Breast Cyst: A fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM and found in the BREAST. It may appear as a single large cyst in one breast, multifocal, or bilateral in FIBROCYSTIC BREAST DISEASE.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Breast Diseases: Pathological processes of the BREAST.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Ultrasonography, Mammary: Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Fibroadenoma: An adenoma containing fibrous tissue. It should be differentiated from ADENOFIBROMA which is a tumor composed of connective tissue (fibroma) containing glandular (adeno-) structures. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Fibrocystic Breast Disease: A common and benign breast disease characterized by varying degree of fibrocystic changes in the breast tissue. There are three major patterns of morphological changes, including FIBROSIS, formation of CYSTS, and proliferation of glandular tissue (adenosis). The fibrocystic breast has a dense irregular, lumpy, bumpy consistency.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Vacuum: A space in which the pressure is far below atmospheric pressure so that the remaining gases do not affect processes being carried on in the space.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Adenofibroma: A benign neoplasm composed of glandular and fibrous tissues, with a relatively large proportion of glands. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Breast Neoplasms, Male: Any neoplasms of the male breast. These occur infrequently in males in developed countries, the incidence being about 1% of that in females.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Palpation: Application of fingers with light pressure to the surface of the body to determine consistence of parts beneath in physical diagnosis; includes palpation for determining the outlines of organs.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Elasticity Imaging Techniques: Non-invasive imaging methods based on the mechanical response of an object to a vibrational or impulsive force. It is used for determining the viscoelastic properties of tissue, and thereby differentiating soft from hard inclusions in tissue such as microcalcifications, and some cancer lesions. Most techniques use ultrasound to create the images - eliciting the response with an ultrasonic radiation force and/or recording displacements of the tissue by Doppler ultrasonography.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Gadolinium DTPA: A complex of gadolinium with a chelating agent, diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA see PENTETIC ACID), that is given to enhance the image in cranial and spinal MRIs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p706)Leukoplakia, Oral: A white patch seen on the oral mucosa. It is considered a premalignant condition and is often tobacco-induced. When evidence of Epstein-Barr virus is present, the condition is called hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Breast Self-Examination: The inspection of one's breasts, usually for signs of disease, especially neoplastic disease.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Carcinoma, Lobular: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Cytodiagnosis: Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Sulfur Hexafluoride: Sulfur hexafluoride. An inert gas used mainly as a test gas in respiratory physiology. Other uses include its injection in vitreoretinal surgery to restore the vitreous chamber and as a tracer in monitoring the dispersion and deposition of air pollutants.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Incidental Findings: Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.Carcinoma, Ductal: Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Nipples: The conic organs which usually give outlet to milk from the mammary glands.Mastectomy: Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Breast Implants: Implants used to reconstruct and/or cosmetically enhance the female breast. They have an outer shell or envelope of silicone elastomer and are filled with either saline or silicone gel. The outer shell may be either smooth or textured.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Neoplasms, Ductal, Lobular, and Medullary: Neoplasms, usually carcinoma, located within the center of an organ or within small lobes, and in the case of the breast, intraductally. The emphasis of the name is on the location of the neoplastic tissue rather than on its histological type. Most cancers of this type are located in the breast.Biopsy, Large-Core Needle: The use of needles usually larger than 14-gauge to remove tissue samples large enough to retain cellular architecture for pathology examination.Phyllodes Tumor: A type of connective tissue neoplasm typically arising from intralobular stroma of the breast. It is characterized by the rapid enlargement of an asymmetric firm mobile mass. Histologically, its leaf-like stromal clefts are lined by EPITHELIAL CELLS. Rare phyllodes tumor of the prostate is also known.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Tolonium Chloride: A phenothiazine that has been used as a hemostatic, a biological stain, and a dye for wool and silk. Tolonium chloride has also been used as a diagnostic aid for oral and gastric neoplasms and in the identification of the parathyroid gland in thyroid surgery.Image-Guided Biopsy: Conducting a biopsy procedure with the aid of a MEDICAL IMAGING modality.Papilloma, Intraductal: A small, often impalpable benign papilloma arising in a lactiferous duct and frequently causing bleeding from the nipple. (Stedman, 25th ed)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Apocrine Glands: Large, branched, specialized sweat glands that empty into the upper portion of a HAIR FOLLICLE instead of directly onto the SKIN.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Gynecomastia: Enlargement of the BREAST in the males, caused by an excess of ESTROGENS. Physiological gynecomastia is normally observed in NEWBORNS; ADOLESCENT; and AGING males.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Mastectomy, Segmental: Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Mammary Glands, Human: Glandular tissue in the BREAST of human that is under the influence of hormones such as ESTROGENS; PROGESTINS; and PROLACTIN. In WOMEN, after PARTURITION, the mammary glands secrete milk (MILK, HUMAN) for the nourishment of the young.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Thyroid Nodule: A small circumscribed mass in the THYROID GLAND that can be of neoplastic growth or non-neoplastic abnormality. It lacks a well-defined capsule or glandular architecture. Thyroid nodules are often benign but can be malignant. The growth of nodules can lead to a multinodular goiter (GOITER, NODULAR).Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Mastitis: INFLAMMATION of the BREAST, or MAMMARY GLAND.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Tomography, Optical: Projection of near-IR light (INFRARED RAYS), in the 700-1000 nm region, across an object in parallel beams to an array of sensitive photodetectors. This is repeated at various angles and a mathematical reconstruction provides three dimensional MEDICAL IMAGING of tissues. Based on the relative transparency of tissues to this spectra, it has been used to monitor local oxygenation, brain and joints.Frozen Sections: Thinly cut sections of frozen tissue specimens prepared with a cryostat or freezing microtome.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Mouth Mucosa: Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Nevus: A circumscribed stable malformation of the skin and occasionally of the oral mucosa, which is not due to external causes and therefore presumed to be of hereditary origin.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi: A technetium imaging agent used to reveal blood-starved cardiac tissue during a heart attack.Genes, BRCA1: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Nevus, Pigmented: A nevus containing melanin. The term is usually restricted to nevocytic nevi (round or oval collections of melanin-containing nevus cells occurring at the dermoepidermal junction of the skin or in the dermis proper) or moles, but may be applied to other pigmented nevi.Mouth DiseasesMass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Hamartoma: A focal malformation resembling a neoplasm, composed of an overgrowth of mature cells and tissues that normally occur in the affected area.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Skin DiseasesCysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Solitary Pulmonary Nodule: A single lung lesion that is characterized by a small round mass of tissue, usually less than 1 cm in diameter, and can be detected by chest radiography. A solitary pulmonary nodule can be associated with neoplasm, tuberculosis, cyst, or other anomalies in the lung, the CHEST WALL, or the PLEURA.Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Interventional: Minimally invasive procedures guided with the aid of magnetic resonance imaging to visualize tissue structures.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Hemangioma: A vascular anomaly due to proliferation of BLOOD VESSELS that forms a tumor-like mass. The common types involve CAPILLARIES and VEINS. It can occur anywhere in the body but is most frequently noticed in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE. (from Stedman, 27th ed, 2000)Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Mammaplasty: Surgical reconstruction of the breast including both augmentation and reduction.Milk, HumanLichen Planus, Oral: Oral lesions accompanying cutaneous lichen planus or often occurring alone. The buccal mucosa, lips, gingivae, floor of the mouth, and palate are usually affected (in a descending order of frequency). Typically, oral lesions consist of radiating white or gray, velvety, threadlike lines, arranged in a reticular pattern, at the intersection of which there may be minute, white, elevated dots or streaks (Wickham's striae). (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry)Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Estrogen Receptor alpha: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.Leukoplakia: A white patch lesion found on a MUCOUS MEMBRANE that cannot be scraped off. Leukoplakia is generally considered a precancerous condition, however its appearance may also result from a variety of HEREDITARY DISEASES.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.MCF-7 Cells: An estrogen responsive cell line derived from a patient with metastatic human breast ADENOCARCINOMA (at the Michigan Cancer Foundation.)Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Nucleolus Organizer Region: The chromosome region which is active in nucleolus formation and which functions in the synthesis of ribosomal RNA.Photography, Dental: Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Axilla: Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Gamma Cameras: Electronic instruments that produce photographs or cathode-ray tube images of the gamma-ray emissions from organs containing radionuclide tracers.BRCA2 Protein: A large, nuclear protein, encoded by the BRCA2 gene (GENE, BRCA2). Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. The BRCA2 protein is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev. 2000;14(11):1400-6)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Keratosis, Seborrheic: Benign eccrine poromas that present as multiple oval, brown-to-black plaques, located mostly on the chest and back. The age of onset is usually in the fourth or fifth decade.Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in cardiovascular and cerebral circulation.Breast Implantation: Surgical insertion of an inert sac filled with silicone or other material to augment the female form cosmetically.Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.BRCA1 Protein: The phosphoprotein encoded by the BRCA1 gene (GENE, BRCA1). In normal cells the BRCA1 protein is localized in the nucleus, whereas in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and in malignant pleural effusions from breast cancer patients, it is localized mainly in the cytoplasm. (Science 1995;270(5237):713,789-91)Mandibular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MANDIBLE.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Soft Tissue Neoplasms: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis: An autosomal recessive trait with impaired cell-mediated immunity. About 15 human papillomaviruses are implicated in associated infection, four of which lead to skin neoplasms. The disease begins in childhood with red papules and later spreads over the body as gray or yellow scales.Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Genes, BRCA2: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human chromosome 13 at locus 13q12.3. Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. It encodes a large, nuclear protein that is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev 2000;14(11):1400-6)Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Eyelid Neoplasms: Tumors of cancer of the EYELIDS.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Spinal NeoplasmsNeoplasms, Hormone-Dependent: Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Fluorine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Carcinoma, Basal Cell: A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)Genes, erbB-2: The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Subtraction Technique: Combination or superimposition of two images for demonstrating differences between them (e.g., radiograph with contrast vs. one without, radionuclide images using different radionuclides, radiograph vs. radionuclide image) and in the preparation of audiovisual materials (e.g., offsetting identical images, coloring of vessels in angiograms).Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms: Breast neoplasms that do not express ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS; and do not overexpress the NEU RECEPTOR/HER-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Inflammatory Breast Neoplasms: Metastatic breast cancer characterized by EDEMA and ERYTHEMA of the affected breast due to LYMPHATIC METASTASIS and eventual obstruction of LYMPHATIC VESSELS by the cancer cells.Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A malignancy arising in uterine cervical epithelium and confined thereto, representing a continuum of histological changes ranging from well-differentiated CIN 1 (formerly, mild dysplasia) to severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, CIN 3. The lesion arises at the squamocolumnar cell junction at the transformation zone of the endocervical canal, with a variable tendency to develop invasive epidermoid carcinoma, a tendency that is enhanced by concomitant human papillomaviral infection. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Estrogen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the GALLBLADDER; generally caused by impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, or other diseases.Iodides: Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Aromatase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.Adenolymphoma: A benign tumor characterized histologically by tall columnar epithelium within a lymphoid tissue stroma. It is usually found in the salivary glands, especially the parotid.Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
... lesion. Precancer Features of EIN (Table I). The cells of an EIN lesion are genetically different than normal and malignant ... The spectrum of disease which must be distinguished from EIN (Table II) includes benign endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma: ... Diagnosis of EIN lesions is of clinical importance because of the increased risk of coexisting (39% of women with EIN will be ... WHO Classification of Tumors: Pathology and Genetics of Tumors of the Breast and Female Genital Organs. Lyon, France: IARC ...
A clone is usually distinguished through inheritance of a distinctive genetic lesion (mutation) that occurred in the ancestor ... which may be benign neoplasms) or else a malignant neoplasm (cancer). These neoplasms are also indicated, in the diagram below ... "Measurement of steroid hormone receptors in breast cancer patients on tamoxifen". Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 26 (3): 237-46. doi ... "Characterization of TMPRSS2-ETS Gene Aberrations in Androgen Independent Metastatic Prostate Cancer". Cancer Res. 68 (10): ...
Malignant rhabdoid tumors are rare, highly aggressive neoplasms found most commonly in infants and young children. Due to their ... Copy number gains in germline samples may be disease-associated or may be a benign copy number variant. When seen in tumor ... Because this type of lesion cannot be detected by arrayCGH, FISH, or conventional cytogenetics, SNP-based arrays are preferred ... SNP array karyotyping can be used to distinguish, for example, a medulloblastoma with an isochromosome 17q from a primary ...
Many are benign, while some are malignant. They most commonly occur in the intestine, where they are often called carcinoid ... The spheres not only block blood flow to the lesions, but by halting the chemotherapy agents in the neighborhood of the lesions ... Soga, J.; Osaka, M.; Yakuwa, Y. (2001). "Gut-endocrinomas (carcinoids and related endocrine variants) of the breast: An ... Nonetheless, these systems all distinguish between well-differentiated (low and intermediate-grade) and poorly differentiated ( ...
Lesion Characterization: contrast-enhanced ultrasound plays a role in the differentiation between benign and malignant focal ... It is mainly used to characterize liver lesions that cannot be properly identified using conventional (b-mode) ultrasound. The ... In this way, the bloodstream's echo is enhanced, thus allowing the clinician to distinguish blood from surrounding tissues. ... Unspecific cortical lesion on CT is confirmed cystic and benign with contrast-enhanced renal ultrasonography using image fusion ...
A breast cyst is a fluid-filled sac within the breast. One breast can have one or more breast cysts. They are often described as round or oval lumps with distinct edges. In texture, a breast cyst usually feels like a soft grape or a water-filled balloon, but sometimes a breast cyst feels firm. Breast cysts can be painful and may be worrisome but are generally benign. They are most common in pre-menopausal women in their 30s or 40s. They usually disappear after menopause, but may persist or reappear when using hormone therapy. They are also common in adolescents. Breast cysts can be part of fibrocystic disease. The pain and swelling is usually worse in the second half of the menstrual cycle or during pregnancy. Treating ...
16α-Hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone (16α-hydroxy-DHEA or 16α-OH-DHEA) is an endogenous metabolite of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Both 16α-OH-DHEA and its 3β-sulfate ester, 16α-OH-DHEA-S, are intermediates in the biosynthesis of estriol from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). 16α-OH-DHEA has estrogenic activity. 15α-Hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone 16α-Hydroxyandrostenedione 16α-Hydroxyestrone Cetadiol Raju U, Bradlow HL, Levitz M (1990). "Estriol-3-sulfate in human breast cyst fluid. Concentrations, possible origin, and physiologic implications". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 586: 83-7. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1990.tb17793.x. PMID 2141460. Miller KK, Al-Rayyan N, Ivanova MM, Mattingly KA, Ripp SL, Klinge CM, Prough RA (2013). "DHEA metabolites activate estrogen receptors alpha and beta". Steroids. 78 (1): 15-25. doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2012.10.002. PMC 3529809 . PMID 23123738 ...
The master regulators of breast development are the steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, growth hormone (GH), mostly via its secretory product, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and prolactin.[1] These regulators induce the expression of growth factors, such as amphiregulin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), IGF-1, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF), which in turn have specific roles in breast growth and maturation.[1] At puberty, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) begins to be secreted, in a pulsatile manner, from the hypothalamus.[2][3] GnRH, in turn, induces the secretion of the gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), from the pituitary gland.[2][3] These hormones travel to the ovaries through the bloodstream and cause estrogen and progesterone to be produced by them and released into the body in fluctuating amounts with each menstrual cycle.[2][3] Growth hormone (GH), which is secreted ...
... , also referred to as metastases, advanced breast cancer, secondary tumours, secondaries or stage 4 breast cancer, is a stage of breast cancer where the disease has spread to distant sites beyond the axillary lymph nodes. There is no cure for metastatic breast cancer. There is no stage after IV. It usually occurs several years after the primary breast cancer, although it is sometimes diagnosed at the same time as the primary breast cancer or, rarely, before the primary breast cancer has been diagnosed. Metastatic breast cancer cells frequently differ from the preceding primary breast cancer in properties such as receptor status. The cells have often developed resistance to several lines of previous ...
Breast cancer is cancer in the breast. In the world, breast cancer is the fifth-most common cause of cancer death. The first four are lung cancer, stomach cancer, liver cancer, and colon cancer. In 2005, breast cancer caused 502,000 deaths (7% of cancer deaths; almost 1% of all deaths) in the world.[1] Among all women in the world, breast cancer is the most common cancer.[1] In the United States, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and the second most common cause of cancer death in women (after lung cancer). In 2007, breast cancer caused about 40,910 deaths (7% of cancer deaths; almost 2% of all deaths) in the U.S.[2][3] Women in the United States have a 1 in 8 chance of getting breast cancer in their lives. They have a 1 in ...
... is a rare medical condition of the breast connective tissues in which the breasts become excessively large. The condition is often divided based on the severity into two types, macromastia and gigantomastia. Hypertrophy of the breast tissues may be caused by increased histologic sensitivity to certain hormones such as female sex hormones, prolactin, and growth factors. Breast hypertrophy is a benign progressive enlargement, which can occur in both breasts (bilateral) or only in one breast (unilateral). It was first scientifically described in 1648. The indication is a breast weight that exceeds approximately 3% of the total body weight. There are varying definitions of what is considered to be excessive breast tissue, ...
... (male breast neoplasm) is a rare cancer in males that originates from the breast. Many males with breast cancer have inherited a BRCA mutation, but there are other causes, including alcohol abuse and exposure to certain hormones and ionizing radiation. As it presents a similar pathology as female breast cancer, assessment and treatment relies on experiences and guidelines that have been developed in female patients. The optimal treatment is currently not known. As in females, infiltrating ductal carcinoma is the most common type. While intraductal cancer, inflammatory carcinoma, and Paget's disease of the nipple have been described, lobular carcinoma in situ has not been seen in males. Breast cancer in males spreads via lymphatics and blood stream like female breast cancer. Accordingly, the TNM staging ...
One alternative to mammography, Breast MRI or contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has shown substantial progress in the detection of breast cancer. Screening for malignancy in women with greater than 20% lifetime risk of breast cancer. Evaluate breast implants for rupture. Screening the contralateral breast for malignancy in women with known unilateral breast malignancy. Extent of disease and the presence of multifocality and multicentricity in patients with invasive carcinoma and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Evaluate response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The available literature suggests that the sensitivity of contrast-enhanced breast MRI in detection of cancer is considerably higher than that of either radiographic mammography or ultrasound and is ...
... divides breast cancer into categories according to different schemes criteria and serving a different purpose. The major categories are the histopathological type, the grade of the tumor, the stage of the tumor, and the expression of proteins and genes. As knowledge of cancer cell biology develops these classifications are updated. The purpose of classification is to select the best treatment. The effectiveness of a specific treatment is demonstrated for a specific breast cancer (usually by randomized, controlled trials). That treatment may not be effective in a different breast cancer. Some breast cancers are aggressive and life-threatening, and must be treated with aggressive treatments that have major adverse effects. Other breast cancers are less aggressive and can be treated with less aggressive treatments, such as lumpectomy. ...
... (also called hypomastia, breast aplasia, breast hypoplasia, or mammary hypoplasia) is a medical term describing the postpubertal underdevelopment of a woman's breast tissue.[1] Just as it is impossible to define 'normal' breast size, there is no objective definition of micromastia. Breast development is commonly asymmetric and one or both breasts may be small. This condition may be a congenital defect associated with underlying abnormalities of the pectoral muscle (as in Poland's syndrome[2]), related to trauma (typically surgery or radiotherapy) or it may be a more subjective aesthetic description. Self perceived micromastia involves a discrepancy between a person's body image, and her internalized images of appropriate or desirable breast size and shape. Societal ...
... is the medical screening of asymptomatic, apparently healthy women for breast cancer in an attempt to achieve an earlier diagnosis. The assumption is that early detection will improve outcomes. A number of screening tests have been employed, including clinical and self breast exams, mammography, genetic screening, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. A clinical or self breast exam involves feeling the breast for lumps or other abnormalities. Medical evidence, however, does not support its use in women with a typical risk for breast cancer. The use of mammography in universal screening for breast cancer is controversial as it may not reduce all-cause mortality and for causing harms through unnecessary treatments and medical procedures. Many national organizations recommend it for most older women. ...
... (AWBU) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to obtain volumetric ultrasound data of the entire breast. Similarly as the 3D ultrasound technique used for pregnant women, AWBU allows to obtain volumetric image data from ultrasound sonography. With automated whole-breast ultrasound, the ultrasound transducer is guided over the breast in an automatic manner. The position and speed of the transducer is regulated automatically, whereas the angle of incidence and the amount of pressure applied is set by the human operator. The entire breast is scanned in an automated manner, and the procedure yields volumetric image data of the breast. The resulting image data can be read at any convenient time by the radiologist, who is freed from performing the scan. This allows selected scan planes to be visualized, and also allows the data to ...
... or breast stimulation is a common human sexual practice, either by itself or as part of other sexual activities. The practice may be performed upon, or by, people of any gender or sexual orientation. Adult women and men report that breast stimulation may be used to both initiate and enhance sexual arousal. The male or female breast, nipple and areola develop similarly in the fetus and during infancy. At puberty, the male's breasts remain rudimentary but the female's develop further, mainly due to the presence of estrogen and progesterone, and become much more sensitive than the male ones. All breasts have the same number of nerve endings no matter how large they are. Accordingly, smaller breasts are more sensitive while larger breasts may require more forceful ...
... diffusion-weighted breast MRI allows for detection of small lesions and can distinguish between benign and malignant lesions. ... The DESS sequence has potential to be used for breast lesion characterization with the benefit of not requiring exogenous ... High-resolution, three-dimensional diffusion-weighted breast imaging using DESS. Magn Reson Imaging. 2014 May;32(4):330-41. ... In this work, DESS was used to generate high-resolution diffusion-weighted images of the breast with shorter scan times and ...
... size may influence the value of sonographic findings in the differential diagnosis between benign or malignant breast lesions. ... The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether lesion ... findings in distinguishing benign from malignant lesions. The ... lesion size may influence the value of sonographic findings in the differential diagnosis between benign or malignant breast ... usually adopted criteria in sonography have a significantly lower accuracy in characterisation of small lesions. ...
Mechanical imaging yields tissue elasticity map and provides quantitative characterization of a detected pathology. The changes ... of breast mechanical imager for breast lesion characterization and differentiation between benign and malignant lesions. The ... A statistical Bayesian classifier was constructed to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions by utilizing all the ... the capability of mechanical imaging for characterization and differentiation of benign and malignant breast lesions. We ...
... leads to an increased accuracy in distinguishing benign from malignant breast masses and to an improvement in characterization ... Histological examination showed one benign lesion (6.25%) with a mean size of 7 mm and 15 malignant lesions (93.75%) with a ... for suspected benign lesions. RESULTS: Over 36 months, 22 focal testicular lesions (median lesion size, 18 mm; range, 4-36 mm ... No shear wave velocity could be measured in cystic lesions. The rest of the benign lesions showed a mean shear wave velocity of ...
... to aid in the development of CAD methods in a limited database scenario to distinguish between malignant and benign lesions. ... including lesions and/or images). The scheme employs lesion features for characterizing the lesion and includes non-parametric ... A computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme to aid in the detection, characterization, diagnosis, and/or assessment of normal and ... G06T2207/30068-Mammography; Breast Abstract. A computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme to aid in the detection, characterization ...
The diagnostic methods currently used to distinguish between benign and malignant breast lesions are all invasive and often ... of the contrast enhancement of the lesion relative to the control breast is the key to improving lesion characterisation, as ... be used to distinguish between benign and malignant breast lesions. ... and of benign lesions 1.5 cm (1 - 2 cm).. Twenty-nine of the patients with malignant disease underwent breast surgery and the ...
There are multiple studies that utilise DWI and ADC to distinguish malignant from benign breast disease.22,23,24,25,26,27 ... Non-mass-like enhancement on contrast-enhanced breast MR imaging: Lesion characterization using combination of dynamic contrast ... Differentiation between benign and malignant breast lesions using quantitative diffusion-weighted sequence on 3 T MRI. Clin ... The studies that utilised T2SI to discriminate the benign from the malignant breast lesions predominantly focused on the ...
... of your lesion it is highly likely to be benign and unlikely to be a malignant lesion.Having said that even if it is benign why ... is in characterization of ovarian masses especially for distinguishing cystic from complex cystic-solid and solid lesions. Your ... I do not know if you have any family history of ovarian or breast malignancy.(if that is there , then you are a High risk ... I meant we cannot call it malignant based on USG so more like a benign lesion. But like every other test, USG has its own ...
Histoscanning reliably discriminated normal from abnormal tissue and could distinguish between benign and malignant lesions. ... Imaging alone cannot reliably distinguish benign/malignant breast disease or assess the extent of cancer. This study assesses ... Breast histoscanning: the development of a novel technique to improve tissue characterization during breast ultrasound. ... In 15 abnormal testing volumes, the subclassifiers differentiated between malignant and benign tissue. BHS in benign tissue ...
TA in combination with ML might represent a useful diagnostic tool in the evaluation of breast imaging findings in ABUS. ... Lesion (a) was also falsely classified as benign in the comparison between malignant and benign lesions ... Background: Our aims were to determine if features derived from texture analysis (TA) can distinguish normal, benign, and ... algorithm with full and reduced features when used to compare malignant versus benign solid breast lesions on automated breast ...
Our aims were to determine if features derived from texture analysis (TA) can distinguish normal, benign, and malignant tissue ... Diagnostic performance of machine learning applied to texture analysis-derived features for breast lesion characterisation at ... Performance of machine learning software to classify breast lesions using BI-RADS radiomic features on ultrasound images The ... Automatic segmentation and classification of breast lesions through identification of informative multiparametric PET/MRI ...
... of breast mechanical imager for breast lesion characterization and differentiation between benign and malignant lesions. The ... A statistical Bayesian classifier was constructed to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions by utilizing all the ... the capability of mechanical imaging for characterization and differentiation of benign and malignant breast lesions. We ... Malignant breast lesions (histologically confirmed) demonstrated increased hardness and strain hardening as well as decreased ...
... analysis of microwave breast diagnosis systems which use machine learning to learn characteristics of benign and malignant ... Recent microwave breast imaging studies have shown how backscattered signals carry relevant information about the shape of a ... breast cancer often requires invasive biopsies for diagnosis, motivating researchers to design and develop non-invasive and ... Use of Sonography to Distinguish between Benign and Malignant Lesions. Radiology 1995, 196, 123-134. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef ...
... otherwise the lesion was classified as malignant. This tailored diagnostic algorithm was applied uniformly to the lesions in ... including the top and bottom areas of the lesion, when available. Characterization of the immunohistochemical staining was ... 2004) A multigene assay to predict recurrence of tamoxifen-treated node-negative breast cancer. N Engl J Med 351:2817-2826. ... A multi-marker assay to distinguish malignant melanomas from benign nevi. Mohammed Kashani-Sabet, Javier Rangel, Sima Torabian ...
The full repertoire of human microRNAs (miRNAs) that could distinguish common (benign) nevi from cutaneous (malignant) ... Elastography has been used, particularly in the breast, to characterize indeterminate lesions on B-mode imaging as either ... This lesion became visible approximately one month ago; it involved the buccal gingiva and alveolar bone, including the ... In-Depth Characterization of microRNA Transcriptome in Melanoma. Kozubek James - - 2013 ...
... particularly in distinguishing malignant from benign breast lesions. CAD, combined with breast US, could help radiologists ... was developed to aid in the characterization of breast lesions using qualitative assessments of the lesion features in an image ... The role of breast ultrasonography (US) is not limited to simply distinguishing malignant from benign tumors among breast ... Third, the small number of malignant lesions (75 of 521) and the disparity between the number of malignant and benign lesions ...
... utility of mammography is that benign and malignant lesions oftentimes have similar morphology and are difficult to distinguish ... 8(a) and 8(b) which are the respective histograms for non-malignant and malignant breast tissue samples. The information found ... System for characterization and mapping of tissue lesions US6055451A (en) 2000-04-25. Apparatus and method for determining ... it is often difficult to determine whether the correct specimen is being biopsied unless the specimen includes a visible lesion ...
Using ultrasound criteria a lesion can be classified into a BIRADS-US system developed by the ACR with the following ... Solid breast nodules: use of sonography to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions. Radiology. 1995 Jul. 196(1):123-34 ... The image quality and lesion characterization of breast using automated whole-breast ultrasound: A comparison with handheld ... Drugs & Diseases , Clinical Procedures , Breast Ultrasonography Q&A What are the BIRADS-US classifications of lesions on breast ...
Solid breast nodules: use of sonography to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions. Radiology. 1995 Jul. 196(1):123-34 ... The image quality and lesion characterization of breast using automated whole-breast ultrasound: A comparison with handheld ... For a laterally located breast lesion, especially in a woman with large pendulous breasts, an opposite oblique position, with ... Breast cancer detection using automated whole breast ultrasound and mammography in radiographically dense breasts. Eur Radiol. ...
Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound for the differentiation of benign and malignant focal liver lesions: a meta-analysis. Liver Int. ... CEUS was first brought out in 2005 AASLD guidelines as one major characterization techniques of potential HCC lesions, together ... CEUS was reported to be helpful in identifying BI-RADS category 3 or 4 small breast lesions, suggesting the potential utility ... According to our experience, the onset of wash-out of metastatic lesion is in early portal phase, even in the late arterial ...
Mean ADC of malignant lesions was significantly lower (1.02 ± 0.17 x 10-3 mm2/s) compared to benign (1.57 ± 0.26 x 10-3 mm2/s) ... Mean ADC of malignant lesions was significantly lower (1.02 ± 0.17 x 10-3 mm2/s) compared to benign (1.57 ± 0.26 x 10-3 mm2/s) ... to differentiate malignant from benign diseases was arrived by ROC analysis. In 10/59 breast cancer patients, indeterminate DCE ... to differentiate malignant from benign diseases was arrived by ROC analysis. In 10/59 breast cancer patients, indeterminate DCE ...
Solid breast nodules: Use of sonography to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions. Radiology 1995;196(1):123-134. [ ... CONCLUSION: A high proportion (11.0%) of lesions that appeared benign on ultrasound were malignant. The size of the lesion did ... Characterisation of breast lesions on ultrasound, BIRADS categorisation and management recommendations have only been available ... BIRADS 3 lesions are probably benign lesions including non calcified circumscribed lesions.[2] Lesions classified as BIRADS 3 ...
... including 19 benign and 85 malignant lesions, imaged using 3.0-Tesla MRI. The lesion of interest was segmented from the raw ... i) Characterization of breast masses in a multi-sided way dramatically increased prediction performance. The usage of all ... of ADC and other multi-sided characteristics can increase the capability of discriminating malignant and benign breast lesions ... This retrospective study consisted of a training group of 234 female patients, including 85 benign and 149 malignant lesions, ...
ADC is the most important diffusion parameter for distinguishing benign and malignant breast lesions, while anisotropy measures ... Post-hoc analysis revealed varying association of FA with malignancy depending on the lesion type. The combined model (AUC = ... The study included 238 suspicious breast lesions (95 malignant, 143 benign) in 194 women. In univariate analysis, lower ADC, ... Our study evaluates DTI features of suspicious breast lesions detected on MRI to determine the added diagnostic value of DTI ...
3D culture can be effectively used as a means to differentiate the malignant phenotype from the benign breast phenotype and for ... Quantitative Analysis and Characterization of Atherosclerotic Lesions in the Murine Aortic Sinus ... One of the distinguishing characteristics of benign epithelial cells is that they are polarized so that the apical cytoplasm is ... Medicine, Issue 82, atherosclerosis, atherosclerotic lesion, Mouse Model, aortic sinus, tissue preparation and sectioning, ...
  • Background: Quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) is more accurate and precise compared to visual estimate in assessing stenosis severity in single-vessel lesions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Additionally, the quantitative features extracted from co-registered US and photoacoustic images, such as spectral slope, mid-band fit and zero MHz intercept, spatial heterogeneity of PAI distribution, the blood oxygen saturation, have showed significant differences between malignant and benign ovaries. (spie.org)
  • Quantitative data were based on the 61 benign and 148 malignant lymph nodes visualised on PET/CT. (springermedizin.de)
  • Such metrics characterize the shape of the signal-time course curve or describe the rate of increase in signal intensity ( 7 , 8 ), but show poor reproducibility and do not distinguish the effects of blood flow, blood volume, and contrast agent leakage ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • For detecting enhancing lesions and assessing their enhancement patterns over time, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) requires a precontrast and multiple postcontrast sequences (usually three to five). (radiologykey.com)
  • In the validation sets, the multi-marker assay correctly diagnosed a high percentage of melanomas arising in a nevus, Spitz nevi, dysplastic nevi, and misdiagnosed lesions. (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, many of these criteria overlap with atypical but otherwise benign nevi such as dysplastic or Spitz nevi. (pnas.org)
  • S100, HMB-45, MART-1, and MITF) have little utility in distinguishing nevi from melanomas ( 8 - 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • In the process of scoring expression intensity for the first marker in the training set, an intriguing expression pattern in benign nevi was observed, with a systematically stronger staining in the junctional zone of the nevus, along with a loss of expression at the nevus base ( Fig. 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • The full repertoire of human microRNAs (miRNAs) that could distinguish common (benign) nevi from cutaneous (malignant) melanomas remains to be established. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Time-intensity curves of the regions of interest (ROI) placed over the lesional and normal breast tissues were acquired using QLAB software. (scielo.org.za)
  • Advances in MRI techniques help in the precise localization and delineation of the perineural lesions from surrounding tissues with better contrast. (omicsonline.org)
  • 3 cm in women in Johannesburg, South Africa, by age and population group, and establish associations between the histological findings and the size of the lesion and the patient's HIV status and family history. (scielo.org.za)
  • The Dice coefficient, which is a measure of similarity, was calculated for each patient's pair of right and left breast SO 2 images. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Currently, breast cancer often requires invasive biopsies for diagnosis, motivating researchers to design and develop non-invasive and automated diagnosis systems. (mdpi.com)
  • This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of microwave breast diagnosis systems which use machine learning to learn characteristics of benign and malignant tumours. (mdpi.com)
  • Many automated breast diagnosis systems have been proposed, and usually integrate signal or image pre-processing and segmentation, and diagnosis through machine learning [ 15 , 16 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Automated diagnosis systems for microwave breast systems could play a key role in further establishing MBI as an early-stage breast cancer screening and monitoring method. (mdpi.com)
  • Diagnosis of BP neuropathies is challenging as it is difficult to localize the lesion along the course of the plexus both clinically and on electrophysiological studies [ 1 , 2 ]. (omicsonline.org)