Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Malaria, Cerebral: A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)Entorhinal Cortex: Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Cerebellar Cortex: The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Nerve Tissue ProteinsDepressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Telencephalon: The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Neocortex: The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Synaptosomes: Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Mice, Inbred C57BLElectric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Macaca: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders characterized by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES. Clinical features include multiple, small lobar CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; cerebral ischemia (BRAIN ISCHEMIA); and CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unrelated to generalized AMYLOIDOSIS. Amyloidogenic peptides in this condition are nearly always the same ones found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (from Kumar: Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th ed., 2005)Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Vibrissae: Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.Anterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; INTERNAL CAPSULE; PUTAMEN; SEPTAL NUCLEI; GYRUS CINGULI; and surfaces of the FRONTAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Occipital Lobe: Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.Pyramidal Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.Posterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Pia Mater: The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Nervous System Malformations: Structural abnormalities of the central or peripheral nervous system resulting primarily from defects of embryogenesis.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Corpus Callosum: Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Tic Disorders: Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Parvalbumins: Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Cortical Spreading Depression: The decrease in neuronal activity (related to a decrease in metabolic demand) extending from the site of cortical stimulation. It is believed to be responsible for the decrease in cerebral blood flow that accompanies the aura of MIGRAINE WITH AURA. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Reperfusion: Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Borderline Personality Disorder: A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)Synaptic Membranes: Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Technetium Tc 99m Exametazime: A gamma-emitting RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING agent used in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and in non-invasive dynamic biodistribution studies and MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING. It has also been used to label leukocytes in the investigation of INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Vasospasm, Intracranial: Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).Mice, Neurologic Mutants: Mice which carry mutant genes for neurologic defects or abnormalities.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.Oximes: Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Thalamic Nuclei: Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Pyramidal Tracts: Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Muscimol: A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.
A survey of functional connectivity MRI studies in autism spectrum disorders". Cerebral Cortex. 21 (10): 2233-2243. doi:10.1093 ... "Altered resting state functional connectivity patterns of the anterior prefrontal cortex in obsessive-compulsive disorder". ... might someday help provide more definitive diagnoses for mental health disorders such as bipolar disorder and may also aid in ... altered connectivity Obsessive Compulsive Disorder:increase/decrease in connectivity Pain Disorder: altered connectivity ...
Kaufmann, W. E.; Moser, H. W. (2000). "Dendritic anomalies in disorders associated with mental retardation". Cerebral cortex ( ...
"Dysplasias of Cerebral Cortex and Epilepsy". Philadelphia - New York, Lippincott - Raven 1996 Beaumanoir A, Andermann F, ... Epilepsy and Movement Disorders. Cambridge - New York - Port Melbourne, et al, Cambridge University Press 2002 Beaumanoir A, ... Epilepsy and other Neurological Disorders in Coeliac Disease. London - Paris - Rome - Sydney, J. Libbey 1997 Zifkin BG, ... Generalized Seizures: From Clinical Phenomenology to underlying Systems and Networks (Progress in Epileptic Disorders, Vol 2). ...
Cavada, C., & Schultz, W. (2000). The Mysterious Orbitofrontal Cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 10, 205. DeBellis, M.D., Baum, A., ... Henshaw, S.P. & Anderson, C.A. (1996). Conduct and oppositional defiant disorders. In E.J. Mash and R.A. Barkley (Eds.) Child ... In M.M. Murburg (Ed.), Catecholamine Function in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Emerging Concepts. Washington, DC: American ... The impact of early adverse experiences on brain systems involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety and affective disorders. ...
The gene is highly expressed in the brain (Cerebral Cortex). The KIAA1211L protein is located in many different tissue types, ... Finally, KIAA1211L is associated with certain mental disorders and various cancers. KIAA1211L is a protein-coding gene. The ... It is highly expressed in the brain (Cerebral Cortex). Furthermore, it is localized to the microtubules and the centrosomes and ... characterization of bipolar disorder by comparing gene expression profiles of postmortem brains of major mental disorders". Mol ...
... published erratum appears in Cereb Cortex 1997 Dec;7(8):779]". Cerebral Cortex. 7 (6): 583-604. doi:10.1093/cercor/7.6.583.. ... Sleep disorders. Main article: Sleep disorder. A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep ... Sleep disorders are broadly classified into dyssomnias, parasomnias, circadian rhythm sleep disorders, and other disorders ... One of the earliest proposals was to define sleep as the deactivation of the cerebral cortex and the thalamus because of ...
Neurological disorders of gyrification. Lissencephaly. A cerebral cortex lacking surface convolutions is said to be ... "Cerebral Cortex. 13 (7): 728-735. doi:10.1093/cercor/13.7.728. ISSN 1047-3211. PMID 12816888.. ... "Cerebral Cortex. 24 (8): 2219-28. doi:10.1093/cercor/bht082. PMC 4089386. PMID 23542881.. ... "Cerebral Cortex. 24 (8): 2219-28. doi:10.1093/cercor/bht082. PMC 4089386. PMID 23542881.. ...
About a peculiar disease of the cerebral cortex. „Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord". 1 (1), s. 3-8, 1987. PMID: 3331112. ... National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke (NINCDS) i Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders ... Regional distribution of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques in the cerebral cortex of elderly patients: a quantitative ... American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR. Wyd. 4th Edition Text ...
Changes in the structure of gyri in the cerebral cortex are associated with various diseases and disorders. Pachygyria, ... gyri) is a ridge on the cerebral cortex. It is generally surrounded by one or more sulci (depressions or furrows; sg. sulcus). ... A cerebral cortex without surface convolutions is lissencephalic, meaning 'smooth-brained'. As development continues, gyri and ... Armstrong, E; Schleicher, A; Omran, H; Curtis, M; Zilles, K (1991). "The ontogeny of human gyrification". Cerebral cortex (New ...
Savic I, Arver S (November 2011). "Sex dimorphism of the brain in male-to-female transsexuals". Cerebral Cortex. 21 (11): 2525- ... "Regional cerebral blood flow changes in female to male gender identity disorder". Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 64 (2 ... "Gender Dysphoria", Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, American Psychiatric Association, 2013-05-22, doi: ... Like earlier studies, it concluded that transsexuality was associated with a distinct cerebral pattern. (MRI allows easier ...
That message is then relayed to the cerebral cortex, where we translate those EPSPs into "pain." Since the discovery of ... Neurodevelopment disorders. A relatively new direction has emerged in the field of neurodevelopmental disorders. This ... Müller cells of the retina and Bergmann glia cells of the cerebellar cortex represent an exception, being present still during ... Cerebral Cortex. 17 (3): 610-20. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhk007. PMID 16614165.. ...
... is characterised by loss of neurons and synapses in the cerebral cortex and certain subcortical regions. ... "Dementia and Neurocognitive Disorders. 17 (4): 131-36. doi:10.12779/dnd.2018.17.4.131. PMC 6425887. PMID 30906402.. ... "About a peculiar disease of the cerebral cortex. By Alois Alzheimer, 1907 (Translated by L. Jarvik and H. Greenson)". Alzheimer ... Histopathologic image of senile plaques seen in the cerebral cortex of a person with Alzheimer's disease of presenile onset. ...
Lack of reelin prevents normal layering of the cerebral cortex and disrupts cognitive development. Patients have cerebellar ... The disorder is also associated with myopia, nystagmus and generalized seizures. Norman-Roberts syndrome is one of two known ... disorders caused by a disruption of the reelin-signaling pathway. The other is VLDLR-associated cerebellar hypoplasia, which is ...
Sensory disturbances in the hand following injuries of the cerebral cortex. (Brit. M. J., 1920, 2, 782-783.) Disorders of ... Brain, 1917, 40, 188-263.) Sensation and the cerebral cortex. (Brain, 1918, 41, 58-253.) Cases of wounds of the nervous system ... 168-181, 193-194.) Thrombosis of cerebral arteries. (Proc. Roy. Soc. Med., 1909-10, 3, Neurol. Sect., 30.) Cerebral haemorrhage ... As a result of this, impulses from the skin that pass through it are exaggerated or disordered so that a stimulus that would ...
His group at SRI International also discovered an unusual neuronal population in the cerebral cortex that is activated during ... Subsequent research established that the hypocretin neurons degenerate in the sleep disorder narcolepsy and is the likely cause ... "SRI International Research Team Identifies Rare Sleep-Activated Neurons in the Cerebral Cortex". SRI International. 2008-07-21 ... "Identification of a population of sleep-active cerebral cortex neurons". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. ...
Cerebral Cortex, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2012, pp372-380. Slotnick, S. D., Thompson, W. L., and Kosslyn, S. M., Visual memory and ... Holmes, E. A., and Mathews, A., Mental imagery in emotion and emotional disorders. Clinical Psychology Review, Vol. 30, No. 3, ... Holmes, E. A., and Mathews, A., Mental imagery in emotion and emotional disorders. Clinical Psychology Review, Vol. 30, No. 3, ... Kosslyn, S. M., Seeing and imagining in the cerebral hemispheres-A computational approach. Psychological Review, Vol. 94, No. 2 ...
Cerebral Cortex, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2012, pp372-380. Slotnick, S. D., Thompson, W. L., and Kosslyn, S. M., Visual memory and ... Holmes, E. A., and Mathews, A., Mental imagery in emotion and emotional disorders. Clinical Psychology Review, Vol. 30, No. 3, ... Cerebral Cortex, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2012, pp372-380. Slotnick, S. D., Thompson, W. L., and Kosslyn, S. M., Visual memory and ... Holmes, E. A., and Mathews, A., Mental imagery in emotion and emotional disorders. Clinical Psychology Review, Vol. 30, No. 3, ...
Defects in the growth of the cerebral cortex lead to many of the features associated with microcephaly. There is currently no ... Several studies have focused on different aspects of the disorder to try to find its exact cause and expression. One study ... Although the majority of cases have been reported from the United States, Germany, and Russia, the disorder appears to affect ... Dubowitz syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by microcephaly, stunted growth, and a receding chin. Symptoms vary ...
May 2011). "Decreased interhemispheric functional connectivity in autism". Cerebral Cortex. Oxford Journals. 21 (5): 1134-1146 ... It argues that autism and psychosis are contrasting disorders on a number of variables. This is argued to be due to imbalanced ... Critics say that because his work has focused on higher-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders, his work ... subclasses among disorders of empathy". Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Wiley. 33 (5): 813-842. doi:10.1111/j.1469- ...
"Acute stress disorder modifies cerebral activity of amygdala and prefrontal cortex". Cognitive Neuroscience. 6 (1): 39-43. doi: ... This disorder may resolve itself with time or may develop into a more severe disorder such as PTSD. However, results of Creamer ... Acute stress disorder (abbreviated ASD, and not to be confused with autism spectrum disorder) is the result of a traumatic ... "The relationship between acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in severely injured trauma survivors". ...
Article]". Cerebral Cortex 17 (3): 669-678. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhk015. *↑ Hickey, C.; Chelazzi, L.; Theeuwes, J. (2010). " ... "Vestibular cortex: its locations, functions, and disorders.". Vertigo. Springer. பக். 219-231. ... Cerebral Cortex 12: 590-600. doi:10.1093/cercor/12.6.590. *↑ Purves, Dale et al. 2008. Neuroscience. Second Edition. Sinauer ...
Distributed hierarchical processing in the primate cerebral cortex". Cereb Cortex. 1 (1): 1-47. doi:10.1093/cercor/1.1.1-a. ... Body integrity identity disorder is located under body dysmorphic disorder in the current DSM V. ... BIID is a neuro-psychological condition where there is a difference in the cerebral cortex relating to the connection between ... Until recently,[when?] any desire for amputation was classified as this "disorder", but recently, the psychiatric community has ...
Cerebral Cortex. 12: 590-600. doi:10.1093/cercor/12.6.590. Zhou, Yuan; Yu, Chunshui; Zheng, Hua; Liu, Yong; Song, Ming; Qin, ... Journal of Affective Disorders. 121 (3): 220-230. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2009.05.029. PMID 19541369. Berman, M. G.; Peltier, S.; Nee ... Astafiev, S. V.; Stanley, C. M.; Shulman, G. L.; Corbetta, M. (2004). "Extrastriate body area in human occipital cortex ... "Voluntary orienting is dissociated from target detection in human posterior parietal cortex". Nature Neuroscience. 3: 292-297. ...
Chorea may result specifically from disorders of the basal ganglia, cerebral cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum. It has also been ... endocrine disorders, heritable disorders, vascular disorders, or traumatic disorders. Other causes include toxins within the ... For example, Gustav Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig performed them on dog cerebral cortices in 1870, while David Ferrier performed ... "Movement and Cerebellar Disorders". Neurologic Disorders. Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. Retrieved 20 March 2011. Eckman, Margaret ( ...
"Cerebral Cortex. 17 (4): 951-61. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhl006. PMC 4500121. PMID 16772313.. ... major depressive disorder, semantic pragmatic disorder, nonverbal learning disorder, social anxiety disorder, Tourette ... Schizoid Personality Disorder and Substance Use Disorders". Integrated Treatment for Co-Occurring Disorders: Personality ... Anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder are the most common conditions seen at the same time; comorbidity of these in ...
March 1999). "In vivo mapping of cerebral acetylcholinesterase activity in aging and Alzheimer's disease". Neurology. 52 (4): ... 2006). "D2/D3 dopamine receptor binding with F-18fallypride in thalamus and cortex of patients with schizophrenia". ... Neuropsychology / Cognitive neuroscience: To examine links between specific psychological processes or disorders and brain ... Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 20 (3): 423-451. doi:10.1097/00004647-200003000-00001. PMID 10724107.. ...
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common motor disorder in children. Currently available neuroimaging techniques require complete ... "Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared ... "Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared ... "Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared ...
Purchase The Cerebral Cortex in Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychiatric Disorders - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... The Cerebral Cortex in Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychiatric Disorders 1st Edition. Experimental Approaches to Clinical Issues ... The Cerebral Cortex in Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Experimental Approaches to Clinical Issues focuses on ... The Cerebral Cortex in Neuropsychiatric Disorders*Chapter 11. Prefrontal Cortical Abnormalities in Cognitive Deficits of ...
From the Peripheral Nervous System to the Cerebral Cortex as an eTextbook and get instant access. With VitalSource, you can ... Buy or Rent Translating Mechanisms of Orofacial Neurological Disorder: ... Translating Mechanisms of Orofacial Neurological Disorder: From the Peripheral Nervous System to the Cerebral Cortex by ... Translating Mechanisms of Orofacial Neurological Disorder: From the Peripheral Nervous System to the Cerebral Cortex Edition by ...
There are a number of genetic mutations that can cause a wide range of genetic disorders of the cerebral cortex, including ... The cerebral cortex (plural cortices), also known as the cerebral mantle, is the outer layer of neural tissue of the ... Cerebral cortex. Tissue slice from the brain of an adult macaque monkey (Macaca mulatta). The cerebral cortex is the outer ... Blood supply to the cerebral cortex is part of the cerebral circulation. Cerebral arteries supply the blood that perfuses the ...
Somatic mutation and genomic variability in human cerebral cortex on SFARI ... and its relation to attention deficit disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and other related disorders of brain development? ... One brain, many genomes: Somatic mutation and genomic variability in human cerebral cortex. *Autism Research ... Autism, autisms, or neurodevelopmental disorders?. Jason Lerch, Ph.D.Director of Preclinical Imaging, Wellcome Centre for ...
Sensory processing disorders are more prevalent in children than autism. In a groundbreaking new study, UCSF researchers have ... Surprise Discovery Reveals Second Visual System in Mouse Cerebral Cortex. Subscribe to this topic ». ... Breakthrough Study Reveals Biological Basis for Sensory Processing Disorders in Kids. By Juliana Bunim on July 09, 2013 ... Sensory processing disorders (SPD) are more prevalent in children than autism and as common as attention deficit hyperactivity ...
... or cerebral neocortex). This third part of the brain is represented in the hand model by the fingers and top surface of the ... Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Trauma and the Neomammalian Brain (Cerebral Cortex). Jamie Marich, Ph.D., LPCC-S, LICDC-CS, RMT ... Introduction to Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders*Introduction to PTSD, Trauma, Abuse and Other Stress-Related Disorders ... What Causes the Symptoms of Trauma-Related Disorders? *What Causes the Symptoms of Trauma-Related Disorders? ...
Mechanisms of heterotypic comorbidity between externalizing disorders and unipolar depression - Volume 28 Special Issue - Aimee ... Cerebral Cortex, 10, 206-219. Onnink, A. M. H., Zwiers, M. P., Hoogman, M., Mostert, J. C., Kan, C. C., Buitelaar, J., et al. ( ... Journal of Affective Disorders, 41, 39-53. Lodge, D. J. (2011). The medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices differentially ... Cerebral Cortex, 17, 1364-1375. Marchand, W. R., Lee, J. N., Johnson, S., Thatcher, J., & Gale, P. (2013). Striatal circuit ...
11 in Cerebral Cortex, collaborating with a group led by Elliott H. Sherr, M.D., Ph.D., of the University of California, San ... Brain imaging links language delay to chromosome deletion in children with neuro disorders CHOP-led study suggests pathway ... Previous researchers had found that this location on chromosome 16 was associated with a subset of autism spectrum disorders ( ... Brain imaging links language delay to chromosome deletion in children with neuro disorders. Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia ...
... regulation of emotion are hypothesized to play a key role in the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder ( ... Cerebral Cortex. https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/6.3.342.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... dACC dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, rACC rostral anterior cingulate cortex, vmPFC ventromedial prefrontal cortex ... Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric disorder, which develops following exposure to extreme ...
Reprogramming the Cerebral Cortex: Plasticity following central and peripheral lesions. Stephen Lomber and Jos Eggermont (eds) ... post-traumatic stress disorder, eating disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourettes syndrome), including factors ... post-traumatic stress disorder, eating disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourettes syndrome), including factors ... Reprogramming the Cerebral Cortex : Plasticity following central and peripheral lesions. Published in print: 2006-10-12. ...
... www.healthcentral.com/article/pathways-to-anxiety-the-cerebral-cortex. Anxiety Disorders. Pathways to Anxiety: The Cerebral ... The cerebral cortex. The cerebral cortex is the gray, squiggly outer layer of the brain. All our abilities to process ... In this post, Im looking at a second anxiety pathway, the cerebral cortex, and its role in both anticipating and interpreting ... are associated with the functions of the cerebral cortex.. Our brains allow us to imagine the future, and thus we are able to ...
2009. Sex differences and the impact of steroid hormones on the developing human brain. Cerebral Cortex. 464-473. Vis forfatter ... 2010. Callosal tissue loss in multiple system atrophy-A one-year follow-up study. Movement Disorders. 2613-2620. Vis forfatter( ... 2011. Structural and Functional Reorganization of the Corpus Callosum between the Age of 6 and 8 Years. Cerebral Cortex. 1012- ... 2010. Cerebral diffusion and perfusion deficits in North Sea divers. Acta Radiologica. 1050-1058. Vis forfatter(e) ...
Cerebral Cortex/pathology*. *Hippocampus/pathology. *Mice. *Movement Disorders/genetics. *Movement Disorders/pathology* ... Time of origin or corresponding cell classes in the cerebral cortex of normal and reeler mutant mice: an autoradiographic ...
Cerebral Cortex.. Nofzinger, E. A. (2005). Neuroimaging and sleep medicine. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 9, 157-172.. Nofzinger, E. ... 1997). Subgenual prefrontal cortex abnormalities in mood disorders. Nature, 386, 824-827. Drevets, W. C., Marcus, E., & Raichle ... 1997). Regional cerebral blood flow throughout the sleep-wake cycle. Brain, 120, 1173-1197.. Brody, A. L., Saxena, S., ... Journal of Affective Disorders, 113, 88-99.. Cartwright, R. (1992). Masochism in dreaming and its relation to depression. ...
Genetic disorder. Hypoxia (medical). Cerebral cortex. Endometrium. The article content of this page came from Wikipedia and is ...
... constitute a large percentage of the childhood disorders seen by child clinical neuropsychologists.... ... Neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood, including language-related and learning disabilities, ... Cerebral Cortex, 10, 512-528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar. *. Binder, J. R., Frost, J. A., Hammeke, T. A., Rao, S. M., & Prieto ... Evidence of a developmental cerebello-cerebral disorder. Neuropsychologia, 44, 2569-2572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Voxel-wise meta-analysis of grey matter changes in obsessive-compulsive disorder - Volume 195 Issue 5 - Joaquim Radua, David ... Cerebral Cortex, Vol. 28, Issue. 7, p. 2207. *CrossRef. *Google Scholar. Schulze, Lars Schulze, Andreas Renneberg, Babette ... Cerebral glucose metabolism in childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1989; 46: 518-23. ... Regional cerebral blood flow measured during symptom provocation in obsessive-compulsive disorder using oxygen 15-labeled ...
The thalamus and cerebral cortex --. Blood supply of the central nervous system --. Vascular syndromes --. Behavioral and ... Mental Disorders--physiopathology a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Mental Disorders--physiopathology"@en ;. . ... The thalamus and cerebral cortex -- Blood supply of the central nervous system -- Vascular syndromes -- Behavioral and ... and the science of clinical disorders. A well-balanced mix of anatomy, physiology, biology, and biochemistry helps students ...
2003) Neural development of the neuregulin receptor ErbB4 in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus: preferential expression ... CPu, Caudate-putamen; Ctx, cerebral cortex; LGP, lateral globus pallidus. Scale bar, 100 μm. ... outside the cerebral cortex, ErbB4 is expressed in other neuron types as well (Steiner et al., 1999; Gerecke et al., 2001; Fox ... is expressed in several interneuron subtypes in the cerebral cortex, it is not detected in pyramidal neurons (Vullhorst et al ...
Several biological hypotheses of affective disorder have imp … ... by several workers to be abnormal in affective disorder. It has ... Cerebral Cortex / physiopathology * Follicle Stimulating Hormone / physiology * Growth Hormone / physiology * Humans * ... Psychoneuroendocrinology of affective disorder: an overview Am J Psychiatry. 1977 May;134(5):493-501. doi: 10.1176/ajp.134.5. ... Neuroendocrine function has been reported by several workers to be abnormal in affective disorder. It has been shown that ...
Reviewer: Attention, Perception and Psychophysics; Autism Research; British Journal of Psychology; Cerebral Cortex; Cognitive, ... Editorial Board (reviewer), Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders (2016-now ). * Editorial Board (consulting editor), Attention ... Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders; Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance; Journal of ... Eye Movement Research; Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders; Journal of Vision; Memory and Cognition; Neuropsychologia; ...
Development of the Human Cerebral Cortex Boston Childrens Hospital View 8 , 24 , 96 Back to Top ...
The neocortex is part of the human brains cerebral cortex where higher cognitive functioning is thought to originate from. Due ... The neocortex comprises the largest part of the cerebral cortex and makes up approximately half the volume of the human brain. ... Disorders of the frontal lobe include frontotemporal dementia, Parkinsons disease, and Alzheimers disease. ... The neocortex is part of the human brains cerebral cortex where higher cognitive functioning is thought to originate from. Due ...
SECTION 2-CEREBRAL CORTEX AND. NEUROCOGNITIVE DISORDERS. 2-1 Superolateral Surface of Brain, 34 ... hypothalamus/pituitary with disorders of consciousness and sleep, movement disorders, cerebellum, stroke, multiple sclerosis, ... Jones was co-editor of three major textbooks on childhood clinical neurophysiology and neuromuscular disorders. He was a co- ... offering unparalleled insights into the broad clinical spectrum of brain disorders. ...
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- Because unhealed trauma hasn't reached the cerebral cortex, it means it may be unresponsive to cognitive-rational approaches to healing. (gracepointwellness.org)
- 2019. Physical exercise augmented cognitive behaviour therapy for older adults with generalised anxiety disorder (PEXACOG): Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. (uib.no)
- The neocortex is part of the human brain's cerebral cortex where higher cognitive functioning is thought to originate from. (news-medical.net)
- There exists a vast literature focused much more on differences than on similarities in the cerebral structure and morphology in order to explain behavioral and cognitive diversities among mammals (e.g. (frontiersin.org)
- Is Talent in Autism Spectrum Disorders Associated with a Specific Cognitive and Behavioural Phenotype? (usal.es)
- At the cellular and circuit level, the cerebral cortex is characterized by two primary organizational features: across its surface it is divided into functional areas that serve various sensory, motor, and cognitive functions, and it is subdivided into several layers that organize the input and output connectivity of resident neurons. (wikipedia.org)
- 7. The cutaneous electrode assembly of claim 1 , wherein the neuropsychiatric disorder is depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, a mood disorder, an anxiety disorder, a cognitive disorder, a behavioral disorder, or a combination thereof. (google.de)
- Microstructural white matter abnormalities and their relationship with cognitive dysfunction in obsessive-compulsive disorder. (mssm.edu)
- Cognitive neuroscience of obsessive-compulsive disorder. (mssm.edu)
- Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain (MRI) makes it possible to get a measure for the thickness of the human cerebral cortex and relate it to other measures. (wikipedia.org)
- We considered a large-scale dynamical circuit model of human cerebral cortex with region-specific microscale properties. (genengnews.com)
- Sodium Channel SCN3A (NaV1.3) Regulation of Human Cerebral Cortical Folding and Oral Motor Development. (childrenshospital.org)
- Traditionally thought as the association cortex, the parietal lobe is believed to play a role in decision-making, numerical cognition, processing of sensory information, and spatial awareness. (news-medical.net)
- They found that the seizures were accompanied by hyperactivity in the areas of the brain associated with vision and touch - areas referred to as primary visual and primary somatosensory cortices in the occipital and parietal lobes, respectively. (innovations-report.com)
- The somatosensory system is a 3-neuron system that relays sensations detected in the periphery and conveys them via pathways through the spinal cord, brainstem, and thalamic relay nuclei to the sensory cortex in the parietal lobe. (medscape.com)
- Resting-State Functional Connectivity between Fronto-Parietal and Default Mode Networks in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. (mssm.edu)
- These disease‐specific differences are initially greatest in temporal and parietal association areas, and spread to engulf the rest of the cortex. (els.net)
- Disorders of the frontal lobe include frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. (news-medical.net)
- Postoperative imaging studies revealed increased perfusion and diffuse edema in the left frontal and insular cortex. (nih.gov)
- Akinesia, tardive dysmentia, and frontal lobe disorder in schizophrenia. (springer.com)
- The circuit involved in voluntary movement initiation and execution originates in the motor areas of the frontal cortex. (scholarpedia.org)
- These partially closed loops may help to shape motor commands issued from the frontal motor areas of the cortex (premotor, supplementary and primary motor areas) to brainstem and spinal centres, which then activate muscles in appropriate patterns. (scholarpedia.org)
- Medial frontal cortex and anterior insula are less sensitive to outcome predictability when monetary stakes are higher. (mssm.edu)
- Topographic analysis of the development of individual activation patterns during performance monitoring in medial frontal cortex. (mssm.edu)
- Developmental alterations of frontal-striatal-thalamic connectivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder. (mssm.edu)
- Altered function and connectivity of the medial frontal cortex in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. (mssm.edu)
- The PFC is situated anterior to the motor cortices in the frontal lobe. (addforums.com)
- We investigated the function of microglial cells in the developing cerebral cortex of prenatal and postnatal macaques and rats and show that microglia limit the production of cortical neurons by phagocytosing neural precursor cells. (jneurosci.org)
- These data demonstrate that microglia play a fundamental role in regulating the size of the precursor cell pool in the developing cerebral cortex, expanding our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate cortical development. (jneurosci.org)
- Regulation of proliferation is critical for ensuring that cell production meets but does not exceed demand in the developing cerebral cortex. (jneurosci.org)
- We also show that augmenting in utero activation of fetal microglia through maternal immune activation (MIA) decreases the number of neural precursor cells, and that in utero deactivation or elimination of fetal microglia increase the number of neural precursor cells in the developing cerebral cortex. (jneurosci.org)
- New research from North Carolina State University pinpoints the areas of the cerebral cortex that are affected in mice with absence epilepsy and shows that transplanting embryonic neural cells into these areas can alleviate symptoms of the disease by reducing seizure activity. (innovations-report.com)
- For this recent study, researchers focused on cortical thickness-the layers of the cerebral cortex. (healthcentral.com)
- Neuronal precursor cells migrate, often along specialised cells called radial glial cells, to their final and particular locations in one of the six layers of the cerebral cortex. (bmj.com)
- We found that deactivating microglia in utero with tetracyclines or eliminating microglia from the fetal cerebral cortex with liposomal clodronate significantly increased the number of neural precursor cells, while activating microglia in utero through maternal immune activation significantly decreased the number of neural precursor cells. (jneurosci.org)
- A new study suggests that treatment of mild sleep-disordered breathing with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in pregnant women with preeclampsia improves fetal activity levels, a marker of fetal well-being. (medicalxpress.com)
- Treatment of Sleep Disordered Breathing Reverses Low Fetal Activity Levels in Preeclampsia" SLEEP . (medicalxpress.com)
- As fetal development proceeds, gyri and sulci begin to take shape with the emergence of deepening indentations on the surface of the cortex. (wikipedia.org)
- Disorders in the maternal-fetal homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism due to folate and/or cobalamin deficiencies are related to a wide array of pathological conditions, such as recurrent miscarriages, placental abruption, preeclampsia, neural tube closure defects and intrauterine growth retardation [9- (thefreelibrary.com)
- On May 6, 2020, Benjamin Neale discussed progress in mapping genetic risk factors for autism, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. (sfari.org)
- The new map is intended to help researchers studying brain disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, dementia and epilepsy. (kurzweilai.net)
- Olfactory mucosa biopsies were obtained from healthy controls and patients with either schizophrenia, a neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder, or Parkinson's disease, a neurodegenerative disease. (biologists.org)
- While her study just touches on the connection of physical and emotional activity in the brain, Prof. Hendler doesn't rule out music therapy in alleviating symptoms in chronic mental disorders such as depression, Schizophrenia and Parkinson's, in the future. (news-medical.net)
- A new international study has determined that parts of the cerebral cortex develop differently in people with schizophrenia . (psychcentral.com)
- Specifically, this paper shows that parts of the brain's cortex develop differently in people with schizophrenia," said first author Aaron F. Alexander-Bloch, Ph.D., a neuroscientist with the National Institute of Mental Health. (psychcentral.com)
- Then, using over 80,000 vertices across the cortex, the researchers modeled the effect of schizophrenia on the growth curve of cortical thickness. (psychcentral.com)
- These findings show a relationship between the hypothesis that schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder and the longstanding hypothesis - first articulated by the German anatomist Karl Wernicke in the late 19th century - that it is a disease of altered connectivity between regions of the brain," added Alexander-Bloch. (psychcentral.com)
- On January 29, 2020, Jason Lerch explored this question: What do modern ways of looking at brains and genes tell us about autism - or autisms - and its relation to attention deficit disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and other related disorders of brain development? (sfari.org)
- Specific cortico-striato-thalamic circuits are hypothesised to mediate the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but structural neuroimaging studies have been inconsistent. (cambridge.org)
- Effects of context on risk taking and decision times in obsessive-compulsive disorder. (mssm.edu)
- Sensory processing in obsessive-compulsive disorder. (mssm.edu)
- Obsessive-compulsive Disorder: Phenomenology, Pathophysiology, and Treatment. (mssm.edu)
- Neuromodulation for obsessive-compulsive disorder. (mssm.edu)
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder and its spectrum: A life-span approach. (mssm.edu)
- Subjective uncertainty and limbic hyperactivation in obsessive-compulsive disorder. (mssm.edu)
- Hyperactive error responses and altered connectivity in ventromedial and frontoinsular cortices in obsessive-compulsive disorder. (mssm.edu)
- The dorsal cortex makes up a small region of the forebrain and contains a thin layer of pyramidal neurons and inhibitory interneurons. (news-medical.net)
- Temperature perception in humans relies on a specific neural pathway that carries a linear representation of thermosensory activity to the cerebral cortex in the forebrain. (britannica.com)
- The development of the forebrain cortex provides a good example. (bmj.com)
- Because the severity of neurodevelopmental symptoms did not correlate with the length of the auditory processing delay, the M100 delay may not become a clear-cut diagnostic biomarker in neurological disorders, but it may be a clue to an important common pathway in neurobiology. (eurekalert.org)
- Integrative medicine incorporates evidence-based medicine, both conventional and complementary and alternative therapies, to deliver personalized care to the patient, emphasizing diet, nutrients, gut health, and environmental influences as a means to decrease symptoms associated with chronic disorders. (mdpi.com)
- Associations Among Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, Substance Use, and Affective Attentional Processing in OEF/OIF/OND Veterans. (bu.edu)
- Patients with PD suffer from various non-motor symptoms, among which impulse control disorders (ICDs) are a common neuropsychiatric symptom. (nature.com)
- The Cerebral Cortex in Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Experimental Approaches to Clinical Issues focuses on how pre-clinical investigations are addressing the clinical issues surrounding the involvement of the cerebral cortex in selected conditions of the nervous system, including Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's, addiction, and cardiovascular dysregulation. (elsevier.com)
- Despite these geometric and behavioral diversities, the examination of cerebral cortex across species reveals that it contains a substantial number of conserved characteristics that are associated with neuroanatomy and metabolism, i.e., with neuronal connectivity and function. (frontiersin.org)
- Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common behavioral and neurodevelopmental disorders which is characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention in children and adolescents [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The research team of Kanazawa University and Gunma University has been analyzing developmental abnormalities of glial cells by using various model mice exhibiting developmental disorders with behavioral abnormalities, in order to get clues to the relationship between developmental disorders of the brain and glial cells. (eurekalert.org)
- Autonomic, or involuntary, adjustments depend on neural centres in the lower parts of the brainstem and the hypothalamus , whereas behavioral responses, such as moving into shade or into sunlight, involve the function of the upper parts of the brainstem and the cerebral cortex. (britannica.com)
- Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex brain development disorders that can result in various social, communication, and behavioral challenges. (healthcentral.com)
- We have identified a population of cells in the cortex that is activated during sleep in three mammalian species. (pnas.org)
- We also observed a large number of weakly stained nNOS cells in the cortex. (pnas.org)
- But we don't know how the transplanted cells are connecting with other cells in the cortex and how they alleviate the absence seizures in the mouse model we employed. (innovations-report.com)
- A person with Down Syndrome or Cerebral Palsy may "look" disabled but some are actually not intellectually disabled. (epilepsywarriorboys.com)
- What is cerebral palsy (CP)? (medlineplus.gov)
- Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that cause problems with movement , balance , and posture. (medlineplus.gov)
- What are the types of cerebral palsy (CP)? (medlineplus.gov)
- Spastic cerebral palsy , which is the most common type. (medlineplus.gov)
- Who is at risk for cerebral palsy (CP)? (medlineplus.gov)
- How is cerebral palsy (CP) diagnosed? (medlineplus.gov)
- What are the treatments for cerebral palsy (CP)? (medlineplus.gov)
- Can cerebral palsy (CP) be prevented? (medlineplus.gov)
- Effects of functional disruption of lateral pericentral cerebral cortex on primate swallowing. (springer.com)
- Moreover, because maximization or minimization of parameters associated with cortical connectivity, function and cost often leads to conflicts in design, it is argued that the architecture of the cerebral cortex is a result of structural and functional compromises. (frontiersin.org)
- Such analysis may provide clues regarding basic principles of anatomical and functional organization of the cerebral cortex. (frontiersin.org)
- Functional neuroimaging and models for OCD and OC spectrum disorders. (mssm.edu)
- Powell TPS and Mountcastle VB (1959) Some aspects of the functional organization of the cortex of the postcentral gyrus of the monkey: a correlation of findings obtained in a single unit analysis with cytoarchitecture. (els.net)
- After my PhD, I stayed at the MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit where I was a Programme Leader, with responsibilty for two major programmes of research on memory disorders, including dementia. (cardiff.ac.uk)
- 4. Coffee-Regular coffee drinking has been shown to reduce the risk of Alzheimer's, Dementia, and other mental disorders. (amazonaws.com)
- In the past, research on developmental disorders of the brain focused on neurons for their aberrance. (eurekalert.org)
- On the other hand, there remain a number of problems unsolved concerning the mechanism of glial cell development in the postnatal brain and concerning the relationship of glial cell development abnormality and developmental disorders of the brain. (eurekalert.org)
- Experiments with cultured cells and/or the CD38 gene-knockout mice revealed that in the absence of CD38 gene, abnormalities of the astrocytes were caused, which induced aberrant interactions among cells and developmental disorders of oligodendrocytes. (eurekalert.org)
- Christopher Walsh and his team are interested in genetic mechanisms of cerebral cortical development and abnormalities of cortical development resulting in intellectual disability, autism and epilepsy. (sfari.org)
- They harvested these cells from normal mouse embryos and transplanted them into the occipital cortex of the genetic mice with absence seizures. (innovations-report.com)
- This complexity brings into focus the need to find new models to identify the complex genetic and environmental interactions that contribute to brain disorders. (biologists.org)
- it shares many risk factors, both genetic and environmental, with other neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and intellectual disability. (psychcentral.com)
- Translating Mechanisms of Orofacial Neurological Disorder: From the Peripheral Nervous System to the Cerebral Cortex Edition by Kobayashi, Masayuki and Publisher Academic Press. (vitalsource.com)
- The U.S. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke has more about the brain . (drugs.com)
- Epilepsies are debilitating neurological disorders characterized by repeated episodes of pathological seizure activity. (innovations-report.com)
- This technique could potentially be used to assess treatment of neurological disorders and to develop new therapies, according to the researchers who published their study (" Inversion of a large-scale circuit model reveals a cortical hierarchy in the dynamic resting human brain ") in Science Advances . (genengnews.com)
- 6. The method of claim 1 wherein implanting at least one electrode device includes implanting at least one electrode device, based at least in part on a determination that a patient's neurological disorder affects patient movement, involving planning functions and execution functions. (google.com.au)
- Most of the cerebral cortex consists of the six-layered neocortex . (wikipedia.org)
- At last we come to the neomammalian complex (or cerebral neocortex). (gracepointwellness.org)
- The neocortex comprises the largest part of the cerebral cortex and makes up approximately half the volume of the human brain. (news-medical.net)
- A large amount of research investigating the neocortex's origin focuses on similarities between the dorsal cortex and the neocortex. (news-medical.net)
- This is an example of cortex-based anxiety. (healthcentral.com)
- Their findings offer promising new approaches for the therapy of anxiety disorders. (ruhr-uni-bochum.de)
- A system and method for introducing one or more stimulating drugs and/or applying electrical stimulation to the brain to treat mood and/or anxiety disorders uses an implantable system control unit (SCU), specifically an implantable signal/pulse generator (IPG) or microstimulator with two or more electrodes. (google.com)
- Neural circuitry of interoception: New insights into anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders. (mssm.edu)
- Neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood, including language-related and learning disabilities, constitute a large percentage of the childhood disorders seen by child clinical neuropsychologists. (springer.com)
- Acclaimed for its concise, clinically relevant coverage, this student-friendly book uses a stepwise approach that starts with the basic building blocks of neural anatomy and expands to cover structures and functions, the interaction of systems, and the science of clinical disorders. (worldcat.org)
- Noah Edwards was diagnosed with platelet function disorder with thrombocytopenia at the age of one, and has been involved in the GAPP clinical study to improve knowledge on problems with platelet function. (healthcanal.com)
- Iowa Gambling Task Performance in Parkinson Disease Patients with Impulse Control Disorders Biars, Julia W;Johnson, Nicole L;Nespeca, Michelle;Busch, Robyn M;Kubu, Cynthia S;Floden, Darlene P 2018-04-27 00:00:00 Abstract Objective A subgroup of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) develops impulse control disorders (ICD) associated with their dopamine replacement therapy. (deepdyve.com)
- Neuroendocrine function has been reported by several workers to be abnormal in affective disorder. (nih.gov)
- Several biological hypotheses of affective disorder have implicated a defect in neurotransmitter function, but these hypotheses have been found lacking in part over the years. (nih.gov)
- The study of neuroendocrine abnormalities found in various types of affective disorder may clarify some aspects of this complex issue by reflecting neurotransmitter activity in this disorder. (nih.gov)
- The cerebral cortex is the largest site of neural integration in the central nervous system . (wikipedia.org)
- 2004). Autism as a disorder of neural information processing: Directions for research and targets for therapy. (springer.com)
- Ghashghaei's team took embryonic neural stem cells from a part of the developing brain that generates GABAergic interneurons for the cerebral cortex. (innovations-report.com)