Diterpenes: Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.Diterpenes, Abietane: A group of DITERPENES cyclized into 3-ring PHENANTHRENES.Diterpenes, Clerodane: A group of DITERPENES cyclized into 2-rings with a side-chain.Diterpenes, Kaurane: A group of DITERPENES cyclized into four rings.Euphorbia: A large plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. They have a milky sap and a female flower consisting of a single pistil, surrounded by numerous male flowers of one stamen each. Euphorbia hirta is rarely called milkweed but that name is normally used for ASCLEPIAS.Caesalpinia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The common name of "Bird-Of-Paradise" is also used for other plants such as Heliconia (HELICONIACEAE) and Strelitzia (STRELITZIACEAE) and some birds. The common name of "Cat's-Claw" is more often used with UNCARIA. The common name of "Pernambuco" also refers to a state in Brazil. Furanoditerpenoid lactones and caesalpin are produced by members of this genus.Salvia: A genus in the mint family (LAMIACEAE).Verbenaceae: A plant family of the order Lamiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are opposite or whorled. The flowers are aggregated in spikes, clusters, or racemes.Chamaecyparis: A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE which should not be confused with other cedar and cypress trees of THUJA or CUPRESSUS genera.Cistus: A plant genus of the family CISTACEAE. The common name of rock rose is also sometimes used with the closely related Helianthemum genus (CISTACEAE).Cupressaceae: A plant family of the order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta (conifers). They are mainly resinous, aromatic evergreen trees.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Orthosiphon: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that contains pimarane-type diterpenes. Several species of Orthosiphon are also called Java tea.Polyalthia: A plant genus of the family ANNONACEAE. Members contain 8-oxopolyalthiaine.Thymelaeaceae: A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mainly trees and shrubs. Many members contain mucilage and COUMARINS.Mikania: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain scandenolide (a sesquiterpene lactone) and germacranolides.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Thuja: A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Cryptomeria: A plant genus of the family TAXODIACEAE. Its POLLEN is one of the major ALLERGENS.Viburnum: A plant genus in the family CAPRIFOLIACEAE. The common name derives from its traditional use for menstrual cramps. It is a source of viburnine, valerianic acid, vibsanin, and ursolic acid. Note that true cranberry is VACCINIUM MACROCARPON.Sesquiterpenes, Guaiane: SESQUITERPENES cyclized into two adjoining rings, one being 7-carbons and the other is 5-carbons.Casearia: A plant genus of the family FLACOURTIACEAE. Members contain casearins which are clerodane type DITERPENES.Scoparia: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. Members contain thyrsiflorin and other scopadulane (labdane) type DITERPENES.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Salvia officinalis: A plant species of the Salvia genus known as a spice and medicinal plant.Menispermaceae: A plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members are mostly vines and shrubs and they contain isoquinoline alkaloids, some of which have been used as arrow poisons.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Resins, Plant: Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Scrophulariaceae: The figwort plant family of the order Lamiales. The family is characterized by bisexual flowers with tubular corollas (fused petals) that are bilaterally symmetrical (two-lips) and have four stamens in most, two of which are usually shorter.Phaeophyta: A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.Fritillaria: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members of this genus produce imperialine, a steroidal alkaloid which acts at muscarinic receptors.ParaguayVitex: A genus of trees in the Lamiaceae family containing assorted flavonoids with possible analgesic and antineoplastic properties. The fruit of these trees is used in herbal preparations.Hepatophyta: A plant division. They are simple plants that lack vascular tissue and possess rudimentary rootlike organs (rhizoids). Like MOSSES, liverworts have alternation of generations between haploid gamete-bearing forms (gametophytes) and diploid spore-bearing forms (sporophytes).Larix: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta.Aristolochia: A plant genus of the family ARISTOLOCHIACEAE. Species of this genus have been used in traditional medicine but they contain aristolochic acid which is associated with nephropathy. These are sometimes called 'snakeroot' but that name is also used with a number of other plants such as POLYGALA; SANICULA; ASARUM; ARISTOLOCHIA; AGERATINA; and others.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Rosmarinus: A plant genus of the LAMIACEAE family. It is known as a spice and medicinal plant.Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Croton: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE. The common name of dragon's blood is also used for DRACAENA and Daemonorops (ARECACEAE). Croton tiglium is the source of CROTON OIL.Coffee: A beverage made from ground COFFEA beans (SEEDS) infused in hot water. It generally contains CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE unless it is decaffeinated.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.SesquiterpenesPlant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Indonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.PhenanthrenesStereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Alkyl and Aryl Transferases: A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.

Antagonistic effects of extract from leaves of ginkgo biloba on glutamate neurotoxicity. (1/2175)

AIM: To determine whether the extract of leaves of Ginkgo biloba L (EGb) and several active constituents of EGb have protective effects against glutamate (Glu)-induced neuronal damage. METHODS: Microscopy and image analysis of nucleus areas in the arcuate nuclei (AN) of mice were made. The neuronal viability in primary cultures from mouse cerebral cortex was assessed using MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] staining and the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) of single neuron was measured using Fura-2. RESULTS: EGb (2.5 mg.L-1) and its constituent ginkgolide B (Gin B, 2 mg.L-1) protected the neuronal viability against Glu-induced injury, and prevented the Glu-induced elevation in [Ca2+]i. EGb (3-10 mg.kg-1) attenuated the decrease of nucleus areas in arcuate nuclei induced by Glu (1 g.kg-1, s.c.). CONCLUSION: EGb and Gin B prevent neurons from Glu neurotoxicity through reduction of the rise in [Ca2+]i.  (+info)

A common pharmacophore for cytotoxic natural products that stabilize microtubules. (2/2175)

Taxol (paclitaxel), a complex diterpene obtained from the Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia, is arguably the most important new drug in cancer chemotherapy. The mechanism of cytotoxic action for paclitaxel-i.e., the stabilization of microtubules leading to mitotic arrest-is now shared by four recently identified natural products, eleutherobin, epothilones A and B, and discodermolide. Their ability to competitively inhibit [3H]paclitaxel binding to microtubules strongly suggests the existence of a common binding site. Recently, we have developed nonaromatic analogues of paclitaxel that maintain high cytotoxicity and tubulin binding (e.g., nonataxel). We now propose a common pharmacophore that unites paclitaxel, nonataxel, the epothilones, eleutherobin, and discodermolide, and rationalizes the extensive structure-activity relationship data pertinent to these compounds. Insights from the common pharmacophore have enabled the development of a hybrid construct with demonstrated cytotoxic and tubulin-binding activity.  (+info)

On the complexities of ceramide changes in cells undergoing apoptosis: lack of evidence for a second messenger function in apoptotic induction. (3/2175)

The generation of cellular ceramides as a second messenger has been implicated as a regulatory and required step for the induction of apoptosis. In this study, we have applied a recently developed mass spectrometric technique to the determination of changes in physiological ceramide levels during apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor plus cycloheximide in U937 cells and the chemical agents anisomycin or geranylgeraniol in HL-60 cells. The mass spectrometric method has significant advantages over traditional methods for ceramide quantitation in that it determines the relative abundance of all ceramide species present in complex biological lipid mixtures individually and simultaneously. We quantitiated ceramides ranging from C14 to C26, finding that their basal levels and relative distribution varied significantly, both within and between different cell types. However, we were not able to detect any significant changes in either total ceramide content or species distribution until 1 h or more post-stimulation with any of these treatments, by which time the cells were in an advanced stage of apoptosis. Differences were also seen between all three treatments in the ceramide species distribution observed in these late stages of apoptosis. These data indicate that in vivo ceramide generation occurs as a consequence of apoptosis rather than as an essential second messenger involved in its induction. They also pose new questions about the potential roles that certain ceramide species may play in the late stages of apoptosis, and demonstrate a clear need to utilize the resolving power of mass spectrometry-based assays in any future investigations into the biological function of ceramides.  (+info)

Inhibition of GABA-gated chloride channels by 12,14-dichlorodehydroabietic acid in mammalian brain. (4/2175)

1. 12,14-dichlorodehydroabietic acid (12,14-Cl2DHA) reduced GABA-stimulated uptake of 36Cl- into mouse brain synaptoneurosomes suggesting inhibition of mammalian GABA(A) receptor function. 2. 12,14-Cl2DHA did not affect the binding of [3H]-muscimol to brain membranes but displaced specifically bound [3H]-EBOB. The inhibitory effect on [3H]-EBOB binding was not reversible. 12,14-Cl2DHA reduced the availability of [3H]-EBOB binding sites (Bmax) without changing the KD of the radioligand for remaining sites. 12,14-Cl2DHA did not affect the rate of association of [3H]-EBOB with its chloride channel receptor, but increased the initial rate of [3H]-EBOB dissociation. 3. 12,14-Cl2DHA enhanced the incidence of EPSCs when rapidly applied to cultured rat cortical neurones. Longer exposures produced block of IPSCs with marked increases in the frequency of EPSCs and min EPSCs. 12,14-Cl2DHA also irreversibly suppressed chloride currents evoked by pulses of exogenous GABA in these cells. 4. Ultimately, 12,14-Cl2DHA inhibited all synaptic traffic and action currents in current clamped cells indicating that, in contrast to picrotoxinin (which causes paroxysmal bursting), it is not fully selective for the GABA(A) receptor-chloride channel complex. 5. The depolarizing block seen with 12,14-Cl2DHA in amphotericin-perforated preparations implicates loss of Ca2+ buffering in the polarity change and this may account for inhibition of spontaneous action potentials. 6. Our investigation demonstrates that 12,14-Cl2DHA blocks GABA-dependent chloride entry in mammalian brain and operates as a non-competitive insurmountable GABA(A) antagonist. The mechanism likely involves either irreversible binding of 12,14-Cl2DHA to the trioxabicyclooctane recognition site or a site that is allosterically coupled to it. We cannot exclude, however, the possibility that 12,14-Cl2DHA causes localized proteolysis or more extensive conformational change within a critical subunit of the chloride channel.  (+info)

A non-pungent triprenyl phenol of fungal origin, scutigeral, stimulates rat dorsal root ganglion neurons via interaction at vanilloid receptors. (5/2175)

1. A [3H]-resiniferatoxin (RTX) binding assay utilizing rat spinal cord membranes was employed to identify novel vanilloids in a collection of natural products of fungal origin. Of the five active compounds found (scutigeral, acetyl-scutigeral, ovinal, neogrifolin, and methyl-neogrifolin), scutigeral (Ki=19 microM), isolated from the edible mushroom Albatrellus ovinus, was selected for further characterization. 2. Scutigeral induced a dose-dependent 45Ca uptake by rat dorsal root ganglion neurons with an EC50 of 1.6 microM, which was fully inhibited by the competitive vanilloid receptor antagonist capsazepine (IC50=5.2 microM). 3. [3H]-RTX binding isotherms were shifted by scutigeral (10-80 microM) in a competitive manner. The Schild plot of the data had a slope of 0.8 and gave an apparent Kd estimate for scutigeral of 32 microM. 4. Although in the above assays scutigeral mimicked capsaicin, it was not pungent on the human tongue up to a dose of 100 nmol per tongue, nor did it provoke protective wiping movements in the rat (up to 100 microM) upon intraocular instillation. 5. In accord with being non-pungent, scutigeral (5 microM) did not elicit a measurable inward current in isolated rat dorsal root ganglion neurons under voltage-clamp conditions. It did, however, reduce the proportion of neurons (from 61 to 15%) that responded to a subsequent capsaicin (1 microM) challenge. In these neurons, scutigeral both delayed (from 27 to 72 s) and diminished (from 5.0 to 1.9 nA) the maximal current evoked by capsaicin. 6. In conclusion, scutigeral and its congeners form a new chemical class of vanilloids, the triprenyl phenols. Scutigeral promises to be a novel chemical lead for the development of orally active, non-pungent vanilloids.  (+info)

A novel aromatic-ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase from the diterpenoid-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas abietaniphila BKME-9. (6/2175)

Pseudomonas abietaniphila BKME-9 is able to degrade dehydroabietic acid (DhA) via ring hydroxylation by a novel dioxygenase. The ditA1, ditA2, and ditA3 genes, which encode the alpha and beta subunits of the oxygenase and the ferredoxin of the diterpenoid dioxygenase, respectively, were isolated and sequenced. The ferredoxin gene is 9. 2 kb upstream of the oxygenase genes and 872 bp upstream of a putative meta ring cleavage dioxygenase gene, ditC. A Tn5 insertion in the alpha subunit gene, ditA1, resulted in the accumulation by the mutant strain BKME-941 of the pathway intermediate, 7-oxoDhA. Disruption of the ferredoxin gene, ditA3, in wild-type BKME-9 by mutant-allele exchange resulted in a strain (BKME-91) with a phenotype identical to that of the mutant strain BKME-941. Sequence analysis of the putative ferredoxin indicated that it is likely to be a [4Fe-4S]- or [3Fe-4S]-type ferredoxin and not a [2Fe-2S]-type ferredoxin, as found in all previously described ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases. Expression in Escherichia coli of ditA1A2A3, encoding the diterpenoid dioxygenase without its putative reductase component, resulted in a functional enzyme. The diterpenoid dioxygenase attacks 7-oxoDhA, and not DhA, at C-11 and C-12, producing 7-oxo-11, 12-dihydroxy-8,13-abietadien acid, which was identified by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, UV-visible light, and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The organization of the genes encoding the various components of the diterpenoid dioxygenase, the phylogenetic distinctiveness of both the alpha subunit and the ferredoxin component, and the unusual Fe-S cluster of the ferredoxin all suggest that this enzyme belongs to a new class of aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases.  (+info)

Immunosuppressant PG490 (triptolide) inhibits T-cell interleukin-2 expression at the level of purine-box/nuclear factor of activated T-cells and NF-kappaB transcriptional activation. (7/2175)

PG490 (triptolide) is a diterpene triepoxide with potent immunosuppressive and antiinflammatory properties. PG490 inhibits interleukin(IL)-2 expression by normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and antibody to CD3 (IC50 of 10 ng/ml), and with PMA and ionomycin (Iono, IC50 of 40 ng/ml). In Jurkat T-cells, PG490 inhibits PMA/Iono-stimulated IL-2 transcription. PG490 inhibits the induction of DNA binding activity at the purine-box/antigen receptor response element (ARRE)/nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NF-AT) target sequence but not at the NF-kappaB site. PG490 can completely inhibit transcriptional activation at the purine-box/ARRE/NF-AT and NF-kappaB target DNA sequences triggered by all stimuli examined (PMA, PMA/Iono, tumor necrosis factor-alpha). PG490 also inhibits PMA-stimulated activation of a chimeric transcription factor in which the C-terminal TA1 transactivation domain of NF-kappaB p65 is fused to the DNA binding domain of GAL4. In 16HBE human bronchial epithelial cells, IL-8 expression is regulated predominantly by NF-kappaB, and PG490 but not cyclosporin A can completely inhibit expression of IL-8. The mechanism of PG490 inhibition of cytokine gene expression differs from cyclosporin A and involves nuclear inhibition of transcriptional activation of NF-kappaB and the purine-box regulator operating at the ARRE/NF-AT site at a step after specific DNA binding.  (+info)

PG490 (triptolide) cooperates with tumor necrosis factor-alpha to induce apoptosis in tumor cells. (8/2175)

Progress in the treatment of solid tumors has been slow and sporadic. The efficacy of conventional chemotherapy in solid tumors is limited because tumors frequently have mutations in the p53 gene. Also, chemotherapy only kills rapidly dividing cells. Members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, however, induce apoptosis regardless of the p53 phenotype. Unfortunately, the cytotoxicity of TNF-alpha is limited by its activation of NF-kappaB and activation of NF-kappaB is proinflammatory. We have identified a compound called PG490, that is composed of purified triptolide, which induces apoptosis in tumor cells and sensitizes tumor cells to TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis. PG490 potently inhibited TNF-alpha-induced activation of NF-kappaB. PG490 also blocked TNF-alpha-mediated induction of c-IAP2 (hiap-1) and c-IAP1 (hiap-2), members of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family. Interestingly, PG490 did not block DNA binding of NF-kappaB, but it blocked transactivation of NF-kappaB. Our identification of a compound that blocks TNF-alpha-induced activation of NF-kappaB may enhance the cytotoxicity of TNF-alpha on tumors in vivo and limit its proinflammatory effects.  (+info)

  • The aim of the present work was to synthesize dimeric diterpenes from the labdane imbricatolic acid using esters, ethers and the triazole ring as linkers. (mdpi.com)
  • In order to quantify the amount of present diterpenes in Coffea arabica L., first the green coffee oil has to be extracted from the fruits, and furthermore alkaline treatment in methanol is necessary, since the diterpenes naturally occur as esters which have to be saponified prior to the analysis. (anton-paar.com)
  • We identified 11 17-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycosides (HGL-DTGs) that occur in concentrations equivalent to starch (mg/g fresh mass) in aboveground tissues of coyote tobacco ( Nicotiana attenuata ) and differ in their sugar moieties and malonyl sugar esters (0-2). (plantcell.org)
  • The latex of Euphorbia poissonii contains esters of the diterpene tigliane type alcohols 12-deoxyphorbol and 12-deoxy-16-hydroxyphorbol, the diterpene daphnane type intoxicant resiniferol, and several esters of the macrocyclic diterpene intoxicant 19-hydroxyingol, e.g. the pentacyclic euphorianin. (codeforaotearoa.org)
  • We show that five root-expressed TPSs of an expanded subfamily-a type clade in the Arabidopsis TPS family function as class I diterpene synthases that predominantly convert geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) to different semi-volatile diterpene products, which are in part detectable at low levels in the ecotypes Columbia (Col) and Cape Verde Island (Cvi). (frontiersin.org)
  • Bioactive Pimarane Diterpenes from the Arctic Fungus Eutypella sp. (deepdyve.com)
  • 5 During our research on S. divinorum , salvinorin A was first isolated from a single pharmacologically active TLC band using a solvent system of 100/10/1 CHCl 3 /MeOH/H 2 O. Differences in potency between the purified diterpene and the original TLC fraction led us to surmise that the latter contained other strongly bioactive compounds that co-chromatographed with salvinorin A during the chromatographic separation. (sagewisdom.org)
  • Bioactive abietanic diterpenes are synthesized in roots of Salvia sclarea (e.g. aethiopinone, 1-oxoaethiopinone, salvipisone, and ferruginol), but at a very low level (about 1 % of root dry weight). (unisa.it)
  • Three new ent -kaurane diterpenes, 3 α -angeloyloxy-17-hydroxy- ent -kaur-15-en-19-oic acid ( 1 ), 3 α -tigloyloxy-17-hydroxy- ent -kaur-15-en-19-oic acid ( 2 ) and 3 α -cinnamoyloxykaur-9(11),16-dien-19-oic acid ( 3 ), along with five known compounds ( 4 - 8 ), were isolated from the herbs of Wedelia prostrata (Asteraceae). (springer.com)
  • Qiang Y, Du DL, Chen YJ, Gao K (2011) ent -Kaurane diterpenes and further constituents from Wedelia trilobata . (springer.com)
  • These data suggest PfATP6 as a potential target for the antimalarial ent -kaurane diterpenes. (fiocruz.br)
  • 2014) we investigated the interaction between the ent kaurane diterpenes and PfATP6 (Gardner et al. (fiocruz.br)
  • Synthetic studies of neoclerodane diterpenes from Salvia divinorum: Semisynthesis of salvinicins A and B and other chemical transformations of salvinorin A . Journal of Natural Products , 69 (1), 107-112. (rti.org)
  • Salvinorin A (1) is a hallucinogenic neoclerodane diterpene isolated from the widely available psychoactive plant Salvia divinorum and is the first example of a non-nitrogenous opioid receptor ligand. (rti.org)
  • of the psychotropic Mexican labiate Salvia divinorum (Epling & Jativ -M.), we report the isolation and structure of a new trans -neoclerodane diterpene, salvinorin C ( 1 ). (sagewisdom.org)
  • Manool also is a minor diterpene of this species and the main diterpene of related Salvia species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • N. N. Sabri ,A. M. El Lakany , Diterpenoidsin the genus salvia 1-diterpene quinones, Alex. (who.int)
  • The increasing number of structurally interesting and biologically active diterpene quinones that have been discovered and still to be isolated from many members of the genus salvia calls for an update review. (who.int)
  • Rosemary diterpenes have also been shown in recent years to inhibit neuronal cell death induced by a variety of agents both in vitro and in vivo . (hindawi.com)
  • Enhanced diterpene lactone (andrographolide) production from elicited adventitious root cultures. (deepdyve.com)
  • Analysis errors can occur in the desorbing process of ginkgo diterpene lactone meglumine injection (GDMI) by a conventional analysis method, due to several factors, such as easily crystallized samples, solvent volatility, time-consuming sample pre-processing, fixed method, and offline analysis. (bvsalud.org)
  • The enzyme TPS20 produces a macrocyclic dolabellane diterpene alcohol and a dolabellane-related diterpene olefin named dolathaliatriene with a so far unknown C6-C11 bicyclic scaffold besides several minor olefin products. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ingenol mebutate is a diterpene ester with a highly complex macrocyclic structure that has been approved for the treatment of actinic keratosis, a precondition of skin cancer. (pnas.org)
  • 3-Hydrogenkwadaphnin (3-HK) (Fig. 1) is a daphnane-type diterpene ester isolated from the leaves of Dendrostellera lessertii (Thymelaeaceae) with differentiation and apoptotic potency among several leukemic cells without any measurable adverse effects on normal cells [Moosavi, M.A., Yazdanparast, R., Sanati, M.H., Nejad, A.S., 2005a. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Seven new diterpenes, named ovoideal A ( 1 ), B ( 2 ), C ( 3 ), D ( 4 ), E ( 5 ), F ( 6 ) and G ( 7 ), have been isolated along with eleven known diterpenes 8 - 18 from the petroleum ether soluble fraction of an ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Tirpitzia ovoidea . (mdpi.com)
  • This work provides a genetic foundation for elucidating the metabolic grid responsible for the diversity of indole-diterpenes synthesized by N. lolii. (nih.gov)
  • Among the most important group of compounds isolated from the plant are the abietane-type phenolic diterpenes that account for most of the antioxidant and many pharmacological activities of the plant. (hindawi.com)
  • It contains 13-15% antioxidative phenolic diterpenes and can be used to stabilize fatty oils and organic cosmetic formulations. (fromnaturewithlove.com)
  • Wang, Bin 2018-01-01 00:00:00 Two new pimarane diterpenes, libertellenone M (1) and libertellenone N (2), together with five known compounds were isolated from the culture extract of Eutypella sp. (deepdyve.com)
  • In a screening program on natural resources with the ability to abrogate TRAIL resistance, the bioassay-guided fractionation of Boesenbergia pandurata rhizomes resulted in the isolation of 17 pimarane diterpenes and a monoterpene. (elsevier.com)
  • A group of cembranoid diterpenes were isolated from the soft coral S. trocheliophorum by Chang-Yih Duh in National Sun Yat-sen University in Taiwan and was reported in 1996 in the Journal of Natural Products. (wordpress.com)
  • Direct Analysis of Stevia Leaves for Diterpene Glycosides by Desorptio" by Ayanna U. Jackson, Alessandra Tata et al. (nova.edu)
  • Characteristic constituents of the Stevia plant are observed in both the positive and negative ion modes including a series of diterpene 'sweet' glycosides. (nova.edu)
  • Schmeda-Hirschmann, G. Dimeric Labdane Diterpenes: Synthesis and Antiproliferative Effects. (mdpi.com)
  • Pertino MW, Theoduloz C, Bastías M, Schmeda-Hirschmann G. Dimeric Labdane Diterpenes: Synthesis and Antiproliferative Effects. (mdpi.com)
  • Overall these results show that it is possible to boost the metabolic flow towards the synthesis of abietanic diterpenes in S. sclarea hairy roots by overexpressing genes involved in the first steps of the MEP-pathway and provide new insights for the large-scale production of this class of compounds, with potential application in cancer treatment. (unisa.it)
  • A class II diTPS ( Ss LPPS) produced labda-13-en-8-ol diphosphate as major product from geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) with some minor quantities of its non-hydroxylated analogue, (9 S, 10 S) -copalyl diphosphate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tobacco-based transient expression assays of green fluorescent protein-fusion constructs revealed that both enzymes possess an N-terminal signal sequence that actively targets Ss LPPS and Ss SS to the chloroplast, a major site of GGPP and diterpene production in plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this review, the chemistry and pharmacology of rosemary diterpenes are scrutinised by giving special emphasis to their therapeutic potential for Alzheimer's disease (AD). (hindawi.com)
  • Monoterpene Sesquiterpene Triterpene Dodonaea petiolaris yields the diterpene ent-3β-acetoxy-15,16-epoxylabda-8(17),13(16),14-trien-18-oic acid (C22H28O6) or its enantiomer. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a pentacyclic diterpene acid that promotes growth of cells. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • Changes in volatile terpene and diterpene resin acid composition of resistant and susceptible white spruce leaders exposed to simulated white pine weevil damage. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Using the guide of a competitive assay for the benzodiazepine binding site in the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAA), two active diterpenes were isolated from the aerial parts of Aloysia virgata (Ruíz & Pavón) A.L. Jussieu var. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • Conclusion: Daphne Mucronata extract and its purified diterpene through increasing monocytes TNF-α releasing, potentially inhibit Leukemia cell line. (scirp.org)
  • Neorogioltriol and related diterpenes from the red alga Laurencia inhibit inflammatory bowel disease. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Semisynthetic compounds derived from diterpenes from the medicinal plant Wedelia paludosa were tested in silico against the Plasmodium falciparum Ca2+-ATPase, PfATP6. (fiocruz.br)
  • Thus, the aim of this study was to construct the PfATP6 enzyme model and perform a rigid and flexible molecular docking analysis of synthetic and semisynthetic diterpenes derived from W. paludosa DC. (fiocruz.br)
  • Bifunctional diterpene cyclase that catalyzes the successive two-step type-B (protonation-initiated cyclization) and type-A (ionization-initiated cyclization) reactions of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) producing successively (+)-copalyl diphosphate and miltiradiene. (uniprot.org)
  • Together, our results demonstrate that divergence and pseudogenization in the Arabidopsis TPS gene family allow for structural plasticity in diterpene profiles of above- and belowground tissues. (frontiersin.org)
  • Muhammad Torequl Islam*, "Beneficial Effects and Therapeutic Promises of Diterpenes on Respiratory System", Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews (2017) 13: 99. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Two norcembranoidal diterpenes, 5-episinuleptolide acetate ( 1 ) and scabrolide D ( 2 ), were isolated from a Formosan octocoral identified as Sinularia sp. (mdpi.com)
  • Yeast-based production of sclareol by co-expresssion of Ss LPPS and Ss SS was efficient enough to warrant the development and use of such technology for the biotechnological production of scareol and other oxygenated diterpenes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Induced (traumatic) resin in white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) leaders resistant or susceptible to the white pine weevil (Pissodes strobi Peck) was analyzed for volatile terpenes and diterpene resin acids after simulated white pine weevil damage. (semanticscholar.org)