Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Tic Disorders: Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Borderline Personality Disorder: A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Lymphoproliferative Disorders: Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Speech Disorders: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.Combat Disorders: Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.International Classification of Diseases: A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Impulse Control Disorders: Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Early Diagnosis: Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Binge-Eating Disorder: A disorder associated with three or more of the following: eating until feeling uncomfortably full; eating large amounts of food when not physically hungry; eating much more rapidly than normal; eating alone due to embarrassment; feeling of disgust, DEPRESSION, or guilt after overeating. Criteria includes occurrence on average, at least 2 days a week for 6 months. The binge eating is not associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behavior (i.e. purging, excessive exercise, etc.) and does not co-occur exclusively with BULIMIA NERVOSA or ANOREXIA NERVOSA. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Dysthymic Disorder: Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Dissociative Disorders: Sudden temporary alterations in the normally integrative functions of consciousness.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.United StatesUltrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Conversion Disorder: A disorder whose predominant feature is a loss or alteration in physical functioning that suggests a physical disorder but that is actually a direct expression of a psychological conflict or need.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Schizotypal Personality Disorder: A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Clinical Coding: Process of substituting a symbol or code for a term such as a diagnosis or procedure. (from Slee's Health Care Terms, 3d ed.)Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Neurotic Disorders: Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Diagnostic Tests, Routine: Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Tomography, Spiral Computed: Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Affective Disorders, Psychotic: Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.Palpation: Application of fingers with light pressure to the surface of the body to determine consistence of parts beneath in physical diagnosis; includes palpation for determining the outlines of organs.Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products: Soluble protein fragments formed by the proteolytic action of plasmin on fibrin or fibrinogen. FDP and their complexes profoundly impair the hemostatic process and are a major cause of hemorrhage in intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Psychomotor Disorders: Abnormalities of motor function that are associated with organic and non-organic cognitive disorders.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Endosonography: Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Adjustment Disorders: Maladaptive reactions to identifiable psychosocial stressors occurring within a short time after onset of the stressor. They are manifested by either impairment in social or occupational functioning or by symptoms (depression, anxiety, etc.) that are in excess of a normal and expected reaction to the stressor.Peroxisomal Disorders: A heterogeneous group of inherited metabolic disorders marked by absent or dysfunctional PEROXISOMES. Peroxisomal enzymatic abnormalities may be single or multiple. Biosynthetic peroxisomal pathways are compromised, including the ability to synthesize ether lipids and to oxidize long-chain fatty acid precursors. Diseases in this category include ZELLWEGER SYNDROME; INFANTILE REFSUM DISEASE; rhizomelic chondrodysplasia (CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA, RHIZOMELIC); hyperpipecolic acidemia; neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy; and ADRENOLEUKODYSTROPHY (X-linked). Neurologic dysfunction is a prominent feature of most peroxisomal disorders.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Cytodiagnosis: Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)Language Disorders: Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.Bulimia Nervosa: An eating disorder that is characterized by a cycle of binge eating (BULIMIA or bingeing) followed by inappropriate acts (purging) to avert weight gain. Purging methods often include self-induced VOMITING, use of LAXATIVES or DIURETICS, excessive exercise, and FASTING.Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Body Dysmorphic Disorders: Preoccupations with appearance or self-image causing significant distress or impairment in important areas of functioning.Thyroid Nodule: A small circumscribed mass in the THYROID GLAND that can be of neoplastic growth or non-neoplastic abnormality. It lacks a well-defined capsule or glandular architecture. Thyroid nodules are often benign but can be malignant. The growth of nodules can lead to a multinodular goiter (GOITER, NODULAR).Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures: Methods, procedures, and tests performed to diagnose disease, disordered function, or disability.Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.Deglutition Disorders: Difficulty in SWALLOWING which may result from neuromuscular disorder or mechanical obstruction. Dysphagia is classified into two distinct types: oropharyngeal dysphagia due to malfunction of the PHARYNX and UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; and esophageal dysphagia due to malfunction of the ESOPHAGUS.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation: A genetically heterogeneous group of heritable disorders resulting from defects in protein N-glycosylation.Clinical Enzyme Tests: Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.Psychophysiologic Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physical symptoms that are affected by emotional factors and involve a single organ system, usually under AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM control. (American Psychiatric Glossary, 1988)Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Coronary Stenosis: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Neonatal Screening: The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.Agoraphobia: Obsessive, persistent, intense fear of open places.Factitious Disorders: Disorders characterized by physical or psychological symptoms that are not real, genuine, or natural.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Frozen Sections: Thinly cut sections of frozen tissue specimens prepared with a cryostat or freezing microtome.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.Chest Pain: Pressure, burning, or numbness in the chest.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Language Development Disorders: Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Hemorrhagic Disorders: Spontaneous or near spontaneous bleeding caused by a defect in clotting mechanisms (BLOOD COAGULATION DISORDERS) or another abnormality causing a structural flaw in the blood vessels (HEMOSTATIC DISORDERS).
... though no single biomarker is likely to be sufficiently predictive of the disorder.[10] Predictive tests that have been ... Predictive tests[edit]. There have been many assessments of tests aimed at predicting pre-eclampsia, ... 46,900 hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (2015)[7]. Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a disorder of pregnancy characterized by the onset ... This test has a high negative predictive value among those individuals with a history of prior pre-eclampsia.[15] ...
Predictive genetic testing[edit]. One hope for future genetic testing is the ability to test for presymptomatic or prenatal ... anxiety disorders, autistic spectrum disorders, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia.[9] This may ... Most psychiatric disorders are highly heritable; the estimated heritability for bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and autism (80 ... of patients with bipolar disorder indicated that they would probably take a genetic test to determine they were carrying a gene ...
NCI) Predictive factor A situation or condition that may increase a person's risk of developing a certain disease or disorder ... NCI) Preclinical Refers to the testing of experimental drugs in the test tube or in animals - the testing that occurs before ... ICH E9) t-test A statistical test that is used to find out if there is a real difference between the means (averages) of two ... NLM) Phase I trial The first step in testing a new treatment in humans. These studies test the best way to give a new treatment ...
The majority of measuring instruments (tests) are constructed so that the trait could be normalized with the normal ... 2.Asendorpf, J. B. (2003). Head-to-head comparison of the predictive validity of personality types and dimensions. European ... ISBN 0-06-251676-0. 5.Furnham, A., & Crump, J. (2005). Personality Traits, Types, and Disorders: An Examination of the ... Because of this, for instance, estimations of personality characteristics with the help of projective tests (which are ...
... anhedonia is a component of depressive disorders, substance related disorders, psychotic disorders, and personality disorders, ... It is very uncommon that a neurological examination and blood tests can determine the cause of a specific case of sexual ... showing potential predictive validity.[36][49] Social anhedonia usually manifests in adolescence, possibly because of a ... Major depressive disorder[edit]. Anhedonia occurs in roughly 70% of people with a major depressive disorder.[2] Anhedonia is a ...
... anhedonia is a component of depressive disorders, substance related disorders, psychotic disorders, and personality disorders, ... Unpublished test *^ Meehl PE (1962). "Schizotaxia, schizotypy, schizophrenia". The American Psychologist. 17 (12): 827-838. ... showing potential predictive validity.[35][49] Social anhedonia usually manifests in adolescence, possibly because of a ... Major depressive disorder[edit]. Anhedonia occurs in roughly 70% of people with a major depressive disorder.[2] Anhedonia is a ...
"The potential social impact of predictive genetic testing for susceptibility to common chronic disorders: a review and proposed ...
... predictive validity). Again, depression is a heterogeneous disorder and its many symptoms are hard to be produced in laboratory ... Open field test, elevated plus maze test, and dark/light box test can work as an antidepressant screen by measuring anxiety- ... Behavioral despair might be assessed with tests such as the forced-swimming test or the tail suspension test. Changes in ... Forced-swimming test: The forced-swimming test (FST) is based on the observation that animals develop an immobile posture in an ...
... drawing from observation and predictive drawing. The Drawing from Imagination test in the Silver Drawing Test is similar to ... Silver discovered at this time that communication is a problem not only for those persons who have language disorders, but also ... Predictive Drawing assesses clients' grasp of the concepts of sequential order, horizontality and verticality. In this test, ... The last test, which measures verticality, presents the clients with a drawing of a house sitting on top of a mountain. Clients ...
One study provided some evidence for the test-retest reliability and predictive validity. John M. Oldham, Andrew E. Skodol, ... Axis II of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) introduced in 1993 by Lee Anna Clark. It is not to be ... "Handbook of Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment", ISBN 1-57230-629-7 p. 24 Melley, Alison H.; Thomas F. ... Temporal Stability and Predictive Validity of the Diagnostic Scales". Assessment. Sage. 9 (2): 181-187. doi:10.1177/ ...
Researchers have validated such tests because of their predictive value, but no one test is as yet recognized as a standard. ... On the DSM Axis I, Major Depressive Disorder is a very common comorbid disorder. The Axis II personality disorders are often ... is each additional disorder or disease. The additional disorder may be a behavioral or mental disorder. The term can indicate ... Each test attempts to consolidate each individual comorbid condition into a single, predictive variable that measures mortality ...
... and if a positive test indicates the presence of the disorder (high positive predictive value)." Two objective screening tests ... Roeser, R. J., & Clark, J. L. (2004). Screening for auditory disorders. Auditory Disorders in School Children, 105. McPherson, ... stage in the condition There should be a suitable test to employ in screening The test should be acceptable to the population ... OAEs are an objective tool that can be used to measure the integrity of the outer hair cells in the cochlear; however, test ...
A predictive gene signature is similar to a predictive biomarker, where it predicts the effect of treatment in patients or ... These diagnostic signatures also allow for a more accurate representation of test samples used in research. Similar to the ... a criteria exists for classifying a gene signature as a biomarker for a disorder or diseases outlined by Chau et al. ... A predictive gene signature unlike a prognostic gene signature can be a target for therapy. The information predictive ...
... the design and validation of predictive biomarkers for treatment response and disease progression, the susceptibility of ... individuals of different genetic constitution to develop disorders. Molecular pathology is commonly used in diagnosis of cancer ... and on molecular testing.[2] ...
... but who have no features of the disorder themselves at the time of testing. Predictive testing can identify mutations that ... Predictive and presymptomatic testing: Predictive and presymptomatic types of testing are used to detect gene mutations ... Gene Testing *^ Holtzman NA, Murphy PD, Watson MS, Barr PA (October 1997). "Predictive genetic testing: from basic research to ... This test is performed 10-13 weeks into pregnancy and results are ready 7-14 days after the test was done.[12] Another test ...
It is also an X-linked disorder, so testing for ZIC3 mutations is highly encouraged in male births. The most prevalent and best ... However, the authors are hopeful that finding a link can help inform clinical decision-making, predictive analyses, and future ... However, genetic testing in family members that display atrial isomerism or other cardiac malformations may help to discern ... In addition, a series of gastrointestinal tests can be conducted for observation of intestinal malrotation, as well as a scan ...
... measurements on ultrasound Strong family history of cancer Predictive testing for adult-onset conditions Many disorders cannot ... Clients may accept the risk and have no future testing, proceed to diagnostic testing, or take further screening tests to ... Family history of a genetic condition or chromosome abnormality Molecular test for single gene disorder Increased maternal age ... In some circumstances no genetic testing is indicated, other times it may be useful to begin the testing process with an ...
... including psychological tests, radiology and postmortem findings) delimitation from other disorders (by means of exclusion ... including psychological tests) predictive validators (diagnostic consistency over time, rates of relapse and recovery, and ... Testing, the effects of taking a test upon the scores of a second testing. Instrumentation, changes in calibration of a ... For example, a test of the ability to add two numbers should include a range of combinations of digits. A test with only one- ...
"Validity of the Eating Attitudes Test: A study of Mexican eating disorders patients". Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on ... The EAT has low positive predictive value because of denial and social desirability, as well as the possible confounding role ... Eating Disorder Inventory Body Attitudes Questionnaire Body Attitudes Test SCOFF questionnaire Family-Based Treatment for ... Garfinkel, P. E., & Newman, A. (2013). The Eating Attitudes Test: Twenty five years later. Eating and Weight Disorders, 6(1), 1 ...
... but they can also be indicative of the onset of a dementing disorder, such as Alzheimer's disease.[98][99] Cognitive testing ... corresponding to a negative predictive value of 98% and a positive predictive value of 32% (positive and negative likelihood ... Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of ... Major depressive disorder is classified as a mood disorder in DSM-5.[111] The diagnosis hinges on the presence of single or ...
... but since predictive testing has been offered far fewer choose to be tested. Over 95% of individuals at risk of inheriting HD ... Counseling and guidelines on the use of genetic testing for HD have become models for other genetic disorders, such as ... throughout all stages of the testing process. Because of the implications of this test, patients who wish to undergo testing ... Chapman MA (1990). "Predictive testing for adult-onset genetic disease: ethical and legal implications of the use of linkage ...
Neurological examinations and tests to measure levels of serum electrolytes are performed. Not all seizures that occur after ... Teasell R, Bayona N, Lippert C, Villamere J, Hellings C (2007). "Post-traumatic seizure disorder following acquired brain ... which may immediately follow a concussion but which are not actually seizures and are not a predictive factor for epilepsy. ... Swash M (1998). Outcomes in neurological and neurosurgical disorders. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 172-173. ...
... but who have no features of the disorder themselves at the time of testing. Predictive testing can identify mutations that ... Predictive testing is a form of genetic testing. It is also known as presymptomatic testing. These types of testing are used to ... List of human genes List of genetic disorders GAO report on at-home predictive genetic test kits. ... an iron overload disorder), before any signs or symptoms appear. The results of predictive and presymptomatic testing can ...
Celiac disease (CD) is a complex immune disorder that has been found to have strong genetic links in disease. In particular, ... De Leon, J; Susce, M. T.; Murray-Carmichael, E (2006). "The Ampli Chip CYP450 genotyping test: Integrating a new clinical tool ... Predictive genomics is at the intersection of multiple disciplines: predictive medicine, personal genomics and translational ... The positive predictive value (PPV) must be high enough to avoid a higher prevalence of false-positives. SNPs identified in GWA ...
... causes a genetic disorder. This type of testing is offered to individuals who have genetic disorder in their family history or ... DTC tests make the applicability of predictive medicine very real and accessible to consumers. Benefits of DTC testing include ... Predictive Risk Testing: Testing that is conducted to determine the probability of developing a specific disease not the ... Current genetic testing guidelines supported by the health care professionals discourage purely predictive genetic testing of ...
Definitions and Classification of Tic Disorders.. Retrieved 19 August 2006.. *^ Zinner, S.H. (2000). "Tourette disorder". ... To test the effects of belief in determinism, future studies would need to provide articles that do not simply "attack free ... but rated personality traits as most predictive of other people.[194] ... For example, people with Tourette syndrome and related tic disorders make involuntary movements and utterances (called tics) ...
... applied in the pre-test and post-test, one-year after notification of results. Values decreased significantly one year after ... this seems to corroborate previous studies showing that testing does not increase pre-symptomatic levels of emotional ... the implementation of the PST, regardless of the studied disease or test result; ... we have researched the psychological impact of pre-symptomatic testing (PST) for 2 autosomal dominant late-onset diseases: ...
The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the SMAST-13: predictive validity in a rural primary care sample. ... The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the SMAST-13: predictive validity in a rural primary care sample ... The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the SMAST-13: predictive validity in a rural primary care sample ... the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), to the short version of the MAST in 287 primary care patients. Subjects ...
Push for Predictive Genetic Tests. Matt Hancock, the UK health secretary, is calling for the swift rollout of predictive ... By selecting skin and eye disorders as its two areas of initial focus, RXi Pharmaceuticals will not only be taking aim at ... Choosing Skin and Eye Disorders, RXi Will Face Well-Worn R&D Paths. Jun 17, 2010 ... Home » Choosing Skin and Eye Disorders, RXi Will Face Well-Worn R&D Paths ...
PREDICTIVE TESTING FOR LATE-ONSET DISORDERS. Genetic technology provides the means to diagnose disorders that develop beyond ... carrier testing and screening, and predictive testing for late-onset disorders. ... 1992) Canadian experience with predictive testing for Huntington disease: lessons for genetic testing centers and policy makers ... and benefits of the results support the use of detailed genetic counseling for predictive testing for late-onset disorders. ...
Learn Predictive Antibody Testing & Earn CME!. Predictive antibody testing puts state of the art immunologic tools in the hands ... Predictive Antibody Testing. Predictive antibody testing, which is still in its infancy but evolving rapidly, provides ... Predictive Antibody Testing Facilitates Early Detection of Autoimmune Disorders. By Erik Goldman - Vol. 13, No. 4. Winter, 2012 ... Predictive Antibody Testing Facilitates Early Detection of Autoimmune Disorders. *In a Glutinous Mood? Exploring the ...
Predictive gene testing for Huntington disease and other neurodegenerative disorders S Wedderburn 1 , P K Panegyres, S Andrew, ... Predictive gene testing for Huntington disease and other neurodegenerative disorders S Wedderburn et al. Intern Med J. 2013 Dec ... Predictive testing: presymptomatic diagnosis in neurogenetic disorders]. Dürr A, Gargiulo M, Feingold J. Dürr A, et al. Med Sci ... Predictive testing: more than just another test. Sheffield L, Ayres SR. Sheffield L, et al. Intern Med J. 2013 Dec;43(12):1261- ...
Lung-disorders; Biomarkers; Pulmonary-function; Airway-obstruction; Lung-function; Biopsy; Pulmonary-function-tests; Chest-X- ... Pulmonary Function Test: WTC-sarcoid patients had lower diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) at diagnosis when compared ... methacholine challenge test (MCT) slope and bronchodilator response at time of diagnosis when compared to controls. Serum ...
Comprehensive sequencing analysis test for pediatric neurological and metablic disorders like Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders, ... Genetic Tests for Pediatric Neurological and Metabolic Disorders. Neurological and metabolic disorders can be complicated to ... Lysosomal Storage Disorder. Lysosomal storage disorders are inherited metabolic disorders in which enzyme deficiencies cause an ... Home » Personalized Medicine For Your Patients » Genetic Tests for Pediatric Neurological and Metabolic Disorders ...
Respiratory-system-disorders; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Recombinant-DNA; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Mathematical- ... Multiwalled carbon nanotube-induced gene signatures in the mouse lung: potential predictive value for human lung cancer risk ... Nanotechnology; Lung-cancer; Cancer; Carcinogenesis; Toxic-effects; Laboratory-animals; Laboratory-testing; Humans; Risk- ... and test set (n = 186). Furthermore, both gene signatures were associated with human lung cancer risk (n = 164) with ...
Both tests have a unique advantage since they can be performed without any prior knowledge of mutations in any defective genes ... We have developed a cell-based screening assay for the early diagnosing of presymptomatic subjects and a biochemical blood test ... There are great needs for innovative pharmacotherapies in combination with clinical tests to identify asymptomatic children at ... Currently, there are no FDA cleared "pre-symptomatic" diagnostic tests available for assessing scoliosis in paediatric patients ...
Movement Disorders. Heredodegenerative Disorders, Nervous System. Neurodegenerative Diseases. Genetic Diseases, Inborn. ... Family Health After Predictive Huntington Disease (HD) Testing. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... have received a positive result from predictive testing for a mutation in the HD gene, 2) are symptomatic and living at home, ... Impact of a positive HD test or presence of HD on a family members perceptions of: health problems, emotional and functional ...
Predictive Value of Tests * Reproducibility of Results * Sensation Disorders / classification * Sensation Disorders / diagnosis ...
Predictive Value of Tests • Treatment Outcome • methods* • therapy* ... Aged • Depressive Disorder • Electroconvulsive Therapy • Electrodes • Electroencephalography* • Female • Humans • Male • Middle ... RESULTS: We found that less postictal suppression in response to the second UL ECT stimulus was predictive of a poorer ... The determination of whether such predictive physiologic models are of clinical utility for the prediction of outcome awaits ...
Cystic fibrosis -diabetes - glucose tolerance - reversibility - oral glucose tolerance test - predictive factors. ... Determination of the Predictive Factors in the Reversibility or the Aggravation in the Disorders of the Glucose Metabolism in ... Determination of the Predictive Factors in the Reversibility or the Aggravation in the Disorders of the Glucose Metabolism in ... in cystic fibrosis patients and to identify the predictive factors of the reversibility or the aggravation in the disorders of ...
Predictive genetic testing for adult-onset disorders in minors: a critical analysis of the arguments for and against the 2013 ... The publication of the ACMG recommendations has reignited the debate over predictive testing for adult-onset disorders in ... DNA/ethics; child; genetic predisposition to disease; genetic testing/ethics; genetic testing/standards; genomics/ethics; ... inconsistencies between consensus guidelines and clinical practice regarding risk assessment for adult-onset genetic disorders ...
Structural neuroimaging studies in major depressive disorder. Meta-analysis and comparison with bipolar disorder. Arch Gen ... Prospective study of postpartum depression: prevalence, course, and predictive factors. J Abnorm Psychol. 1984 May. 93(2):158- ... No laboratory tests are currently indicated before or during the administration of the SSRIs. No other tests are indicated in a ... Depression and anxiety disorders in parents and children. Results from the Yale family study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1984 Sep. 41 ...
Some predictors appear to have a general association with remission from both disorders, while others are uniquely associated ... Predictive Value of Tests * Prognosis * Psychiatric Status Rating Scales * Remission Induction * Retrospective Studies ... Predictors of remission from generalized anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder J Affect Disord. 2017 Jan 15;208:467- ... Background: The predictors of onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are well- ...
What is Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test? Meaning of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test as a legal term. What ... does Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test mean in law? ... Definition of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test in the ... predictive validity; Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Screening for alcohol problems: what makes a test ... Screening Test for At-Risk Drinking: Development of New Abbreviated Version of Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test for ...
Table 2: Specific Cancer Types Associated with Inherited Disorders 27. Table 3: BRCA1/2 Mutation Occurrence by Ethnic Group 30 ... Annualized Predictive Breast Cancer Gene Testing market revenue, annual cost of gene testing and breast cancer gene testing ... Pipeline analysis: Emerging breast cancer gene tests, both predictive gene tests and gene expression tests, emerging platform ... 7.1.2 Gene Test Analysis 130. 7.1.3 Gene-Testing Hardware 133. 7.1.4 Laboratory-Developed Tests 136. 7.2 Testing Volumes 140. ...
Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. REM Sleep Behavior Disorder / etiology. Reproducibility of Results. alpha- ... and the suggestive clinical feature of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder were assessed using a battery of standardized ...
Chromosome Disorders. Female. Fetal Diseases / embryology, ultrasonography*. Humans. Predictive Value of Tests. Pregnancy. ... The NT test was positive in all three cases of chromosomopathies detected (100 per cent) and in 19 of 381 (4.98 per cent) ... These preliminary results have confirmed the efficacy of NT testing to assess the risk of trisomy 21 and other ... and enhanced its utility in pregnancies already suited to sampling in the first-trimester for Mendelian disorders.. ...
... a brief eating disorder (ED) screening instrument, in a Mexican sample. ... Altman DG, Bland JM (1994) Diagnostic tests 2: predictive values. BMJ 309:102CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Eating disorders SCOFF Eating disorder inventory Eating disorder examination Validation Mexico This is a preview of ... Túry F, Güleç H, Kohls E (2010) Assessment methods for eating disorders and body image disorders. J Psychosom Res 69:601-611. ...
... predictive prenatal testing when familial mutations are known. This panel is especially useful in patients who do not have a ... This test is also available as part of one or more NGS panels for cystic fibrosis and related disorders. ... This test is also available as part of one or more NGS panels for cystic fibrosis and related disorders. ... Test Information. Test Method. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of the coding regions and intron-exon boundaries of the listed ...
Did/do you need professional psychological support outside the predictive testing program to handle the test results? ... 1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google ... Would you, with your current experience of having been tested, choose to be tested (given that you were not already tested)? ... Adverse effects of predictive testing for Huntington disease underestimated: long-term effects 7-10 years after the test. ...
When youre thinking about whether or not a test is appropriate, you need to think about psychometric characteristics. We will ... these terms and then discuss the levels of reliability and validity you should look for when selecting a standardized test. ... were going to focus on the issues of reliability and validity of standardized tests. Were going to define ... Predictive Validity. Predictive validity is the extent to which the test score will predict later performance of the same ...
  • The latest epiSEEK® comprehensive panel features exceptional coverage of 489 genes associated with seizure disorders. (sciencewerkedx.com)
  • In addition, Courtagen offers the epiSEEK® Focus, targeting 71 genes, associated with early onset epilepsy and seizure disorders. (sciencewerkedx.com)
  • Although many studies have suggested that ADHD and drug and alcohol addiction are associated with certain genes, no predictive genetic variations have been identified for these conditions. (aafp.org)
  • Tests are available to detect important genes that help metabolize many prescription drugs (e.g., common antidepressants and antipsychotics, beta blockers, some chemotherapy drugs). (aafp.org)
  • In addition to studying chromosomes to the level of individual genes, genetic testing in a broader sense includes biochemical tests for the possible presence of genetic diseases, or mutant forms of genes associated with increased risk of developing genetic disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic testing identifies changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, tests involve analyzing multiple genes to determine the risk of developing specific diseases or disorders, with the more common diseases consisting of heart disease and cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic testing can provide information about a person's genes and chromosomes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Complex disorders (e.g., hereditary colon cancer ) can result from one or more genes with a mutation plus the effects of lifestyle and environment. (rush.edu)
  • The combinatorial, multi-gene GeneSight test has been found to better predict antidepressant treatment outcomes for patients with depression, and their use of health care resources, than any of the individual genes that comprise the test, according to a peer-reviewed analysis by investigators from the Mayo Clinic and Assurex Health, and published online by The Pharmacogenomics Journal . (eurekalert.org)
  • The proprietary technology of the GeneSight Psychotropic test is based on combinatorial pharmacogenomics (CPGx™), the study of how variations in multiple genes collaborate to influence an individual's response to medications, and evidence-based medicine and the known clinical pharmacology of various drugs. (eurekalert.org)
  • The GeneSight Psychotropic test accounts for this complexity by measuring and combining the DNA sequence variations within drug response and drug metabolism genes. (eurekalert.org)
  • This analysis looked at the GeneSight test that included the liver metabolism genes CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, and CYP1A2, and the two drug response genes, SLC6A4 and HTR2A. (eurekalert.org)
  • Since these studies were conducted, Assurex Health has enhanced the GeneSight test to include two more genes, CYP3A4 and CYP2B6, making it the first and only psychiatric pharmacogenomic test to offer CYP3A4 analysis distinct and separate from CYP3A5. (eurekalert.org)
  • If you're pregnant, tests can detect some types of abnormalities in your baby's genes. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Thus, the test results of one person have direct health implications for others who are genetically related. (aappublications.org)
  • RESULTS: We found that less postictal suppression in response to the second UL ECT stimulus was predictive of a poorer subsequent therapeutic response to UL ECT, but of a better therapeutic response if switched to BL ECT. (duke.edu)
  • These preliminary results have confirmed the efficacy of NT testing to assess the risk of trisomy 21 and other chromosomopathies and enhanced its utility in pregnancies already suited to sampling in the first-trimester for Mendelian disorders. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Did you have any pre-expectations of what life after the test results would look like? (springer.com)
  • Did you have difficulties in accepting the test results, if so for how long time? (springer.com)
  • Did/do you need professional psychological support outside the predictive testing program to handle the test results? (springer.com)
  • Have the test results had any positive impact on your psychological wellbeing? (springer.com)
  • Have the test results had any negative impact on your psychological wellbeing? (springer.com)
  • Have the test results had any impact on choices of education/employment? (springer.com)
  • Have the test results had any impact on your quality of life? (springer.com)
  • Taken as a whole, results indicated that the SCOFF can be a useful tool for identifying Mexican university students who are at risk of eating disorders. (springer.com)
  • Clinical geneticists can be a valuable resource for doctors who need advice about whether genetic testing is available, which tests to pursue, how to access testing services, and how to interpret and act on test results. (mja.com.au)
  • Reliability of testing refers to the test's ability to be repeated and to produce equivalent results in comparable circumstances. (encyclopedia.com)
  • However, non-speech test results correlate only weakly with evaluations of speech-in-noise processing, cognitive skills, and caregiver evaluations of listening ability. (curehunter.com)
  • The interpretation of speech test results is confounded by the involvement of language processing mechanisms. (curehunter.com)
  • Furthermore, a physician is needed to apply genetic test results to the patient's entire life span as well as to his or her family members. (aafp.org)
  • Trait impulsivity, which is often defined as a strong preference for immediate over delayed rewards and results in behaviors that are socially inappropriate, maladaptive, and short-sighted, is a predisposing vulnerability to all externalizing spectrum disorders. (cambridge.org)
  • The results of a genetic test can confirm or rule out a suspected genetic condition or help determine a person's chance of developing or passing on a genetic disorder . (wikipedia.org)
  • If abnormal results are obtained, it does not necessarily mean the child has the disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the predictive value of any negative test result should exclude false-negative results as efficiently as possible. (annals.org)
  • No correlations between the lung function changes, skin prick test results, and serum IgE concentrations were detected. (cdc.gov)
  • The positive predictive value (the likelihood of being accurate when it is positive) of the questionnaire and the negative predictive value (the likelihood of being accurate when it is negative) were measured and compared with the results of a home sleep test. (healthcentral.com)
  • Routine blood test results are assumed to contain much more information than is usually recognised even by the most experienced clinicians. (nature.com)
  • Physicians are able to extract only a small fraction of information hidden in routine blood test results 11 . (nature.com)
  • Therefore, it is valuable to analyse routine blood test results more closely to try to find evidence of neoplastic growth. (nature.com)
  • Talking to your doctor, a medical geneticist or a genetic counselor about what you will do with the results is an important step in the process of genetic testing. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Traditionally this is done looking at markers in blood or by invasive testing such as amniocentesis. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Trisomy 18 detected on chorionic villus sampling may warrant further investigation either by amniocentesis or postnatal testing because the trisomy may represent confined placental mosaicism, in which aneuploidy is present in the placenta but undetectable in the fetus. (merckmanuals.com)
  • We aimed to develop a brief and clinically feasible battery to screen for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in resource-limited settings even where English is not the native language. (springer.com)
  • Develop and test predictive model identifying emerging sepsis using artificial intelligence, and translate learnings into improved operational criteria. (sutterhealth.org)
  • The determination of whether such predictive physiologic models are of clinical utility for the prediction of outcome awaits further study. (duke.edu)
  • Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), in combination with tests of psychomotor coordination, verbal learning and speed processing, yielded area under curve scores of above 0.75, the primary outcome of receiver operating characteristic analysis. (springer.com)
  • To further investigate the possible mechanisms underlying the disassociation between long and short target movement control, the association pattern between the outcome of several variants of ipsilateral position matching and velocity-discrimination tests, were studied. (diva-portal.org)
  • These groups would have a disorder of interest (e.g., spinal cord injury), receive different interventions, and differences in outcome would be studied. (cns.org)
  • With a simple blood spot test, the newborn screen identifies conditions such as phenylketonuria (PKU) and congenital hypothryroidism that require regular treatment. (rush.edu)
  • Neurological and metabolic disorders can be complicated to diagnose and treat. (sciencewerkedx.com)
  • This kind of test can be used to determine your risk of developing some kinds of cancer (e.g., certain types of colon cancer [ FAP ], breast cancer and ovarian cancer) as well as many other conditions, including neurological, cardiac and connective tissue disorders. (rush.edu)
  • In individuals with the disorder, the huntingtin gene contains errors in the coded "building blocks" that make up its specific genetic instructions. (rarediseases.org)
  • Given the increasing availability and complexity of genetic testing, it is imperative that the practicing obstetrician-gynecologist or other health care provider has a firm comprehension of the benefits, limitations, and risks of offering a specific genetic test, as well as the importance of appropriate pretest and posttest counseling. (acog.org)
  • I have research interests in a few specific genetic disorders (especially Rett syndrome and ectodermal dyslasia) and in the genetic counselling process more generally, examining interactions in clinic, processes of family communication, and broader topics such as stigmatisation in relation to physical appearance. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • This type of testing is offered to individuals who have a family history of a genetic disorder and to people in certain ethnic groups with an increased risk of specific genetic conditions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Impact of a positive HD test or presence of HD on a family members perceptions of: health problems, emotional and functional health status, resources/strategies for managing problems, helpfulness, and services needed to help family members cope. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Family members or significant others, age 14 or older, of persons who 1) have received a positive result from predictive testing for a mutation in the HD gene, 2) are symptomatic and living at home, and 3) are symptomatic and are living in a long-term care institution were the population of interest for this study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The NT test was positive in all three cases of chromosomopathies detected (100 per cent) and in 19 of 381 (4.98 per cent) normal karyotype fetuses. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mucosal CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferations of the head and neck show a clinicopathologic spectrum similar to cutaneous CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. (medscape.com)
  • suggests that using a cut-off of 14 points or less on the HDS produced a positive predictive value for HAND of 92% in those with complaints and 82% in noncomplainers. (lww.com)
  • Overall, a positive test was not as predictive. (healthcentral.com)
  • Overall, the test must be accurate in picking out the true positives and true negatives, with the lowest possible false positive and false negative rate. (cns.org)
  • In contrast, anhedonia is characterized by chronically low motivation and reduced capacity to experience pleasure, and is common to depressive disorders. (cambridge.org)