Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 22.214.171.124.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Etidronic Acid: A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.ortho-Aminobenzoates: Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.Calcium Citrate: A colorless crystalline or white powdery organic, tricarboxylic acid occurring in plants, especially citrus fruits, and used as a flavoring agent, as an antioxidant in foods, and as a sequestrating agent. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis: An evanescent cutaneous reaction occurring when antibody is injected into a local area on the skin and antigen is subsequently injected intravenously along with a dye. The dye makes the rapidly occurring capillary dilatation and increased vascular permeability readily visible by leakage into the reaction site. PCA is a sensitive reaction for detecting very small quantities of antibodies and is also a method for studying the mechanisms of immediate hypersensitivity.Potassium Citrate: A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.Nasopharyngeal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the NASOPHARYNX.Chelation Therapy: Therapy of heavy metal poisoning using agents which sequester the metal from organs or tissues and bind it firmly within the ring structure of a new compound which can be eliminated from the body.Oxo-Acid-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.Methysergide: An ergot derivative that is a congener of LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE. It antagonizes the effects of serotonin in blood vessels and gastrointestinal smooth muscle, but has few of the properties of other ergot alkaloids. Methysergide is used prophylactically in migraine and other vascular headaches and to antagonize serotonin in the carcinoid syndrome.Diphosphonates: Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.Anaphylaxis: An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.Histamine Release: The secretion of histamine from mast cell and basophil granules by exocytosis. This can be initiated by a number of factors, all of which involve binding of IgE, cross-linked by antigen, to the mast cell or basophil's Fc receptors. Once released, histamine binds to a number of different target cell receptors and exerts a wide variety of effects.Oxamic Acid: Amino-substituted glyoxylic acid derivative.Aminosalicylic Acids: A group of 2-hydroxybenzoic acids that can be substituted by amino groups at any of the 3-, 4-, 5-, or 6-positions.Flavoring Agents: Substances added to foods and medicine to improve the quality of taste.Clodronic Acid: A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits bone resorption and soft tissue calcification.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Hexanes: Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Ketotifen: A cycloheptathiophene blocker of histamine H1 receptors and release of inflammatory mediators. It has been proposed for the treatment of asthma, rhinitis, skin allergies, and anaphylaxis.Urticaria Pigmentosa: The most common form of cutaneous mastocytosis (MASTOCYTOSIS, CUTANEOUS) that occurs primarily in children. It is characterized by the multiple small reddish-brown pigmented pruritic macules and papules.Clomiphene: A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.Atropine Derivatives: Analogs and derivatives of atropine.Anti-Asthmatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat asthma.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.p-Methoxy-N-methylphenethylamine: A potent mast cell degranulator. It is involved in histamine release.GuanineSRS-A: A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Hypercalcemia: Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.Anti-Allergic Agents: Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)ChromonesHistamine H1 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H1 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous histamine. Included here are the classical antihistaminics that antagonize or prevent the action of histamine mainly in immediate hypersensitivity. They act in the bronchi, capillaries, and some other smooth muscles, and are used to prevent or allay motion sickness, seasonal rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis and to induce somnolence. The effects of blocking central nervous system H1 receptors are not as well understood.Chlorpheniramine: A histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic reactions, hay fever, rhinitis, urticaria, and asthma. It has also been used in veterinary applications. One of the most widely used of the classical antihistaminics, it generally causes less drowsiness and sedation than PROMETHAZINE.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Tricarboxylic Acids: Organic compounds that are acyclic and contain three acid groups. A member of this class is citric acid which is the first product formed by reaction of pyruvate and oxaloacetate. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p443)MalatesPlacebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Oxaloacetates: Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.Lead PoisoningCell Degranulation: The process of losing secretory granules (SECRETORY VESICLES). This occurs, for example, in mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, and platelets when secretory products are released from the granules by EXOCYTOSIS.Xanthones: A group of XANTHENES that contain a 9-keto OXYGEN.Gallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of gallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ga atoms with atomic weights 63-68, 70 and 72-76 are radioactive gallium isotopes.4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid: An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.1,2-Dihydroxybenzene-3,5-Disulfonic Acid Disodium Salt: A colorimetric reagent for iron, manganese, titanium, molybdenum, and complexes of zirconium. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Aconitate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 126.96.36.199.Stilbenes: Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.IsocitratesDrug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Lead: A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Fertility Agents, Female: Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.Isocitrate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC 188.8.131.52.) EC 184.108.40.206.Bismuth: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Bi, atomic number 83 and atomic weight 208.98.Oxaloacetic Acid: A dicarboxylic acid ketone that is an important metabolic intermediate of the CITRIC ACID CYCLE. It can be converted to ASPARTIC ACID by ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE.Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Colitis, Ulcerative: Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.Malate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 220.127.116.11.Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.SulfonesAcetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Coenzyme ADicarboxylic Acid Transporters: A family of organic anion transporters that specifically transport DICARBOXYLIC ACIDS such as alpha-ketoglutaric acid across cellular membranes.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Aconitic AcidWater: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ranitidine: A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.Gallium: A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Phosphofructokinase-1: An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.PyruvatesPurines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Leuconostoc: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase: A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 18.104.22.168.Kidney Calculi: Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.Nephrolithiasis: Formation of stones in the KIDNEY.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Anovulation: Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Oxalates: Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.Carbon-Sulfur Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-sulfur bond. EC 6.2.Enterobacter: Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Carboxy-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Dicarboxylic AcidsCarrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Pyruvate Carboxylase: A biotin-dependent enzyme belonging to the ligase family that catalyzes the addition of CARBON DIOXIDE to pyruvate. It is occurs in both plants and animals. Deficiency of this enzyme causes severe psychomotor retardation and ACIDOSIS, LACTIC in infants. EC 22.214.171.124.Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase ComplexAnticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Urinary Calculi: Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cathartics: Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.Fumarate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of fumaric acid to yield L-malic acid. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 126.96.36.199.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Calcium Oxalate: The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.3-Hydroxyacyl CoA Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a 3-hydroxyacyl CoA to 3-ketoacyl CoA in the presence of NAD. They are key enzymes in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis.PiperazinesLigases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.Geobacter: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae. They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Acetoin: A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
... is a buffer solution composed of citric acid and disodium hydrogen phosphate, also known as citrate-phosphate ... One liter of 0.2M stock solution of disodium phosphate can be prepared by dissolving 28.38g of disodium phosphate in water, and ... Preparation of McIlvaine buffer requires disodium phosphate and citric acid. ...
List of food additives
... mineral salt Calcium citrates - food acid, firming agent Calcium diglutamate - flavor enhancer Calcium disodium EDTA - ... flavor enhancer Disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate - antioxidant, preservative Disodium guanylate - flavor enhancer Disodium ... Iron ammonium citrate - Iron - Iron oxides and hydroxides - color Isobutane - propellant Isomalt - humectant Isopropyl citrates ... humectant Triammonium citrate - food acid Triethyl citrate - thickener, vegetable gum Trimethylxanthine - Triphosphates - ...
Propel Fitness Water
Sting Energy Drink
List of drugs: G
... citrate (INN) gallopamil (INN) galocitabine (INN) galosemide (INN) galsulfase (USAN) galtifenin (INN) Galzin Gamene gamfexine ( ... gadoxetate disodium (USAN) gadoxetic acid (INN) galamustine (INN) galantamine (INN) galdansetron (INN) galgenprostucel-L (USAN ... glufanide disodium (USAN) glufosfamide (INN) glunicate (INN) glusoferron (INN) glutaral (INN) glutaurine (INN) glutethimide ( ...
Pepsi Wild Cherry
Jazz (soft drink)
Middlebrook 7H10 Agar
Middlebrook 7H9 Broth
... , more properly, disodium hydrogen citrate, is an acid salt of citric acid with the chemical formula Na2C6H6O7 ... Disodium citrate may be used in patients to alleviate discomfort from urinary tract infections.[medical citation needed] " ... "Alkarate from Macleods: Disodium Hydrogen Citrate". drugsupdate.com. "OTC Treatment". ...
... , more correctly, sodium dihydrogen citrate, is an acid salt of citric acid. Disodium citrate and trisodium ... Monosodium citrate is used as an anticoagulant in donated blood. Clinical Hematology: Theory and Procedures, Mary Louise ... citrate are also known. It can be prepared by partial neutralisation of an aqueous solution of sodium bicarbonate or carbonate ...
Pepsi Wild Cherry
Carbonated water, caramel color, natural flavor, phosphoric acid, potassium citrate, sucralose, citric acid, acesulfame ... potassium, caffeine, potassium sorbate (preserves freshness), calcium disodium edta (to protect flavor) ... Carbonated water, caramel color, natural flavor, phosphoric acid, potassium citrate, sucralose, citric acid, acesulfame ... potassium, caffeine, potassium sorbate (preserves freshness), calcium disodium edta (to protect flavor) ...
Pepsi-Cola Made with Real Sugar
Sodium Citrate, Erythorbic Acid, Gum Arabic, Calcium Disodium EDTA, Brominated Vegetable Oil, Yellow 5. Carbonated Water, Sugar ... Orange Juice Concentrate, Citric Acid, Natural Flavor, Sodium Benzoate, Caffeine, Sodium Citrate, Gum Arabic, Erythorbic Acid, ... Calcium Disodium EDTA, Brominated Vegetable Oil, Yellow 5. Similar competing drinks. Dr Pepper started selling "Heritage ...
List of drugs: C-Ca
List of IARC Group 3 carcinogens
This was achieved by eliminating the chelating agent calcium disodium EDTA, and replacing sodium citrate with potassium citrate ... potassium citrate, potassium benzoate, aspartame, acesulfame potassium, calcium disodium EDTA. The ingredients for Diet 7 ... It contained lithium citrate, a mood-stabilizing drug, until 1948. It was one of a number of patent medicine products ... calcium disodium EDTA, acesulfame potassium, sucralose. The 7 Up Company claims they switched back to aspartame because ...
... , or disodium oxalate, is the sodium salt of oxalic acid with the formula Na2C2O4. It is a white, crystalline, ... Mean lethal dose by ingestion of oxalates is 10-15 grams/kilogram of body weight (per MSDS). Sodium oxalate, like citrates, can ... odorless solid, that decomposes above 290 °C. Disodium oxalate can act as a reducing agent, and it may be used as a primary ...
Gıda katkı maddeleri listesi - Vikipedi
List of minerals E (complete)
Eakerite (IMA1969-019) 09.CG.05     Earlandite (citrate: 1936) 10.AC.10    (IUPAC: calcium citrate ... disodium magnesium dicarbonate) Ekanite (IMA1967 s.p., 1961) 09.EA.10    (IUPAC: dicalcium thorium ... disodium lithium iron(III) pentadecaoxohexasilicate) Emilite (meneghinite: IMA2001-015) 02.HB.05a   [no] Emmerichite ... disodium diberyllium pentadecaoxohexasilicate monohydrate) Epidote 09.BG.05x Epidote (epidote: 1801) 09.BG.05a   [154 ...
... is used for low-temperature de-icing of highways, sidewalks, and parking lots. When highways are treacherous due to icy conditions, magnesium chloride helps to prevent the ice bond, allowing snow plows to clear the roads more efficiently. Magnesium chloride is used in three ways for pavement ice control: Anti-icing, when maintenance professionals spread it onto roads before a snow storm to prevent snow from sticking and ice from forming; prewetting, which means a liquid formulation of magnesium chloride is sprayed directly onto salt as it is being spread onto roadway pavement, wetting the salt so that it sticks to the road; and pretreating, when magnesium chloride and salt are mixed together before they are loaded onto trucks and spread onto paved roads. Calcium chloride damages concrete twice as fast as magnesium chloride. It should be noticed that the amount of magnesium chloride is supposed to be controlled when it is used for de-icing as it may cause pollution to the ...
From aqueous solution, the salt crystallizes as the pentahydrate, the fifth water is not bound to the metal in the solid. Viewed as a coordination complex, the ion is octahedral, with oxo, four equatorial water ligands, and a monodentate sulfate. The trihydrate has also been examined by crystallography. A hexahydrate exists below 13.6 °C (286.8 K). Two polymorphs of anhydrous VOSO4 are known. The V=O bond distance is 160 pm, about 50 pm shorter than the V-OH2 bonds. In solution, the sulfate ion dissociates rapidly. Being widely available, vanadyl sulfate is a common precursor to other vanadyl derivatives, such as vanadyl acetylacetonate: ...
Carbonate can only produce disodium phosphate: Na2CO3 + H3PO4 → Na2HPO4 + CO2 + H2O. Na2HPO4 + NaOH → Na3PO4 + H2O. Uses ... Disodium phosphate Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 ... Sodium phosphates including monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate, and trisodium phosphate are approved as food additives in ... Magnesium citrate. *Magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia). *Magnesium oxide. *Magnesium peroxide. *Magnesium sulfate ...
The U.S. FDA and European Union currently classify sodium selenate as toxic, primarily if ingested or inhaled. Testing on rats showed a dose of 1.6 mg/kg to be lethal. For a 70 kg (154 pound) person, this dosage corresponds to 112 mg, or, in terms of 200 µg pills, 560 pills. Chronic exposure to sodium selenate can cause severe lung, kidney, and liver damage. Overexposure to selenium in the diet leads to a condition known as selenosis. Selenosis occurs at blood levels greater than 100 µg/dL. Symptoms include gastrointestinal upsets, hair loss, white blotchy nails, garlic breath odor, fatigue, irritability, and mild nerve damage. ...
As a chemical feedstock, it is used for the manufacture of potassium hydroxide and potassium metal. It is also used in medicine, lethal injections, scientific applications, food processing, soaps, and as a sodium-free substitute for table salt for people concerned about the health effects of sodium. It is used as a supplement in animal feed to boost the number of nutrients in the feed, which in turn promotes healthy growth in animals. As an added benefit, it is known to increase milk production. It is sometimes used in water as a completion fluid in petroleum and natural gas operations, as well as being an alternative to sodium chloride in household water softener units. Glass manufacturers use granular potash as a flux, lowering the temperature at which a mixture melts. Because potash confers excellent clarity to glass, it is commonly used in eyeglasses, glassware, televisions, and computer monitors. KCl is useful as a beta radiation source for calibration of radiation monitoring equipment, ...
EDTA is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. ... Lanigan, R. S.; Yamarik, T. A. (2002). "Final report on the safety assessment of EDTA, calcium disodium EDTA, diammonium EDTA, ... "Postmarket Drug Safety Information for Patients and Providers - Questions and Answers on Edetate Disodium (marketed as Endrate ... dipotassium EDTA, disodium EDTA, TEA-EDTA, tetrasodium EDTA, tripotassium EDTA, trisodium EDTA, HEDTA, and trisodium HEDTA". ...
Disodium citrate - Wikipedia
Disodium citrate, more properly, disodium hydrogen citrate, is an acid salt of citric acid with the chemical formula Na2C6H6O7 ... Disodium citrate may be used in patients to alleviate discomfort from urinary tract infections.[medical citation needed] " ... "Alkarate from Macleods: Disodium Hydrogen Citrate". drugsupdate.com. "OTC Treatment". ...
Disodium hydrogen citrate - Substance Information - ECHA
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Disodium citrate | Na2C6H6O7 - PubChem
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What is Disodium Coco-Glucoside Citrate? | Honest
Learn more about disodium coco-glucoside citrate--just because its not easy to pronounce doesnt mean its all bad for you. , ... Disodium coco-glucoside citrate is a great example. Know how to conquer fear of the unknown? Being curious, researching, and ... Disodium coco-glucoside citrate is derived from citric acid (made from fermenting sugar) and coco-glucoside (made from fatty ... What is Disodium Coco-Glucoside Citrate? The Honest Company Dec 30, 2014 ...
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disodium stannous citrate vs potassium
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Vibcare Pharma is an industry leading provider of Disodium Hydrogen Citrate Syrup in India. ... Disodium hydrogen citrate should not be used in:. Allergy to any of its components. Patients with moderate to severe renal ... Disodium hydrogen citrate is acidic salt of citric acid which is mostly used as a urinary alkalizer (makes the urine more ... Disodium hydrogen citrate is most commonly available in syrup form and is used in treatment of urinary tract infection, kidney ...
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Monosodium citrate - Wikipedia
Monosodium citrate, more correctly, sodium dihydrogen citrate, is an acid salt of citric acid. Disodium citrate and trisodium ... Monosodium citrate is used as an anticoagulant in donated blood. Clinical Hematology: Theory and Procedures, Mary Louise ... citrate are also known. It can be prepared by partial neutralisation of an aqueous solution of sodium bicarbonate or carbonate ...
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- What is Disodium Coco-Glucoside Citrate? (honest.com)
- Disodium coco-glucoside citrate is derived from citric acid (made from fermenting sugar) and coco-glucoside (made from fatty acids found in coconuts). (honest.com)
- Not only does disodium coco-glucoside citrate gently clean, it's also an emulsifier, which helps keep all the ingredients in a formula consistently mixed up (3). (honest.com)
- Compared to many other surfactants used in shampoos and body washes (like the commonly used sodium lauryl sulfate - SLS), disodium coco-glucoside citrate is very mild (perfect for babies or those with sensitive skin), and it's not suspected to be potentially toxic or harmful or bad for the environment (1,4-6). (honest.com)
- Disodium coco-glucoside citrate is a great example. (honest.com)
- Disodium coco-glucoside citrate Material Safety Data Sheet. (honest.com)
- United States Sodium Citrate Dihydrate Industry Report is a tool to assist novice as well as seeded players in gaining astute business intelligence and make apt decisions based on it. (beforeitsnews.com)
- In this report, the United States Sodium Citrate Dihydrate (CAS 6132-04-3) market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. (beforeitsnews.com)
- This United States Sodium Citrate Dihydrate Industry report also takes into account the past price of and future price as per the supply-demand relation along with perspectives and United States Sodium Citrate Dihydrate Industry forecasts. (beforeitsnews.com)
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- Dextrose hydrous, sodium citrate dihydrate, and edetate disodium dihydrate amounts are approximate. (rxlist.com)
- Disodium hydrogen citrate is most commonly available in syrup form and is used in treatment of urinary tract infection, kidney stones etc. (vibcare.co.in)
- We offer the laboratory tested Disodium Hydrogen Citrate Syrup , which is the best suitable to be utilized as an anti-oxidant in food and to make better the effects of several other anti-oxidants. (metlarformulations.com)
- Made available under the URIMET brand, the Disodium Hydrogen Citrate Syrup comes into plastic bottle packaging of 100ml quantity. (metlarformulations.com)
- Di Sodium Hydrogen Citrate Syrup is acidic salt of citric acid that is generally used as urinary alkalizer. (radicalspharma.in)
- Di Sodium Hydrogen Citrate Syrup is very efficacious and quality assured medicine. (radicalspharma.in)
- Using Trisodium Citrate should not make any significant difference from using disodium or monosodium citrate. (metaisis.ch)
- Monosodium citrate, more correctly, sodium dihydrogen citrate, is an acid salt of citric acid. (wikipedia.org)
- Monosodium citrate is used as an anticoagulant in donated blood. (wikipedia.org)
- Sodium citrate used for culinary purposes comprises of three salts: monosodium citrate, disodium citrate and Trisodium citrate. (reference.com)
Acidic salt of citric acid1
- Disodium citrate may be used in patients to alleviate discomfort from urinary tract infections. (wikipedia.org)
- Most probably your suffering from urinary tract infection (UTI) along with enteritis (infection of intestine).Disodium hydrogen citrate is an alkalizer which increases the urinary PH and decreases burning sensation. (healthcaremagic.com)
- Effects of potassium citrate therapy (60 mEq/day) on urinary chemistries and crystallization were compared to those of sodium citrate treatment in five patients with uric acid lithiasis. (metaisis.ch)
- Dipotassium hydrogen citrate is a urinary alkalanizer. (medindia.net)
- Club soda is also water-based, but it tends to have a lot of other minerals "including sodium bicarbonate, sodium citrate, potassium sulfate and disodium phosphate," says Marinucci, adding that these added ingredients, though safe to consume in club soda, "affects the taste slightly [such that] it doesn't taste as 'clean' as seltzer water. (nbcnews.com)