Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.
Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Radiography of the central nervous system.
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the nervous system, central and peripheral, or demonstration of neurologic function or dysfunction.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
Study of the anatomy of the nervous system as a specialty or discipline.
One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A prodromal phase of cognitive decline that may precede the emergence of ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other dementias. It may include impairment of cognition, such as impairments in language, visuospatial awareness, ATTENTION and MEMORY.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.
Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.
A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)
The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.
A characteristic symptom complex.
Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
A comprehensive map of the physical interconnections of an organism's neural networks. This modular organization of neuronal architecture is believed to underlie disease mechanisms and the biological development of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A branch of psychology which investigates the correlation between experience or behavior and the basic neurophysiological processes. The term neuropsychology stresses the dominant role of the nervous system. It is a more narrowly defined field than physiological psychology or psychophysiology.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.
A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, (September 2, 1998)).
Sudden temporary alterations in the normally integrative functions of consciousness.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.
An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A discipline concerned with relations between messages and the characteristics of individuals who select and interpret them; it deals directly with the processes of encoding (phonetics) and decoding (psychoacoustics) as they relate states of messages to states of communicators.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.
Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
Lists of words to which individuals are asked to respond ascertaining the conceptual meaning held by the individual.
Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Organic mental disorders in which there is impairment of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment and to respond to environmental stimuli. Dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres or brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION may result in this condition.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.
Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.
Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.
Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.
Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs, desires, feelings, intentions, thoughts, etc.) to self and to others, allowing an individual to understand and infer behavior on the basis of the mental states. Difference or deficit in theory of mind is associated with ASPERGER SYNDROME; AUTISTIC DISORDER; and SCHIZOPHRENIA, etc.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Involuntary, forcible, rapid, jerky movements that may be subtle or become confluent, markedly altering normal patterns of movement. Hypotonia and pendular reflexes are often associated. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of chorea as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as CHOREATIC DISORDERS. Chorea is also a frequent manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.
A disorder associated with three or more of the following: eating until feeling uncomfortably full; eating large amounts of food when not physically hungry; eating much more rapidly than normal; eating alone due to embarrassment; feeling of disgust, DEPRESSION, or guilt after overeating. Criteria includes occurrence on average, at least 2 days a week for 6 months. The binge eating is not associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behavior (i.e. purging, excessive exercise, etc.) and does not co-occur exclusively with BULIMIA NERVOSA or ANOREXIA NERVOSA. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.
The most common clinical form of FRONTOTEMPORAL LOBAR DEGENERATION, this dementia presents with personality and behavioral changes often associated with disinhibition, apathy, and lack of insight.
Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)
Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
An infant during the first month after birth.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
An irrational reaction compounded of grief, loss of self-esteem, enmity against the rival and self criticism.
The study of the physiological basis of human and animal behavior.
A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)
Brain disorders resulting from inborn metabolic errors, primarily from enzymatic defects which lead to substrate accumulation, product reduction, or increase in toxic metabolites through alternate pathways. The majority of these conditions are familial, however spontaneous mutation may also occur in utero.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
A disorder whose predominant feature is a loss or alteration in physical functioning that suggests a physical disorder but that is actually a direct expression of a psychological conflict or need.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
The life of a person written by himself or herself. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.
Stimulation at an intensity below that where a differentiated response can be elicited.
Acquired and inherited conditions that feature DYSTONIA as a primary manifestation of disease. These disorders are generally divided into generalized dystonias (e.g., dystonia musculorum deformans) and focal dystonias (e.g., writer's cramp). They are also classified by patterns of inheritance and by age of onset.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
Vegetative state refers to the neurocognitive status of individuals with severe brain damage, in whom physiologic functions (sleep-wake cycles, autonomic control, and breathing) persist, but awareness (including all cognitive function and emotion) is abolished.
Collections of illustrative plates, charts, etc., usually with explanatory captions.
Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.
Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.
A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)
Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.
Pathological processes or diseases where cerebral MICROVESSELS show abnormalities. They are often associated with aging, hypertension and risk factors for lacunar infarcts (see LACUNAR INFARCTION); LEUKOARAIOSIS; and CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Measurable biological (physiological, biochemical, and anatomical features), behavioral (psychometric pattern) or cognitive markers that are found more often in individuals with a disease than in the general population. Because many endophenotypes are present before the disease onset and in individuals with heritable risk for disease such as unaffected family members, they can be used to help diagnose and search for causative genes.
Computed tomography angiography Transcranial doppler sonography Campeau; Huston (2012). "Vascular disorders-magnetic resonance ... angiography: Brain vessels". Neuroimaging Clin. N. Am. 22 (2): 207-33, x. doi:10.1016/j.nic.2012.02.006. PMID 22548929. Hartung ...
"NeuroImage. Clinical. 18: 744-752. doi:10.1016/j.nicl.2018.02.020. PMC 5988460. PMID 29876263.. ... Stereotypic movement disorder[2]. *Mood disorders (especially bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder). Boys diagnosed ... Normally active young child, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, learning disorder, bipolar disorder[6]. ... conduct disorder, and antisocial personality disorder.[148] A diagnosis does not imply a neurological disorder.[37] ...
NeuroImage. 36 (3): 497-510. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.03.024. PMID 17478101. Mesulam M (1982). "Slowly progressive aphasia ... This disorder commonly has a primary effect on the left hemisphere, causing the symptomatic display of expressive language ... and temporal lobes in PNFA creates hallmark language deficits differentiating this disorder from other Alzheimer-type disorders ... Introduction to Neurogenic Communication Disorders. pp. 86-88. ISBN 9780323290920. Schroeter ML, Raczka KK, Neumann J, von ...
Gaitanis, John N.; Walsh, Christopher A. (May 2004). "Genetics of disorders of cortical development". Neuroimaging Clinics of ... NeuroImage. 40 (4): 1701-1710. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.01.027. ISSN 1053-8119. PMC 2330066. PMID 18325790. Swaiman, ... Razek, A. A. K. Abdel; Kandell, A. Y.; Elsorogy, L. G.; Elmongy, A.; Basett, A. A. (2009-01-01). "Disorders of Cortical ... Microlissencephaly (MLIS) is a rare congenital brain disorder that combines severe microcephaly (small head) with lissencephaly ...
Dementia & Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 2009; 28: 47-55 Neurocognitive Disorders Workgroup, American Psychiatric Association ... Clinical and neuroimaging correlates of mild cognitive impairment in a middle-aged community sample: the PATH through Life 60+ ... Dementia & Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 2006; 21:44-50 Wen W, Sachdev PS, Chen X, Anstey K. Gray matter reduction is ... NeuroImage 2006; 29:1031-1039 Cherbuin N, Windsor TD, Anstey KJ, Maller J, Meslin C, Sachdev PS. Hippocampal volume is ...
... personality profiles distinguish mood disorders from anxiety disorders. J Affective Disorder, 136(3), 758-66. Cloninger, C. R ... Neuroimage 2005; 24: 315-322. Borg J, Andree B, Soderstrom H, Farde L. The serotonin system and spiritual experiences. Am J ... His clinical studies of psychiatric disorders also revealed much complexity in the clinical features of mental disorders: ... Cloninger wanted to understand why antisocial personality disorder, substance dependence, and somatization disorder were so ...
Diagnostic utility in the surgical treatment of peripheral nerve disorders". Neuroimaging Clin. N. Am. 14 (1): 115-33. doi: ... The use of imaging for diagnosis of nerve disorders represents a change from the way most physicians were trained to practice ... Neurography has also been helpful for improving image diagnosis in spine disorders. It can help identify which spinal nerve is ... More than three million patients seek medical attention every year for nerve-related disorders such as sciatica, carpal tunnel ...
"Neuroimaging in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Other Stress-Related Disorders". Neuroimaging Clinics of North America. 17 (4 ... Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that can occur after exposure to horrific events, or after a ... Social anxiety disorder is an anxiety disorder consisting of overwhelming anxiety and excessive self-consciousness in everyday ... This then creates a split personality disorder. Individuals suffering from post traumatic stress disorder often have difficulty ...
Cavanna, A.E., Nani, A., Blumenfeld, H., Laureys, S. [Eds.] (2013). Neuroimaging of Consciousness. Springer. Faingold, C., ... attention and arousal Blumenfeld hopes to restore normal consciousness to patients with epilepsy and other brain disorders. ... Blumenfeld's direct recordings of the electrical activity of brain cells improves the analysis of indirect neuroimaging ... Blumenfeld, H. [Eds.] (2014). Neuronal Networks in Brain Function, CNS Disorders, and Therapeutics. Elsevier ISBN 9780124158641 ...
May 2019). "Corticobasal syndrome: neuroimaging and neurophysiological advances". Eur. J. Neurol. 26 (5): 701-e52. doi:10.1111/ ... Related Disorders. 1: 66-71. doi:10.1016/j.prdoa.2019.08.005. ISSN 2590-1125. Di Stasio F, Suppa A, Marsili L, et al. ( ...
"Journal of Movement Disorders. doi:10.14802/jmd.20040. PMID 33423437.. *^ Morton SM, Bastian AJ (December 2009). "Can ... Cerebellar ataxia can have many causes despite normal neuroimaging. Focal lesions[edit]. Any type of focal lesion of the ... Manto M, Gruol D, Schmahmann J, Koibuchi N, Rossi F (2013). Handbook of the Cerebellum and Cerebellar Disorders. Springer. ISBN ... Spinal disorders of various types may cause sensory ataxia from the lesioned level below, when they involve the dorsal columns. ...
"Structural neuroimaging studies in major depressive disorder. Meta-analysis and comparison with bipolar disorder". Archives of ... Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of ... Major depressive disorder is classified as a mood disorder in DSM-5.[115] The diagnosis hinges on the presence of single or ... "Mental and behavioural disorders: Mood [affective] disorders". World Health Organization. 2010. Archived from the original on 2 ...
"Structural neuroimaging studies in major depressive disorder. Meta-analysis and comparison with bipolar disorder". Archives of ... Journal of Affective Disorders. 94 (1-3): 121-126. PMID 16701903. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2006.03.010. Retrieved 2014-01-29.. ... Some studies shows correlation of reduced hippocampus volume and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).[121][122][123] A study ... It has further been proposed that many of the changes seen are present at the start of the disorder which gives weight to the ...
Developmental Dysfluencies and Disorders can be associated with: ADHD Language Disorders Articulation Disorders Learning ... NeuroImage. 39 (3): 1333-1344. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.09.067. ISSN 1053-8119. PMC 2731627. PMID 18023366. Chang, Soo-Eun ... Neuroimage. 52 (4): 1645-53. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.04.277. PMID 20452437. S2CID 8902617. Anderson, Julie (2000). " ... The following disorders can be diagnosed following the years in which speech pattern disruptions could be the result of ...
Neuroimaging Section 174: 32-39. with A. Staniloiu, and S. Borsutzky. 2010. "Dissociative memory disorders and immigration". In ... "Neuroimaging and crime". In Offender's memory of violent crime, ed. S. Å. Christianson, 137-164. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & ... In his research, he dealt with the neural and psychological foundations of memory and memory disorders and interactions between ... is a physiological psychologist and neuropsychologist whose work centers on brain correlates of memory and memory disorders, ...
"Structural neuroimaging studies in major depressive disorder. Meta-analysis and comparison with bipolar disorder". Archives of ... NeuroImage. 46 (4): 949-57. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.01.071. PMC 2736880. PMID 19285559. O'Keefe and Nadel Chiu et al., ... It has further been proposed that many of the changes seen are present at the start of the disorder which gives weight to the ... Disorders, Institute of Medicine (US) Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System (1 January 2011). Overview of the Glutamatergic ...
July 2011). "Structural neuroimaging studies in major depressive disorder. Meta-analysis and comparison with bipolar disorder ... Mediating neuroimaging databases on schizophrenia and related disorders for large-scale integration". NeuroImage. 124 (Pt B): ... Nielsen, F.A. (2003). The Brede database: a small database for functional neuroimaging NeuroImage 19(2), Presented at the 9th ... January 2016). "OMEGA: The Open MEG Archive". NeuroImage. 124 (Pt B): 1182-7. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.04.028. PMID ...
Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 130(2): 171 - 190. Loganovsky, K.N., Volovik, S.V., Manton, K.G., Bazyka, D.A., FLOR-HENRY, P ... In: Movement Disorders in Neurology and Neuropsychiatry, Second Edition, A.B. Joseph and R.R. Young (Ed.), Blackwell Scientific ... Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 130(2): 191 - 207. Koles, Z.J., FLOR-HENRY, P., Lind, J.C. (2004). A source-imaging (low- ... FLOR-HENRY, P. (1984). Hemispheric laterality and disorders of affect. In R.M. Post & J.C. Ballenger (Ed.) Neurobiology of Mood ...
Based on evidence from neuroimaging studies in clinical populations, it seems that both high activity in CMS regions during ... PMID 25534425 Westen, D., Cohen, R.P. (1993). The self in borderline personality disorder: A psychodynamic perspective. In Z. V ... The syndrome of identity disturbance is encountered in all personality disorder types. To understand the development of self- ... There are many theories about why borderline personality disorder often includes identity disturbances. One is that patients ...
Certain neuroimaging findings lend support to the hypothesis, although neuroimaging in schizophrenia is controversial due to ... Proponents of the hypothesis also point towards genetic disorders with an elevated risk of one disorder and not the other, ... While Crespi and Badcock have claimed neuroimaging studies lend support to the imprinted brain hypothesis, other neuroimaging ... Causes of autism Conditions comorbid to autism spectrum disorders Multiple complex developmental disorder Russell-Smith, ...
"Are there disorders or conditions associated with spina bifida?". 2012-11-30. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. ... Barkovich, J (2005). Pediatric Neuroimaging. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkens. Wills, KE (1993). " ... "Spina Bifida Fact Sheet , National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke". 9 May 2017. Retrieved 30 ... Neurologists treat and evaluate nervous system issues, such as seizure disorders. Urologists to address kidney, bladder, and ...
Neuroimage. 17:1684-92. Kemp A., Gray M., Silberstein R.B., Nathan P.J. (2004). Augmentation of serotonin enhances pleasant and ... as well as disturbed brain functions such as schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder The SST methodology has ... Neuroimage. 1998;.8:370-376. Rossiter, J. R., Silberstein, R. B., Harris, P. G., Nield, G. (2001) Brain-imaging detection of ... Neuroimage. 22:1084-96.. Line, P, Silberstein, R B, Wright, JJ and Copolov D.(1998) Steady State Visually Evoked Potential ...
"Clinical features and neuroimaging of PARK7-linked parkinsonism". Movement Disorders. 18 (7): 751-7. doi:10.1002/mds.10422. ...
2009). "Frontotemporal Demetia Neuroimaging: A Guide for Clinicians". Dementia in clinical practice. Karger Publishers. ISBN ... functions and disorders (2 ed.). Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1-59385-329-7. Panteleimon Giannakopoulos; Patrick R. Hof, eds. ( ...
NeuroImage, 32, pp. 821-841. Peeva, M.G., Guenther, F.H., Tourville, J.A., Nieto-Castanon, A., Anton, J.-L., Nazarian, B., and ... Journal of Fluency Disorders, 35, pp. 246-279. Terband, H., Maassen, B, Guenther, F.H., and Brumberg, J. (2009). Computational ... NeuroImage, 50, pp. 626-638. Max, L., Guenther, F.H., Gracco, V.L., Ghosh, S.S., and Wallace, M.E. (2004). Unstable or ... NeuroImage, 52, pp. 862-874. Perkell, J.S., Guenther, F.H., Lane, H., Matthies, M.L., Stockmann, E., Tiede, M., and Zandipour, ...
"Single subject prediction of brain disorders in neuroimaging: Promises and pitfalls". NeuroImage. 145 (Pt B): 137-165. doi: ... such as autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder. ... "Schizoaffective disorder merges schizophrenia and bipolar disorders as one disease--there is no schizoaffective disorder". ... and social withdrawal in social anxiety disorder, avoidant personality disorder and schizotypal personality disorder. ...
Another example is if someone was born with a neurological disorder such as autism or had a stroke that resulted in a disorder ... NeuroImage. 125: 256-266. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.10.015. PMID 26477660. Recent findings with both animals and humans ... A common issue amongst most people in the United States is high levels of stress and also disorders associated with continuous ... In addition to a better understanding of the various disorders, neurologists should and will look at the plasticity incurred by ...
"A meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging in obsessive-compulsive disorder". Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging. 132 (1): 69-79 ... separate from the anxiety disorders and as overlapping with conditions such as Hair Pulling Disorder and Skin Picking Disorder ... He is an authority on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and anxiety disorders whose work is highly cited. He maintains a ... "How is the Beads Task related to intolerance of uncertainty in anxiety disorders?". Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 28 (6): 495- ...
While a number of neuroimaging findings are consistently reported in people with major depressive disorder, the heterogeneity ... Dunlop, BW; Mayberg, HS (December 2014). "Neuroimaging-based biomarkers for treatment selection in major depressive disorder". ... Smoller, Jordan W (2015). "The Genetics of Stress-Related Disorders: PTSD, Depression, and Anxiety Disorders". ... "Functional neuroimaging of major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis and new integration of base line activation and neural ...
Adaszewski S1, Dukart J, Kherif F, Frackowiak R, Draganski B; Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (2013). "How early ... Neurodevelopmental disorder. *Neurodiversity. *Neurogenesis. *Neuroimaging. *Neuroimmune system. *Neuromanagement. * ...
Neurology: PET neuroimaging is based on an assumption that areas of high radioactivity are associated with brain activity. What ... Neuropsychology / Cognitive neuroscience: To examine links between specific psychological processes or disorders and brain ... 18F-FDG, which is now the standard radiotracer used for PET neuroimaging and cancer patient management,[25] has an effective ...
... is able to detect consistent patterns of abnormalities in patients with subtle cognitive dysfunctions and psychiatric disorders ... Neurodevelopmental disorder. *Neurodiversity. *Neurogenesis. *Neuroimaging. *Neuroimmune system. *Neuromanagement. * ...
However, people with simultanagnosia have no difficulty enumerating objects within the subitizing range.[23] The disorder is ... NeuroImage. 15 (2): 435-46. doi:10.1006/nimg.2001.0980. PMID 11798277.. ... Patients with this disorder suffer from an inability to perceive visual scenes properly, being unable to localize objects in ...
The hypothesis has attracted increasing attention in recent years as a number of neuroimaging studies on younger children have ... and work on developmental disorders by Annette Karmiloff-Smith. ... Functional neuroimaging of speech perception during a pivotal ... Amso D.; Casey B.J. (2006). "Paper: Beyond what develops when: neuroimaging may inform how cognition changes with development ...
"NeuroImage. 53 (3): 1135-46. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.12.028. PMC 2891595. PMID 20006715.. ... hundreds of studies have shed light on the neuroanatomical structural correlates of neurological and psychiatric disorders. ... NeuroImage. 34 (1): 235-242. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.08.018. PMID 17045492.. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list ( ... A Voxel-Based Morphometric Analysis of 465 Normal Adult Human Brains NeuroImage". NeuroImage. 14 (3): 685-700. CiteSeerX 10.1. ...
Acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (ACA) is a chronic skin disorder observed primarily in Europe among the elderly.[39] ACA ... Neuroimaging is controversial in whether it provides specific patterns unique to neuroborreliosis, but may aid in differential ... Neuroimaging findings in an MRI include lesions in the periventricular white matter, as well as enlarged ventricles and ... where physician Alfred Buchwald described a man who had suffered for 16 years with a degenerative skin disorder now known as ...
Sleep disorder where breathing starts/stops, a lot of times the person will snore. More common. Less common. Progressive. CPAP ... X-ray and neuroimaging studies may be helpful in confirming a diagnosis of Coffin-Lowry syndrome. Decreased ribosomal S6 kinase ... Coffin-Lowry syndrome is a genetic disorder that is X-linked dominant and which causes severe mental problems sometimes ... A condition is considered X-linked if the gene that causes the disorder is located on the X chromosome (one of the two sex ...
Musculoskeletal disorders[edit]. Main article: Musculoskeletal disorders. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) involve injury and ... Mental disorder[edit]. Main article: Mental disorder. Research has found that psychosocial workplace factors are among the risk ... Personality disorders[edit]. Main article: Personality disorder. Depending on the diagnosis, severity and individual, and the ... such as substance abuse and co-morbid mental disorders, can plague sufferers. However, personality disorders can also bring ...
Main article: Music-specific disorders. Focal hand dystonia[edit]. Focal hand dystonia is a task-related movement disorder ... NeuroImage 2005; 26, 801-812 *^ Hikosaka, O.; Nakamura, H.; Sakai, K.; Nakahara, H. (2002). "Central mechanisms of motor skill ... NeuroImage 20, Suppl. 1, S120-S131 (2003). *^ Johnson, P. B.; Ferraina, S.; Bianchi, L.; Caminiti, R. (1996). "Cortical ... Functional neuroimaging studies, as well as studies of brain-damaged patients, have linked movement timing to several cortical ...
Silent strokes typically cause lesions which are detected via the use of neuroimaging such as fMRI.[12][13] The risk of silent ... "The Gale Encyclopedia of Neurological Disorders. The Gale Group, Inc. 2005.. Retrieved on 2007-04-13 from ... Geraghty M. C.; Torbey M. T. (2006). "Neuroimaging and serologic markers of neurologic injury after cardiac arrest". Neurol ... National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (2018-03-08). "Cerebral Hypoxia Information Page". U.S. National ...
"NeuroImage. 54 (4): 3040-7. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.10.008. PMID 20946963. S2CID 12903932.. ... Mental disorders such as ADHD are linked to mind-wandering. Seli et. al. (2015) found that spontaneous mind-wandering, the ... In many disorders it is the regulation of the overall amount of mind-wandering that is disturbed, leading to increased ... Journal of Attention Disorders. 21 (6): 475-486. doi:10.1177/1087054714543494. ISSN 1087-0547. PMID 25085650. S2CID 53625201.. ...
Research using neuro-imaging revealed evidence of hippocampal atrophy in people suffering from OSA. They found that OSA can ... "Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (780.53-0)". The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (PDF). Westchester, Illinois ... This can be caused by drugs or alcohol, or it can be caused by neurological problems or other disorders. Some people have more ... Edwards, Natalie; Sullivan, Colin E. (2008). "Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Pregnancy". Sleep Medicine Clinics. 3: 81-95. doi: ...
... s for Psychiatric Disorders. Publisher: Springer U.S. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-79251-4 Copyright: 2009 ISBN 978-0-387- ... neuroimaging) may not always be informative such as for mild TBI.[7] ... "Biomarkers for cognitive impairment in Lewy body disorders: Status and relevance for clinical trials". Mov. Disord. (Review). ...
As a clinician, he and his collaborators have studied and treated disorders of behaviour and cognition, and movement disorders ... and functional neuroimaging (with Kaspar Meyer, Jonas Kaplan, and Mary Helen Immordino-Yang). The experimental neuroanatomy ... who is a professor of neuroscience at the University of Southern California and the director of the Dornsife Neuroimaging ... an enterprise made possible by Hanna Damasio's structural neuroimaging/neuroanatomy work complemented by experimental ...
... disordersEdit. Main article: Anxiety disorder. Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by ... "Depression, anxiety, and apathy in Parkinson's disease: insights from neuroimaging studies". Eur J Neurol (Review). 23 (6): ... Anxiety disorders often occur with other mental disorders, particularly major depressive disorder, personality disorder, and ... They often occur with other mental disorders, particularly bipolar disorder, eating disorders, major depressive disorder, or ...
Topographical disorientation is a cognitive disorder that results in the individual being unable to orient his or herself in ... Maguire, E. A. (2001). "The retrosplenial contribution to human navigation: A review of lesion and neuroimaging findings". ... DTD is a relatively new disorder and can occur in varying degrees of severity. Topographical Disorientation in Mild Cognitive ... Lipska, B.K.; Weinberger, D.R. (2000). "To model a psychiatric disorder in animals: Schizophrenia as a reality test". ...
"Brain structure in narcissistic personality disorder: A VBM and DTI pilot study". Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging. Elsevier ... such as major depressive disorder, substance use disorders, bipolar disorder, or eating disorders,[7] or at the insistence of ... Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a personality disorder with a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized ... Sperry, Lynn (1999), Narcissistic Personality Disorder, Cognitive Behavior Therapy of DSM-IV Personality Disorders: Highly ...
Neuroimaging Neuroimaging includes the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure and ... The scientific study of the biological mechanisms that underlie the disorders and diseases of the nervous system. ... The emergence of powerful new measurement techniques such as neuroimaging (e.g., fMRI, PET, SPECT), electrophysiology, and ... Modern research through neuroimaging techniques, still uses the Brodmann cerebral cytoarchitectonic map (referring to study of ...
"Neuroimaging Clin. N. Am. 17 (3): 355-63, viii-ix. doi:10.1016/j.nic.2007.05.001. PMC 2040119 . PMID 17826637.. ... "The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-PA Stroke Study Group. Diakses tanggal 2011-09-08.. ... Dalam Stroke Data Bank of the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke memklasifikasi menjadi ... floaters and the like, functional disorders-conversion hysteria, malingering, hiperventilasi. Cardiac papillary fibroelastoma ( ...
Being a recessive disorder, the disease can only be inherited from both parents since the disorder can only occur when a person ... Neuroimaging[edit]. Cranial computed topography, magnetic resonance imaging, and flurodeoxyglucose positron emission topography ... The GABAB receptor has been found to be the most important of the three receptors for this disorder as it is vital in both GABA ... Detection of the disorder is possible with an organic acid analysis of the urine. Patients with SSADH deficiency will excrete ...
Both disorders are characterized by awakening during the night which leads to daytime sleepiness. Some symptoms of sleep apnea ... beams are applied directly to the tumor site or vascular malformation site that had been established using neuroimaging.[37] ... Template:Infobox medical condition/Wikidata Frontal lobe epilepsy, or FLE, is a neurological disorder that is characterized by ... Video surveillance as well as EEG is occasionally needed to differentiate between the two disorders. It has been reported that ...
NeuroImage, 31, 429-439. *^ Jackson, P.L., Meltzoff, A.N., & Decety, J. (2005). How do we perceive the pain of others: A window ... "Early Predictors of Communication Development in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Joint Attention, Imitation, and ... NeuroImage, 24, 771-779. *^ Jackson, P.L., Brunet, E., Meltzoff, A.N., & Decety, J. (2006). "Empathy examined through the ... NeuroImage, 15, 265-272., *^ Chaminade, T., Meltzoff, A.N., & Decety, J. (2005). An fMRI study of imitation: Action ...
Goodkind M, Etkin A. "Functional Neurocircuitry and Neuroimaging Studies of Anxiety Disorders". In Sklar P, Buxbaum J, Nestler ... symptom overlap with other mental disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder;[110] ... association with other mental disorders such as major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder; ... VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Acute Stress Disorder (PDF). United ...
... communication disorders, malnutrition, sleep disorders, and mental health disorders, such as depression and anxiety.[43] In ... Neuroimaging with CT or MRI is warranted when the cause of a person's cerebral palsy has not been established. An MRI is ... Associated disorders[edit]. Associated disorders include intellectual disabilities, seizures, muscle contractures, abnormal ... metabolic disorders, in particular, can produce brain problems that look like CP on an MRI.[1] Disorders that deteriorate the ...
... follow the commands of parents and vice versa and is well suited to the study of children with Oppositional Defiant Disorders ... classroom behaviors or to observe the nature of a parent-child interaction in order to understand a relational disorder. Direct ...
NeuroImage. 14 (1): 21-36. doi:10.1006/nimg.2001.0786. PMID 11525331. S2CID 6392260. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2020- ... a neural developmental disorder that affects cerebral cortical volume.[13] ... Giedd, Jay N. (April 2008). "The Teen Brain: Insights from Neuroimaging". Journal of Adolescent Health. 42 (4): 335-343. doi: ... Brain size is sometimes measured by weight and sometimes by volume (via MRI scans or by skull volume). Neuroimaging ...
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.06.030.. *^ a b Gross, James; John, Oliver (2003). "Individual differences in two emotion ... being a common feature of anxiety disorders, particularly generalized anxiety disorder.[28] ... Borkovec, T. D.; Inz, J. (1990). "The nature of worry in generalized anxiety disorder: A predominance of thought activity". ... Compared to suppression, which is correlated negatively with many psychological disorders,[7] reappraisal can be associated ...
"NeuroImage. 39 (3): 1333-44. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.09.067. PMC 2731627. PMID 18023366.. ... The most recent version of the DSM-5 describes this speech disorder as "Childhood-Onset Fluency Disorder (Stuttering)" for ... Journal of Communication Disorders. 37 (4): 325-69. doi:10.1016/j.jcomdis.2004.03.001. PMID 15159193.. [permanent dead link] ... "Journal of Fluency Disorders - J FLUENCY DISORD. 25 (3): 246. doi:10.1016/S0094-730X(00)80321-6. Archived from the original on ...
NeuroImage. 25 (1): 320-327. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.11.019. PMID 15734366.. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list ( ... a case-control study in young patients with schizophrenia and related disorders and unaffected siblings". Behav Brain Funct. 3 ... "Intelligence and other predisposing factors in exposure to trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder: a follow-up study at age ... "Improvement of cognitive functioning in mood disorder patients with depressive symptomatic recovery during treatment: an ...
... the use of neuroimaging has expanded widely and has been an exciting, important modality for unlocking the causes of abnormal ... In the diagnosis and treatment of movement disorders, ... In Neuroimaging of Movement Disorders, the editors have ... Neuroimaging of Movement Disorders is an indispensable reference that will be of value to all physicians and researchers ... In the diagnosis and treatment of movement disorders, the use of neuroimaging has expanded widely and has been an exciting, ...
Neuroimaging of Movement Disorders. In the diagnosis and treatment of movement disorders, the use of neuroimaging has expanded ... Nahab, F. B., & Hattori, N. (2013). Neuroimaging of movement disorders. Neuroimaging of Movement Disorders (pp. 1-290). Humana ... In Neuroimaging in Movement Disorders, the editors have produced a gold-standard resource that brings together an impressive ... Neuroimaging in Movement Disorders is an indispensable reference that will be of value to all physicians and researchers ...
Neuroimaging of Sleep and Sleep Disorders by Eric Nofzinger, 9781139088268, available at Book Depository with free delivery ... Neuroimaging and post-traumatic stress disorder; Cases: Parasomnias: 43. Neuroimaging of sleepwalking; 44. Neuroimaging of the ... Memory systems, sleep and neuroimaging; Part V. Neuroimaging of Sleep Disorders: (a) Insomnias and Circadian Rhythm Disorders: ... Written by neuroimaging experts from around the world, Neuroimaging of Sleep and Sleep Disorders is an invaluable resource for ...
Neuroimaging findings in post-traumatic stress disorder - Volume 181 Issue 2 - Alastair M. Hull ... Neuroimaging findings in post-traumatic stress disorder: Systematic review. * Alastair M. Hull (a1) ... Neuroimaging findings in post-traumatic stress disorder: Systematic review. * Alastair M. Hull (a1) ... Neuroimaging findings in post-traumatic stress disorder: Systematic review. * Alastair M. Hull (a1) ...
Functional neuroimaging of mentalizing during the trust game in social anxiety disorder.. Sripada CS1, Angstadt M, Banks S, ... Functional neuroimaging of mentalizing during the trust game in social anxiety disorder ... Functional neuroimaging of mentalizing during the trust game in social anxiety disorder ... Functional neuroimaging of mentalizing during the trust game in social anxiety disorder ...
An Issue of Neuroimaging Clinics, Volume 20-1 - 1st Edition. Print Book. ISBN 9781437712421 ... Imaging of Movement Disorders, An Issue of Neuroimaging Clinics, Volume 20-1 1st Edition. ... Role of neuroimaging in the evaluation of Tremor; Spot neuroradiological diagnosis in movement disorders; Role of transcranial ... Articles include: Anatomy of Basal Ganglia; Classification of Movement disorders; MR techniques in the diagnosis of ...
... state of the art in the use of neuroimaging technologies in the study of schizophrenia and other primary psychotic disorders. ... Neuroimaging of Schizophrenia and Other Primary Psychotic Disorders Book Subtitle. Achievements and Perspectives. Editors. * ... Neuroimaging of Schizophrenia and Other Primary Psychotic Disorders Achievements and Perspectives. Editors: Galderisi, Silvana ... The contributions of neuroimaging in the characterization of these disorders are reviewed across diagnoses, by focusing on ...
Prior research using a variety of types of neuroimaging techniques has confirmed that neuropsychiatric disorders are associated ... Prior research using a variety of types of neuroimaging techniques has confirmed that neuropsychiatric disorders are associated ... We then present data on the use of neuroimaging for the diagnosis and prognosis of mood disorders and for DBS treatment ... We then present data on the use of neuroimaging for the diagnosis and prognosis of mood disorders and for DBS treatment ...
The Neuroimaging of Headache Disorders Lab aims to identify imaging biomarkers for diagnosing migraine & concussion and ... The Neuroimaging of Headache Disorders Laboratory uses multimodal brain-imaging techniques to identify imaging biomarkers for ... models that distinguish patients who have migraine from patients with post-traumatic headache and other headache disorders ...
... bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder, autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, Alzheimers ... This Research Topic aims to further explore the functional or structural alterations in brain disorders. We seek to gather a ... healthy controls and patients with brain disorders as well as for differentiating patients with different disorders showing ... aiming to have a better understanding and a more effective diagnosis of brain disorders such as schizophrenia, ...
Neuroimaging is being used as a tool to investigate the neurobiological effects of individual risk genes. We suggest it could ... Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has an established heritable component, but identifying the genes involved has ... Understanding genes, environment and their interaction in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: is there a role for ... neuroimaging?. Plomp E1, Van Engeland H, Durston S.. Author information. 1. Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Department ...
To understand when neuroimaging is needed for the diagnosis and management of a psychiatric disorder, and which neuroimaging ... 1. Understand when neuroimaging may help with diagnosis and management of a psychiatric disorder. ... The neuroimaging results. Neuroimaging examinations of the brain are recorded in 2-dimensional sections, and they are usually ... The structural neuroimaging examination. Neuroimaging is recommended whenever there has been an injury to the brain. The ...
... neuroimaging and its possible use in detecting predispositions to neurodegenerative diseases as well as mental disorders has ... If your doctor told you they could determine whether or not you would develop a neurodegenerative disease or mental disorder in ... The ethical questions raised by the use of predictive neuroimaging technologies are similar to those posed by predictive ... are all current neuroimaging technologies used in the field of neuroscience. While each of these technologies function ...
Structural and Functional Neuroimaging of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Cognitive Impairment in World Trade Center ...
Neuroimaging studies have produced seemingly contradictory findings in regards to the pathophysiology of insomnia. Although ... Hyperarousal and Beyond: New Insights to the Pathophysiology of Insomnia Disorder through Functional Neuroimaging Studies. ... Hyperarousal and Beyond: New Insights to the Pathophysiology of Insomnia Disorder through Functional Neuroimaging Studies. ... "Hyperarousal and Beyond: New Insights to the Pathophysiology of Insomnia Disorder through Functional Neuroimaging Studies." ...
"Neuroimaging predictors of treatment response in anxiety disorders." Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders 3, no. 1 (12, 2013): 1 ... Neuroimaging predictors of treatment response in anxiety disorders.. Shin, Lisa M. Davis, F Caroline. VanElzakker, Michael B. ... posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and social anxiety disorder (SAD). We note the ... neuroimaging measures do appear to predict treatment response in anxiety disorders, and future research will be needed to ...
Neuroimaging of Schizophrenia and Other Primary Psychotic Disorders. Overview of attention for book ... Chapter 9 Toward Clinical Translation of Neuroimaging Research in Schizophrenia and Other Primary Psychotic Disorders ... Chapter 3 Neuroimaging of Neurotransmitter Alterations in Schizophrenia and Its Relevance for Negative Symptoms ...
In support of improving patient care, Audio Digest Foundation is jointly accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), to provide continuing education for the healthcare team. The Audio Digest Foundation designates this enduring material for a maximum of {{CurrentLecture.Lecture.Credits , number:2}} AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Successful completion of this CME activity, which includes participation in the evaluation component, enables the participant to earn up to {{CurrentLecture.Lecture.Credits}} MOC points [and patient safety MOC credit] in the American Board of Internal Medicines (ABIM) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program. Participants will earn MOC points equivalent to the amount of CME credits claimed for the activity. It is the ...
This meta-analysis allowed us to synthesize often disparate findings from individual studies and thereby provide neuroimaging ... evidence for common brain mechanisms in anxiety disorders and normal fear. Effects unique to PTSD furthermore suggested a ... Functional neuroimaging of anxiety: a meta-analysis of emotional processing in PTSD, social anxiety disorder, and specific ... Objective: The study of human anxiety disorders has benefited greatly from functional neuroimaging approaches. Individual ...
The effectiveness of evoking synchronized brain activity has been validated in an empirical study (Yang et al., Neuroimage, ...
Objective: To evaluate if perfusion neuroimaging with brain SPECT can distinguish persons with depression from those with CDs ... Depression and cognitive disorders (CDs) are two common co-morbid afflictions that commonly present with overlapping symptoms. ... Classification of Depression, Cognitive Disorders, and Co-Morbid Depression and Cognitive Disorders with Perfusion SPECT ... Objective: To evaluate if perfusion neuroimaging with brain SPECT can distinguish persons with depression from those with CDs ...
... and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly heterogeneous and often present with overlapping symptomology, ... Functional Neuroimaging Distinguishes Posttraumatic Stress Disorder from Traumatic Brain Injury in Focused and Large Community ... Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly heterogeneous and often present ... Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) may be advantageous in the diagnostic separation of these disorders when ...
Home , Journals , Epileptic Disorders , Lingual epilepsia partialis continua: a detailed video-EEG and neuroimaging study ... Lingual epilepsia partialis continua: a detailed video-EEG and neuroimaging study Volume 22, issue 4, August 2020 *PDF ... We present a case of lingual EPC secondary to low-grade glioma in which the EEG and neuroimaging features were particularly ...
... it is possible to distinguish them with good specificity with neuroimaging. Conclusion: New imaging techniques carry the hope ... The structural and functional neuroimaging have much to contribute to the cognitive neuroscience. Approach: We describe a ... Functional Neuroimaging in Dementia and other Amnesic Disorders: A Radiological Review Leonardo Caixeta, Renata Teles Vieira, ... Problem statement: The structural and functional neuroimaging have much to contribute to the cognitive neuroscience. Approach: ...
Although Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has regularly been considered a childhood and adolescent disorder, it ... Clinical, genetic and neuroimaging studies point to dopaminergic and noradrenergic abnormalities in ADHD. The dual model ... magnetic resonance neuroimaging of executive cognitive functions and motivation in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in ...
Neuroimaging of Inflammation in Memory and Related Other Disorders (NIMROD) study protocol: a deep phenotyping cohort study of ... Neuroimaging of Inflammation in Memory and Related Other Disorders (NIMROD) study protocol: a deep phenotyping cohort study of ... Neuroimaging of Inflammation in Memory and Related Other Disorders (NIMROD) study protocol: a deep phenotyping cohort study of ...
Neuroimaging of Inflammation in Memory and Related Other Disorders (NIMROD) study protocol: a deep phenotyping cohort study of ... Neuroimaging of Inflammation in Memory and Related Other Disorders (NIMROD) study protocol: a deep phenotyping cohort study of ... Introduction Inflammation of the central nervous system is increasingly regarded as having a role in cognitive disorders such ...
bipolar disorder, cortical surface area, cortical thickness, ENIGMA, mega-analysis, meta-analysis, MRI, neuroimaging, ... The Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Bipolar Disorder Working Group was formed in 2012 to ... What we learn about bipolar disorder from large-scale neuroimaging: Findings and future directions from the ENIGMA Bipolar ... the environment and behavior and have been widely studied in bipolar disorder (BD). However, many neuroimaging studies of BD ...
Clinical utility and research frontiers of neuroimaging in movement disorders. Flavio NOBILI 1 ✉, Eric WESTMAN 2, Rosalie V. ... Neuroimaging in Parkinsons disease (PD) and other primary Parkinsonian disorders has been increasingly used in the routine ... Clinical utility and research frontiers of neuroimaging in movement disorders. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2017;61:372-85. DOI: ... REVIEW NEWS AND VIEWS ON CLINICAL NEUROIMAGING The Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 2017 December;61 ...
The Neuroimaging of Movement Disorders (NiMoDis) group is headed by Prof. Hartwig Siebner and Associate Professor Annemette ... Neuroimaging of Movement Disorders (NiMoDis) The Neuroimaging of Movement Disorders (NiMoDis) group is headed by Prof. Hartwig ... The Neuroimaging of Movement Disorders (NiMoDis) group is headed by Prof. Hartwig Siebner and Associate Professor Annemette ... Neuroimaging Study Group.. The role of high-field magnetic resonance imaging in parkinsonian disorders: Pushing the boundaries ...
  • In the diagnosis and treatment of movement disorders, the use of neuroimaging has expanded widely and has been an exciting, important modality for unlocking the causes of abnormal motor control. (
  • Each chapter carefully presents and analyzes the key findings in patients with sleep disorders indicating the clinical and imaging features of the various sleep disorders from clinical presentation to neuroimaging, aiding in establishing an accurate diagnosis. (
  • Current Role of fMRI in diagnosis of movement disorders. (
  • We first discuss current challenges associated with the identification of reliable neuroimaging markers for diagnosis and prognosis in mood disorders and for neurosurgical treatment planning for deep brain stimulation (DBS). (
  • We then present data on the use of neuroimaging for the diagnosis and prognosis of mood disorders and for DBS treatment planning. (
  • To understand when neuroimaging is needed for the diagnosis and management of a psychiatric disorder, and which neuroimaging technology is best suited. (
  • 1. Understand when neuroimaging may help with diagnosis and management of a psychiatric disorder. (
  • Neuroimaging is making increasing contributions to multiple aspects of clinical psychiatry, including differential diagnosis, prognosis, clinical management, and development of new interventions. (
  • Neuroimaging modalities are not yet diagnostically helpful in diagnosing bipolar disorder in individuals, but studies are ongoing to determine if they would be helpful in diagnosis. (
  • It was recognized in the DSM-IV-TR classification system, but in the latest version DSM-5 , it was combined with undifferentiated somatoform disorder to become somatic symptom disorder , a diagnosis which no longer requires a specific number of somatic symptoms. (
  • A thorough physical examination of the specified areas of complaint is critical for somatization disorder diagnosis. (
  • Diagnosis of somatization disorder is difficult because it is hard to determine to what degree psychological factors are exacerbating subjective feelings of pain. (
  • Imaging and diagnostic testing help our neurosciences team accurately identify neurologic disorders, determine their severity and monitor a patient's health after a diagnosis has been made. (
  • Neuroimaging measures have shown some potential as biomarkers for diagnosis. (
  • These findings provide an important step in the development of potential neuroimaging-based tools for diagnosis as they demonstrate that the identification of depression is feasible within a multi-ethnic group from the community. (
  • A number of clinical studies highlight the difficulty in making a correct diagnosis in patients with disorders of consciousness based only on behavioral examinations. (
  • Recent neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography and transcranial magnetic stimulation can help assess diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic treatment. (
  • The wrong diagnosis can be dangerous, leading to poor outcomes for the patient as they undergo treatment for the incorrect disorder, therefore identifying brain markers to reliably tell them apart would have immense clinical benefit. (
  • The team states such a marker could help to better understand both these disorders, identify risk factors for developing them, and potentially enable clear diagnosis from early onset. (
  • Patients must rely on the personal and individualized medical advice of their qualified health care professionals before seeking any information related to their particular diagnosis, cure or treatment of a condition or disorder. (
  • Part of the Oxford Textbooks in Clinical Neurology (OTCN) series, this volume covers the basic science and clinical concepts underlying the movement disorders, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of individual hypokinetic and hyperkinetic movement disorders. (
  • Classification of Depression, Cognitive Disorders, and Co-Morbid Depression and Cognitive Disorders with Perfusion SPECT Neuroimaging. (
  • Depression and cognitive disorders (CDs) are two common co-morbid afflictions that commonly present with overlapping symptoms. (
  • The structural and functional neuroimaging have much to contribute to the cognitive neuroscience. (
  • Introduction Inflammation of the central nervous system is increasingly regarded as having a role in cognitive disorders such as dementia and depression, but it is not clear how such inflammation relates to other aspects of neuropathology, structural and functional changes in the brain and symptoms (as assessed via clinical and neuropsychological assessment and MRI). (
  • The mission of the NiMoDis group is to use advanced brain mapping techniques to investigate how movement disorders alter brain function and structure in motor, cognitive and limbic systems. (
  • Understanding memory disorders: At the level of cognitive process representational content? (
  • Recent advances in cognitive neuroscience methods reveal the potential of neuroimaging as be a useful tool in clinical and educational practice. (
  • This evidence raises the intriguing possibility of utilizing neuroimaging data as a critical component in assessing and predicting cognitive abilities and symptoms. (
  • We're examining patients before and after cognitive behavioral therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder and are able to identify the changes in the profile of activity that accompany successful treatment, and that is associated with an increase in the executive functions of the frontal lobe that engage and modulate activity in the more primitive areas of the brain. (
  • These findings will improve our understanding of emotional, memory and cognitive systems, which are sensitive to traumatic stress during development, and will inform the trajectory of psychiatric disorders and could guide preventative and treatment strategies for children exposed to trauma. (
  • Although cognitive-behavioral therapies are moderately effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders, there appears to be room for improvement [ 7 - 9 ], perhaps especially in the case of panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) [ 8 ]. (
  • Epilepsy is a brain disorder characterized by a predisposition to generate epileptic seizures that may have subsequent neurological, cognitive, psychological and social effects. (
  • Baseline assessments include clinical symptoms, multimodal neuroimaging, cognitive assessment of reward sensitivity and behavioural inhibition, and an (optional) genetic sample. (
  • Chapters then illuminate the neurobiological underpinnings of a range of frequently encountered disorders--including ADHD, substance abuse, mood and anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, and learning and cognitive problems--giving particular attention to the impact of psychosocial risk factors on the brain. (
  • In this review, we summarize studies that have used structural and functional neuroimaging measures to predict treatment response in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and social anxiety disorder (SAD). (
  • Examples are drawn from disorders such as attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), temporal lobe epilepsy, Alzheimer disease and developmental dyslexia. (
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder affects about 2.3% of people at some point in their life. (
  • For example, a recent naturalistic study of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) revealed that only approximately two-thirds of individuals taking serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) considered their symptoms very much or much improved [ 5 ]. (
  • Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) remains one of the most challenging disorders of the brain. (
  • Integrating Genetic, Neuropsychological and Neuroimaging Data to Model Early-Onset Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Severity. (
  • We propose an integrative approach that combines structural magnetic resonance imaging data (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging data (DTI), neuropsychological data, and genetic data to predict early-onset obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) severity. (
  • However, neuroimaging findings are being reconsidered in the light of recent research proposals aimed at re-conceptualizing classification systems in Psychiatry. (
  • We discuss how this approach may be particularly promising in psychiatry, given the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of the disorders, and particularly in treatment response prediction and planning. (
  • There are 2 very different types of neuroimaging of value in clinical psychiatry. (
  • Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 2011 Sep 30;193(3):144-50. (
  • This website hosts the Major Depressive Disorder Neuroimaging Database (MaND) referred to in the July 2011 issue of Archives of General Psychiatry which contains details of the study. (
  • Functional neuroimaging is being used in clinical psychiatry today despite the vigorous objections of many in the research community over issues of readiness. (
  • The Neuroimaging of Headache Disorders Laboratory uses multimodal brain-imaging techniques to identify imaging biomarkers for the diagnoses of migraine and concussion and for prognosticating clinical outcomes and recovery. (
  • Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and radioactive tracers, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) are all current neuroimaging technologies used in the field of neuroscience. (
  • In some studies, neuroimaging (ie, functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI]) in child and adolescent patients with bipolar disorder has shown abnormal neural activation for faces with negative emotions along with face-processing deficits. (
  • This visit was coordinated by the Michigan Neuroimaging Initiative, with primary support from the Michigan Institute for Computational Discovery and Engineering (MICDE) and additional support from the fMRI Laboratory and the Psychology department. (
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Accuracy of spatial normalization of the hippocampus: implications for fMRI research in memory disorders. (
  • Some of the renewed enthusiasm for this area of research has been driven by developments in neuroimaging that allow the study of social and emotional functions in normal subjects, particularly with PET and fMRI ( Ochsner, 2004 ). (
  • Functional neuroimaging of mentalizing during the trust game in social anxiety disorder. (
  • Individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder tend to make overly negative and distorted predictions about social events, which enhance perceptions of threat and contribute to excessive anxiety in social situations. (
  • Coordinator of the Outpatient Unit for Anxiety and Psychotic Disorders and of the Rehabilitation Program for severe mental disorders of the same Department. (
  • Neuroimaging predictors of treatment response in anxiety disorders. (
  • Abstract: Although several psychological and pharmacological treatment options are available for anxiety disorders, not all patients respond well to each option. (
  • Recent studies have begun to use biological measures to help predict symptomatic change after treatment in anxiety disorders. (
  • Although the literature is currently small, we conclude that pre-treatment neuroimaging measures do appear to predict treatment response in anxiety disorders, and future research will be needed to determine the relative predictive power of neuroimaging measures as compared to clinical and demographic measures. (
  • Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders 3, no. 1 (12, 2013): 1-11. (
  • The study of human anxiety disorders has benefited greatly from functional neuroimaging approaches. (
  • The authors searched for common and disorder-specific functional neurobiological deficits in several anxiety disorders. (
  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), social anxiety disorder, specific phobia, and fear conditioning in healthy individuals were compared by quantitative meta-analysis. (
  • Hyperactivation in the amygdala and insula were, of interest, more frequently observed in social anxiety disorder and specific phobia than in PTSD. (
  • This meta-analysis allowed us to synthesize often disparate findings from individual studies and thereby provide neuroimaging evidence for common brain mechanisms in anxiety disorders and normal fear. (
  • Therefore, these findings help refine our understanding of anxiety disorders and their interrelationships. (
  • Anxiety disorders are common, debilitating psychiatric syndromes and include panic disorder (PD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). (
  • The FNL has examined both function and structure in anxiety disorder patients. (
  • Direct comparison of brain activity patterns in panic disorder compared with PTSD has shown that compared to PTSD patients and healthy controls, panic disorder patients showed significantly less activation to threat stimuli and increased activation to safe stimuli in the subgenual cingulate, ventral striatum, and extended amygdala, as well as in the midbrain periaqueductal grey region, suggesting potentially unique neurocircuitry subserving distinct anxiety disorders. (
  • Given the difference in the prevalence of anxiety disorders between the sexes, it is important to examine differential underlying neurobiological mechanisms, as this may lead to sex-specific interventions. (
  • This finding suggests a neural substrate for the greater susceptibility of women to anxiety disorders. (
  • The SU/UCT MRC Unit on Anxiety & Stress Disorders , Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Hospital are currently engaged in Neuroimaging Research in Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and we are now looking for healthy controls. (
  • [1] The condition is associated with tics , anxiety disorder , and an increased risk of suicide . (
  • [7] Other disorders with similar symptoms include anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder , eating disorders , tic disorders , and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder . (
  • This might explain why somatization disorders are more likely in people with irritable bowel syndrome , and why patients with SSD are more likely to have a mood or anxiety disorder. (
  • The aim of this study was to explore white-matter disruption in social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and to investigate the relationship between cerebral abnormalities and the severity of the symptoms. (
  • Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations in which the person is exposed to unfamiliar people or to possible scrutiny by others. (
  • Eating Disorders and anxiety, can and often do, occur together. (
  • Some of the research, reports conflicting findings and more troublesome, even though the neuroimaging research regarding anxiety has been going strong for the last decade, the rate of anxiety has continued to increase dramatically. (
  • Here, we will review the findings of longitudinal studies that used pre-treatment structural and functional neuroimaging measures to predict treatment-related symptomatic change in anxiety disorders. (
  • Disruption of these processes plays an important role in the emotional dysfunction associated with mood and anxiety disorders. (
  • Neuroimaging research has shown that abnormalities of brain structure and function associated with psychiatric disorders do not reflect the boundaries of current diagnostic categories. (
  • She is President of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA), Chairperson of the Neuroimaging Section of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA), of the EPA Schizophrenia Section, and of the European College of NeuroPsychopharmacology (ECNP) Schizophrenia Network. (
  • Finally, we describe how this approach could be used in planning DBS treatment of psychiatric disorders. (
  • The neuropathology underlying psychiatric disorders is poorly defined, and, consequently, psychiatric nosology is mainly informed by clinical observation. (
  • Which neuroimaging test for which psychiatric patient-and when? (
  • Vago DR, Epstein J, Catenaccio E, Stern E. Identification of Neural Targets for the treatment of psychiatric disorders: The role of functional neuroimaging. (
  • Many psychiatric and neurological disorders have been associated with dysregulation of the HPA axis. (
  •,+but+genetic+testing+and+neuroimaging+could+someday+be+used+to+improve+detection&title=Scientific+American&volume=289&issue=3&date=20030900&au=Hyman,+Steven+E. (
  • However, the main contributing vulnerability for suicidal behaviour is having a history of self-harm and suicide attempts or having a psychiatric disorder. (
  • 7 , 8 In fact, up to 90% of suicide victims may have a (often untreated) psychiatric disorder, 8 , 9 with major depressive disorder (MDD) affecting between 50 and 70% of all victims. (
  • As we understand more and more about the specific brain regions and processes and circuits that are abnormally active or deficient in activity in association with specific mental states and psychiatric disorders and symptoms, then we are able to develop evidence-based, scientifically-based treatments that can, in individual patients, ultimately engage those brain regions or modulate them and decrease suffering. (
  • Empathy is thought to be a critical facilitator of prosocial behaviour and is disrupted in a number of psychiatric and neurological disorders. (
  • The three research areas in the Huang lab is extended from this early work to delineate connectivity, create quantitative normal developmental brain charts and identify early biomarkers in brains with psychiatric disorders. (
  • The field of movement disorders is one of the key subspecialty areas in clinical neurology, and understanding of the relevant conditions can often be difficult. (
  • The Oxford Textbook of Movement Disorders is an indispensable reference for neurologists and senior trainees in neurology, as well as any physicians advising people with movement disorders. (
  • This book presents the state of the art in the use of neuroimaging technologies in the study of schizophrenia and other primary psychotic disorders. (
  • We demonstrate how multivariate analyses of functional activation and connectivity parameters can be used to differentiate patients with bipolar disorder from those with major depressive disorder and non-affective psychosis. (
  • MRI-derived brain measures offer a link between genes, the environment and behavior and have been widely studied in bipolar disorder (BD). (
  • The Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Bipolar Disorder Working Group was formed in 2012 to empower discoveries, generate consensus findings and inform future hypothesis-driven studies of BD. (
  • The ENIGMA Bipolar Disorder Working Group applies standardized processing and analysis techniques to empower large-scale meta- and mega-analyses of multimodal brain MRI and improve the replicability of studies relating brain variation to clinical and genetic data. (
  • This chapter concentrates on structural MRI brain changes associated with unipolar major depression and bipolar disorder (BD) of late-life, with particular attention to structural imaging, white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). (
  • Mood disorders, including major depression, bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disease), and geriatric depression, are common, debilitating disorders that not only impact mood and emotion, but also affect the afflicted person's ability to eat, sleep, and experience normal sexual drives. (
  • The FNL has designed and performed functional neuroimaging studies to probe key brain circuits and functions in major depression, bipolar disorder and geriatric depression. (
  • Mental disorders such as schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar (BD), and major depression disorders (MDD) can cause severe symptoms and life disruption. (
  • No specific blood or other laboratory tests aid in diagnosing bipolar disorder. (
  • Go to Bipolar Affective Disorder for complete information on this topic. (
  • Initial studies suggest that developmental changes with maturity in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder differ from those in healthy peers. (
  • In the present study, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of a neuroanatomical pattern classification method in the discrimination between psychotic major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar I disorder (BD-I), and healthy controls (HC) using a homogenous sample of patients at an early course of their illness. (
  • The nonspecificity and variability of symptoms over time are frequent causes of misdiagnosis in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Neuroimaging distinguishes between bipolar disorder and depression in human study. (
  • Mental illness, particularly bipolar disorder and depression , can be difficult to diagnose as many conditions have similar symptoms. (
  • These two illnesses are virtually identical except individuals with bipolar disorder also experience mania. (
  • Now, a study from researchers led by the Westmead Institute for Medical Research shows neurons deep inside the brain could hold the key to accurately diagnosing and differentiating bipolar disorder and depression. (
  • Previous studies show approximately sixty percent of patients with bipolar disorder are initially misdiagnosed as a major depressive disorder. (
  • Alarmingly, in some cases, it can take up to a decade for these patients to be accurately diagnosed with bipolar disorder. (
  • Bipolar disorder often first presents in the depressive phase of the illness and bipolar depression is similar to major depression in terms of clinical symptoms, with emotion processing a core problem underlying both these disorders. (
  • The current study shows amygdala activation, and connectivity during facial emotion processing can help to distinguish bipolar and depressive disorder patients, independent of the level of emotional awareness. (
  • Results show the amygdala responds differently depending on whether the person has bipolar disorder or depression. (
  • Data findings show in people with bipolar disorder, the left side of the amygdala is less active and less connected with other parts of the brain than in people with depression, with 80% accuracy in making this distinction. (
  • Results show bipolar disorder participants had lower left amygdala activation than patients with depression during tests involving a perceived and subconscious threat, sad and neutral processing, and for subconscious processing of happy faces. (
  • Data findings show bipolar disorder participants also exhibit lower amygdala connectivity to the insula and hippocampus for threat and less connectivity to the medial orbitofrontal for happy perceived and subconscious processing. (
  • The lab observed bipolar disorder participants also demonstrated greater amygdala-insula connectivity for perceived and subconscious sad facial processing in tests. (
  • The team surmises their findings provide evidence the amygdala could be a potential trait-marker to differentiate bipolar disorder and depression largely independent of illness or emotional state. (
  • and a new smartphone app that tracks moods and predicts bipolar disorder episodes. (
  • Detecting the predisposition to or possible development of disorders or diseases not only in adults but also in fetuses through genetic testing (i.e. preimplantation genetics) has been a topic of continued discussion and debate [2]. (
  • nevertheless, given that the brain is the main structure analyzed and affected by these neurodegenerative and mental disorders, different questions (from those posed by predictive genetic testing) have also surfaced. (
  • Clinical, genetic and neuroimaging studies point to dopaminergic and noradrenergic abnormalities in ADHD. (
  • Genetic variations associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) may affect the structural aspects of neural networks mediated by the molecular pathways involved in neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity. (
  • Above its clinical applicability, the combination of particular neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and genetic characteristics could enhance our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder. (
  • Researchers at 63 sites in the US and Canada track the progression of AD in the human brain with neuroimaging, biochemical, and genetic biological markers. (
  • Findings from neuroimaging studies complement our understanding of the wide-ranging neurobiological changes in trauma survivors who develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). (
  • Therefore, it is important to identify disease-specific changes for distinguishing healthy controls and patients with brain disorders as well as for differentiating patients with different disorders showing similar clinical symptoms. (
  • These results suggest that perfusion brain SPECT can be utilized clinically to delineate between these two disorders with overlapping symptoms. (
  • Evidence remains lacking that integration is feasible in diverse settings, that it improves outcomes, and that methods can be developed to address the mixed symptoms of emerging child/youth problems and their overlap with developmental and parental disorders. (
  • Prevalence of suicidal symptoms among major depressive disorder (MDD) cases ranged between 29 and 69% across cohorts. (
  • Somatization disorder is a mental disorder characterized by recurring, multiple, and current, clinically significant complaints about somatic symptoms. (
  • The symptoms do not all have to occur at the same time, but may occur over the course of the disorder. (
  • Although more frequent in BD, psychotic symptoms may be present in some patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) [ 3 ]. (
  • They're skilled at diagnosing movement disorders and providing appropriate treatments that either cure the disorder or improve its symptoms and relieve its pain. (
  • [5] Despite its proponents, it is still debated as to whether SPD is actually an independent disorder or the observed symptoms of various other, more well-established, disorders. (
  • While many people can present one or two symptoms, sensory processing disorder has to have a clear functional impact on the person's life. (
  • Neuroimaging studies have substantially advanced our understanding of the neural mechanisms that underlie the core symptoms of ASDs. (
  • To evaluate if perfusion neuroimaging with brain SPECT can distinguish persons with depression from those with CDs or both conditions. (
  • Feature selection revealed predictive regions in delineating isolated depression from CDs and persons with both disorders. (
  • Quantitative perfusion SPECT neuroimaging distinguishes depression from dementia and those with both co-morbidities. (
  • DeAsis J, Silbersweig D, Pan H, Young R, Stern E. Neuroimaging Studies of fronto-limbic dysfunction in geriatric depression. (
  • The highly comorbid nature of SAD, which often occurs along with depression, panic disorder, and alcohol abuse, is well established [ 5 , 6 ]. (
  • Trajectories of major depression disorders: A systematic review of longitudinal neuroimaging findings. (
  • The scope of this area requires a wide knowledge base, and clinicians might, in the course of a single clinic, need to recall the differential of Huntington's-like disorders, the gene implicated in dopa-responsive dystonia, and compare a case of suspected neuroacanthocytosis with a 'classical' case. (
  • Autism spectrum disorders and related conditions. (
  • Studies in individuals with psychopathy and autism spectrum disorders have found that vicarious experience is atypical. (
  • The neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders include autism and Alzheimer's. (
  • These atlases and charts will provide reference standards for "pre-diagnostic" risk assessment, and thus in future studies examining individuals at risk for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism or schizophrenia. (
  • Disorders of social and emotional functioning are central features of a large number of acquired and developmental disorders ranging from traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative disease to schizophrenia and autism. (
  • Evidence from neuroimaging studies has suggested areas ofthe brain that may be damaged by psychological trauma. (
  • Prior research using a variety of types of neuroimaging techniques has confirmed that neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with dysfunction in anatomical and functional brain circuits. (
  • Furthermore, the lab is building models that enable the accurate classification of migraine subtypes, such as episodic and chronic migraine as well as building models that distinguish patients who have migraine from patients with post-traumatic headache and other headache disorders based solely upon brain magnetic resonance imaging data. (
  • This Research Topic aims to further explore the functional or structural alterations in brain disorders. (
  • We seek to gather a broad range of papers in terms of identifying group differences among different populations and classifying (or predicting) brain disorders using the above mentioned brain imaging techniques. (
  • Since the discovery of the x-ray in 1895, neuroimaging technology has advanced from primitive skull x-ray films to high-resolution visualization of brain structure and changes in brain activity induced by performing a task, solving a puzzle, or feeling an emotion. (
  • If your doctor told you they could determine whether or not you would develop a neurodegenerative disease or mental disorder in the future through a brain scan, would you undergo the process? (
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly heterogeneous and often present with overlapping symptomology, providing challenges in reliable classification and treatment. (
  • The different syndromes and diseases presenting with dementia have different patterns of brain perfusion abnormalities, it is possible to distinguish them with good specificity with neuroimaging. (
  • We are not only interested in studying primary dysfunction directly caused by the movement disorder but also secondary dysfunctions of brain networks that are associated with therapy. (
  • Structural brain deficits are associated with LLD and LLBD, with a pattern supporting the notion of 'frontostriatal' disturbances in affective disorders of late-life. (
  • The pathophysiology of these disorders remains unclear, and further study is necessary to identify the underlying areas of abnormal brain function in this spectrum of disease. (
  • The database contains information of 225 studies which have investigated brain structure (using MRI and CT scans) in patients with major depressive disorder compared to a control group. (
  • Kobayashi, N, Kato, M & Hoeft, F 2007, ' Contribution of neuroimaging in the prediction of outcome in neuropsychiatric disorders and learning disabilities ', Brain and Nerve , 巻. (
  • As a conclusion, the authors showed the importance of CC as an critical part of the brain, which should be explored by different methods of imaging, correspondent to clinical evaluation of CNS demyelinating disorder to widen our knowledge on pathology and clinical patterns of such disorders. (
  • Chapter 1 introduces the topic of clinical neuroimaging in the study of human brain function. (
  • Therefore, we conduct a detailed assessment of the clinical course, risk and protective factors for affective disorders in order to account for differential influences on brain structure and function. (
  • Association of Brain Cortical Changes with Relapse in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder. (
  • 2016). Differing brain structural correlates of familial and environmental risk for major depressive disorder revealed by a combined VBM/pattern recognition approach. (
  • Functional neuroimaging is a set of techniques that allow one to look at the brain in action, noninvasively, in living breathing people to be able to track changes when you think, when you feel, when you're perceiving, when you're behaving, in brain activity to be able to identify the circuits that are active or less active under different mind/brain conditions. (
  • In borderline personality disorder, characterized by impulsivity and emotional lability, we are finding that a key area of the brain that is involved in controlling your behavior in the context of negative emotional states is deficient in its activity and in its modulation. (
  • Particularly promising is the neuroimaging studies that allow researchers to closely examine the brain of eating disorder sufferers. (
  • Movement disorders are caused by abnormal communication between nerve cells in the brain. (
  • Studies of the functional impact of transplanting GABAergic interneurons into the brain and spinal cord in models of different neurological disorders are still in their infancy [ 6 ], and relatively little is known about mechanisms guiding the survival, differentiation and synaptic integration of transplanted GABAergic interneurons in the adult brain. (
  • Does subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) increase or decrease impulse control disorders in patients with Parkinson disease (PD)? (
  • Dr. Brian Edlow's Laboratory for NeuroImaging of Coma and Consciousness (NICC) aims to improve acute care and long-term outcomes for patients with coma and other disorders of consciousness caused by traumatic brain injury. (
  • Our team at the Laboratory for NeuroImaging of Coma and Consciousness (NICC) at Massachusetts General Hospital studies how patients recover consciousness after a severe traumatic brain injury and how to promote the recovery process. (
  • Distinction of seropositive NMO spectrum disorder and MS brain lesion distribution. (
  • Research in the Huang lab focuses on the structural and functional connectivity as well as micro-structural quantifications and brain atlases using the latest noninvasive neuroimaging techniques. (
  • These studies are made possible with recent advancement of cutting-edge neuroimaging acquisition techniques and big-data analytics of brain images. (
  • - As scientific knowledge grows about the role of the brain in mental disorder, no clinician can afford to be uninformed about neurobiology. (
  • Covering an array of evidence-based content, including aphasia, traumatic brain injury, dementia, and language in aging, Aphasia and Other Acquired Neurogenic Language Disorders: A Guide for Clinical Excellence is a must-have textbook for clinicians and students studying to be speech-language pathologists. (
  • Pretreatment assessment of functional brain connectivity in patients with major depressive disorder may predict treatment response, according to new study. (
  • Their efforts have led to new drugs, devices and rehabilitative approaches to care for people with a wide range of brain and behavior disorders. (
  • All data generated by the ADNI study are entered into the data archive hosted at the Laboratory of NeuroImaging (LONI) at the University of Southern California. (
  • The percentage of individuals responding to pharmacotherapy appears to be even lower in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) [ 6 ]. (
  • Is posttraumatic stress disorder a stress-induced fear circuitry disorder? (
  • Recent advances in neuroimaging data acquisition and analysis hold the promise to enhance the ability to make diagnostic and prognostic predictions and perform treatment planning in neuropsychiatric disorders. (
  • Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) may be advantageous in the diagnostic separation of these disorders when comorbid or clinically indistinct. (
  • Objective biomarkers based on neuroimaging may help to improve diagnostic accuracy and facilitate optimal treatment for patients. (
  • [4] The condition of NPD is included in the cluster B personality disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). (
  • The diagnostic assessment of patients with disorder of consciousness is currently based on clinical testing at the bedside and prone to a high error rate in the assessment of the degree of conscious awareness. (
  • [3] [4] Sensory processing disorder is gaining recognition, although it is still not recognized by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. (
  • sensory modulation disorder , sensory-based motor disorders and sensory discrimination disorders [9] (as defined in the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders in Infancy and Early Childhood). (
  • The research goal is to address the neuroscientific questions and identify diagnostic or therapeutic neuroimaging biomarkers. (
  • While OCD has been considered a homogenous disorder from a neuropsychological perspective, many of the putative neuropsychological deficits may be due to comorbid disorders. (
  • Affective disorders are severe and predominantly chronic diseases characterized by impairments in social and neuropsychological development. (
  • Resting-State Neuroimaging and Neuropsychological Findings in Opioid Use Disorder during Abstinence: A Review. (
  • This brief review is to compare and contrast the current literature on non-invasive resting state neuroimaging and clinical neuropsychological studies with the focus on the abstinence stage in OUD. (
  • Future studies with larger clinically representative populations with further aid to elucidate the specific anatomy and aetiology of structural MRI changes in late-life mood disorders and investigate their relationship with clinical factors. (
  • Thyroid studies may help to rule out a thyroid disorder as a cause of an altered mood. (
  • Mood disorders share a large number of clinical and neurobiological features. (
  • PMDD is pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder, and more than typical PMS and in a way that really demonstrates biologically that a subset of women, in this case five to eight percent of women, have profound changes in their mood and behavior across the menstrual cycle. (
  • Severe medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is often associated with pharmacoresistant seizures, impaired memory and mood disorders. (
  • In addition to these profound sources of morbidity, affective disorders may result in mortality through suicide. (
  • The burden of affective disorders on families and the costs to society are tremendous. (
  • The results of these studies have increased our understanding of the pathophysiology of affective disorders, and are a prerequisite for the development of new, targeted biological therapies that are being developed. (
  • While many studies have investigated the neurobiological mechanisms in cross-sectional designs, there is a lack of well-designed longitudinal neuroimaging studies in affective disorders. (
  • With ever improving machinery, data collection techniques and analysis methods, researchers are now being presented with an exponentially increasing amount of data that they must wade through and interpret in the context of existing knowledge about movement disorders. (
  • There are detailed reviews of new neuroimaging techniques - including CT, MRI, advanced MR techniques, SPECT and PET - as well as image analysis methods, their roles and pitfalls. (
  • Finally, the use of neuroimaging techniques to establish predictive markers of disease and mental disorders has been clearly seen in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) that was started in 2007 and is currently active [12]. (
  • Over the last decades, non-invasive in-vivo neuroimaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been increasingly applied to measure structure and function in human brains. (
  • Professor Haxby pioneered the use of machine-learning techniques (MVPA) for neuroimaging data. (
  • Therefore, the earlier the intervention takes place, presumably, the greater the protection against further neuronal damage will be appreciated.The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiate (ADNI) is a consortium of universities and medical centers in the United States and Canada established to develop standardized imaging techniques and biomarkers procedures in normal subjects, subjects with MCI and subjects with mild AD. (
  • To achieve better prediction for clinical purposes, this study investigated a new prediction model with low inter-individual variability and high accuracy using neuroimaging techniques. (
  • Neuroimaging techniques may provide insights into the underlying neural mechanisms associated with a benign or detrimental course of disease. (
  • Structural and functional neuroimaging techniques yield such biological measures (e.g., regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose [rCMRglu] in the anterior cingulate cortex [ACC]) that can be examined for possible associations with treatment response. (
  • The increasing use of neuroimaging techniques allows improving clinical characterization of these patients. (
  • The last decade witnessed a surge in the development of advanced neuroimaging techniques designed to identify patients capable of following instructions and communicating but unable to execute these behaviors on bedside examination due to speech and motor impairments. (
  • hyperactivity disorder using neuroimaging techniques. (
  • Nevertheless, a number of challenges still remain in the application of neuroimaging techniques to the study of ASDs. (
  • One of the oldest explanations for somatization disorder advances the theory that it is a result of the body's attempt to cope with emotional and psychological stress. (
  • Neuroimaging is being used as a tool to investigate the neurobiological effects of individual risk genes. (
  • Such measures are more objective and arguably more proximal to the neurobiological substrates of these disorders as compared to symptom severity measures. (
  • The use of neuroimaging data to predict neurodegenerative diseases and mental disorders is an initiative that should continue to be pursued as it could help in the prevention or delay the disease or disorder by early intervention, but that research should also take into account the ethical implications of conducting and providing such information for and to the public. (
  • 1 Biometry and Field Studies Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. (
  • The methodology is illustrated with neuroimaging data collected as part of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Stroke Data Bank. (
  • To improve quality of life for patients managing complex neurological disorders. (
  • Vekrellis K, Xilouri M, Emmanouilidou E, Rideout HJ, Stefanis L. Pathological roles of a-synuclein in neurological disorders. (
  • A Problem-based Approach to Pediatric Neurological Disorders. (
  • To determine whether neuroimaging studies had identified structural and functional changes specific to PTSD. (
  • A review of all functional and structural neuroimaging studies of subjects with PTSD was carried out. (
  • Neuroimaging studies have produced seemingly contradictory findings in regards to the pathophysiology of insomnia. (
  • Although most study results are interpreted from the perspective of a "hyperarousal" model, the aggregate findings from neuroimaging studies suggest a more complex model is needed. (
  • We provide a review of the major findings from neuroimaging studies, then discuss them in relation to a heuristic model of sleep-wake states that involves three major factors: wake drive, sleep drive, and level of conscious awareness. (
  • However, many neuroimaging studies of BD have been underpowered, leading to varied results and uncertainty regarding effects. (
  • Through this effort, over 150 researchers from 20 countries and 55 institutions pool data and resources to produce the largest neuroimaging studies of BD ever conducted. (
  • The purpose of this article was to highlight the unique role radiologists play in ensuring the appropriate use of imaging studies, particularly neuroimaging. (
  • We will review how clinical guidelines can help frame decisions about the appropriate use of neuroimaging studies. (
  • While remaining hopeful of new and effective treatments coming from these neuroimaging studies , I am also cautiously optimistic. (
  • A simulation study demonstrates the importance of accurate modeling of the spatial correlation structure in data with large numbers of spatially correlated observations such as those found in neuroimaging studies. (
  • These studies will help determine neural mechanisms that mediate susceptibility to stress and offer insights into the development of emotion-related disorders. (
  • We review three major conceptual and methodological challenges that complicate the interpretation of findings from neuroimaging studies in ASDs, and that future imaging studies should address through improved designs. (
  • Guided by computational modelling complemented with neuropsychology and neuroimaging, I will provide support for the notion that memory and perception are inextricably intertwined throughout the MTL, relying on shared neural representations and computational mechanisms. (
  • Neuroimaging methods provide a noninvasive approach to explore the neural correlates of suicide vulnerability in vivo . (
  • Understanding the mechanisms of vicarious experience can enhance our knowledge of the neural basis of empathy and, ultimately, help those with disorders of social cognition and behaviour. (
  • Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is a multisite study that aims to improve clinical trials for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). (
  • The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) began in 2004 under the leadership of Dr. Michael W. Weiner, funded as a private - public partnership with $27 million contributed by 20 companies and two foundations through the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health and $40 million from the NIA. (
  • Affective disorder research has mainly focussed on studying many of the structures implicated within the limbic-cortical-striatal-pallidal-thalamic circuit. (
  • The Department is the focus for the Child Mental Disorders theme within the Biomedical Research Centre (funded by the National Institute for Health Research), and is headed by Professor Emily Simonoff . (
  • The ENIGMA-MDD Working Group is an international collaboration evaluating neuroimaging and clinical data from thousands of individuals collected by research groups from around the world. (
  • The Heart Foundation is a national leader in research into the causes, treatment and prevention of heart disease and related disorders. (
  • Scientists from Europe, the US, and Japan synthesize the research that has been going on for some years about cerebrovascular amyloidosis in Alzheimer's disease and related disorders, and in particular they place the hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis of the Dutch type into the broader context of sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), a syndrome that is now known to occur more frequently and with more disastrous consequences than was once believed. (
  • Sensory-based motor disorder shows motor output that is disorganized as a result of incorrect processing of sensory information affecting postural control challenges, resulting in postural disorder, or developmental coordination disorder . (
  • Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are a set of complex developmental disabilities defined by impairment in social interaction and communication, as well as by restricted interests or repetitive behaviors. (
  • Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are a class of conditions that embodies Autistic Disorder, Asperger's syndrome, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). (
  • The contributions of neuroimaging in the characterization of these disorders are reviewed across diagnoses, by focusing on psychopathological domains and at-risk populations in order to understand the implications for treatment. (
  • Neuroimaging in Parkinson's disease (PD) and other primary Parkinsonian disorders has been increasingly used in the routine clinical work in the last years. (
  • Over the recent years it has become evident that a substantial fraction of patients with Parkinson's disease develop impulse control disorders (ICD) as a result of dopaminergic medication. (
  • Most common ICD manifestations in Parkinson's disease are pathological gambling, compulsive buying, compulsive sexual behaviours and eating disorders. (
  • Parkinson's disease, tremors and other movement disorders cause a person's body to move involuntarily. (
  • This study seeks to characterize sleep physiology in adolescents with and without Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its relationship to differential neurocognitive and clinical outcomes within these groups. (
  • The potential ability to predict whether or not an individual will develop a neurodegenerative disease or mental disorders seems like an initiative without faults. (
  • Here, we review three major pathological disorders of consciousness: coma, the unresponsive wakefulness syndrome and the minimally conscious state. (
  • Genetics probably contributes a very small amount to development of the disorder. (
  • It covers current theories regarding the etiology of OCD, what is known about the genetics of this disorder, evidence from neuroimaging and a discussion of potential endophenotypes. (
  • Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has an established heritable component, but identifying the genes involved has proven difficult. (
  • Although Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has regularly been considered a childhood and adolescent disorder, it is now widely accepted as enduring into adult ages. (
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, ADHD, is one of the most common mental disorders that develop in children. (
  • The purpose of this study is to refine a new assessment tool for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and then to test its validity (i.e. ability to discriminate between individuals with ADHD and healthy controls. (
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder that makes it difficult to pay attention and control impulsive behaviors. (
  • He is coauthor of ADHD with Comorbid Disorders . (
  • Paediatric patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) showed variability in their responses to methylphenidate. (
  • In Neuroimaging of Movement Disorders, the editors have produced a gold-standard resource that brings together an impressive international group of authorities in their respective fields to outline the current state of knowledge. (
  • The chapters offer both comprehensive reviews of various neuroimaging methods and also more in-depth summaries of the contributions made by neuroimaging in individual movement disorders. (
  • Neuroimaging of Movement Disorders is an indispensable reference that will be of value to all physicians and researchers involved in the care of patients with movement disorders. (
  • Neuroimaging of movement disorder. (
  • Neuroimaging of Movement Disorders (pp. 1-290). (
  • The Neuroimaging of Movement Disorders (NiMoDis) group is headed by Prof. Hartwig Siebner and Associate Professor Annemette Løkkegaard. (
  • If you have a movement disorder, you will be tested in an 'off' medication condition. (
  • The specialists at our Movement Disorder Program are leading experts in this field. (
  • Specifically written to aid understanding and treatment of a wide range of movement disorders, this resource includes a useful section covering miscellaneous causes of disordered movement, which are routinely encountered by neurologists. (
  • Some of the main ethical issues that have developed with the increased use of predictive neuroimaging include concerns surrounding intervention, privacy, and access. (
  • This study reviews the most reliable neuroimaging data of human CC in central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating diseases to facilitate the understanding of different pathological entities of the CC and their role in anticipation of probable prognostic findings. (
  • This study aimed to provide a short review of different pathologic features of CC in neuroimaging of demyelinating disorders of CNS, which are mostly auto-inflammatory types. (
  • A 2-year longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging study in major depressive disorder. (
  • A study combining whole-exome sequencing and structural neuroimaging analysis for major depressive disorder. (
  • In addition to timing and accuracy, other issues involve the use of neuroimaging to predict diseases or mental disorders that have no cures or treatment as well as taking into account the impact that providing said information could have on the patient (such as the burden of knowledge [3] or the impact of stigma). (
  • In this review, we review the literature and provide evidence that functional and structural neuroimaging can detect changes with treatment. (
  • The efficacy and safety of Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) in the treatment of moderate to severe binge eating disorder (BED) has been demonstrated in multiple randomised clinical trials. (
  • There is an evaluation of current treatment approaches for the disorder, encompassing psychological, psychopharmacological and physical interventions, as well as a discussion of treatment resistance. (
  • Dependence to opiates, including illicit heroin and prescription pain killers, and treatment of the opioid use disorder (OUD) have been longstanding problems over the world. (
  • This continuing medical education activity is intended for psychiatrists, psychologists, primary care physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and other health care professionals who seek to improve their care for patients with mental health disorders. (
  • However, more recently, neuroimaging and its possible use in detecting predispositions to neurodegenerative diseases as well as mental disorders has come to light. (
  • Only A naturalistic video for recognizing mental disorder patients using neuroimaging administrators can submit a news bulletin for A naturalistic video for recognizing mental disorder patients using neuroimaging. (
  • News bulletins appear on this page and in the Recent Activity section on A naturalistic video for recognizing mental disorder patients using neuroimaging's Summary page. (
  • In terms of intervention, the main concern involves determining when to notify the patient-this would require having an established degree of probability, as well as prevalence of false positives, that would count as being sufficient to warrant patient knowledge of the neurodegenerative disease or mental disorder [3]. (
  • 3) No Exposed and No Mental Disorders. (
  • [2] Therapy is difficult, because people with narcissistic personality disorder usually do not consider themselves to have a mental health problem . (
  • Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Barcelona, Spain. (
  • Newer Trends in Neuroimaging of Depressive Disorders. (
  • Understanding genes, environment and their interaction in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: is there a role for neuroimaging? (
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation and neuroimaging for cocaine use disorder: Review and future directions. (
  • Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained from 23 patients with major depressive disorder in an acute depressive episode (mean age: 39.8 years) and 20 matched healthy volunteers (mean age: 38.8 years). (
  • Further, we show promising initial results showing that the addition of neuroimaging measures can enhance conventional methods to predict outcome and prognosis. (