Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.Lipoprotein(a): A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Receptors, Lipoprotein: Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.TriglyceridesApolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Lipoproteins, HDL3: Intermediate-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 7 to 8 nm. As the larger lighter HDL2 lipoprotein, HDL3 lipoprotein is lipid-rich.Receptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Lipoproteins, IDL: A mixture of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), particularly the triglyceride-poor VLDL, with slow diffuse electrophoretic mobilities in the beta and alpha2 regions which are similar to that of beta-lipoproteins (LDL) or alpha-lipoproteins (HDL). They can be intermediate (remnant) lipoproteins in the de-lipidation process, or remnants of mutant CHYLOMICRONS and VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS which cannot be metabolized completely as seen in FAMILIAL DYSBETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Lipoproteins, HDL2: Low-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 8 to 13 nm.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Chylomicrons: A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1: A LDL-receptor related protein involved in clearance of chylomicron remnants and of activated ALPHA-MACROGLOBULINS from plasma.Apolipoproteins A: Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.Apolipoprotein B-100: A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Cholesterol, VLDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Apolipoproteins C: A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Apolipoprotein B-48: A 241-kDa protein synthesized only in the INTESTINES. It serves as a structural protein of CHYLOMICRONS. Its exclusive association with chylomicron particles provides an indicator of intestinally derived lipoproteins in circulation. Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Apolipoprotein A-II: The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.Hypertriglyceridemia: A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Hyperlipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally elevated levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. They may be inherited, acquired, primary, or secondary. Hyperlipoproteinemias are classified according to the pattern of lipoproteins on electrophoresis or ultracentrifugation.Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II: A group of familial disorders characterized by elevated circulating cholesterol contained in either LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS alone or also in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins).Apolipoprotein C-II: A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. It contains a cofactor for LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE and activates several triacylglycerol lipases. The association of Apo C-II with plasma CHYLOMICRONS; VLDL, and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS is reversible and changes rapidly as a function of triglyceride metabolism. Clinically, Apo C-II deficiency is similar to lipoprotein lipase deficiency (HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I) and is therefore called hyperlipoproteinemia type IB.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Apolipoprotein C-III: A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS. Apo C-III, synthesized in the liver, is an inhibitor of LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. Apo C-III modulates the binding of chylomicron remnants and VLDL to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) thus decreases the uptake of triglyceride-rich particles by the liver cells and subsequent degradation. The normal Apo C-III is glycosylated. There are several polymorphic forms with varying amounts of SIALIC ACID (Apo C-III-0, Apo C-III-1, and Apo C-III-2).Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins: Proteins that bind to and transfer CHOLESTEROL ESTERS between LIPOPROTEINS such as LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 2.3.1.43.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Apoprotein(a): A large and highly glycosylated protein constituent of LIPOPROTEIN (A). It has very little affinity for lipids but forms disulfide-linkage to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100. Apoprotein(a) has SERINE PROTEINASE activity and can be of varying sizes from 400- to 800-kDa. It is homologous to PLASMINOGEN and is known to modulate THROMBOSIS and FIBRINOLYSIS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Scavenger Receptors, Class B: A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Receptors, Scavenger: A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Hyperlipoproteinemia Type I: An inherited condition due to a deficiency of either LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE or APOLIPOPROTEIN C-II (a lipase-activating protein). The lack of lipase activities results in inability to remove CHYLOMICRONS and TRIGLYCERIDES from the blood which has a creamy top layer after standing.Hyperlipoproteinemia Type IV: A hypertriglyceridemia disorder, often with autosomal dominant inheritance. It is characterized by the persistent elevations of plasma TRIGLYCERIDES, endogenously synthesized and contained predominantly in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins). In contrast, the plasma CHOLESTEROL and PHOSPHOLIPIDS usually remain within normal limits.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Tic Disorders: Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Foam Cells: Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.Scavenger Receptors, Class E: A class of oxidized LDL receptors that contain LECTIN-like extracellular domains.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Hypolipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally low levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. This may involve any of the lipoprotein subclasses, including ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins); BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low-density lipoproteins); and PREBETA-LIPOPROTEINS (very-low-density lipoproteins).Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Borderline Personality Disorder: A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)Abetalipoproteinemia: An autosomal recessive disorder of lipid metabolism. It is caused by mutation of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein that catalyzes the transport of lipids (TRIGLYCERIDES; CHOLESTEROL ESTERS; PHOSPHOLIPIDS) and is required in the secretion of BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL). Features include defective intestinal lipid absorption, very low serum cholesterol level, and near absent LDL.Hyperlipoproteinemia Type III: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterized by the accumulation of intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL or broad-beta-lipoprotein). IDL has a CHOLESTEROL to TRIGLYCERIDES ratio greater than that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. This disorder is due to mutation of APOLIPOPROTEINS E, a receptor-binding component of VLDL and CHYLOMICRONS, resulting in their reduced clearance and high plasma levels of both cholesterol and triglycerides.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Mice, Inbred C57BLSleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Apoproteins: The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).Esterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Hyperlipidemia, Familial Combined: A type of familial lipid metabolism disorder characterized by a variable pattern of elevated plasma CHOLESTEROL and/or TRIGLYCERIDES. Multiple genes on different chromosomes may be involved, such as the major late transcription factor (UPSTREAM STIMULATORY FACTORS) on CHROMOSOME 1.Apolipoprotein C-I: A 6.6-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Apo C-I displaces APO E from lipoproteins, modulate their binding to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL), and thereby decrease their clearance from plasma. Elevated Apo C-I levels are associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Apolipoprotein E3: A 34-kDa glycosylated protein. A major and most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. Therefore, it is also known as apolipoprotein E (ApoE). In human, Apo E3 is a 299-amino acid protein with a cysteine at the 112 and an arginine at the 158 position. It is involved with the transport of TRIGLYCERIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and CHOLESTERYL ESTERS in and out of the cells.Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.LDL-Receptor Related Proteins: A family of proteins that share sequence similarity with the low density lipoprotein receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL).Aryldialkylphosphatase: An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of an aryl-dialkyl phosphate to form dialkyl phosphate and an aryl alcohol. It can hydrolyze a broad spectrum of organophosphate substrates and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. It may also mediate an enzymatic protection of LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS against oxidative modification and the consequent series of events leading to ATHEROMA formation. The enzyme was previously regarded to be identical with Arylesterase (EC 3.1.1.2).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Lymphoproliferative Disorders: Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 2.3.1.26.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1: A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Tangier Disease: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS involved in cellular cholesterol removal (reverse-cholesterol transport). It is characterized by near absence of ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins) in blood. The massive tissue deposition of cholesterol esters results in HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; large orange tonsils; and often sensory POLYNEUROPATHY. The disorder was first found among inhabitants of Tangier Island in the Chesapeake Bay, MD.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Lecithin Acyltransferase Deficiency: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that facilitates the esterification of lipoprotein cholesterol and subsequent removal from peripheral tissues to the liver. This defect results in low HDL-cholesterol level in blood and accumulation of free cholesterol in tissue leading to a triad of CORNEAL OPACITY, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), and PROTEINURIA.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Blood Protein Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis applied to BLOOD PROTEINS.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Speech Disorders: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.Combat Disorders: Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.Lovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.Probucol: A drug used to lower LDL and HDL cholesterol yet has little effect on serum-triglyceride or VLDL cholesterol. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p993).Diet, Atherogenic: A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Phospholipid Transfer Proteins: A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Apolipoprotein E2: One of three major isoforms of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E2 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at one residue 158 where arginine is replaced by cysteine (R158--C). In contrast to Apo E3, Apo E2 displays extremely low binding affinity for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) which mediate the internalization and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in liver cells. ApoE2 allelic homozygosity is associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Impulse Control Disorders: Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.LDL-Receptor Related Protein-Associated Protein: A membrane protein found in the rough endoplasm reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH) that binds to LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEINS. It may function to prevent ligand binding of receptors during protein processing events within endosomal compartments.High-Density Lipoproteins, Pre-beta: A highly dense subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes below 7 nm. They are also known as nascent HDL, composed of a few APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I molecules which are complexed with PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The lipid-poor pre-beta-HDL particles serve as progenitors of HDL3 and then HDL2 after absorption of free cholesterol from cell membranes, cholesterol esterification, and acquisition of apolipoproteins A-II, Cs, and E. Pre-beta-HDL initiate the reverse cholesterol transport process from cells to liver.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Blood Protein DisordersSchizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Lysophosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Receptors, Oxidized LDL: A group of cell-surface receptors for oxidatively modified LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. The group includes certain SCAVENGER RECEPTORS that contribute to the pathogenesis of ATHEROSCLEROSIS by uptake of oxidized LDL.1-Alkyl-2-acetylglycerophosphocholine Esterase: A lipoprotein-associated PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 which modulates the action of PLATELET ACTIVATING FACTOR by hydrolyzing the SN-2 ester bond to yield the biologically inactive lyso-platelet-activating factor. It has specificity for phospholipid substrates with short-chain residues at the SN-2 position, but inactive against long-chain phospholipids. Deficiency in this enzyme is associated with many diseases including ASTHMA, and HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Heptanoic Acids: 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Binge-Eating Disorder: A disorder associated with three or more of the following: eating until feeling uncomfortably full; eating large amounts of food when not physically hungry; eating much more rapidly than normal; eating alone due to embarrassment; feeling of disgust, DEPRESSION, or guilt after overeating. Criteria includes occurrence on average, at least 2 days a week for 6 months. The binge eating is not associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behavior (i.e. purging, excessive exercise, etc.) and does not co-occur exclusively with BULIMIA NERVOSA or ANOREXIA NERVOSA. (From DSM-IV, 1994)ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Dysthymic Disorder: Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Fredrickson, DS; Levy, RI; Lees, RS (1967). "Fat transport in lipoproteins--an integrated approach to mechanisms and disorders ... In 1967 Fredrickson co-authored the paper that described the classification of lipoprotein abnormalities in five types, ... developed an interest in the metabolism of cholesterol and lipoproteins, as well as related medical conditions such as Niemann- ... depending on the pattern of lipoprotein electrophoresis; this became known as the Fredrickson classification. It was adopted as ...
... (LCAT deficiency) is a disorder of lipoprotein metabolism. The disease has two ... low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) < 10 mg/dL, elevated very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and triglycerides, high plasma ... low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) < 10 mg/dL, elevated very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and triglycerides, high plasma ... Both the familial type and Fish-eye disease are autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations of the LCAT gene located on ...
... (also known as Familial alpha-lipoprotein deficiency) or hypoalphalipoproteinemia is a rare inherited disorder ... Tangier disease is a rare disorder with approximately 50 cases identified worldwide. This disorder was originally discovered on ... Most often, the parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive disorder are carriers of one copy of the altered gene but ... High-density lipoproteins are created when a protein in the bloodstream, Apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), combines with cholesterol ...
ISBN 0-7216-2921-0. Genest J, Libby P. Lipoprotein disorders and cardiovascular disease. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby ... IDL and VLDL or Very Low Density lipoprotein receptors. The normal ApoE turns into the defective ApoE2 form due to a genetic ...
Lipoproteins are categorized by their density levels. The varying densities between the types of lipoproteins are ... "Lipid Metabolism Disorders". MedlinePlus. Retrieved 2016-11-20. "Disorders of Lipid Metabolism". Merck Manuals Consumer Version ... Lipid Metabolism Disorders are illnesses where trouble occurs in breaking down or synthesizing fats (or fat-like substances). A ... A number of these lipoproteins are synthesized in the liver, but not all of them originate from this organ. ...
... has been shown to interact with Lipoprotein(a). Fibrin GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000171564 - ... Mutations in this gene lead to several disorders, including afibrinogenemia, dysfibrinogenemia, hypodysfibrinogenemia and ...
People affected by this disorder are not able to make certain lipoproteins, which are molecules that consist of proteins ... which is essential for creating beta-lipoproteins. These lipoproteins are both necessary for the absorption of fats, ... Abetalipoproteinemia is a disorder that interferes with the normal absorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins from food. It is ... This disorder may also result in fat accumulation in the liver (hepatic steatosis). Because the epithelial cells of the bowel ...
The researchers described low-density and high-density lipoproteins and their roles in metabolic disorders and coronary disease ... The team he led at the Donner Laboratory went on to demonstrate the role of lipoproteins in the causation of heart disease. ... After that, he and his collaborators investigated the body's lipoproteins, which contain both proteins and fats, and their ... Gofman discovered and described three major classes of plasma lipoproteins, fat molecules that carry cholesterol in the blood. ...
... when resulting from another underlying disorder that leads to alterations in plasma lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Also, ... The size of that capsule, or lipoprotein, determines its density. The lipoprotein density and type of apolipoproteins it ... a condition caused by a lack of lipoprotein lipase activator. Chylomicronemia due to circulating inhibitor of lipoprotein ... Hypothyroidism Kidney failure Nephrotic syndrome Alcohol consumption Some rare endocrine disorders and metabolic disorders ...
... a class of lipoproteins prone to cause atherosclerosis. The two forms of this lipid disorder are: Familial combined ... On lipoprotein electrophoresis (a test now rarely performed) it shows as a hyperlipoproteinemia type IIB. It is the most ... In fact, almost one in five individuals who develop coronary heart disease before the age of 60 have this disorder. The ... elevated triglyceride levels (>5 mmol/l) are generally due to an increase in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), ...
Many viruses tend to bind to the lipoproteins of the cell membranes and then penetrate into the cell. Lactoferrin binds to the ... Lactoferrin prevents the attachment of H. pylori in the stomach, which in turn, aids in reducing digestive system disorders. ... same lipoproteins thereby repelling the virus particles. Iron-free apolactoferrin is more efficient in this function than ...
9] A mutation that impairs the ability of lipoprotein receptors to localise in coated pits on the cell surface of human ... mechanism for a dominant disorder in man. Science. 1974 Jul 5; 185 (4145) :61-3. ... 7] Role of the coated endocytic vesicle in the uptake of receptor-bound low density lipoprotein in human fibroblasts. Cell. ... 2] Regulation of the activity of the low density lipoprotein receptor in human fibroblasts. Cell. 1975 Nov; 6 (3) :307-16. ...
... the action of proteoglycans as receptors for hepatic lipoprotein clearance and for delivery of therapeutic agents. Esko ... for delivery of high molecular weight cargo and used it for enzyme replacement therapy for lysosomal storage disorders. Most ... studies of proteoglycans in lipoprotein metabolism in the liver and macrophages; and studies of proteoglycan-associated ...
This is coupled with significantly increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor expression. The disorder is treated by ... Sitosterolemia (also known as "Phytosterolemia") is a rare autosomal recessively inherited lipid metabolic disorder. It is ...
Combined, these observations suggest that, as well as LDL cholesterol, disordered metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins ... The Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor (LDL-R) is a mosaic protein of 839 amino acids (after removal of 21-amino acid ... "Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor". LOVD v.1.1.0 - Leiden Open Variation Database. Leren TP (November 2014). "Sorting an LDL ... "LDLR low density lipoprotein receptor [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2016-10-10. ...
Can be used for purification on Protein-A Sepharose Designed Intrinsically Disordered tags containing disorder promoting amino ... "Catalytic Activity is Not Required for Secreted PCSK9 to Reduce Low Density Lipoprotein Receptors in HepG2 Cells". Journal of ... Minde, David P; Halff, Els F; Tans, Sander (2013). "Designing disorder: Tales of the unexpected tails". Intrinsically ... Gelerter, Bruce (June 11, 2014). "PEMF For Treatment Of Corneal Disorders And Injuries". [self-published source?] McNutt, ...
... or deficiency is a name used to describe two related disorders of fatty acid metabolism. Acid lipase ... One study called "Role of lysosomal acid lipase in the metabolism of plasma low density lipoprotein. Observations in cultured ... In Cholesteryl ester storage there are alterations in the blood lipoprotein amounts which lead to symptoms such as; ... In laboratory test it is expected that the total serum concentration of cholesterol, low density lipoproteins, and ...
Hyperlipidemia is the presence of elevated or abnormal levels of lipids and/or lipoproteins in the blood. Lipid and lipoprotein ... Familial hypercholesterolemia is a rare genetic disorder that can occur in families, where sufferers cannot properly metabolise ... After a meal, some of the fatty acids taken up by the liver is converted into very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and again ... The largest lipoproteins, which primarily transport fats from the intestinal mucosa to the liver, are called chylomicrons. They ...
... is a rare genetic disorder that affects multiple organ systems of the body. This genetic disorder is caused by ... HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, also called "statins," effectively lower levels of low-density lipoprotein, cholesterol, and ... It is still considered to be unknown on how the defective gene causes the disorder. This disease occurs when mutations on the ... It is among the rarest genetic disorders in the world, as currently it has only 266 reported cases in medical literature and ...
... childhood-onset disorder in which the body fails to produce chylomicrons, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density ... Neurologic Disorders Index, National Institutes of Health. Healthwise. CIGNA. Chromosome disorders at the US National Library ... McLeod syndrome is an X-linked recessive disorder caused by mutations in the XK gene encoding the Kx blood type antigen, one of ... Chorea acanthocytosis is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the VPS13A, also called CHAC, on chromosome ...
2005). "Sex-specific association between bipolar affective disorder in women and GPR50, an X-linked orphan G protein-coupled ... polymorphism are associated with higher fasting circulating triglyceride levels and lower circulating High-density lipoprotein ... Certain polymorphisms of the GPR50 gene in females are associated with increased risk of developing bipolar affective disorder ... "Sex-specific association between bipolar affective disorder in women and GPR50, an X-linked orphan G protein-coupled receptor ...
Many co-receptor-related disorders occur due to mutations in the receptor's coding gene. LRP5 (low-density lipoprotein receptor ... co-receptors have been implicated in a number of diseases and disorders. Co-receptor knockout mice are often unable to develop ... in order to lower T cell activation and counteract autoimmune disorders. This blockade appears to elicit a "dominant" effect, ...
"Biochemistry of Lipids, Lipoproteins and Membranes (4th ). Amsterdam: Elsevier. 2002. பக். 373-407. ISBN 978-0-444-51138-6. ... and involvement in neurological disorders". Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 106 (1): 1-29. June 2000. doi:10.1016/S0009-3084(00 ... Biochemistry of Lipids, Lipoproteins and Membranes. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 2002. ISBN 978-0-444-51139-3. ...
Although uncommon, lipid abnormalities can occur in the form of raised triglyceride levels and low high-density lipoprotein ... A laboratory workup is needed primarily to investigate for the presence of associated disorders (metabolic, autoimmune, and ...
There are at least 3 ways in which retromer dysfunction can contribute to brain disorders, including Alzheimer and Parkinson ... Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 605747 "Entrez Gene: LDLRAP1 low density lipoprotein receptor adaptor protein 1". ... De Matteis MA, Luini A (September 2011). "Mendelian disorders of membrane trafficking". The New England Journal of Medicine. ... Small SA, Petsko GA (March 2015). "Retromer in Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease and other neurological disorders". Nature ...
For example, some may lower the "bad cholesterol" low density lipoprotein (LDL) more so than others, while others may ... Staff (29 January 2013) FDA approves new orphan drug Kynamro to treat inherited cholesterol disorder U.S. Food and Drug ... These are drugs which lower the level of lipids and lipoproteins in blood. ... preferentially increase high density lipoprotein (HDL), "the good cholesterol". Clinically, the choice of an agent depends on ...
Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency (LCAT deficiency) is a disorder of lipoprotein metabolism. The disease has two ... low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) < 10 mg/dL, elevated very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and triglycerides, high plasma ... low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) < 10 mg/dL, elevated very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and triglycerides, high plasma ... Both the familial type and Fish-eye disease are autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations of the LCAT gene located on ...
B-containing lipoproteins. ABL results from mutations in the gene encoding the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). ... is an extremely rare autosomal recessive disorder, which is characterized by defective assembly and secretion of plasma ... Abetalipoproteinemia (ABL) is an extremely rare autosomal recessive disorder, which is characterized by defective assembly and ... secretion of plasma apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins. ABL results from mutations in the gene encoding the ...
... and the other signs and symptoms of familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency. other disorders Certain variations in the LPL gene ... familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency More than 220 mutations in the LPL gene have been found to cause familial lipoprotein ... Lipoprotein lipase breaks down triglycerides carried by two different types of lipoproteins, which bring fat to the bloodstream ... Another type of lipoprotein called very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) carries triglycerides from the liver to the bloodstream ...
Fat transport in lipoproteins--an integrated approach to mechanisms and disorders. N Engl J Med. 1967 Jan 19;276(3):148-contd. ... Mars H, Lewis LA, Robertson AL, Jr, Butkus A, Williams GH., Jr Familial hypo-beta-lipoproteinemia: a genetic disorder of lipid ... Tangier disease (familial high density lipoprotein deficiency). Clinical and genetic features in two adults. Am J Med. 1965 Oct ... Kocen RS, Lloyd JK, Lascelles PT, Fosbrooke AS, Willims D. Familial alpha-lipoprotein deficiency (Tangier disease) with ...
The influence of endurance activity on the quality and quantity of low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles is a further reason ... In addition to the direct influence of physical activity on lipids and lipoproteins, physical exercise may improve the ... Increased physical activity induces a number of positive changes in the metabolism of lipoproteins: serum triglycerides are ... lowered by the increased lipolytic activity and the production of native high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles is increased ...
An Introduction to the Biochemistry and Biology of Blood Lipids and Lipoproteins ... Atherogenesis Dietary Intervention Herzkrankheit Hyperlipidemia Hyperlipoproteinämie Lipid Lowering Drugs Lipoprotein ...
... density lipoprotein (LDL) is 90mg/dl, with HDL of 129mg/dl. She has no risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD), except ... A 35-year-old healthy woman is seen at the endocrine clinic for above-normal high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Her triglyceride ... Genetic disorders causing low HDL are Apo lipoprotein A-1 (Apo A-I) deficiency, lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) ... Lipoproteins Apo A-I and Apo A-II are the major structural components of HDL.2 In healthy individuals, around 30 percent of ...
Study Lipoprotein & Lipid Disorders - Gleeson flashcards from Timothy Carll ... Lipoprotein & Lipid Disorders - Gleeson Flashcards Preview M2 Cardiovascular , Lipoprotein & Lipid Disorders - Gleeson , ... What type(s) of genetic lipid disorder(s) are predominantly genetic, with little-to-no influence from lifestyle or other ... What type(s) of genetic lipid disorder(s) are usually dormant until lifestyle and/or other diseases unmask them? ...
DIFFERENTIATION OF DISORDERS OF LIPOPROTEIN METABOLISM * CLINICAL DESCRIPTIONS OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY DISORDERS OF ... The clinical importance of lipoprotein disorders derives chiefly from the role of lipoproteins in atherogenesis and its ... "Disorders of Lipoprotein Metabolism." Greenspans Basic & Clinical Endocrinology, 10e Gardner DG, Shoback D. Gardner D.G., ... Malloy M.J., Kane J.P. Malloy, Mary J., and John P. Kane.Disorders of Lipoprotein Metabolism. In: Gardner DG, Shoback D. ...
Very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL): VLDL is a lipoprotein class synthesized by the liver that is analogous to the ... Other articles where Very-low-density lipoprotein is discussed: lipid: ... In metabolic disease: Lipoprotein disorders. …classes of lipoproteins are chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), ... intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Disorders that ...
High-Density Lipoprotein at the Interface of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Cardiovascular Disorders. Author(s): Sophie Van ... Title: High-Density Lipoprotein at the Interface of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Cardiovascular Disorders ... High-Density Lipoprotein at the Interface of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Cardiovascular Disorders", Current Pharmaceutical ... Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets. *Emerging Potential of Natural Products as an Alternative Strategy to ...
Annina Schmid Dissects Nerve Disorders. By Catherine Offord , January 1, 2018 A background in physiotherapy helps the Oxford- ... tags: lipoprotein lipase deficiency x ecology x neuroscience x The Scientist. » lipoprotein lipase deficiency, ecology and ...
Disorders of lipoprotein metabolism and other lipidemias. 2016 2017 2018 2019 Non-Billable/Non-Specific Code *E78 should not be ... Disorders of plasma-protein metabolism, not elsewhere classified. 2016 2017 2018 2019 Non-Billable/Non-Specific Code Type 1 ...
The treatment of lipid disorders in patients with inflammatory disorders is similar to patients without inflammatory disorders ... Patients with these disorders also have an increase in coronary artery calcium measured by CT and carotid intima media ... The changes in lipids and lipoproteins that occur during inflammation and infection are part of the innate immune response and ... There is also a consistent increase in lipoprotein (a) levels due to increased apolipoprotein (a) synthesis. LDL levels are ...
Dysregulation of the Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Pathway Is Involved in Lipid Disorder-Mediated Organ Injury. Int J Biol ... Dysregulation of the Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Pathway Is Involved in Lipid Disorder-Mediated Organ Injury Yang Zhang1, ... Keywords: dysregulation, low-density lipoprotein receptor, cholesterol homeostasis, lipid disorder, organ injury. ... The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) pathway is a negative feedback system that plays important roles in the regulation ...
The disorder causes a large amount of fat to build up in ... Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency is a group of rare ... genetic disorders in which a person lacks a protein needed to break down fat molecules. ... Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency is a group of rare genetic disorders in which a person lacks a protein needed to break ... Genest J, Libby P. Lipoprotein disorders and cardiovascular disease. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Tomaselli GF, ...
Lipoproteins are molecules made of proteins and fat. They carry cholesterol and similar substances through the blood. ... Genest J, Libby P. Lipoprotein disorders and cardiovascular disease. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Tomaselli GF, ... A blood test can be done to measure a specific type of lipoprotein called lipoprotein-a, or Lp(a). A high level of Lp(a) is ... High levels of lipoproteins can increase the risk for heart disease. The test is done to check your risk for atherosclerosis, ...
Lymphoproliferative Disorders. Lymphatic Diseases. Immunoproliferative Disorders. Immune System Diseases. Leukemia, B-Cell. ... Lipoprotein Lipase Expression in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants. ... The investigators hypothesize that Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) expression on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) cells will predict ...
This chapter reviews normal lipoprotein physiology, the pathophysiology of disorders of lipoprotein metabolism, the effects of ... HDL, high-density lipoprotein; IDL, intermediate-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; VLDL, very-low-density ... TABLE 400-1Major Lipoprotein Classes. View Table,Favorite Table,Download (.pdf). TABLE 400-1 Major Lipoprotein Classes ... low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), and high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Each lipoprotein class comprises a family of particles ...
Lipoprotein Metabolism Disorders Treatment Market 2018 to 2028 by future market insights ... Lipoprotein Metabolism Disorders Treatment Market - Global industry segment analysis, regional outlook, share, growth; ... Lipoprotein Metabolism Disorders Treatment Market: Overview. Lipid metabolism disorder are very common disorder. They play an ... Lipoprotein Metabolism Disorders Treatment Market: Region-wise Outlook. In terms of geography, lipoprotein metabolism disorders ...
Glucose Metabolism Disorders. Metabolic Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Pioglitazone. Hypoglycemic Agents. Physiological ... intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions. Protein and lipid compositions of ... Effects of Pioglitazone on High-density Lipoprotein (HDL) Function in Persons With Diabetes. The safety and scientific validity ... Lipoproteins will be isolated and analyzed using the gradient ultracentrifugation-high pressure liquid chromatography technique ...
Any current or relevant previous history of serious, severe or unstable physical or psychiatric illness, any medical disorder ... LPLD, Lipoprotein Lipase Deficiency. Chylomicronemia. Gene therapy. AAV. Lipoprotein Lipase. Alipogene tiparvovec. AMT-011. ... Intramuscular administration of AAV1-lipoprotein lipase S447X lowers triglycerides in lipoprotein lipase-deficient patients. ... Familial Lipoprotein Lipase Deficiency Genetic: Alipogene Tiparvovec (AMT-011), Human LPL [S447X] Drug: mycophenolate mofetil ...
Lipid Metabolism Disorders. Metabolic Diseases. Simvastatin. Ezetimibe, Simvastatin Drug Combination. Anticholesteremic Agents ... Comparison of the Effect of Vytorin 10/80 Tablet Split Into 4 and Simvastatin 20 Milligrams on Low-density Lipoprotein (LDL) ...
Lipoprotein Disorders. The Merck Manual of Geriatrics, Section 8: Metabolic and Endocrine Disorders [On-line information]. ... Lipoprotein (a) or Lp(a) is one type of lipoprotein that carries cholesterol in the blood. It consists of a low-density ... Winter, W. and Harris, N. Chapter 21: Lipoprotein Disorders, pp 251-259. ... of lipids and is the main protein constituent of lipoproteins such as LDL and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) ...
This rare autosomal recessive disorder (frequency 1 per million) is characterized by the absence of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) ... Lipoproteins, Lipids Similarly Linked With MI, Ischemic Stroke. *Familial Hypercholesterolemia Ups Risk of Cardiovascular ... This disorder usually presents in childhood following repeated episodes of abdominal pain (including colicky infants), ... Test Results Indicative of the Disorder. LPL deficiency is characterized biochemically by elevated TG (often ,11.3 mmol/L or ...
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