging from simple thread-like forms to large seaweeds.

Phaeophyta species are primarily found in cold, nutrient-rich waters and play an essential role in marine ecosystems as primary producers and habitats for various marine organisms. Some examples of Phaeophyta include kelps, rockweed, and bladderwrack. It's worth noting that the classification and nomenclature of algae are continually evolving, so different sources might use slightly different terminology or categorization.

"Fritillaria" is a genus of plants that includes around 140 species, many of which have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes. In a medical context, "Fritillaria" usually refers to the bulbs of certain Fritillaria species, such as Fritillaria cirrhosa and Fritillaria thunbergii, which are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM).

In TCM, Fritillaria bulbs are known as "Beimu" or "Chuanbei," and they have been used to treat respiratory conditions such as coughs, bronchitis, and asthma. The active components of Fritillaria include alkaloids, steroidal saponins, and polysaccharides, which are believed to have anti-inflammatory, expectorant, and antitussive effects.

However, it's important to note that the use of Fritillaria in medicine is not well-studied in Western medicine, and its effectiveness and safety are not established. Moreover, some Fritillaria species contain toxic compounds, so it's essential to consult a healthcare professional before using any Fritillaria products for medicinal purposes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Paraguay" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in the central part of South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Bolivia to the north and west, and Brazil to the east and northeast. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

Vitex, also known as chasteberry or Vitex agnus-castus, is not a medical term but a common herbal supplement. It is derived from the fruit of the Vitex agnus-castus tree, which is native to the Mediterranean region and parts of Asia.

The medical community has studied Vitex for its potential effects on various conditions, including premenstrual syndrome (PMS), menopausal symptoms, and irregular menstrual cycles. However, it's essential to note that the evidence supporting its use is mixed, and more research is needed to confirm its effectiveness and safety.

Vitex is thought to have dopamine-like effects on the hypothalamus, which may help regulate hormonal imbalances in some women. However, it can interact with other medications and has potential side effects, so it's crucial to consult a healthcare provider before taking Vitex or any herbal supplement.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hepatophyta" is not a valid medical or scientific term in modern usage. It appears to be a combination of the Greek word "hepar" meaning "liver" and the suffix "-phyta" which is used to denote a plant or group of plants in taxonomy. However, it is not a term that is recognized or used in modern biology or medicine.

It's possible that you may be thinking of "Hepatica," which is a genus of flowering plants in the family Ranunculaceae. These plants are also known as liverworts, although they should not be confused with actual liverworts, which are non-vascular plants in the division Marchantiophyta.

If you have any further questions or if there is another term you would like me to define, please let me know!

"Larix" is not a medical term. It is the genus name for a group of trees commonly known as larches, which belong to the family Pinaceae. These deciduous conifers are native to the cooler temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. They are known for their needle-like leaves and cone-bearing fruits.

While not directly related to human health or medicine, certain compounds derived from plants in the Larix genus have been studied for potential medicinal properties. For example, extracts from larch bark have been investigated for their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and wound-healing effects. However, it is important to note that these studies are still in the preliminary stages, and more research is needed before any definitive conclusions can be drawn about the medicinal applications of Larix species.

"Aristolochia" is a genus of flowering plants in the family Aristolochiaceae, also known as birthworts. These plants are characterized by their unique, pipe-shaped flowers. Some species of Aristolochia contain aristolochic acids, which have been found to be nephrotoxic and carcinogenic. Because of this, the use of these plants in medicinal preparations is generally discouraged or restricted.

Molecular conformation, also known as spatial arrangement or configuration, refers to the specific three-dimensional shape and orientation of atoms that make up a molecule. It describes the precise manner in which bonds between atoms are arranged around a molecular framework, taking into account factors such as bond lengths, bond angles, and torsional angles.

Conformational isomers, or conformers, are different spatial arrangements of the same molecule that can interconvert without breaking chemical bonds. These isomers may have varying energies, stability, and reactivity, which can significantly impact a molecule's biological activity and function. Understanding molecular conformation is crucial in fields such as drug design, where small changes in conformation can lead to substantial differences in how a drug interacts with its target.

"Rosmarinus" is the genus name for rosemary, a woody herb that belongs to the mint family (Lamiaceae). The most common species is Rosmarinus officinalis. It is native to the Mediterranean region and is widely used in cooking, cosmetics, and traditional medicine. In a medical context, "Rosmarinus" would refer to the medicinal properties or uses of the rosemary plant.

Asteraceae is a family of flowering plants commonly known as the daisy family or sunflower family. It is one of the largest and most diverse families of vascular plants, with over 1,900 genera and 32,000 species. The family includes a wide variety of plants, ranging from annual and perennial herbs to shrubs and trees.

The defining characteristic of Asteraceae is the presence of a unique type of inflorescence called a capitulum, which resembles a single flower but is actually composed of many small flowers (florets) arranged in a dense head. The florets are typically bisexual, with both male and female reproductive structures, and are radially symmetrical.

Asteraceae includes many economically important plants, such as sunflowers, daisies, artichokes, lettuce, chicory, and ragweed. Some species of Asteraceae are also used in traditional medicine and have been found to contain bioactive compounds with potential therapeutic uses.

It's worth noting that the taxonomy of this family has undergone significant revisions in recent years, and some genera and species have been moved to other families or renamed.

Fast Atom Bombardment (FAB) Mass Spectrometry is a technique used for determining the mass of ions in a sample. In FAB-MS, the sample is mixed with a matrix material and then bombarded with a beam of fast atoms, usually xenon or cesium. This bombardment leads to the formation of ions from the sample which can then be detected and measured using a mass analyzer. The resulting mass spectrum provides information about the molecular weight and structure of the sample molecules. FAB-MS is particularly useful for the analysis of large, thermally labile, or polar molecules that may not ionize well by other methods.

The term "Croton" is most commonly used to refer to a genus of flowering plants in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae), which includes over 700 species. These plants are native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, with many having colorful and distinctive leaves or flowers.

However, "Croton" is not a medical term and does not have a specific definition in the context of medicine. If you have any questions about a medical condition or treatment that involves the use of the term "Croton," it would be best to consult with a healthcare professional for clarification.

Coffee is defined in medical terms as a beverage prepared from the roasted seeds of the Coffea plant. It contains caffeine, a stimulant that can help increase alertness, improve mood, and boost mental and physical performance. Coffee also contains antioxidants and other bioactive compounds that may have health benefits. However, excessive consumption of coffee can lead to side effects such as insomnia, nervousness, restlessness, and rapid heart rate. It's important to consume coffee in moderation and be aware of its potential interactions with medications and medical conditions.

Spectrophotometry, Infrared is a scientific analytical technique used to measure the absorption or transmission of infrared light by a sample. It involves the use of an infrared spectrophotometer, which directs infrared radiation through a sample and measures the intensity of the radiation that is transmitted or absorbed by the sample at different wavelengths within the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Infrared spectroscopy can be used to identify and quantify functional groups and chemical bonds present in a sample, as well as to study the molecular structure and composition of materials. The resulting infrared spectrum provides a unique "fingerprint" of the sample, which can be compared with reference spectra to aid in identification and characterization.

Infrared spectrophotometry is widely used in various fields such as chemistry, biology, pharmaceuticals, forensics, and materials science for qualitative and quantitative analysis of samples.

Clerodane diterpenes, sometimes referred to as clerodane diterpenoids, are a large group of secondary metabolites that have ... Neo-clerodane diterpenes can have hallucinogenic properties such as salvinorin A, a trans-neoclerodane diterpene from Salvia ... The clerodane diterpenes are classified into four groups trans-cis (TC), trans-trans (TT), cis-cis (CC), and cis-trans (TC) ... Clerodane+diterpenes at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (Articles needing additional ...
2005) Cytotoxic clerodane diterpenes from Glossocarya calcicola. Phytochemistry 66 ( 24): 2844-2850 Terry, I, G Walter, C Moore ...
4, p. 193 (1971). P. Y. Malakov, G. Y. Papanov, N. M. Mollov, Montanin-D, a New Furanoid Diterpene of Clerodane Type from ... Mollov on the study of diterpene lactones in plants of the genus Teucrium (germander). These studies were carried out mainly at ... He studied the chemical composition of series of Bulgarian plants for alkaloids and diterpene lactones. The department " ...
Sesquiterpenes such as picrotoxin and diterpenes such as clerodane diterpene are also present, while the triterpenes are scarce ...
"Evaluation of the antiprotozoal activity of neo-clerodane type diterpenes from Salvia polystachya against Entamoeba histolytica ... Antiprotozoal Activity of Neo-Clerodane Type Diterpenes from Salvia Polystachya". Phytotherapy Research. 24 (5): 662-665. doi: ... From the aerial parts of Salvia polystachya five neo-clerodane diterpenoids, polystachynes A-E, have been isolated. The ... Polystachynes A-E, five cis-neo-clerodane diterpenoids from Salvia polystachya. Phytochemistry (2000). 53, 103-109 v t e ( ...
... related clerodane diterpenoids,labdane diterpenes and more. In 2022, the solved structure of Tas2r46 was published in the ...
Part III (1991) A clerodane diterpene and other constituents of Croton megalocarpus (1989) A Pharmacological Investigation of ... Its Antimicrobial Activity and Cardiovascular Effects (1989) Chiromodin a Novel Clerodane-Type Diterpene from Croton ...
... diterpenes, abietane MeSH D02.455.849.291.228 - diterpenes, clerodane MeSH D02.455.849.291.239 - diterpenes, kaurane MeSH ... diterpenes MeSH D02.455.849.291.037 - aconitine MeSH D02.455.849.291.075 - aphidicolin MeSH D02.455.849.291.162 - atractyloside ...
Valdés LJ, Chang HM, Visger DC, Koreeda M (November 2001). "Salvinorin C, a new neoclerodane diterpene from a bioactive ... SdCPS2 catalyzes the first committed reaction in the biosynthesis of salvinorin A by producing its characteristic clerodane ... Ortega A, Blount JF, Manchard PD (1982). "Salvinorin, a new trans-neoclerodane diterpene from Salvia divinorum (Labiatae)". ... January 2006). "Synthetic studies of neoclerodane diterpenes from Salvia divinorum: semisynthesis of salvinicins A and B and ...
Clerodane diterpenes, sometimes referred to as clerodane diterpenoids, are a large group of secondary metabolites that have ... Neo-clerodane diterpenes can have hallucinogenic properties such as salvinorin A, a trans-neoclerodane diterpene from Salvia ... The clerodane diterpenes are classified into four groups trans-cis (TC), trans-trans (TT), cis-cis (CC), and cis-trans (TC) ... Clerodane+diterpenes at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (Articles needing additional ...
ANTIFUNGAL CLERODANE DITERPENES FROM MACARANGA MONANDRA (L) MUELL. ET ARG. (EUPHORBIACEAE) (Peer Reviewed Journal) (3-Oct-03) ...
Hepatotoxicity in cattle associated with Salvia reflexa diterpenes, including 7-hydroxyrhyacophiline, a new seco-clerodane ... Hepatotoxicity in cattle associated with Salvia reflexa diterpenes, including 7-hydroxyrhyacophiline, a new seco-clerodane ... diterpene - (Peer Reviewed Journal) Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Stegelmeier, B.L., Stonecipher, C.A. 2021. ... diterpene. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 69(4):1251-1258. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c06390. ...
2019) Diterpene Synthase-Catalyzed Biosynthesis of Distinct Clerodane Stereoisomers. Chembiochem 20(1), 111-117. 10.1002/cbic. ... 2018) Functional Diversity of Diterpene Synthases in the Biofuel Crop Switchgrass. Plant Physiol 178(1), 54-71. 10.1104/pp. ... 2018) Functional Characterization of Two Class II Diterpene Synthases Indicates Additional Specialized Diterpenoid Pathways in ...
From the bark the clerodane diterpene chiromodine has been isolated as a major constituent, together with lupeol, betulin, beta ...
Clerodane Diterpenes 17% * Flavonoids 16% * Acids 15% * Catalytic Domain 15% * Gene Expression 15% ...
... led to the isolation of six new clerodane diterpenes (1-6) and eight known compounds. The structures of 1-6 [12(S),16xi- ...
Furano diterpene, diterpenoid furanolactone tinosporidine, columbin and b-sitosterol. Bitter principles are chasmanthin and ... Also contains alkaloids tinosporine, tinosporide, tinosporaside, cordifolide, cordifol, heptacosanol, clerodane. ...
Furano diterpene, diterpenoid furanolactone tinosporidine, columbin and b-sitosterol. Bitter principles are chasmanthin and ... Also contains alkaloids tinosporine, tinosporide, tinosporaside, cordifolide, cordifol, heptacosanol, clerodane. ...
Clerodane diterpenes, such as elongatolides C & E and solidagolactones I-VII;. *Saponins derived from polygalic acid ...
"Diterpenes, Abietane" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Diterpenes, Abietane" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Diterpenes, Abietane" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Diterpenes, Abietane". ...
Diversity on diterpene composition in two populations of parentucellia viscosa: Labdane and clerodane chemotypes Natural ... Abietane diterpenes from the cones of Cedrus atlantica Phytochemistry, Vol. 66, Núm. 1, pp. 105-111 ...
Fragmentation study of clerodane diterpenes from Casearia species by tandem mass spectrometry (quadrupole time-of-flight and ... RATIONALE: Clerodane-type diterpenes from Casearia species show important pharmacological activites such as antitumor, ... sequential neutral losses of esters related to the R1 to R5 substituents linked to the nucleus of the clerodane diterpenes. The ... There are several mass spectrometry (MS)-based methods for identification of diterpenes; however, there is still a lack of MS ...
A clerodane diterpene from Polyalthia longifolia as a modifying agent of the resistance of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus ...
... clerodane furano diterpene, diterpenoid furanolactone tinosporidine, columbin and β-sitosterol.. Pharmacological Action: ...
Identification of diterpene biosynthetic gene clusters and functional analysis of labdane-related diterpene cyclases in ... The cyclization of GGPP into the clerodane skeleton catalyzed by the cyclase appears to involve Si-face specific protonation, ... Functional analysis of eubacterial diterpene cyclases responsible for biosynthesis of a diterpene antibiotic, terpentecin ... biformene and novel bicyclic diterpenes by the enzymatic reactions of labdane- and halimane-type diterpene diphosphates ...
Diterpenes, Kaurane. Diterpenos de Kaurano. Diterpenos de Clerodano. Diterpenes, Clerodane. Diterpenos de Clerodano. ... Diterpenes, Abietane. Diterpenos de Abietano. Diterpenos de Caurano. ...
Diterpenes, Abietane. Diterpenos de Abietano. Diterpenos de Clerodano. Diterpenes, Clerodane. Diterpenos de Clerodano. ...
Diterpenes, Abietane. Diterpenos de Abietano. Diterpenos de Clerodano. Diterpenes, Clerodane. Diterpenos de Clerodano. ...
Diterpenes, Abietane. Diterpenos de Abietano. Diterpenos de Clerodano. Diterpenes, Clerodane. Diterpenos de Clerodano. ...
Diterpenes, Clerodane. Diterpenos de Clerodano. Diterpenos de Clerodano. Diterpenes, Kaurane. Diterpenos de Caurano. Diterpenos ... Diterpenes, Abietane. Diterpenos de Abietano. Diterpenos de Abietano. ...
Diterpenes, Kaurane. Diterpenos de Kaurano. Diterpenos de Clerodano. Diterpenes, Clerodane. Diterpenos de Clerodano. ... Diterpenes, Abietane. Diterpenos de Abietano. Diterpenos de Caurano. ...
Diterpenes, Kaurane. Diterpenos de Kaurano. Diterpenos de Clerodano. Diterpenes, Clerodane. Diterpenos de Clerodano. ... Diterpenes, Abietane. Diterpenos de Abietano. Diterpenos de Caurano. ...
Diterpenes, Clerodane. Diterpenos de Clerodano. Diterpenos de Clerodano. Diterpenes, Kaurane. Diterpenos de Caurano. Diterpenos ... Diterpenes, Abietane. Diterpenos de Abietano. Diterpenos de Abietano. ...
Diterpenes, Abietane. Diterpenos de Abietano. Diterpenos de Clerodano. Diterpenes, Clerodane. Diterpenos de Clerodano. ...
Diterpenes, Clerodane. Diterpenos de Clerodano. Diterpenos de Clerodano. Diterpenes, Kaurane. Diterpenos de Caurano. Diterpenos ... Diterpenes, Abietane. Diterpenos de Abietano. Diterpenos de Abietano. ...
Diterpenes, Abietane. Diterpenos de Abietano. Diterpenos de Clerodano. Diterpenes, Clerodane. Diterpenos de Clerodano. ...
Diterpenes, Clerodane. Diterpenos de Clerodano. Diterpenos de Clerodano. Diterpenes, Kaurane. Diterpenos de Caurano. Diterpenos ... Diterpenes, Abietane. Diterpenos de Abietano. Diterpenos de Abietano. ...
Diterpenes, Clerodane. Diterpenos de Clerodano. Diterpenos de Clerodano. Diterpenes, Kaurane. Diterpenos de Caurano. Diterpenos ... Diterpenes, Abietane. Diterpenos de Abietano. Diterpenos de Abietano. ...
Clerodane-type Diterpene Glycosides from Dicranopteris pedata. 期刊论文. Natural products and bioprospecting, 2021, 卷号: 11, 期号: 5, ...
  • They are structurally related to the bicyclic labdane diterpenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diterpenes, Abietane" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
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  • Clerodane diterpenes, sometimes referred to as clerodane diterpenoids, are a large group of secondary metabolites that have been isolated from several hundreds of different plant species, as well as fungi, bacteria and marine sponges. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Neo-clerodane diterpenes can have hallucinogenic properties such as salvinorin A, a trans-neoclerodane diterpene from Salvia divinorum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatotoxicity in cattle associated with Salvia reflexa diterpenes, including 7-hydroxyrhyacophiline, a new seco-clerodane diterpene. (usda.gov)
  • Neo-clerodane diterpenoid, a new metalloprotease snake venom inhibitor from Baccharis trimera (Asteraceae): anti-proteolytic and anti-hemorrhagic properties. (webmd.com)
  • 20. A labdane diterpene glucoside from the rhizomes of Curcuma mangga. (nih.gov)
  • 2022. Clerodane diterpene induces apoptosis/anoikis and suppresses migration and invasion of human bladder cancer cells through the histone deacetylases, integrin-focal adhesion kinase, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 signalling pathways. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • 9. Cytotoxic clerodane diterpenes from Zuelania guidonia. (nih.gov)
  • Twelve natural neo-clerodane diterpenes, isolated from three Scutellaria (Labiatae) species, were tested for cytotoxicity on two cell lines, from human tumors of the lung designated as H1299 and normal cells from a navel string (HUVEC), using the MTT (3-/4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl/-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) method. (bas.bg)