Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Fat Emulsions, Intravenous: Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)Emulsifying Agents: SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS that induce a dispersion of undissolved material throughout a liquid.Soybean Oil: Oil from soybean or soybean plant.Optical Rotatory Dispersion: The method of measuring the dispersion of an optically active molecule to determine the relative magnitude of right- or left-handed components and sometimes structural features of the molecule.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Fluorocarbons: Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Parenteral Nutrition: The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Povidone: A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Mineral Oil: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.Poloxamer: A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Chylomicrons: A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)SqualeneHeart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.TriglyceridesBlood Substitutes: Substances that are used in place of blood, for example, as an alternative to BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS after blood loss to restore BLOOD VOLUME and oxygen-carrying capacity to the blood circulation, or to perfuse isolated organs.Lecithins: A complex mixture of PHOSPHOLIPIDS; GLYCOLIPIDS; and TRIGLYCERIDES; with substantial amounts of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES; PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES; and PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS, which are sometimes loosely termed as 1,2-diacyl-3-phosphocholines. Lecithin is a component of the CELL MEMBRANE and commercially extracted from SOYBEANS and EGG YOLK. The emulsifying and surfactant properties are useful in FOOD ADDITIVES and for forming organogels (GELS).X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Parenteral Nutrition, Total: The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Brucea: A plant genus of the family SIMAROUBACEAE. Members contain bruceosides and bruceanols (quassinoids). The astringent seeds have been used to treat dysentery in southeastern Asia.Dosage Forms: Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Parenteral Nutrition Solutions: Specialized solutions for PARENTERAL NUTRITION. They may contain a variety of MICRONUTRIENTS; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; CARBOHYDRATES; LIPIDS; and SALTS.Long QT Syndrome: A condition that is characterized by episodes of fainting (SYNCOPE) and varying degree of ventricular arrhythmia as indicated by the prolonged QT interval. The inherited forms are caused by mutation of genes encoding cardiac ion channel proteins. The two major forms are ROMANO-WARD SYNDROME and JERVELL-LANGE NIELSEN SYNDROME.alpha-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of six (6) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Powder Diffraction: Method of using a polycrystalline powder and Rietveld refinement (LEAST SQUARES ANALYSIS) of X-RAY DIFFRACTION or NEUTRON DIFFRACTION. It circumvents the difficulties of producing single large crystals.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Castor Oil: Oil obtained from seeds of Ricinus communis that is used as a cathartic and as a plasticizer.Polyglycolic Acid: A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Torsades de Pointes: A malignant form of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia that is characterized by HEART RATE between 200 and 250 beats per minute, and QRS complexes with changing amplitude and twisting of the points. The term also describes the syndrome of tachycardia with prolonged ventricular repolarization, long QT intervals exceeding 500 milliseconds or BRADYCARDIA. Torsades de pointes may be self-limited or may progress to VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION.Liquid Crystals: Materials in intermediate state between solid and liquid.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Melanophores: Chromatophores (large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates) which contain melanin. Short term color changes are brought about by an active redistribution of the melanophores pigment containing organelles (MELANOSOMES). Mammals do not have melanophores; however they have retained smaller pigment cells known as MELANOCYTES.Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rheology: The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Polymethacrylic Acids: Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Apolipoprotein C-II: A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. It contains a cofactor for LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE and activates several triacylglycerol lipases. The association of Apo C-II with plasma CHYLOMICRONS; VLDL, and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS is reversible and changes rapidly as a function of triglyceride metabolism. Clinically, Apo C-II deficiency is similar to lipoprotein lipase deficiency (HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I) and is therefore called hyperlipoproteinemia type IB.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Suspensions: Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Refractory Period, Electrophysiological: The period of time following the triggering of an ACTION POTENTIAL when the CELL MEMBRANE has changed to an unexcitable state and is gradually restored to the resting (excitable) state. During the absolute refractory period no other stimulus can trigger a response. This is followed by the relative refractory period during which the cell gradually becomes more excitable and the stronger impulse that is required to illicit a response gradually lessens to that required during the resting state.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Sotalol: An adrenergic beta-antagonist that is used in the treatment of life-threatening arrhythmias.Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ventricular Fibrillation: A potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia that is characterized by uncoordinated extremely rapid firing of electrical impulses (400-600/min) in HEART VENTRICLES. Such asynchronous ventricular quivering or fibrillation prevents any effective cardiac output and results in unconsciousness (SYNCOPE). It is one of the major electrocardiographic patterns seen with CARDIAC ARREST.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Paraffin: A mixture of solid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It has a wide range of uses including as a stiffening agent in ointments, as a lubricant, and as a topical anti-inflammatory. It is also commonly used as an embedding material in histology.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Optical Fibers: Thin strands of transparent material, usually glass, that are used for transmitting light waves over long distances.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cardiac Complexes, Premature: A group of cardiac arrhythmias in which the cardiac contractions are not initiated at the SINOATRIAL NODE. They include both atrial and ventricular premature beats, and are also known as extra or ectopic heartbeats. Their frequency is increased in heart diseases.Apolipoproteins C: A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.Drug Storage: The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Egg Yolk: Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Arshady, R. (1992). "Suspension, Emulsion, and Dispersion Polymerization: A Methodological Survey". Colloid. Polym. Sci. 270: ...
Morrison, Ian; Sydney Ross (2002). Colloidal Dispersions: suspensions, emulsions, and foams. Wiley-Interscience. p. 512. ISBN 0 ... A large portion of the properties of these systems are due to the surface chemistry of particles in dispersion, known as ... These solutions are different from a Colloid in that they are unstable; the solid particles in dispersion are sufficiently ... "Shear Thickening (Dilatancy) in Concentrated Dispersions". AIChE. 36 (3): 321-332. doi:10.1002/aic.690360302. Farr, R. S.; et ...
Abiogenesis Dispersion (soil) Emulsion dispersion Sodification Mineralienatlas Anthony, John W.; Bideaux, Richard A.; Bladh, ...
For dispersions, this is the equilibrium particle size. For emulsions, it is the equilibrium droplet size. The amount of mixing ... When the total fluid is composed of two or more liquids, the final result is an emulsion; when composed of a solid and a liquid ... A high-shear mixer can be used to create emulsions, suspensions, lyosols (gas dispersed in liquid), and granular products. It ... Kissa, Erik (1999). Dispersions; Characarization, Testing, and Measurement. Marcel Dekker, Inc. ...
It is also widely used for characterizing zeta potential in dispersions and emulsions. There is review of the theory of this ... It occurs in colloids, emulsions and other heterogeneous fluids under the influence of an oscillating electric field. This ... "Recent developments in the electroacoustic characterisation of colloidal suspensions and emulsions". Colloids and Surfaces A: ...
... while AKD can be delivered and stored as stable emulsions. ASA emulsions are prepared like AKD dispersions with polycations as ... AKD are at room temperature aqueous dispersions, while ASA are oil-in-water emulsions. The main difference, however, is the ... the retention or fixation of the ASA emulsion droplets on the wet paper pulp bursting the emulsion droplets via spreading on ... Therefore, alkenyl succinic anhydrides can be converted into an emulsion only before the use in the paper machine, ...
Another paper has examined the effects of EGR and Emulsion Fuels Emulsions Emulsion dispersion Microemulsion Miniemulsion ... Emulsions are a particular example of a dispersion comprising a continuous and a dispersed phase. In the case of emulsions both ... Emulsion fuels can be either a microemulsion or an ordinary emulsion (sometimes referred to as macroemulsion, to differentiate ... The type of surfactants and quantities required to make these emulsion fuels sets them apart from other commercial emulsion ...
Along with greater water production are emulsions and dispersions which are more difficult to treat. The separation process ... Other factors that affect the removal of water from oil include hydrate formation and the formation of tight emulsion that may ... or heated free-water knockouts or emulsion treaters can be used to obtain a heated-water bath. Centrifugal force which can be ...
Morrison, Ian; Sydney Ross (2002). Colloidal Dispersions: suspensions, emulsions, and foams. Wiley-Interscience. p. 512. ISBN ... A large portion of the properties of these systems are due to the surface chemistry of particles in dispersion, known as ... These solutions are different from a Colloid in that they are unstable; the solid particles in dispersion are sufficiently ... "Shear Thickening (Dilatancy) in Concentrated Dispersions". AIChE Journal (Submitted manuscript). 36 (3): 321-332. doi:10.1002/ ...
Synthetic latex: Latex obtained as a product of an emulsion, mini-emulsion, micro-emulsion, or dispersion polymerization. The ... Latex is a stable dispersion (emulsion) of polymer microparticles in an aqueous medium. It is found in nature, but synthetic ... Latex as found in nature is a milky fluid found in 10% of all flowering plants (angiosperms). It is a complex emulsion ... Latex: Colloidal dispersion of polymer particles in a liquid. ...
The fluid might be a simple Newtonian liquid, or complex heterogeneous dispersion, emulsion or even a porous body. There are ... It is also widely used for characterizing ζ-potential in dispersions and emulsions. There is review of this effect theory, ... It is widely used for characterizing the ζ-potential of various dispersions and emulsions. The effect, theory, experimental ... such as a dispersion or emulsion. Electric sonic amplitude (ESA), the inverse of the CVI effect, in which an acoustic field ...
The creation of a variety of dispersions such as pseudolatexes, silicone emulsions, and biodegradable polymeric nanocapsules, ... Emulsions have many commercial uses. A large range of prepared food products, detergents, and body-care products take the form ... Oil-in-water emulsions are not stable. Oil droplets coalesce until complete phase separation is achieved at macroscopic levels ... showed that the droplets of oil in the emulsion grow by Ostwald ripening, and that droplets do not coalesce. The Ostwald ...
The paint type known as Emulsion in the UK and Latex in the United States is a water-borne dispersion of sub-micrometer polymer ... These dispersions are prepared by emulsion polymerization. Such paints cure by a process called coalescence where first the ... Emulsion paints are water-based paints in which the paint material is dispersed in a liquid that consists mainly of water. For ... Egg tempera (where the medium is an emulsion of raw egg yolk mixed with oil) is still in use as well, as are encaustic wax- ...
... particle dispersion and emulsions. SAXS instrument manufacturers include Anton Paar GmbH, Austria; Bruker AXS, Germany; Hecus X ...
... include frequently unstable spherules which may be produced by the dispersion of two immiscible fluids forming an emulsion. ... Usually this term is applied to air-water emulsions, but it is also valid for water-air (hazes, drops) or other liquid fluids ( ...
Polymer dispersion adhesives are milky-white dispersions often based on polyvinyl acetate (PVAc). They are used extensively in ... Synthetic adhesives are based on elastomers, thermoplastics, emulsions, and thermosets. Examples of thermosetting adhesives are ... There are two types of adhesives that harden by drying: solvent-based adhesives and polymer dispersion adhesives, also known as ... emulsion adhesives. Solvent-based adhesives are a mixture of ingredients (typically polymers) dissolved in a solvent. White ...
... a current method used to produce parenteral emulsions. This process can ultimately form a uniform dispersion of small droplets ... SLNs can be made by replacing the liquid lipid oil used in the emulsion process with a solid lipid. In solid lipid ... Another form for nanoparticle delivery systems is oil-in-water emulsions done on a nano-scale. This process uses common ...
The successful formulation of suspensions, emulsions and tablets; both physical stability and pharmacologic response also ... the better the physical stability of the dosage form owing to the Brownian motion of the particles in the dispersion. Good flow ... influence the physical stability of the suspensions and emulsions. The smaller the size of the particle, ...
In emulsions a phase inversion is when the dispersed phase becomes the dispersion medium and the dispersion medium becomes the ...
Dispersion medium Gas No such colloids are known. Helium and xenon are known to be immiscible under certain conditions.[8][9] ... Emulsion. Examples: milk (fat fraction), mayonnaise, hand cream; latex. Sol. Examples: milk (protein fraction), pigmented ink, ... Storing a dispersion at high temperatures enables to simulate real life conditions for a product (e.g. tube of sunscreen cream ... Homogeneous mixtures with a dispersed phase in this size range may be called colloidal aerosols, colloidal emulsions, colloidal ...
... emulsions such as mayonnaise, and some kinds of dispersions An inexpensive, non-toxic example of a non-Newtonian fluid is a ... p. 8. ISBN 978-0-387-70929-1. Schramm, Laurier L. (2005). Emulsions, Foams, and Suspensions: Fundamentals and Applications. ...
... the water-soluble flavor extracts with the continuous oil phase of the emulsion resulted in a slower rate of flavor dispersion ... This dispersion is then fed through a spinneret, a device used to extrude a polymer solution to form fibers, and deposited into ... The emulsion in this instance is a water-in-oil one. Studies have shown that by surrounding ... The process begins through the dispersion of proteins into a dispersing medium such as an alkaline aqueous solution. ...
Water in foods Local structure in liquid water Micro-crystallization in ice cream emulsions Dispersion and surface-adsorption ... in foods Hydrogen bonding and ionic interactions in foods Disulfide bond breaking and formation in foods Food dispersions ...
Spray drying is a gentle method for producing powders with a defined particle size out of solutions, dispersions, and emulsions ...
... recently the term has been restricted to products consisting of oil-in-water emulsions or aqueous microcrystalline dispersions ... Creams are semi-solid emulsions of oil and water. They are divided into two types: oil-in-water (O/W) creams which are composed ... There are four main ingredients of the cold cream: Water Oil Emulsifier Thickening agent Cream - Emulsion of oil and water in ...
Unfortunately, colloidal dispersions such as the pigment dispersions in liquid coatings are inherently unstable, and they must ... They can also delay the formation of persistent oil-in-water emulsions. However, laboratory experiments showed that dispersants ...
Emulsions are thermodynamically unstable liquid/liquid dispersions that are stabilized. Emulsion dispersion is not about ... In emulsion dispersion system the preparation of well-fined polymers droplets may be acquired by the use of water as dispersing ... Emulsion dispersion was able to produce homogeneous low-density polyethylene (LDPE)/LNR blends and nylon 6/LNR blends. Results ... An emulsion dispersion is thermoplastics or elastomers suspended in a waterphase with help of emulsifiers. ...
Colloidal dispersions : suspensions, emulsions, and foams. [Ian Douglas Morrison; Sydney Ross] -- From the basics to the most ... recent developments - A concise review of suspensions, emulsions, and foams Updating and expanding their highly popular ... Colloidal dispersions : suspensions, emulsions, and foams. Author:. Ian Douglas Morrison; Sydney Ross. ... schema:name "Colloidal dispersions : suspensions, emulsions, and foams"@en ;. schema:productID "49326810" ;. schema:publication ...
Akron Dispersions, Holland Applied Technologies - published on openPR.com ... Global Emulsions and Dispersions Market 2017 - Dow, Addivant, Sasol Wax, ... Emulsions and Dispersions market in the United States, Emulsions and Dispersions market in Europe, Emulsions and Dispersions ... Emulsions and Dispersions Global Market 2018: Key Players - Dow, Addivant, Sas … Emulsions and Dispersions Industry Description ...
... emulsions, and foams Updating and expanding their highly popular Colloidal... ... Dispersion Stability.. 21. Polymeric Stabilization.. 22. Emulsions.. 23. Foams.. 24. Technology of Suspensions.. 25. Special ... Electrical Charges in Dispersions.. 18. Forces of Attraction Between Particles.. 19. Forces of Repulsion.. 20. ... From the basics to the most recent developments- A concise review of suspensions, emulsions, and foams. Updating and expanding ...
The invention further relates to dispersions of said emulsions in an aqueous or organic phase and use of said emulsions and ... which is either the continuous or dispersed phase of the emulsion, is a silicone. The emulsion is further stabilized by at ... The invention relates to emulsions comprising two non-aqueous, immiscible liquids, (L1) and (L2), whereby the liquid (L1), ... dispersions in the field of cosmetic and/or dermatological formulations ...
The use of smectite clay as a suspending agent in a dispersion can... ... The use of smectite clay as a suspending agent in a dispersion can ... Vanderbilt Co.The stabilization of an aqueous dispersion can be very challenging, particularly if it has a high solids content ... Vanderbilt Co.The stabilization of an aqueous dispersion can be very challenging, particularly if it has a high solids content ...
... yet the separation efficiency of an oil emulsion was compromised due to the ... In situ effective separation of oil pollutants including oil spills and oil emulsions from water is an emerging technology yet ... Anomalous dispersion of magnetic spiky particles for enhanced oil emulsions/water separation H. Chen, T. Hang, C. Yang, G. Liu ... Anomalous dispersion of magnetic spiky particles for enhanced oil emulsions/water separation ...
United States Emulsion & Dispersion Adhesives & Sealants: United States This report forecasts US emulsion and dispersion ... Emulsion & Dispersion Adhesives & Sealants: United States. This report forecasts US emulsion and dispersion adhesive and ... Emulsion & Dispersion Adhesives & Sealants: United States. Lowest Prices Guaranteed. Length. Publisher. Published Date. SKU. ... Chart 1 , US Emulsion & Dispersion Adhesive & Sealant Demand Trends, 2004-2014 (mil lbs). Table 1 , Key Indicators for US ...
... improved mechanical and shear stability comprising emulsion polymerizing at least one ethylenically unsaturated monomer having ... that is readily andsuccessfully incorporated into the dispersions or lattices by the emulsion polymerization of monomers having ... an aqueous emulsion comprising:. (a) a polymer of at least one ethylenically unsaturated monomer; and. (b) an amount effective ... an aqueous emulsion comprising:. (a) a polymer of at least one ethylenically unsaturated monomer selected from the group ...
EMULSION PIGMENT YELLOW 1511 ( YELLOW 3 ) PIGMENT YELLOW 1517 ( YELLOW 1 ) PIGMENT YELLOW 1547 ( YELLOW 74 ) PIGMENT ORANGE ... PIGMENT PASTE / EMULSION PIGMENT YELLOW 1511 ( YELLOW 3 ) PIGMENT YELLOW 1517 ( YELLOW 1 ) PIGMENT YELLOW 1547 ( YELLOW 74 ) ...
A new standardized lipolysis approach for characterization of emulsions and dispersions. Research output: Contribution to ... the method can be used to obtain information about the susceptibility to degradation of various emulsions and dispersions that ...
This class of emulsion has no charge and an ethoxylated nonyl phenol or alcohol is the most suitable choice ( with an ... These emulsions have a positive charge and as a consequence, exhaust very well onto negatively charged surfaces. The preferred ... There are a number of different ways of preparing polyethylene emulsions, the most widely used being the wax to water method ... These are stable and fine particle sized ( typically 0.05 microns ) dispersions of oxidized polyethylene wax ( MARCUS 3400 & ...
... * Home ... Multiphase polymer dispersions and nanocomposites by catalytic/free radical emulsion polymerization. Publikationstyp:. ... Multiphase polymer dispersions and nanocomposites by catalytic/free radical emulsion polymerization. In: Macromolecular Rapid ... Multiphase_polymer_dispersions_and_nanocomposites_by_catalytic_free_radical_emulsion_polymerization.pdf. 90. ...
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Tag - Emulsions and Dispersions Market Sale & Price. Business Global Emulsions and Dispersions Market Analysis.... 11 months ...
Our vocation in R&D allows us to be at the forefront of innovation in the mixing sector. The CDTI projects commissioned by the Ministry of Industry are a fundamental key to realize our desire for innovation and continuous improvement. We are currently working on two CDTI projects in the field of suspension maintenance and digitalization 4.0.. ...
... microgel dispersion. (B2) AEM-emulsion made from Sudan-Blue-dyed-heptane and a 1 wt.% microgel dispersion. (C2) Mixed emulsion ... microgel dispersion. (C1) Mixed emulsion made from mixing equal volumes of the MAA- and the AEM- emulsions. (Bottom) Emulsions ... Similarly, we prepare the second emulsion, AEM-emulsion, with Sudan-Blue-dyed heptane and microgel dispersion M2, which ... Bulk Emulsion Mixing.. We obtain stable emulsions with oppositely charged droplets in two steps: First, we prepare an emulsion ...
Protective clothing - Determination of resistance to penetration by sprayed liquid chemicals, emulsions and dispersions - ...
A process for producing a silver halide photographic emulsion by supplying a solution of a water-soluble silver salt and a ... 1 to 3 were prepared using emulsions Em - 1 to Em - 3. Dispersion (M - 1). ... and the dispersion so obtained is added to the emulsion. The individual sensitizing dyes may be dissolved in the same solvent ... of the silver halide emulsion. They may also be added at a suitable stage that precedes the coating of the emulsion onto a ...
... to a process for preparing submicron sized nanoparticles of a poorly water soluble compound by lyophilizing a dispersion or ... The present invention further contemplates utilizing reverse emulsions or water in oil emulsion (W/O) where the oil phase forms ... The crude dispersion was homogenized at 15,000 to 20,000 psi at room temperature to form a fine dispersion. The fine dispersion ... providing energy to the crude dispersion to form a microdroplet or fine dispersion; (3) freezing the fine dispersion; and (4) ...
A wide variety of hydraulic dispersion machines options are available to you, such as key selling points, local service ... Alibaba.com offers 1,465 hydraulic dispersion machines products. About 41% of these are Mixing Equipment, 0% are Plastic ... 1000L Emulsion Paint dispersion machine High speed Dissolver Hydraulic lifting high speed disperser paint mixing machine ... Hydraulic Dispersion Machine Hydraulic Dispersion Machine Double Shaft High Speed Hydraulic Lift Paint Dispersion Mixer Machine ...
... emulsions, crystallizations, precipitation, polymerizations, dissolutions, emulsifications, and homogenizations ... l & l* mean path length of photons in the dispersion (in mm) ... in the dispersion:. l (for transmission) and l* (for ... Multiple light scattering analysis of concentrated dispersions The optical sensor consists of a pulsed near-infrared light ...
... emulsion and dispersion, hot melt, reactive, solvent-based) and market (e.g., packaging, manufacturing and assembly, ... 4.3.6 Other Emulsions & Dispersions. Other Emulsions & Dispersions. $82.00. *. Table , OTHER EMULSION & DISPERSION ADHESIVES & ... 4.3 Emulsion & Dispersion. Emulsion & Dispersion. $528.00. *. Table , EMULSION & DISPERSION ADHESIVES & SEALANTS DEMAND ( ... Polyvinyl Alcohol Dispersion Adhesives Demand by Market. Other Emulsion & Dispersion Adhesives & Sealants Demand by Type & ...
Emulsion; Vinyl Acetate Ethylene (VAE) Emulsion; Styrene Butadiene (SB) Latex; Polyurethane Dispersion (PUD); 2) By Application ... Emulsion Vinyl Acetate Ethylene (VAE) Emulsion Styrene Butadiene (SB) Latex Polyurethane Dispersion (PUD) 4.2. Global Water- ... Emulsion; Vinyl Acetate Ethylene (VAE) Emulsion; Styrene Butadiene (SB) Latex; Polyurethane Dispersion (PUD); 2) By Application ... Emulsion; Vinyl Acetate Ethylene (VAE) Emulsion; Styrene Butadiene (SB) Latex; Polyurethane Dispersion (PUD) 2) By Application ...
  • These emulsion stabilizers usually provide electrostatic repulsion, steric repulsion, and/or strength to the interfacial layer of the droplets, according to widely accepted theories. (pnas.org)
  • In this study, novel, abundant biobased hydrocolloids spruce galactoglucomannans (GGM) and birch glucuronoxylans (GX) were obtained from a forestry biorefining process and characterized as versatile stabilizers of rapeseed oil-in-water emulsions. (rsc.org)
  • 2 We recently characterized novel, highly abundant, but unexploited forestry biorefinery products, namely, spruce galactoglucomannans (GGM), as efficient natural stabilizers of rapeseed oil-in-water emulsions. (rsc.org)
  • On the other hand, polydisperse silver iodobromide twinned grains are conventionally used to prepare emulsions adapted to high-sensitivity photographic films. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • to plastic film lamination Brief introduction: It is water based acrylic emulsion dispersion, worked as laminating adhesive, for laminating printing paper with plastic films such as OPP, BOPP , PET , MPET films . (chinaqualitycrafts.com)
  • Celanese Corporation said it will increase the price of all emulsions-vinyl acetate/ethylene (VAE), vinyl acrylic, pure acrylic, PVAc homopolymers and other copolymers-sold in the Americas by $0.03 / wet pound, effective February 20, 2012, or as contracts allow. (coatingsworld.com)
  • Many heretofore known invert emulsions have been sensitive to at least one or more contaminants and have exhibited a tendency to flip to the oil-in-water type of emulsion or to degrade in desirable properties, such as fluid loss or viscosity. (google.co.uk)
  • 5) Rheological properties: The invert emulsion should have viscosity and gel strength characteristics suitable for its intended use and controllable by addition of oil or water or by simple chemical treatment. (google.co.uk)
  • GGM and GX lowered the surface tension of emulsions' oil-water interface and increased the viscosity of the continuous phase. (rsc.org)
  • Two special classes of emulsions - microemulsions and nanoemulsions, with droplet sizes below 100 nm - appear translucent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the visible spectrum of light is composed of wavelengths between 390 and 750 nanometers (nm), if the droplet sizes in the emulsion are below about 100 nm, the light can penetrate through the emulsion without being scattered. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the membrane the droplets break up in smaller droplets resulting in an emulsion with a small droplet size distribution (monodisperse). (wur.nl)
  • The PHWE wood hemicelluloses-polysaccharides with relatively low molar mass-facilitated the formation of emulsions with small average droplet size and efficiently prevented droplet coalescence. (rsc.org)
  • In another aspect it relates to compositions and methods for forming invert emulsions having very high tolerance towards clay solids and other contaminants. (google.co.uk)
  • Double emulsions of the water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) type have application in the formulation of reduced-fat food products and as vehicles for encapsulation and delivery of nutrients during food digestion. (springer.com)
  • Rheology of Emulsions, Vol 22. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • This commitment has resulted in mixing-centric advancements, such as a mixing-specific intuitive graphical user interface, as well as a set of advanced models that account for particle dispersion, complex impeller rotations, the resolution of micro- and misso-mixing scales, complex rheology, and non-Newtonian fluid analyses for creeping or highly viscous flows. (ansys.com)