Dental Occlusion: The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Dental Occlusion, Balanced: Dental occlusion in which the occlusal contact of the teeth on the working side of the jaw is accompanied by the harmonious contact of the teeth on the opposite (balancing) side. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556)Splints: Rigid or flexible appliances used to maintain in position a displaced or movable part or to keep in place and protect an injured part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Dental Occlusion, Traumatic: An occlusion resulting in overstrain and injury to teeth, periodontal tissue, or other oral structures.Dental Occlusion, Centric: Contact between opposing teeth during a person's habitual bite.Mastication: The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.Stomatognathic System: The mouth, teeth, jaws, pharynx, and related structures as they relate to mastication, deglutition, and speech.Bite Force: The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.Occlusal Splints: Rigid or flexible appliances that overlay the occlusal surfaces of the teeth. They are used to treat clenching and bruxism and their sequelae, and to provide temporary relief from muscle or temporomandibular joint pain.Temporal Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Pterygoid Muscles: Two of the masticatory muscles: the internal, or medial, pterygoid muscle and external, or lateral, pterygoid muscle. Action of the former is closing the jaws and that of the latter is opening the jaws, protruding the mandible, and moving the mandible from side to side.Dentistry: The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Temporomandibular Joint: An articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Stanozolol: A synthetic steroid that has anabolic and androgenic properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1194)Dental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Pediatric Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of children, proper maintenance, and treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Periodontal Splints: Fixed or removable devices that join teeth together. They are used to repair teeth that are mobile as a result of PERIODONTITIS.Maxillary Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the MAXILLA or upper jaw.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Dentistry, Operative: That phase of clinical dentistry concerned with the restoration of parts of existing teeth that are defective through disease, trauma, or abnormal development, to the state of normal function, health, and esthetics, including preventive, diagnostic, biological, mechanical, and therapeutic techniques, as well as material and instrument science and application. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 2d ed, p237)Centric Relation: The location of the maxillary and the mandibular condyles when they are in their most posterior and superior positions in their fossae of the temporomandibular joint.Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome: A symptom complex consisting of pain, muscle tenderness, clicking in the joint, and limitation or alteration of mandibular movement. The symptoms are subjective and manifested primarily in the masticatory muscles rather than the temporomandibular joint itself. Etiologic factors are uncertain but include occlusal dysharmony and psychophysiologic factors.Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.History of DentistryDental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.Dental Arch: The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.Jaw Relation Record: A registration of any positional relationship of the mandible in reference to the maxillae. These records may be any of the many vertical, horizontal, or orientation relations. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry)Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Maxillary DiseasesEvidence-Based Dentistry: An approach or process of practicing oral health care that requires the judicious integration of systematic assessments of clinical relevant scientific evidence, relating to the patient's oral and medical condition and history, with the dentist's clinical expertise and the patient's treatment needs and preferences. (from J Am Dent Assoc 134: 689, 2003)Geriatric Dentistry: The branch of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of older people.Cephalometry: The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Dental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.General Practice, Dental: Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.Dental Care for Disabled: Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).Ethics, Dental: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.Dental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.Jaw, Edentulous: The total absence of teeth from either the mandible or the maxilla, but not both. Total absence of teeth from both is MOUTH, EDENTULOUS. Partial absence of teeth in either is JAW, EDENTULOUS, PARTIALLY.Dental Care for Aged: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of the elderly for proper maintenance or treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Community Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.Dentists: Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.Dental Anxiety: Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Malocclusion: Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Dental Auxiliaries: Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.Insurance, Dental: Insurance providing coverage for dental care.Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Vertical Dimension: The length of the face determined by the distance of separation of jaws. Occlusal vertical dimension (OVD or VDO) or contact vertical dimension is the lower face height with the teeth in centric occlusion. Rest vertical dimension (VDR) is the lower face height measured from a chin point to a point just below the nose, with the mandible in rest position. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p250)Dental Records: Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.Denture, Complete: A denture replacing all natural teeth and associated structures in both the maxilla and mandible.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Dentition: The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Mouth, Edentulous: Total lack of teeth through disease or extraction.Zygoma: Either of a pair of bones that form the prominent part of the CHEEK and contribute to the ORBIT on each side of the SKULL.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Dental Service, Hospital: Hospital department providing dental care.Public Health Dentistry: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.Jaw Fixation Techniques: The stable placement of surgically induced fractures of the mandible or maxilla through the use of elastics, wire ligatures, arch bars, or other splints. It is used often in the cosmetic surgery of retrognathism and prognathism. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p636)Mandibular Advancement: Moving a retruded mandible forward to a normal position. It is commonly performed for malocclusion and retrognathia. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Specialties, Dental: Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Jaw, Edentulous, Partially: Absence of teeth from a portion of the mandible and/or maxilla.Education, Dental, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.Societies, Dental: Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Dental Articulators: Mechanical devices that simulate the temporomandibular joints and jaws to which maxillary and mandibular casts are attached. The entire assembly attempts to reproduce the movements of the mandible and the various tooth-to-tooth relationships that accompany those movements.Dental Implantation, Endosseous: Insertion of an implant into the bone of the mandible or maxilla. The implant has an exposed head which protrudes through the mucosa and is a prosthodontic abutment.Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.Practice Management, Dental: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.Prosthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the restoration and maintenance of oral function by the replacement of missing TEETH and related structures by artificial devices or DENTAL PROSTHESES.Malocclusion, Angle Class II: Malocclusion in which the mandible is posterior to the maxilla as reflected by the relationship of the first permanent molar (distoclusion).Mandibular Condyle: The posterior process on the ramus of the mandible composed of two parts: a superior part, the articular portion, and an inferior part, the condylar neck.Preventive Dentistry: The branch of dentistry concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance and promotion of oral health.State Dentistry: Control, direction and financing of the total dental care of the population by a national government.Dental Amalgam: An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.Dental Offices: The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.Dental Staff: Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Coronary Occlusion: Complete blockage of blood flow through one of the CORONARY ARTERIES, usually from CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Dental Equipment: The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)Dental Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.Alveolar Process: The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.Tooth Eruption: The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Licensure, Dental: The granting of a license to practice dentistry.Comprehensive Dental Care: Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.Military Dentistry: The practice of dentistry as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.Balloon Occlusion: Use of a balloon CATHETER to block the flow of blood through an artery or vein.Retinal Vein Occlusion: Blockage of the RETINAL VEIN. Those at high risk for this condition include patients with HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; and other CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Plyometric Exercise: Exercises in which muscles are repeatedly and rapidly stretched, followed by shortening, concentric MUSCLE CONTRACTION (e.g. jumping and rebounding). They are designed to exert maximal force in minimal time by increasing STRETCH REFLEX.Maxillofacial Development: The process of growth and differentiation of the jaws and face.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Dental Assistants: Individuals who assist the dentist or the dental hygienist.Retinal Artery Occlusion: Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.Orthodontic Appliances: Devices used for influencing tooth position. Orthodontic appliances may be classified as fixed or removable, active or retaining, and intraoral or extraoral. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p19)Radiography, Panoramic: Extraoral body-section radiography depicting an entire maxilla, or both maxilla and mandible, on a single film.Cuspid: The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)Denture Design: The plan, delineation, and location of actual structural elements of dentures. The design can relate to retainers, stress-breakers, occlusal rests, flanges, framework, lingual or palatal bars, reciprocal arms, etc.Radiography, Dental: Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.Oral Surgical Procedures: Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.Dental Prosthesis, Implant-Supported: A prosthesis that gains its support, stability, and retention from a substructure that is implanted under the soft tissues of the basal seat of the device and is in contact with bone. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Dental Impression Technique: Procedure of producing an imprint or negative likeness of the teeth and/or edentulous areas. Impressions are made in plastic material which becomes hardened or set while in contact with the tissue. They are later filled with plaster of Paris or artificial stone to produce a facsimile of the oral structures present. Impressions may be made of a full complement of teeth, of areas where some teeth have been removed, or in a mouth from which all teeth have been extracted. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.Extraoral Traction Appliances: Extraoral devices for applying force to the dentition in order to avoid some of the problems in anchorage control met with in intermaxillary traction and to apply force in directions not otherwise possible.Bicuspid: One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)Dental Implantation: The grafting or inserting of a prosthetic device of alloplastic material into the oral tissue beneath the mucosal or periosteal layer or within the bone. Its purpose is to provide support and retention to a partial or complete denture.Laboratories, Dental: Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.Dental Informatics: The application of computer and information sciences to improve dental practice, research, education and management.Nasal Bone: Either one of the two small elongated rectangular bones that together form the bridge of the nose.Dentist's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice in dentistry related to diagnosis and treatment.Fees, Dental: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Hand Deformities, Acquired: Deformities of the hand, or a part of the hand, acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease.Esthetics, Dental: Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Frontal Bone: The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.Malocclusion, Angle Class I: Malocclusion in which the mandible and maxilla are anteroposteriorly normal as reflected by the relationship of the first permanent molar (i.e., in neutroclusion), but in which individual teeth are abnormally related to each other.Tooth DiseasesElectromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Orthodontic Appliances, Functional: Loose, usually removable intra-oral devices which alter the muscle forces against the teeth and craniofacial skeleton. These are dynamic appliances which depend on altered neuromuscular action to effect bony growth and occlusal development. They are usually used in mixed dentition to treat pediatric malocclusions. (ADA, 1992)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Casts, Surgical: Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds. In comparison with plaster casts, casts made of fiberglass or plastic are lightweight, radiolucent, able to withstand moisture, and less rigid.Maxillary Nerve: The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.Dental Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Tooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Surgery, Oral: A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.American Dental Association: Professional society representing the field of dentistry.Tooth Attrition: The wearing away of a tooth as a result of tooth-to-tooth contact, as in mastication, occurring only on the occlusal, incisal, and proximal surfaces. It is chiefly associated with aging. It is differentiated from TOOTH ABRASION (the pathologic wearing away of the tooth substance by friction, as brushing, bruxism, clenching, and other mechanical causes) and from TOOTH EROSION (the loss of substance caused by chemical action without bacterial action). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p86)Palatal Expansion Technique: An orthodontic method used for correcting narrow or collapsed maxillary arches and functional cross-bite. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry),Musculoskeletal Development: The morphologic and physiological changes of the MUSCLES, bones (BONE AND BONES), and CARTILAGE of the body, i.e., MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, during the prenatal and postnatal stages of development.Sleep Bruxism: A sleep disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth and forceful lateral or protrusive jaw movements. Sleep bruxism may be associated with TOOTH INJURIES; TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DISORDERS; sleep disturbances; and other conditions.Maxillary Sinus: The air space located in the body of the MAXILLARY BONE near each cheek. Each maxillary sinus communicates with the middle passage (meatus) of the NASAL CAVITY on the same side.Forensic Dentistry: The application of dental knowledge to questions of law.Cranial Sutures: A type of fibrous joint between bones of the head.Orthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention and correction of dental and oral anomalies (malocclusion).Dental Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of dental care.Neoprene: An oil-resistant synthetic rubber made by the polymerization of chloroprene.Bruxism: A disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Dental Scaling: Removal of dental plaque and dental calculus from the surface of a tooth, from the surface of a tooth apical to the gingival margin accumulated in periodontal pockets, or from the surface coronal to the gingival margin.Fluorosis, Dental: A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Orthognathic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed to repair or correct the skeletal anomalies of the jaw and its associated dental and facial structures (e.g. CLEFT PALATE).
... (MMM) is an inflammatory disease in dogs affecting the muscles of mastication (chewing). It is also known as atrophic myositis or eosinophilic myositis. MMM is the most common inflammatory myopathy in dogs. The disease mainly affects large breed dogs. German Shepherd Dogs and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels may be predisposed. There is a similar disease of the eye muscles found in Golden Retrievers. Symptoms of acute MMM include swelling of the jaw muscles, drooling, and pain on opening the mouth. Ophthalmic signs may include third eyelid protrusion, red eyes, and exophthalmos (protruding eyeballs). In chronic MMM there is atrophy of the jaw muscles, and scarring of the masticatory muscles due to fibrosis may result in inability to open the mouth (trismus). The affected muscles include the temporalis, masseter, and pterygoid muscles. The disease is usually bilateral. MMM is caused by the presence of 2M fibers in the muscles of the jaw. 2M fibers are not found elsewhere ...
The pterygomandibular space is a fascial space of the head and neck (sometimes also termed fascial spaces or tissue spaces). It is a potential space in the head and is paired on each side. It is located between the medial pterygoid muscle and the medial surface of the ramus of the mandible. The pterygomandibular space is one of the four compartments of the masticator space. The boundaries of each pterygomandibular space are: the posterior border of the buccal space anteriorly the parotid gland posteriorly the lateral pterygoid muscle superiorly the inferior border of the mandible (lingual surface) inferiorly the medial pterygoid muscle medially (the space is superficial to medial pterygoid) the ascending ramus of the mandible laterally (the space is deep to the ramus of the mandible) the communications of each pterygomandibular space are: to the buccal space anteriorly to the lateral pharyngeal space and peritonsillar space medially (around the medial pterygoid muscle). to the submasseteric ...
Its fibers pass downward, lateral, and posterior, and are inserted, by a strong tendinous lamina, into the lower and back part of the medial surface of the ramus and angle of the mandible, as high as the mandibular foramen. The insertion joins the masseter muscle to form a common tendinous sling which allows the medial pterygoid and masseter to be powerful elevators of the jaw. ...
The medial pterygoid plate (or medial pterygoid lamina) of the sphenoid bone is a horse-shoe shaped process that arises from its underside. It is narrower and longer than the lateral pterygoid plate and curves lateralward at its lower extremity into a hook-like process, the pterygoid hamulus, around which the tendon of the tensor veli palatini glides. The lateral surface of this plate forms part of the pterygoid fossa, the medial surface constitutes the lateral boundary of the choana or posterior aperture of the corresponding nasal cavity. Superiorly the medial plate is prolonged on to the under surface of the body as a thin lamina, named the vaginal process, which articulates in front with the sphenoidal process of the palatine and behind this with the ala (wing) of the vomer. The angular prominence between the posterior margin of the vaginal process and the medial border of the scaphoid fossa is named the pterygoid tubercle, and immediately above this is the posterior opening of the pterygoid ...
The medial pterygoid plate (or medial pterygoid lamina) of the sphenoid bone is a horse-shoe shaped process that arises from its underside.. It is narrower and longer than the lateral pterygoid plate and curves lateralward at its lower extremity into a hook-like process, the pterygoid hamulus, around which the tendon of the tensor veli palatini glides.. The lateral surface of this plate forms part of the pterygoid fossa, the medial surface constitutes the lateral boundary of the choana or posterior aperture of the corresponding nasal cavity.. Superiorly the medial plate is prolonged on to the under surface of the body as a thin lamina, named the vaginal process, which articulates in front with the sphenoidal process of the palatine and behind this with the ala (wing) of the vomer.. The angular prominence between the posterior margin of the vaginal process and the medial border of the scaphoid fossa is named the pterygoid tubercle, and immediately above this is the posterior opening of the ...
The pterygoid plexus (/ˈtɛrɪɡɔɪd/; from Greek pteryx, "wing" and eidos, "shape") is a venous plexus of considerable size, and is situated between the temporalis muscle and lateral pterygoid muscle, and partly between the two pterygoid muscles. It receives tributaries corresponding with the branches of the maxillary artery. Thus it receives the following veins: sphenopalatine middle meningeal deep temporal (anterior & posterior) pterygoid masseteric buccinator alveolar some palatine veins (palatine vein which divides into the greater and lesser palatine v.) a branch which communicates with the ophthalmic vein through the inferior orbital fissure infraorbital vein This plexus communicates freely with the anterior facial vein; it also communicates with the cavernous sinus, by branches through the foramen Vesalii, foramen ovale, and foramen lacerum. Due to its communication with the cavernous sinus, infection of the superficial face may spread to the cavernous sinus, causing cavernous sinus ...
The large sensory root emerges from the lateral part of the trigeminal ganglion and exits the cranial cavity through the foramen ovale. Portio minor, the small motor root of the trigeminal nerve, passes under the trigeminal ganglion and through the foramen ovale to unite with the sensory root just outside the skull.[1]. The mandibular nerve immediately passes between tensor veli palatini, which is medial, and lateral pterygoid, which is lateral, and gives off a meningeal branch (nervus spinosus) and the nerve to medial pterygoid from its medial side. The nerve then divides into a small anterior and large posterior trunk. The anterior division gives off branches to three major muscles of mastication and a buccal branch which is sensory to the cheek. The posterior division gives off three main sensory branches, the auriculotemporal, lingual and inferior alveolar nerves and motor fibres to supply mylohyoid and the anterior belly of the digastric muscle. ...
The giant anteater has no teeth and is capable of only very limited jaw movement. It relies on the rotation of the two halves of its lower jaw, held together by a ligament at the tip,[13] to open and close its mouth. This is accomplished by its masticatory muscles,[20] which are relatively underdeveloped.[13] Jaw depression creates an oral opening large enough for the slender tongue to flick out. It is typically 60 cm (24 in)[4] long and is triangular posteriorly, rounded anteriorly, and ends in a small, rounded tip.[13] The tongue is covered in backward-curving papillae and coated in thick, sticky saliva secreted from its enlarged salivary glands,[12] which allows the giant anteater to collect insects with it.. The tube-like rostrum and small mouth opening restrict the tongue to protrusion-retraction movements. During feeding, the tongue moves in and out around 160 times per minute (nearly three times per second). According to biologist Virginia Naples, these movements are powered by the ...
The giant anteater has no teeth and is capable of only very limited jaw movement. It relies on the rotation of the two halves of its lower jaw, held together by a ligament at the tip,[13] to open and close its mouth. This is accomplished by its masticatory muscles,[20] which are relatively underdeveloped.[13] Jaw depression creates an oral opening large enough for the slender tongue to flick out. It is typically 60 cm (24 in)[4] long and is triangular posteriorly, rounded anteriorly, and ends in a small, rounded tip.[13] The tongue is covered in backward-curving papillae and coated in thick, sticky saliva secreted from its enlarged salivary glands,[12] which allows the giant anteater to collect insects with it. The tube-like rostrum and small mouth opening restrict the tongue to protrusion-retraction movements. During feeding, the tongue moves in and out around 160 times per minute (nearly three times per second). According to biologist Virginia Naples, these movements are powered by the ...
A lunar space elevator or lunar spacelift is a proposed transportation system for moving a mechanical climbing vehicle up and down a ribbon-shaped tethered cable that is set between the surface of the Moon "at the bottom" and a docking port suspended tens of thousands of kilometers above in space at the top. It is similar in concept to the better known Earth-based space elevator idea, but since the Moon's surface gravity is much lower than the Earth's, the engineering requirements for constructing a lunar elevator system can be met using currently available materials and technology. For a lunar elevator, the cable or tether extends considerably farther out from the lunar surface into space than one that would be used in an Earth-based system. However, the main function of a space elevator system is the same in either case; both allow for a reusable, controlled means of transporting payloads of cargo, or possibly people, between a base ...
It is now accepted that the precursors of the jawed vertebrates are the long extinct bony (armoured) jawless fish, the so-called ostracoderms.[59][60] The earliest known fish with jaws are the now extinct placoderms[61] and spiny sharks.[62] Placoderms were a class of fish, heavily armoured at the front of their body, which first appeared in the fossil records during the Silurian about 430 million years ago. Initially they were very successful, diversifying remarkably during the Devonian. They became extinct by the end of that period, about 360 million years ago.[63] Their largest species, Dunkleosteus terrelli, measured up to 10 m (33 ft)[64][65] and weighed 3.6 t (4.0 short tons).[66] It possessed a four bar linkage mechanism for jaw opening that incorporated connections between the skull, the thoracic shield, the lower jaw and the jaw muscles joined together by movable joints.[67][68] This mechanism allowed Dunkleosteus terrelli to achieve a high speed of jaw opening, opening their jaws in 20 ...
Mr. Poe takes the Baudelaire orphans to their new home on 667 Dark Avenue. The street is dark, as light is "out", or unpopular. The elevators in the apartment building are not working, as elevators are "out", leaving the Baudelaires to walk up several dozen flights of stairs to the penthouse where the Squalors live. Jerome Squalor welcomes the children to their new home. He offers them "aqueous martinis", (water garnished with an olive served in a fancy glass), and introduces them to his wife, Esmé Squalor, the city's sixth most important financial adviser, who is concerned about what's "in" and what's "out". Jerome avoids disputes with Esmé, as he hates arguing with her, and follows her instructions. While Jerome, a good friend of the Baudelaires' mother, truly cares for the children, it becomes apparent that Esmé's reason for adopting them is because orphans are "in." Esmé sends the children and Jerome to Café Salmonella for dinner, because she will be busy privately discussing ...
నమలడం (Mastication or Chewing) జీర్ణ ప్రక్రియలో మొదటి భాగం. నమిలేటప్పుడు ఆహార పదార్ధాలు పండ్ల మధ్యన పడి చిన్నవిగా చేయబడతాయి. అందువలన జీర్ణద్రవాలలోని ఎంజైమ్లు బాగా పనిచేసి ఆహారాన్ని సులభంగా జీర్ణించుకోవడానికి ఉపయోగపడతాయి. ఈ ప్రక్రియలో నాలుక మరియు బుగ్గలు సహకరిస్తాయి. నమలడం పూర్తయేసరికి ఆహారం మెత్తగా మారి లాలాజలంతో కలిసి ముద్దలాగా తయారౌతుంది. కార్బోహైడ్రేట్లు కొంతవరకు ...
Recent controlled studies unambiguously show that with individually adjusted centric splints (Michigan splints), significant ... report to determine masticatory functional risk factors. We have added a diagnostic test of. physiological centric relation ( ... leads to muscle relaxation or re-coordination of the neuromuscular system makes sense, for instance, treatment with a dental ( ... The mandible assumes the physiological centric relation or "zero position" to the maxilla when protractors as well as ...
... fashion to assist the clinician in determining a physiologic interocclusal freeway space and vertical dimension of occlusion. ... 6.2 mm inferior to centric occlusion (CO), 0.5 m to the right.. 3.3 mm inferior to CO, 0.3 mm to the right of CO, and 1.1 mm ... V. F. Ferrario, C. Sforza, G. M. Tartaglia, and C. Dellavia, "Immediate effect of a stabilization splint on masticatory muscle ... Through the use of surface electromyography (SEMG), muscle activity of the masticatory system can be objectively measured. The ...
Because of the multifactorial etiology of parafunctional CMS activity, conclusions about the need for dental treatment to ... or driving distance while either biting on an oral splint or biting on their teeth; habitual jaw position served as the control ... or driving distance while either biting on an oral splint or biting on their teeth; habitual jaw position served as the control ... Recent research has shown that neuromuscular activity of the craniomandibular system (CMS) might affect human motor control. In ...
Because function of the masticatory system begins at the temporomandibular joints, proper positioning of the joints must be ... The teeth must then be designed in a way to fit within the system without causing any deviation or interference, which could ... lead to breakdown of any or all parts of the system. Finally, esthetics and phonetics must be taken into consideration when ... When restoring the worn dentition, it is absolutely critical to establish proper function of the masticatory system. Thorough ...
From the perspective of dentistry, masticatory functional disturbances are primarily caused by occlusal discrepancies if the ... b) Confirmation of initial diagnosis: checking the centric relation record with therapeutic biteplates (centric splint) ... Association for Dental Education in Europe (ADEE). *Digital Smile System. *ADA Dental Product Guide ... This occlusion concept corresponds to that of the Michigan splint by Ramfjord and Ash.4 In contrast to natural teeth and ...
Telemetric comparison of centric relation and centric occlusion reconstructions. J Prosthet Dent. 1974;31(5):527-536.. 116. ... Soboļeva U, Lauriņa L, Slaidiņa A. The masticatory system-an overview. Stomatologija.. 2005;7(3):77-80.. 108. Johansson A, ... Indeed, research on posture,62,63 gait,64,65 and even acuity of sight66 has been related to a proper dental occlusion. ... Sumioka T. Systemic effects of the peripheral disturbance of the trigeminal system: Influences of the occlusal destruction in ...
The occlusion was verified and adjusted. All patients were instructed to use interdental brushes, dental floss and an oral ... The centric relation was recorded in the wax rim on the morning after surgery. Aesthetic and functional try-ins of the ... All patients were clinically free of signs and symptoms of sinus disturbance at all follow-up appointments. After 8 years, the ... When edentulism occurs in the maxilla, the lack of labial support can be associated with premature aging. In general, the ...
Reported oral jaw habits in the masticatory system include grinding and clenching the teeth, tongue, cheek and nail biting, ... School of Dentistry, Division of Orofacial pain and Occlusion, for assessment and treatment. The evaluation charts of such ... Exostosis in the maxilla and or in the mandible; 23. Tori in the maxilla and or mandible; 24. Difficulties to open the mouth on ... In severe bruxers, an acrylic dental guard is usually indicated. A dental guard not only prevents tooth wear, it also really ...
Muscle pain is a common symptom of functional disturbances of the masticatory system. Experimentally induced hyperactivity of ... 1. The centric occlusion position is seldom coincident with the myo-centric position of occlusion in patients who exhibit ... Recently dental research has turned to neuro-muscular system: many dental procedures, in order to be entirely successful, ... When the occlusion was corrected with acrylic splints in order to reach normal MKG recordings, the EMG patterns also improved: ...
... dental occlusion may infiuence whole body posture, and of the functioning, such as chewing and swallowing, of masticatory ... www Overview Principle of Occlusion Overview Principle of Occlusion Point centric Long centric Freedom ... MBT System as the 3rd Generation Programmed and Preadjusted Appliance System (PPAS) by Masatada Koga, D.D.S., Ph.D MBT System ... OCCLUSION CONNECTIONS Dot Dentistry Digital Case Documentation Format for Case Presentation TMD Candidate s Name: CLAYTON A. ...
Keywords: coronary dilaceration, dental trauma, primary teeth, central lower incisor, morphological disturbances, ... The treatment was started by using na occlusal splint in centric, to do a neuromuscular deprogramming for 12 months. After that ... came to the appointment referring lack of masticatory function. It was planned six implants in upper atrophic maxilla (Implant ... Keywords: full-coverage crowns, inter-incisor diastema, gummy smile, high smile line, bad occlusion, papillar shape. Conference ...
American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry University of Texas Health. Science Center at San Antonio Dental School. J Am Dent ... Classify the activities of masticatory system? Activities of the masticatory system can be divided into two types:. *Functional ... Flat plane stabilization splints.. *Anterior positioning appliance (provides an occlusal relationship that requires the ... The temporalis, masseter and medial pterygoid muscles supply the power for pulling the mandible against the maxilla (elevating ...
Dental Occlusion, Centric , Lasers, Semiconductor/therapeutic use , Occlusal Splints , Dental Articulators , Mexico ... Dental Occlusion, Centric , Extraoral Traction Appliances , Follow-Up Studies , Mandible/growth & development , Maxilla/growth ... Masticatory afficiency in denture wearers with bilateral balanced occlusion and canine guidance ... and stomatognathic system. The functional occlusion theory emphasizes that the displacement of TMJ in the glenoid fossa is the ...
Functional disturbances of the masticatory system may have their beginning during the development of occlusion, a time when the ... DENTAL ARCH FORM. The teeth are positioned on the maxilla and mandible in such a way as to produce a curved arch when viewed ... As a result, the maxillary teeth "overhang" the mandibular teeth when the teeth are in centric occlusion (the position of ... Figure 16-2 Stabilization occlusal bite plane splint to prevent the effects of bruxism. ...
The Role of Occlusion in the Dental Implant and Peri-implant Condition: A Review. The Open Dentistry Journal. 2016;10:594-601 ... 1. All dental procedures must minimise pain input to the trigeminal system. Dental disease prevention is critical. ... Changes to occlusion with use of advancement splints in apnoea. Doff M.J.H. et al., (2017) selected 51 patients randomized to ... Although implant dentistry is associated with satisfactory long-term clinical and patient-centric outcomes, implant ...
  • This study was performed to investigate the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the masseter muscle and the anterior temporalis muscle, as well as the masticatory efficiency after insertion of the dentures in edentulous individuals whose maxillomandibular horizontal relationship records were obtained with three different methods. (bvsalud.org)
  • The teeth must then be designed in a way to fit within the system without causing any deviation or interference, which could lead to breakdown of any or all parts of the system. (cdeworld.com)
  • In many cases, when patients present with worn or fractured teeth requiring restorations, clinicians should do a thorough examination to determine a diagnosis and cause of the current dental condition with which the patient presented. (cdeworld.com)
  • Reported oral jaw habits in the masticatory system include grinding and clenching the teeth, tongue, cheek and nail biting, excessive talking, smoking, jutting the jaw forward, unilateral chewing, placing objects into the mouth, gum chewing, using some musical instruments and other less known oral jaw habits 15 . (bvsalud.org)
  • As with all other complexes, the craniofacial complex describes a functioning, multipart system whose borders are connected to, interact with, and influence the functions of the body's other complexes. (cdeworld.com)
  • Al Hassin A, 2017 coined the phrase "defensive dentistry'' and how it may affect clinicians. (edu.au)
  • The case of a 23 aged female with tension headaches, bilateral tinnitus and atypical facial pain, but also with anterior open bite from premolars who was admitted to a neurological clinic, was finally resolved only after a splint therapy. (stomaeduj.com)
  • Female patient of eight years and four months, with skeletal pattern of severe class II and 10 mm overjet, was treated with Bite-Block Centric as a vertical control method. (bvsalud.org)
  • While interactions between CMD and unspecific headaches, tension headaches, and trigeminal neuralgia have been proven (4,7,10), the dental contribution to the etiology of migraine or migraine-like pain is controversial. (stomaeduj.com)
  • In most cases, the symptoms are the reason for the increased tension of the masticatory musculature, and the parafunctions [6, (stomaeduj.com)
  • When edentulism occurs in the maxilla, the lack of labial support can be associated with premature aging. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • It has been reported that if a "step" (deviation of the flush terminal plane) occurs because of carious lesions or other disturbances, a tendency to interfere with the development of normal occlusal relations of the permanent first molars is evident. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • The American Association of Dental Office Management (AADOM) is a unique organisation that provides dental practice managers and administrators the business tools they need to run a successful practice - educational webinars and practice management training. (edu.au)
  • 1,2 While beautiful restorations can be fabricated with the excellent materials available today, the longevity of these restorations and the stability of the chewing system may be significantly impacted if these restorations are not placed in an ideal occlusal environment. (cdeworld.com)
  • However, TMD is also the main cause of pain of non-dental origin in the oro-facial region including head, face and related structures (1). (healthdocbox.com)
  • This examination should include a review of the patient's medical and dental history, along with a conversation with the patient discussing the expectations of treatment. (cdeworld.com)
  • 3. Time-tracking software systems are available that can analyse data on a daily, weekly, and monthly basis. (edu.au)
  • In a diagnostically and therapeutically oriented dental follow-up study of patients whom neurologists and neurosurgeons had diagnosed with trigeminal neuralgia, Lotzmann et al. (stomaeduj.com)
  • From a total of 62 patients under treatment in a private dental office at Campinas city (São Paulo, Brazil) between January and December 2003, 25 were selected and agreed to participate in the study. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • Posture may be defined as the relative position of the various parts of the body with respect to the egocentric coordinate system, the exocentric coordinate system, and the geocentric coordinate system [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)