Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Several species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
A subfamily of assassin bugs (REDUVIIDAE) that are obligate blood-suckers of vertebrates. Included are the genera TRIATOMA; RHODNIUS; and PANSTRONGYLUS, which are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, the agent of CHAGAS DISEASE in humans.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.
A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Guatemala" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. Guatemala is the name of a country located in Central America, known officially as the Republic of Guatemala. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help with those!
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Argentina" is not a medical concept or condition that has a defined meaning within the medical field. Argentina is actually the second largest country in South America, and is known for its rich cultural history, diverse landscapes, and significant contributions to fields such as science, arts, and sports. If you have any questions related to healthcare, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!
A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
Bugs of the family CIMICIDAE, genus Cimex. They are flattened, oval, reddish insects which inhabit houses, wallpaper, furniture, and beds. C. lectularius, of temperate regions, is the common bedbug that attacks humans and is frequently a serious pest in houses, hotels, barracks, and other living quarters. Experiments have shown that bedbugs can transmit a variety of diseases, but they are not normal vectors under natural conditions. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p272)
The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.
The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.
Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.
"Panama" is not a recognized medical term or condition in healthcare and medicine. It might be a reference to a location, but it does not have a specific medical meaning in itself.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.
Living facilities for humans.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mexico" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. It is the name of a country located in North America, known officially as the United Mexican States. If you have any questions related to medical topics or terminology, I would be happy to help answer those!
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or concept, it is a country located in South America, known officially as the Federative Republic of Brazil. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or science, I'd be happy to help answer those!
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Learning algorithms which are a set of related supervised computer learning methods that analyze data and recognize patterns, and used for classification and regression analysis.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.

Pathogenesis of cancrum oris (noma): confounding interactions of malnutrition with infection. (1/1021)

This study showed that impoverished Nigerian children at risk for cancrum oris (noma) had significantly reduced plasma concentrations of zinc (< 10.8 micromol/L), retinol (< 1.05 micromol/L), ascorbate (< 11 micromol/L), and the essential amino acids, with prominently increased plasma and saliva levels of free cortisol, compared with their healthy counterparts. The nutrient deficiencies, in concert with previously reported widespread viral infections (measles, herpesviruses) in the children, would impair oral mucosal immunity. We postulate, subject to additional studies, that evolution of the oral mucosal ulcers including acute necrotizing gingivitis to noma is triggered by a consortium of microorganisms of which Fusobacterium necrophorum is a key component. Fusobacterium necrophorum elaborates several dermonecrotic toxic metabolites and is acquired by the impoverished children via fecal contamination resulting from shared residential facilities with animals and very poor environmental sanitation.  (+info)

Isolation of tick-borne encephalitis virus from wild rodents and a seroepizootiologic survey in Hokkaido, Japan. (2/1021)

To determine the vertebrate host of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus in the southern part of Hokkaido, Japan, virus isolation was performed using spleens from small mammals captured in the area. Two virus strains were isolated, one strain from Apodemus speciosus and another from Clethrionomys rufocanus. Virus isolates were inoculated onto baby hamster kidney cell monolayers and antigen slides were prepared for an indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay. Two isolates were identified as TBE viruses by monoclonal antibody reactions. To specify the TBE-endemic area in Hokkaido, rodent, horse, and dog sera collected from 1992 to 1997 were tested for neutralization antibody against TBE virus previously isolated from a dog. The positive cases were distributed in four districts in the southern part of Hokkaido.  (+info)

Deriving meteorological variables across Africa for the study and control of vector-borne disease: a comparison of remote sensing and spatial interpolation of climate. (3/1021)

This paper presents the results of an investigation into the utility of remote sensing (RS) using meteorological satellites sensors and spatial interpolation (SI) of data from meteorological stations, for the prediction of spatial variation in monthly climate across continental Africa in 1990. Information from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) polar-orbiting meteorological satellites was used to estimate land surface temperature (LST) and atmospheric moisture. Cold cloud duration (CCD) data derived from the High Resolution Radiometer (HRR) on-board the European Meteorological Satellite programme's (EUMETSAT) Meteosat satellite series were also used as a RS proxy measurement of rainfall. Temperature, atmospheric moisture and rainfall surfaces were independently derived from SI of measurements from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) member stations of Africa. These meteorological station data were then used to test the accuracy of each methodology, so that the appropriateness of the two techniques for epidemiological research could be compared. SI was a more accurate predictor of temperature, whereas RS provided a better surrogate for rainfall; both were equally accurate at predicting atmospheric moisture. The implications of these results for mapping short and long-term climate change and hence their potential for the study and control of disease vectors are considered. Taking into account logistic and analytical problems, there were no clear conclusions regarding the optimality of either technique, but there was considerable potential for synergy.  (+info)

A hemocyte-like cell line established from the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae expresses six prophenoloxidase genes. (4/1021)

Cell lines from the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae have been established as a tool for the study of the mosquito innate immune system in vitro. Here, we describe the first continuous insect cell line that produces prophenoloxidase (PPO). This cell line (4a-3B) expresses constitutively six PPO genes, three of which are novel (PPO4, PPO5, and PPO6). The PPO genes show distinct temporal expression profiles in the intact mosquito, spanning stages from the embryo to the adult in an overlapping manner. Transient induction of larva-specific PPO genes in blood-fed adult females suggests that the developmental hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone may be involved in PPO gene regulation. Indeed, exposure of 4a-3B cells to 20-hydroxyecdysone in culture results in induction of those PPO genes that are mainly expressed in early developmental stages, and repression of PPO5, which is preferentially expressed at the adult stage. The cell line shows bacteria-induced immune transcripts that encode defensin and Gram-negative bacteria-binding protein, but no induction of PPO transcripts. This cell line most likely derives from a hemocyte lineage, and represents an appropriate in vitro model for the study of the humoral and cellular immune defenses of A. gambiae.  (+info)

Bednet impregnation for Chagas disease control: a new perspective. (5/1021)

BACKGROUND: To determine the efficacy and acceptability of deltamethrin-impregnated bednets in controlling Chagas disease in South America. METHODS: In three endemic departments of Colombia, a qualitative study on people's knowledge about Chagas disease, vectors, preventive measures and their willingness for collaboration in control operations was undertaken. Additionally, in an entomological study with 100 laboratory-bred Chagas vectors (Rhodnius prolixus), vectors were released for 5 nights (20 each night) in an experimental room, with the human bait protected for one night by an unimpregnated and for four nights by a deltamethrin-impregnated bednet (13 mg/m2). Vectors were stained with fluorescent powder for observation, collected after 10 h exposure in the experimental room and observed for a further 72 h. RESULTS: The study population did not know anything about Chagas disease, but believed the vector to transmit cutaneous leishmaniasis. Therefore willingness to take part in control operations was high. The experimental hut study showed a vector mortality rate of 95% in a room with impregnated nets and of 10% in a room with unimpregnated nets. CONCLUSION: This study opens a new perspective for Chagas disease control in integrated vector borne disease prevention programmes.  (+info)

Evaluation of the epidemic potential of western equine encephalitis virus in the northeastern United States. (6/1021)

The problem of evaluating the epidemic potential of western equine encephalitis in the northeastern United States is presented and possible reasons are discussed for the present lack of human and horse cases of this disease even though increased numbers of isolations of the virus have been obtained in the East during recent years. Epidemiologic factors of vector bionomics and virus strain variations are considered. It is concluded that while this virus strain can no longer be regarded as uncommon in the Northeast, the evidence indicates there is little potential for epidemic expression of this agent in the human and horse population. This appears to be due to differences in the bionomics of the mosquito Culiseta melanura, which serves as the primary enzootic vector in the northeastern United States and in the bionomics of Culex tarsalis that is the vector in the western region of the United States. Other limiting factors in the epidemic potential may be variations between virus strains located in the East and West.  (+info)

Density of sand flies (Diptera: psychodidae) in domestic and wild animal shelters in an area of visceral Leishmaniasis in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. (7/1021)

The objective of the present study was to determine the association of sand flies with the presence of domestic and wild animals in the peridomiciliary area. The sand flies were collected using direct aspiration and CDC light traps placed in animal shelters. The results suggest that different sand flies species have different behavioral characteristics in an apparent preference for animal baits and that Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lu. evandroi were the most eclectic species regarding their biotope choice. Lu. longipalpis showed a distinct preference for horses and Lu. evandroi for armadillos.  (+info)

Natural rodent host associations of Guanarito and pirital viruses (Family Arenaviridae) in central Venezuela. (8/1021)

The objective of this study was to elucidate the natural rodent host relationships of Guanarito and Pirital viruses (family Arenaviridae) in the plains of central Venezuela. Ninety-two arenavirus isolates from 607 animals, representing 10 different rodent species, were characterized to the level of serotype. The 92 isolates comprised 19 Guanarito virus strains and 73 Pirital virus strains. The 19 Guanarito virus isolates were from Zygodontomys brevicauda; 72 (98.6%) of the 73 Pirital virus isolates were from Sigmodon alstoni. These results indicate that the natural rodent associations of these 2 sympatric arenaviruses are highly specific and that Z brevicauda and S. alstoni are the principal rodent hosts of Guanarito and Pirital viruses, respectively.  (+info)

A disease vector is a living organism that transmits infectious pathogens from one host to another. These vectors can include mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, and other arthropods that carry viruses, bacteria, parasites, or other disease-causing agents. The vector becomes infected with the pathogen after biting an infected host, and then transmits the infection to another host through its saliva or feces during a subsequent blood meal.

Disease vectors are of particular concern in public health because they can spread diseases rapidly and efficiently, often over large geographic areas. Controlling vector-borne diseases requires a multifaceted approach that includes reducing vector populations, preventing bites, and developing vaccines or treatments for the associated diseases.

Triatoma is a genus of insects in the family Reduviidae, also known as "kissing bugs" or "conenose bugs." These insects are called "kissing bugs" because they often bite humans around the mouth and face. They are found primarily in the Americas, ranging from the southern United States to Argentina.

Triatoma species are of medical importance because they can transmit a parasitic infection called Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) to humans through their feces. The parasite that causes Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi, is found in the bug's feces and can enter the human body through mucous membranes or breaks in the skin.

Chagas disease can cause serious health problems, including heart damage and digestive system complications, if left untreated. Therefore, it is important to take precautions to prevent Triatoma bites and seek medical attention promptly if bitten by one of these insects.

Insect vectors are insects that transmit disease-causing pathogens (such as viruses, bacteria, parasites) from one host to another. They do this while feeding on the host's blood or tissues. The insects themselves are not infected by the pathogen but act as mechanical carriers that pass it on during their bite. Examples of diseases spread by insect vectors include malaria (transmitted by mosquitoes), Lyme disease (transmitted by ticks), and plague (transmitted by fleas). Proper prevention measures, such as using insect repellent and reducing standing water where mosquitoes breed, can help reduce the risk of contracting these diseases.

'Insect control' is not a term typically used in medical definitions. However, it generally refers to the methods and practices used to manage or reduce the population of insects that can be harmful or disruptive to human health, food supply, or property. This can include various strategies such as chemical pesticides, biological control agents, habitat modification, and other integrated pest management techniques.

In medical terms, 'vector control' is a more relevant concept, which refers to the specific practices used to reduce or prevent the transmission of infectious diseases by insects and other arthropods that act as disease vectors (such as mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas). Vector control measures may include the use of insecticides, larvicides, biological control agents, environmental management, personal protection methods, and other integrated vector management strategies.

Triatominae is a subfamily of insects in the family Reduviidae, also known as assassin bugs. Triatomines are commonly called "kissing bugs" because they often bite humans near the mouth or eyes while they sleep. They are called this because of their habit of feeding on the blood of mammals, including humans, and prefer to bite near the lips or eyes where the skin is thin.

Triatomines are vectors for Trypanosoma cruzi, a parasitic protozoan that causes Chagas disease, a potentially life-threatening illness endemic in the Americas. The transmission of T. cruzi to humans occurs when feces or urine from an infected triatomine is accidentally rubbed into the bite wound or mucous membranes, such as those found in the eyes or mouth.

Triatomines are typically nocturnal and hide during the day in crevices in walls, roofs, or beds. They are attracted to light and can be found near human dwellings, particularly in rural areas with poor housing conditions. Preventing triatomine infestations and reducing contact with these insects is an important part of Chagas disease prevention.

A genetic vector is a vehicle, often a plasmid or a virus, that is used to introduce foreign DNA into a host cell as part of genetic engineering or gene therapy techniques. The vector contains the desired gene or genes, along with regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers, which are needed for the expression of the gene in the target cells.

The choice of vector depends on several factors, including the size of the DNA to be inserted, the type of cell to be targeted, and the efficiency of uptake and expression required. Commonly used vectors include plasmids, adenoviruses, retroviruses, and lentiviruses.

Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that can replicate independently in bacteria. They are often used as cloning vectors to amplify and manipulate DNA fragments. Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of host cells, including human cells. They are commonly used as gene therapy vectors because they can efficiently transfer genes into both dividing and non-dividing cells.

Retroviruses and lentiviruses are RNA viruses that integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome. This allows for stable expression of the transgene over time. Lentiviruses, a subclass of retroviruses, have the advantage of being able to infect non-dividing cells, making them useful for gene therapy applications in post-mitotic tissues such as neurons and muscle cells.

Overall, genetic vectors play a crucial role in modern molecular biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study gene function, develop new therapies, and modify organisms for various purposes.

Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the protozoan *Trypanosoma cruzi*. It is primarily transmitted to humans through the feces of triatomine bugs (also called "kissing bugs"), which defecate on the skin of people while they are sleeping. The disease can also be spread through contaminated food or drink, during blood transfusions, from mother to baby during pregnancy or childbirth, and through organ transplantation.

The acute phase of Chagas disease can cause symptoms such as fever, fatigue, body aches, headache, rash, loss of appetite, diarrhea, and vomiting. However, many people do not experience any symptoms during the acute phase. After several weeks or months, most people enter the chronic phase of the disease, which can last for decades or even a lifetime. During this phase, many people do not have any symptoms, but about 20-30% of infected individuals will develop serious cardiac or digestive complications, such as heart failure, arrhythmias, or difficulty swallowing.

Chagas disease is primarily found in Latin America, where it is estimated that around 6-7 million people are infected with the parasite. However, due to increased travel and migration, cases of Chagas disease have been reported in other parts of the world, including North America, Europe, and Asia. There is no vaccine for Chagas disease, but medications are available to treat the infection during the acute phase and to manage symptoms during the chronic phase.

"Rhodnius" is not a medical term, but rather it refers to a genus of true bugs in the family Reduviidae. These small, wingless insects are known as "bugs" and are commonly found in tropical regions of the Americas. They feed on plant sap and are also known to be vectors for certain diseases, such as Chagas disease, which is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. However, they are not typically associated with human medicine or medical conditions.

"Aedes" is a genus of mosquitoes that are known to transmit various diseases, including Zika virus, dengue fever, chikungunya, and yellow fever. These mosquitoes are typically found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. They are distinguished by their black and white striped legs and thorax. Aedes aegypti is the most common species associated with disease transmission, although other species such as Aedes albopictus can also transmit diseases. It's important to note that only female mosquitoes bite and feed on blood, while males feed solely on nectar and plant juices.

Arthropod vectors are living organisms, specifically arthropods such as mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, and lice, that can transmit infectious agents (such as viruses, bacteria, or parasites) from one host to another. This process is called vector-borne transmission. The arthropod vectors become infected with the pathogen while taking a blood meal from an infected host, then transmit the pathogen to another host during subsequent feedings. The transmission can occur through various means, including biting, stinging, or even mechanical contact. It's important to note that not all arthropods are vectors, and only certain species within each group are capable of transmitting diseases.

'Anopheles gambiae' is a species of mosquito that is a major vector for the transmission of malaria. The female Anopheles gambiae mosquito bites primarily during the nighttime hours and preferentially feeds on human blood, which allows it to transmit the Plasmodium parasite that causes malaria. This species is widely distributed throughout much of Africa and is responsible for transmitting a significant proportion of the world's malaria cases.

The Anopheles gambiae complex actually consists of several closely related species or forms, which can be difficult to distinguish based on morphological characteristics alone. However, advances in molecular techniques have allowed for more accurate identification and differentiation of these species. Understanding the biology and behavior of Anopheles gambiae is crucial for developing effective strategies to control malaria transmission.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Guatemala" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in Central America. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those!

'Culicidae' is the biological family that includes all species of mosquitoes. It consists of three subfamilies: Anophelinae, Culicinae, and Toxorhynchitinae. Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that are known for their ability to transmit various diseases to humans and other animals, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and Zika virus. The medical importance of Culicidae comes from the fact that only female mosquitoes require blood meals to lay eggs, and during this process, they can transmit pathogens between hosts.

Insecticides are substances or mixtures of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or mitigating any pest, including insects, arachnids, or other related pests. They can be chemical or biological agents that disrupt the growth, development, or behavior of these organisms, leading to their death or incapacitation. Insecticides are widely used in agriculture, public health, and residential settings for pest control. However, they must be used with caution due to potential risks to non-target organisms and the environment.

Pyrethrins are a group of naturally occurring organic compounds extracted from the flowers of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and Chrysanthemum coccineum. They have been used for centuries as insecticides due to their ability to disrupt the nervous system of insects, leading to paralysis and death. Pyrethrins are composed of six esters, pyrethrin I and II, cinerin I and II, and jasmolin I and II, which have different insecticidal properties but share a similar mode of action. They are commonly used in household insect sprays, pet shampoos, and agricultural applications to control a wide range of pests. However, pyrethrins can be toxic to fish and some beneficial insects, so they must be used with caution.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Argentina" is a country in South America and not a medical term or concept. The term "argyria" may be what you're looking for, which is a rare condition resulting from the accumulation of silver compounds in the body, causing the skin to turn blue-gray. However, Argentina and argyria are two distinct terms with different meanings.

Entomology is the scientific study of insects, including their behavior, classification, and evolution. It is a branch of zoology that deals with the systematic study of insects and their relationship with humans, animals, and the environment. Entomologists may specialize in various areas such as medical entomology, agricultural entomology, or forensic entomology, among others. Medical entomology focuses on the study of insects that can transmit diseases to humans and animals, while agricultural entomology deals with insects that affect crops and livestock. Forensic entomology involves using insects found in crime scenes to help determine the time of death or other relevant information for legal investigations.

Insecticide resistance is a genetic selection process in insect populations that allows them to survive and reproduce despite exposure to insecticides. It's the result of changes in the genetic makeup of insects, which can be caused by natural selection when insecticides are used repeatedly. Over time, this leads to the prevalence of genes that provide resistance to the insecticide, making the pest control methods less effective. Insecticide resistance is a significant challenge in public health and agriculture, as it can reduce the efficacy of interventions aimed at controlling disease-carrying insects or protecting crops from pests.

'Culex' is a genus of mosquitoes that includes many species that are vectors for various diseases, such as West Nile virus, filariasis, and avian malaria. They are often referred to as "house mosquitoes" because they are commonly found in urban environments. These mosquitoes typically lay their eggs in standing water and have a cosmopolitan distribution, being found on all continents except Antarctica. The life cycle of Culex mosquitoes includes four stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. Both male and female adults feed on nectar, but only females require blood meals to lay eggs.

'Anopheles' is a genus of mosquitoes that are known for their role in transmitting malaria parasites to humans. These mosquitoes have a distinctive resting posture, with their abdomens raised and heads down, and they typically feed on human hosts at night. Only female Anopheles mosquitoes transmit the malaria parasite, as they require blood meals to lay eggs.

There are over 400 species of Anopheles mosquitoes worldwide, but only about 30-40 of these are considered significant vectors of human malaria. The distribution and behavior of these mosquitoes can vary widely depending on the specific species and geographic location.

Preventing and controlling the spread of malaria involves a variety of strategies, including the use of insecticide-treated bed nets, indoor residual spraying, antimalarial drugs, and vaccines. Public health efforts to reduce the burden of malaria have made significant progress in recent decades, but the disease remains a major global health challenge, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa.

Bedbugs are small, wingless insects that belong to the family Cimicidae. The scientific name for the most common species of bedbug is Cimex lectularius. Adult bedbugs are oval-shaped, flat, and reddish-brown in color, while nymphs (immature bedbugs) are smaller, lighter in color, and translucent.

Bedbugs feed on the blood of humans and other warm-blooded animals, usually at night when their hosts are asleep. They are attracted to body heat and carbon dioxide exhaled by their hosts. Bedbug bites can cause itchy red welts or bumps on the skin, but they are not known to transmit any diseases.

Bedbugs can be found in a variety of places where people sleep or rest for extended periods, including homes, hotels, hostels, and college dormitories. They can hide in cracks and crevices in furniture, walls, floors, and bedding, making them difficult to detect and eliminate.

To prevent bedbug infestations, it is recommended to inspect second-hand furniture carefully before bringing it into your home, use protective encasements on mattresses and box springs, and avoid storing items under beds or near walls. If you suspect a bedbug infestation, contact a pest management professional for assistance.

Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis. It's transmitted to humans and other mammals through the feces of triatomine bugs, often called "kissing bugs." The parasite can also be spread through contaminated food, drink, or from mother to baby during pregnancy or birth.

The life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi involves two main forms: the infective metacyclic trypomastigote that is found in the bug's feces and the replicative intracellular amastigote that resides within host cells. The metacyclic trypomastigotes enter the host through mucous membranes or skin lesions, where they invade various types of cells and differentiate into amastigotes. These amastigotes multiply by binary fission and then differentiate back into trypomastigotes, which are released into the bloodstream when the host cell ruptures. The circulating trypomastigotes can then infect other cells or be taken up by another triatomine bug during a blood meal, continuing the life cycle.

Clinical manifestations of Chagas disease range from an acute phase with non-specific symptoms like fever, swelling, and fatigue to a chronic phase characterized by cardiac and gastrointestinal complications, which can develop decades after the initial infection. Early detection and treatment of Chagas disease are crucial for preventing long-term health consequences.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nymph" does not have a medical definition. In general, nymph is a term used in mythology to refer to a minor nature deity typically represented as an attractive maiden or beautiful young woman who animates nature and is often associated with various natural phenomena.

If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to help if you could provide more information.

I apologize for any confusion, but "wetlands" is a term related to environmental science and ecology rather than medicine. Wetlands are transitional areas between land and water that are characterized by the presence of water, which can be permanent or temporary. They are critical ecosystems that provide various important functions, such as water filtration, flood control, and habitat for diverse plant and animal life, including many species of migratory birds.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, please don't hesitate to ask!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Panama" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Central America, known for its famous canal and diverse wildlife. If you have any questions about medical terms or conditions, I would be happy to help answer those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Insect Proteins" is not a recognized medical term. However, I can provide some information about insect protein from a nutritional and food science perspective.

Insect proteins refer to the proteins that are obtained from insects. Insects are a rich source of protein, and their protein content varies by species. For example, mealworms and crickets have been found to contain approximately 47-63% and 60-72% protein by dry weight, respectively.

In recent years, insect proteins have gained attention as a potential sustainable source of nutrition due to their high protein content, low environmental impact, and the ability to convert feed into protein more efficiently compared to traditional livestock. Insect proteins can be used in various applications such as food and feed additives, nutritional supplements, and even cosmetics.

However, it's important to note that the use of insect proteins in human food is not widely accepted in many Western countries due to cultural and regulatory barriers. Nonetheless, research and development efforts continue to explore the potential benefits and applications of insect proteins in the global food system.

'Mosquito Control' is not a medical term per se, but it is a public health concept that refers to the systematic reduction or elimination of mosquito populations through various methods to prevent or minimize the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. This multidisciplinary field involves entomologists, ecologists, engineers, and public health professionals working together to manage mosquito habitats, apply insecticides, and educate communities about personal protection measures. By controlling mosquito populations, we can significantly reduce the risk of contracting vector-borne illnesses such as malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, Zika virus, and West Nile virus, among others.

Cytochromes b are a group of electron transport proteins that contain a heme c group, which is the prosthetic group responsible for their redox activity. They play a crucial role in the electron transport chain (ETC) located in the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotic cells and in the plasma membrane of prokaryotic cells.

The cytochromes b are part of Complex III, also known as the cytochrome bc1 complex or ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, in the ETC. In this complex, they function as electron carriers between ubiquinone (Q) and cytochrome c, participating in the process of oxidative phosphorylation to generate ATP.

There are multiple isoforms of cytochromes b found in various organisms, with different numbers of subunits and structures. However, they all share a common function as essential components of the electron transport chain, facilitating the transfer of electrons during cellular respiration and energy production.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "housing" is not a term that has a medical definition. In a general sense, housing refers to a place where someone lives, such as a house or apartment. If you have any questions related to healthcare, medicine, or health-related topics, I would be happy to try to help answer them.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "population density" is actually a term used in population geography and epidemiology, rather than medical terminology. It refers to the number of people living in a specific area or region, usually measured as the number of people per square mile or square kilometer.

However, understanding population density can be important in public health and medicine because it can influence various factors related to health outcomes and healthcare delivery, such as:

1. Disease transmission rates: Higher population densities can facilitate the spread of infectious diseases, particularly those that are transmitted through close contact between individuals.
2. Access to healthcare services: Areas with lower population density might have fewer healthcare resources and providers available, making it more challenging for residents to access necessary medical care.
3. Health disparities: Population density can contribute to health inequities, as urban areas often have better access to healthcare, education, and economic opportunities than rural areas, leading to differences in health outcomes between these populations.
4. Environmental factors: Higher population densities might lead to increased pollution, noise, and other environmental hazards that can negatively impact health.

Therefore, while "population density" is not a medical definition per se, it remains an essential concept for understanding various public health and healthcare issues.

Wolbachia is a genus of intracellular bacteria that naturally infects a wide variety of arthropods (insects, spiders, mites) and filarial nematodes (roundworms). These bacteria are transmitted vertically from mother to offspring, often through the cytoplasm of eggs. Wolbachia can manipulate the reproductive biology of their hosts in various ways, such as feminization, parthenogenesis, male killing, and cytoplasmic incompatibility, which favor the spread and maintenance of the bacteria within host populations. The interactions between Wolbachia and their hosts have implications for insect pest management, disease transmission, and evolutionary biology.

Malaria is not a medical definition itself, but it is a disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. Here's a simple definition:

Malaria: A mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites, characterized by cycles of fever, chills, and anemia. It can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed and treated. The five Plasmodium species known to cause malaria in humans are P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, and P. knowlesi.

Insect bites and stings refer to the penetration of the skin by insects, such as mosquitoes, fleas, ticks, or bees, often resulting in localized symptoms including redness, swelling, itching, and pain. The reaction can vary depending on the individual's sensitivity and the type of insect. In some cases, systemic reactions like anaphylaxis may occur, which requires immediate medical attention. Treatment typically involves relieving symptoms with topical creams, antihistamines, or in severe cases, epinephrine. Prevention measures include using insect repellent and protective clothing.

An "ecosystem" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, as it is a concept that is more commonly used in the fields of ecology and environmental science. However, I can provide you with the general ecological definition of an ecosystem:

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms interacting with each other and their non-living environment, including both biotic factors (plants, animals, microorganisms) and abiotic factors (climate, soil, water, and air). These interactions create a complex network of relationships that form the foundation of ecological processes, such as energy flow, nutrient cycling, and population dynamics.

While there is no direct medical definition for an ecosystem, understanding the principles of ecosystems can have important implications for human health. For example, healthy ecosystems can provide clean air and water, regulate climate, support food production, and offer opportunities for recreation and relaxation, all of which contribute to overall well-being. Conversely, degraded ecosystems can lead to increased exposure to environmental hazards, reduced access to natural resources, and heightened risks of infectious diseases. Therefore, maintaining the health and integrity of ecosystems is crucial for promoting human health and preventing disease.

Biological pest control, also known as biocontrol, is a method of managing or eliminating pests such as insects, mites, weeds, and plant diseases using natural enemies or other organisms. These biological control agents include predators, parasites, pathogens, and competitors that regulate pest populations and reduce the need for chemical pesticides. Biological pest control is a key component of integrated pest management (IPM) programs and has minimal impact on the environment compared to traditional pest control methods.

Climate, in the context of environmental science and medicine, refers to the long-term average of weather conditions (such as temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, and other meteorological elements) in a given region over a period of years to decades. It is the statistical description of the weather patterns that occur in a particular location over long periods of time.

In medical terms, climate can have significant impacts on human health, both physical and mental. For example, extreme temperatures, air pollution, and ultraviolet radiation levels associated with certain climates can increase the risk of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, heat-related illnesses, and skin cancer. Similarly, changes in climate patterns can affect the distribution and prevalence of infectious diseases, such as malaria and Lyme disease.

Climate change, which refers to significant long-term changes in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years, can have even more profound impacts on human health, including increased rates of heat-related illnesses and deaths, worsening air quality, and altered transmission patterns of infectious diseases.

A larva is a distinct stage in the life cycle of various insects, mites, and other arthropods during which they undergo significant metamorphosis before becoming adults. In a medical context, larvae are known for their role in certain parasitic infections. Specifically, some helminth (parasitic worm) species use larval forms to infect human hosts. These invasions may lead to conditions such as cutaneous larva migrans, visceral larva migrans, or gnathostomiasis, depending on the specific parasite involved and the location of the infection within the body.

The larval stage is characterized by its markedly different morphology and behavior compared to the adult form. Larvae often have a distinct appearance, featuring unsegmented bodies, simple sense organs, and undeveloped digestive systems. They are typically adapted for a specific mode of life, such as free-living or parasitic existence, and rely on external sources of nutrition for their development.

In the context of helminth infections, larvae may be transmitted to humans through various routes, including ingestion of contaminated food or water, direct skin contact with infective stages, or transmission via an intermediate host (such as a vector). Once inside the human body, these parasitic larvae can cause tissue damage and provoke immune responses, leading to the clinical manifestations of disease.

It is essential to distinguish between the medical definition of 'larva' and its broader usage in biology and zoology. In those fields, 'larva' refers to any juvenile form that undergoes metamorphosis before reaching adulthood, regardless of whether it is parasitic or not.

Feeding behavior refers to the various actions and mechanisms involved in the intake of food and nutrition for the purpose of sustaining life, growth, and health. This complex process encompasses a coordinated series of activities, including:

1. Food selection: The identification, pursuit, and acquisition of appropriate food sources based on sensory cues (smell, taste, appearance) and individual preferences.
2. Preparation: The manipulation and processing of food to make it suitable for consumption, such as chewing, grinding, or chopping.
3. Ingestion: The act of transferring food from the oral cavity into the digestive system through swallowing.
4. Digestion: The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food within the gastrointestinal tract to facilitate nutrient absorption and eliminate waste products.
5. Assimilation: The uptake and utilization of absorbed nutrients by cells and tissues for energy production, growth, repair, and maintenance.
6. Elimination: The removal of undigested material and waste products from the body through defecation.

Feeding behavior is regulated by a complex interplay between neural, hormonal, and psychological factors that help maintain energy balance and ensure adequate nutrient intake. Disruptions in feeding behavior can lead to various medical conditions, such as malnutrition, obesity, eating disorders, and gastrointestinal motility disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mexico" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in North America. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geography" is not a term that has a medical definition. Geography is a field of study that deals with the location and distribution of physical and cultural features on Earth's surface, as well as how humans interact with and affect those features. It is not a concept that is typically used in a medical context. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Genes in insects refer to the hereditary units of DNA that are passed down from parents to offspring and contain the instructions for the development, function, and reproduction of an organism. These genetic materials are located within the chromosomes in the nucleus of insect cells. They play a crucial role in determining various traits such as physical characteristics, behavior, and susceptibility to diseases.

Insect genes, like those of other organisms, consist of exons (coding regions) that contain information for protein synthesis and introns (non-coding regions) that are removed during the process of gene expression. The expression of insect genes is regulated by various factors such as transcription factors, enhancers, and silencers, which bind to specific DNA sequences to activate or repress gene transcription.

Understanding the genetic makeup of insects has important implications for various fields, including agriculture, public health, and evolutionary biology. For example, genes associated with insect pests' resistance to pesticides can be identified and targeted to develop more effective control strategies. Similarly, genes involved in disease transmission by insect vectors such as mosquitoes can be studied to develop novel interventions for preventing the spread of infectious diseases.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Gene transfer techniques, also known as gene therapy, refer to medical procedures where genetic material is introduced into an individual's cells or tissues to treat or prevent diseases. This can be achieved through various methods:

1. **Viral Vectors**: The most common method uses modified viruses, such as adenoviruses, retroviruses, or lentiviruses, to carry the therapeutic gene into the target cells. The virus infects the cell and inserts the new gene into the cell's DNA.

2. **Non-Viral Vectors**: These include methods like electroporation (using electric fields to create pores in the cell membrane), gene guns (shooting gold particles coated with DNA into cells), or liposomes (tiny fatty bubbles that can enclose DNA).

3. **Direct Injection**: In some cases, the therapeutic gene can be directly injected into a specific tissue or organ.

The goal of gene transfer techniques is to supplement or replace a faulty gene with a healthy one, thereby correcting the genetic disorder. However, these techniques are still largely experimental and have their own set of challenges, including potential immune responses, issues with accurate targeting, and risks of mutations or cancer development.

Genetic transduction is a process in molecular biology that describes the transfer of genetic material from one bacterium to another by a viral vector called a bacteriophage (or phage). In this process, the phage infects one bacterium and incorporates a portion of the bacterial DNA into its own genetic material. When the phage then infects a second bacterium, it can transfer the incorporated bacterial DNA to the new host. This can result in the horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of traits such as antibiotic resistance or virulence factors between bacteria.

There are two main types of transduction: generalized and specialized. In generalized transduction, any portion of the bacterial genome can be packaged into the phage particle, leading to a random assortment of genetic material being transferred. In specialized transduction, only specific genes near the site where the phage integrates into the bacterial chromosome are consistently transferred.

It's important to note that genetic transduction is not to be confused with transformation or conjugation, which are other mechanisms of HGT in bacteria.

Population dynamics, in the context of public health and epidemiology, refers to the study of the changes in size and structure of a population over time, as well as the factors that contribute to those changes. This can include birth rates, death rates, migration patterns, aging, and other demographic characteristics. Understanding population dynamics is crucial for planning and implementing public health interventions, such as vaccination programs or disease prevention strategies, as they allow researchers and policymakers to identify vulnerable populations, predict future health trends, and evaluate the impact of public health initiatives.

Adenoviridae is a family of viruses that includes many species that can cause various types of illnesses in humans and animals. These viruses are non-enveloped, meaning they do not have a lipid membrane, and have an icosahedral symmetry with a diameter of approximately 70-90 nanometers.

The genome of Adenoviridae is composed of double-stranded DNA, which contains linear chromosomes ranging from 26 to 45 kilobases in length. The family is divided into five genera: Mastadenovirus, Aviadenovirus, Atadenovirus, Siadenovirus, and Ichtadenovirus.

Human adenoviruses are classified under the genus Mastadenovirus and can cause a wide range of illnesses, including respiratory infections, conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis, and upper respiratory tract infections. Some serotypes have also been associated with more severe diseases such as hemorrhagic cystitis, hepatitis, and meningoencephalitis.

Adenoviruses are highly contagious and can be transmitted through respiratory droplets, fecal-oral route, or by contact with contaminated surfaces. They can also be spread through contaminated water sources. Infections caused by adenoviruses are usually self-limiting, but severe cases may require hospitalization and supportive care.

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

A dependovirus, also known as a dependent adenovirus or satellite adenovirus, is a type of virus that requires the presence of another virus, specifically an adenovirus, to replicate. Dependoviruses are small, non-enveloped viruses with a double-stranded DNA genome. They cannot complete their replication cycle without the help of an adenovirus, which provides necessary functions for the dependovirus to replicate.

Dependoviruses are clinically significant because they can cause disease in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. In some cases, dependoviruses may also affect the severity and outcome of adenovirus infections. However, it is important to note that not all adenovirus infections are associated with dependovirus co-infections.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

A lentivirus is a type of slow-acting retrovirus that can cause chronic diseases and cancers. The term "lentivirus" comes from the Latin word "lentus," which means slow. Lentiviruses are characterized by their ability to establish a persistent infection, during which they continuously produce new viral particles.

Lentiviruses have a complex genome that includes several accessory genes, in addition to the typical gag, pol, and env genes found in all retroviruses. These accessory genes play important roles in regulating the virus's replication cycle and evading the host's immune response.

One of the most well-known lentiviruses is the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS. Other examples include the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Lentiviruses have also been used as vectors for gene therapy, as they can efficiently introduce new genes into both dividing and non-dividing cells.

I apologize, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or condition. It is the largest country in both South America and Latin America by land area and population. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, please provide more information and I will do my best to help.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Support Vector Machines (SVM) is not a medical term, but a concept in machine learning, a branch of artificial intelligence. SVM is used in various fields including medicine for data analysis and pattern recognition. Here's a brief explanation of SVM:

Support Vector Machines is a supervised learning algorithm which analyzes data and recognizes patterns, used for classification and regression analysis. The goal of SVM is to find the optimal boundary or hyperplane that separates data into different classes with the maximum margin. This margin is the distance between the hyperplane and the nearest data points, also known as support vectors. By finding this optimal boundary, SVM can effectively classify new data points.

In the context of medical research, SVM has been used for various applications such as:

* Classifying medical images (e.g., distinguishing between cancerous and non-cancerous tissues)
* Predicting patient outcomes based on clinical or genetic data
* Identifying biomarkers associated with diseases
* Analyzing electronic health records to predict disease risk or treatment response

Therefore, while SVM is not a medical term per se, it is an important tool in the field of medical informatics and bioinformatics.

A transgene is a segment of DNA that has been artificially transferred from one organism to another, typically between different species, to introduce a new trait or characteristic. The term "transgene" specifically refers to the genetic material that has been transferred and has become integrated into the host organism's genome. This technology is often used in genetic engineering and biomedical research, including the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural purposes or the creation of animal models for studying human diseases.

Transgenes can be created using various techniques, such as molecular cloning, where a desired gene is isolated, manipulated, and then inserted into a vector (a small DNA molecule, such as a plasmid) that can efficiently enter the host organism's cells. Once inside the cell, the transgene can integrate into the host genome, allowing for the expression of the new trait in the resulting transgenic organism.

It is important to note that while transgenes can provide valuable insights and benefits in research and agriculture, their use and release into the environment are subjects of ongoing debate due to concerns about potential ecological impacts and human health risks.

Retroviridae is a family of viruses that includes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other viruses that primarily use RNA as their genetic material. The name "retrovirus" comes from the fact that these viruses reverse transcribe their RNA genome into DNA, which then becomes integrated into the host cell's genome. This is a unique characteristic of retroviruses, as most other viruses use DNA as their genetic material.

Retroviruses can cause a variety of diseases in animals and humans, including cancer, neurological disorders, and immunodeficiency syndromes like AIDS. They have a lipid membrane envelope that contains glycoprotein spikes, which allow them to attach to and enter host cells. Once inside the host cell, the viral RNA is reverse transcribed into DNA by the enzyme reverse transcriptase, which is then integrated into the host genome by the enzyme integrase.

Retroviruses can remain dormant in the host genome for extended periods of time, and may be reactivated under certain conditions to produce new viral particles. This ability to integrate into the host genome has also made retroviruses useful tools in molecular biology, where they are used as vectors for gene therapy and other genetic manipulations.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) is not a medical term per se, but a scientific term used in the field of molecular biology. GFP is a protein that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light, particularly blue or ultraviolet light. It was originally discovered in the jellyfish Aequorea victoria.

In medical and biological research, scientists often use recombinant DNA technology to introduce the gene for GFP into other organisms, including bacteria, plants, and animals, including humans. This allows them to track the expression and localization of specific genes or proteins of interest in living cells, tissues, or even whole organisms.

The ability to visualize specific cellular structures or processes in real-time has proven invaluable for a wide range of research areas, from studying the development and function of organs and organ systems to understanding the mechanisms of diseases and the effects of therapeutic interventions.

Genetic engineering, also known as genetic modification, is a scientific process where the DNA or genetic material of an organism is manipulated to bring about a change in its characteristics. This is typically done by inserting specific genes into the organism's genome using various molecular biology techniques. These new genes may come from the same species (cisgenesis) or a different species (transgenesis). The goal is to produce a desired trait, such as resistance to pests, improved nutritional content, or increased productivity. It's widely used in research, medicine, and agriculture. However, it's important to note that the use of genetically engineered organisms can raise ethical, environmental, and health concerns.

Arachnid vectors are arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida that are capable of transmitting infectious diseases to humans and other animals. Arachnids include spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks. Among these, ticks and some mites are the most significant as disease vectors.

Ticks can transmit a variety of bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens, causing diseases such as Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, tularemia, and several types of encephalitis. They attach to the host's skin and feed on their blood, during which they can transmit pathogens from their saliva.

Mites, particularly chiggers and some species of birds and rodents mites, can also act as vectors for certain diseases, such as scrub typhus and rickettsialpox. Mites are tiny arachnids that live on the skin or in the nests of their hosts and feed on their skin cells, fluids, or blood.

It is important to note that not all arachnids are disease vectors, and only a small percentage of them can transmit infectious diseases. However, those that do pose a significant public health risk and require proper prevention measures, such as using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and checking for and promptly removing attached ticks.

Helper viruses, also known as "auxiliary" or "satellite" viruses, are defective viruses that depend on the assistance of a second virus, called a helper virus, to complete their replication cycle. They lack certain genes that are essential for replication, and therefore require the helper virus to provide these functions.

Helper viruses are often found in cases of dual infection, where both the helper virus and the dependent virus infect the same cell. The helper virus provides the necessary enzymes and proteins for the helper virus to replicate, package its genome into new virions, and bud off from the host cell.

One example of a helper virus is the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which can serve as a helper virus for hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection. HDV is a defective RNA virus that requires the HBV surface antigen to form an envelope around its nucleocapsid and be transmitted to other cells. In the absence of HBV, HDV cannot replicate or cause disease.

Understanding the role of helper viruses in viral infections is important for developing effective treatments and vaccines against viral diseases.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

Adenovirus E1 proteins are the earliest expressed and most critical proteins in the replication cycle of adenoviruses. The "E" stands for "early," indicating that these proteins are produced before the viral DNA begins to replicate. The E1 proteins play a crucial role in regulating the viral life cycle, altering cellular processes to support efficient viral replication, and inhibiting the host's antiviral responses.

The adenovirus E1 proteins are divided into two groups: E1A and E1B.

1. E1A proteins: These proteins are involved in transactivating various viral and cellular promoters, which leads to the expression of early and late viral genes. They also interact with several cellular proteins to alter the host cell cycle, promote cell growth, and inhibit apoptosis (programmed cell death). E1A proteins are essential for efficient viral replication and can transform cells in culture, contributing to adenovirus-induced tumorigenesis in certain animal models.

2. E1B proteins: These proteins have multiple functions during the viral life cycle. E1B 55kDa protein is a potent inhibitor of apoptosis and contributes to efficient viral replication by preventing premature cell death. It also interacts with several cellular proteins, including tumor suppressor p53, to modulate their functions. The E1B 19kDa protein, on the other hand, is a DNA-binding protein that plays a role in viral mRNA processing and export from the nucleus.

Together, adenovirus E1 proteins are essential for successful viral replication and manipulate host cellular processes to create a favorable environment for viral propagation. Understanding their functions has contributed significantly to our knowledge of viral pathogenesis and cancer biology.

Beta-galactosidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of beta-galactosides into monosaccharides. It is found in various organisms, including bacteria, yeast, and mammals. In humans, it plays a role in the breakdown and absorption of certain complex carbohydrates, such as lactose, in the small intestine. Deficiency of this enzyme in humans can lead to a disorder called lactose intolerance. In scientific research, beta-galactosidase is often used as a marker for gene expression and protein localization studies.

Luminescent proteins are a type of protein that emit light through a chemical reaction, rather than by absorbing and re-emitting light like fluorescent proteins. This process is called bioluminescence. The light emitted by luminescent proteins is often used in scientific research as a way to visualize and track biological processes within cells and organisms.

One of the most well-known luminescent proteins is Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), which was originally isolated from jellyfish. However, GFP is actually a fluorescent protein, not a luminescent one. A true example of a luminescent protein is the enzyme luciferase, which is found in fireflies and other bioluminescent organisms. When luciferase reacts with its substrate, luciferin, it produces light through a process called oxidation.

Luminescent proteins have many applications in research, including as reporters for gene expression, as markers for protein-protein interactions, and as tools for studying the dynamics of cellular processes. They are also used in medical imaging and diagnostics, as well as in the development of new therapies.

A "reporter gene" is a type of gene that is linked to a gene of interest in order to make the expression or activity of that gene detectable. The reporter gene encodes for a protein that can be easily measured and serves as an indicator of the presence and activity of the gene of interest. Commonly used reporter genes include those that encode for fluorescent proteins, enzymes that catalyze colorimetric reactions, or proteins that bind to specific molecules.

In the context of genetics and genomics research, a reporter gene is often used in studies involving gene expression, regulation, and function. By introducing the reporter gene into an organism or cell, researchers can monitor the activity of the gene of interest in real-time or after various experimental treatments. The information obtained from these studies can help elucidate the role of specific genes in biological processes and diseases, providing valuable insights for basic research and therapeutic development.

Genetic recombination is the process by which genetic material is exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA during meiosis, resulting in new combinations of genes on each chromosome. This exchange occurs during crossover, where segments of DNA are swapped between non-sister homologous chromatids, creating genetic diversity among the offspring. It is a crucial mechanism for generating genetic variability and facilitating evolutionary change within populations. Additionally, recombination also plays an essential role in DNA repair processes through mechanisms such as homologous recombinational repair (HRR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ).

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Adenoviruses, Human: A group of viruses that commonly cause respiratory illnesses, such as bronchitis, pneumonia, and croup, in humans. They can also cause conjunctivitis (pink eye), cystitis (bladder infection), and gastroenteritis (stomach and intestinal infection).

Human adenoviruses are non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses that belong to the family Adenoviridae. There are more than 50 different types of human adenoviruses, which can be classified into seven species (A-G). Different types of adenoviruses tend to cause specific illnesses, such as respiratory or gastrointestinal infections.

Human adenoviruses are highly contagious and can spread through close personal contact, respiratory droplets, or contaminated surfaces. They can also be transmitted through contaminated water sources. Some people may become carriers of the virus and experience no symptoms but still spread the virus to others.

Most human adenovirus infections are mild and resolve on their own within a few days to a week. However, some types of adenoviruses can cause severe illness, particularly in people with weakened immune systems, such as infants, young children, older adults, and individuals with HIV/AIDS or organ transplants.

There are no specific antiviral treatments for human adenovirus infections, but supportive care, such as hydration, rest, and fever reduction, can help manage symptoms. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and not sharing personal items like towels or utensils.

Recombinant fusion proteins are artificially created biomolecules that combine the functional domains or properties of two or more different proteins into a single protein entity. They are generated through recombinant DNA technology, where the genes encoding the desired protein domains are linked together and expressed as a single, chimeric gene in a host organism, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells.

The resulting fusion protein retains the functional properties of its individual constituent proteins, allowing for novel applications in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. For instance, recombinant fusion proteins can be designed to enhance protein stability, solubility, or immunogenicity, making them valuable tools for studying protein-protein interactions, developing targeted therapies, or generating vaccines against infectious diseases or cancer.

Examples of recombinant fusion proteins include:

1. Etaglunatide (ABT-523): A soluble Fc fusion protein that combines the heavy chain fragment crystallizable region (Fc) of an immunoglobulin with the extracellular domain of the human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). This fusion protein functions as a decoy receptor, neutralizing IL-6 and its downstream signaling pathways in rheumatoid arthritis.
2. Etanercept (Enbrel): A soluble TNF receptor p75 Fc fusion protein that binds to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inhibits its proinflammatory activity, making it a valuable therapeutic option for treating autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriasis.
3. Abatacept (Orencia): A fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to the Fc region of an immunoglobulin, which downregulates T-cell activation and proliferation in autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Belimumab (Benlysta): A monoclonal antibody that targets B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) protein, preventing its interaction with the B-cell surface receptor and inhibiting B-cell activation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
5. Romiplostim (Nplate): A fusion protein consisting of a thrombopoietin receptor agonist peptide linked to an immunoglobulin Fc region, which stimulates platelet production in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).
6. Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp): A hyperglycosylated erythropoiesis-stimulating protein that functions as a longer-acting form of recombinant human erythropoietin, used to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease or cancer.
7. Palivizumab (Synagis): A monoclonal antibody directed against the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which prevents RSV infection and is administered prophylactically to high-risk infants during the RSV season.
8. Ranibizumab (Lucentis): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody fragment that binds and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), used in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and other ocular disorders.
9. Cetuximab (Erbitux): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), used in the treatment of colorectal cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
10. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully humanized monoclonal antibody that targets tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease.
11. Bevacizumab (Avastin): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF-A, used in the treatment of various cancers, including colorectal, lung, breast, and kidney cancer.
12. Trastuzumab (Herceptin): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets HER2/neu receptor, used in the treatment of breast cancer.
13. Rituximab (Rituxan): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to CD20 antigen on B cells, used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis.
14. Palivizumab (Synagis): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus, used in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants.
15. Infliximab (Remicade): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
16. Natalizumab (Tysabri): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to α4β1 integrin, used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease.
17. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis.
18. Golimumab (Simponi): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and ulcerative colitis.
19. Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia): A PEGylated Fab' fragment of a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and Crohn's disease.
20. Ustekinumab (Stelara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-12 and IL-23, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and Crohn's disease.
21. Secukinumab (Cosentyx): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
22. Ixekizumab (Taltz): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
23. Brodalumab (Siliq): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17 receptor A, used in the treatment of psoriasis.
24. Sarilumab (Kevzara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
25. Tocilizumab (Actemra): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, giant cell arteritis, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell-induced cytokine release syndrome.
26. Siltuximab (Sylvant): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment of multicentric Castleman disease.
27. Satralizumab (Enspryng): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6 receptor alpha, used in the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.
28. Sirukumab (Plivensia): A human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment

Recombinant DNA is a term used in molecular biology to describe DNA that has been created by combining genetic material from more than one source. This is typically done through the use of laboratory techniques such as molecular cloning, in which fragments of DNA are inserted into vectors (such as plasmids or viruses) and then introduced into a host organism where they can replicate and produce many copies of the recombinant DNA molecule.

Recombinant DNA technology has numerous applications in research, medicine, and industry, including the production of recombinant proteins for use as therapeutics, the creation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural or industrial purposes, and the development of new tools for genetic analysis and manipulation.

It's important to note that while recombinant DNA technology has many potential benefits, it also raises ethical and safety concerns, and its use is subject to regulation and oversight in many countries.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Virus integration, in the context of molecular biology and virology, refers to the insertion of viral genetic material into the host cell's genome. This process is most commonly associated with retroviruses, such as HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), which have an enzyme called reverse transcriptase that converts their RNA genome into DNA. This DNA can then integrate into the host's chromosomal DNA, becoming a permanent part of the host's genetic material.

This integration is a crucial step in the retroviral life cycle, allowing the virus to persist within the host cell and evade detection by the immune system. It also means that the viral genome can be passed on to daughter cells when the host cell divides.

However, it's important to note that not all viruses integrate their genetic material into the host's genome. Some viruses, like influenza, exist as separate entities within the host cell and do not become part of the host's DNA.

Gene targeting is a research technique in molecular biology used to precisely modify specific genes within the genome of an organism. This technique allows scientists to study gene function by creating targeted genetic changes, such as insertions, deletions, or mutations, in a specific gene of interest. The process typically involves the use of engineered nucleases, such as CRISPR-Cas9 or TALENs, to introduce double-stranded breaks at desired locations within the genome. These breaks are then repaired by the cell's own DNA repair machinery, often leading to the incorporation of designed changes in the targeted gene. Gene targeting is a powerful tool for understanding gene function and has wide-ranging applications in basic research, agriculture, and therapeutic development.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

The lac operon is a genetic regulatory system found in the bacteria Escherichia coli that controls the expression of genes responsible for the metabolism of lactose as a source of energy. It consists of three structural genes (lacZ, lacY, and lacA) that code for enzymes involved in lactose metabolism, as well as two regulatory elements: the lac promoter and the lac operator.

The lac repressor protein, produced by the lacI gene, binds to the lac operator sequence when lactose is not present, preventing RNA polymerase from transcribing the structural genes. When lactose is available, it is converted into allolactose, which acts as an inducer and binds to the lac repressor protein, causing a conformational change that prevents it from binding to the operator sequence. This allows RNA polymerase to bind to the promoter and transcribe the structural genes, leading to the production of enzymes necessary for lactose metabolism.

In summary, the lac operon is a genetic regulatory system in E. coli that controls the expression of genes involved in lactose metabolism based on the availability of lactose as a substrate.

Genetic transformation is the process by which an organism's genetic material is altered or modified, typically through the introduction of foreign DNA. This can be achieved through various techniques such as:

* Gene transfer using vectors like plasmids, phages, or artificial chromosomes
* Direct uptake of naked DNA using methods like electroporation or chemically-mediated transfection
* Use of genome editing tools like CRISPR-Cas9 to introduce precise changes into the organism's genome.

The introduced DNA may come from another individual of the same species (cisgenic), from a different species (transgenic), or even be synthetically designed. The goal of genetic transformation is often to introduce new traits, functions, or characteristics that do not exist naturally in the organism, or to correct genetic defects.

This technique has broad applications in various fields, including molecular biology, biotechnology, and medical research, where it can be used to study gene function, develop genetically modified organisms (GMOs), create cell lines for drug screening, and even potentially treat genetic diseases through gene therapy.

Current Research in Parasitology and Vector-borne Diseases Science Direct, Vector-borne Diseases CDC Diseases Carried by ... WHO page on vector-borne diseases Wikimedia Commons has media related to Disease vectors. Biological mosquito eradication in ... Airborne disease Asymptomatic carrier Fomite Globalization and disease Insect vectors of human pathogens Insect vectors of ... These factors include animals hosting the disease, vectors, and people. Humans can also be vectors for some diseases, such as ...
A canine vector-borne disease (CVBD) is one of "a group of globally distributed and rapidly spreading illnesses that are caused ... Listed by vector, some such pathogens and their associated diseases are the following: Phlebotomine sandflies (Psychodidae): ... 157-163 (April 2009). "First Canine Vector-Borne Disease Symposium in Billesley, UK" (Press release). Bayer HealthCare. April ... Managing canine vector-borne diseases of zoonotic concern: part one, Trends in Parasitology Vol. 25, Issue 4, pp. ...
Sasso E, D'Alise AM, Zambrano N, Scarselli E, Folgori A, Nicosia A (August 2020). "New viral vectors for infectious diseases ... A viral vector vaccine is a vaccine that uses a viral vector to deliver genetic material (DNA) that can be transcribed by the ... Viral vector vaccines do not cause infection with either the virus used as the vector or the source of the antigen. The genetic ... "Understanding and Explaining Viral Vector COVID-19 Vaccines". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 25 February 2021 ...
"What happened after an explosion at a Russian disease research lab called VECTOR?". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. November ... Lentzos, Filippa (November 27, 2019). "What happened after an explosion at a Russian disease research lab called VECTOR?". ... The State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR, also known as the Vector Institute (Russian: Государственный ... helping further research about the disease during the pandemic. The main tasks of the centre, according to VECTOR, are:[ ...
Fitt, B. D. L. (1987). "Spore dispersal and plant disease gradients; a comparison between two empirical models". Journal of ... Zoochory can be specified by which animal is acting as a dispersal vector. Animals are an important dispersal vector because ... A dispersal vector is an agent of biological dispersal that moves a dispersal unit, or organism, away from its birth population ... Sea ice is also an important dispersal vector. Some arctic species rely on sea ice to disperse their eggs, like Daphnia pulex. ...
Several of the "neglected tropical diseases" are spread by such vectors. For diseases where there is no effective cure, such as ... "vectors") which transmit disease pathogens. The most frequent type of vector control is mosquito control using a variety of ... As many vector control methods are effective against multiple diseases, they can be integrated together to combat multiple ... This can reduce the incidence of flies acting as vectors to spread diseases via their contact with feces of infected people.[ ...
... chronic granulomatous disease, and vascular diseases.[citation needed] HIV-derived lentiviral vectors have been widely ... Some experimental applications of lentiviral vectors have been done in gene therapy in order to cure diseases like Diabetes ... Buchschacher GL, Wong-Staal F (April 2000). "Development of lentiviral vectors for gene therapy for human diseases". Blood. 95 ... Buchschacher GL, Wong-Staal F (April 2000). "Development of lentiviral vectors for gene therapy for human diseases". Blood. 95 ...
A live vector vaccine is a vaccine that uses an organism (typically virus or bacterium) that does not cause disease to ... Vectors can either integrate into a cell's genome or transiently express a gene with non-integrative vectors.: 50 Viral Vectors ... Hybrid vectors are vector viruses that are genetically engineered to have qualities of more than one vector. Viruses are ... Any of these few viral vectors can cause the body to develop an immune response if the vector is seen as a foreign invader. ...
IVCC recognises that new tools and products can be effective against a wide range of other vector-borne diseases. IVCC was ... "Vector Control Innovation" (PDF). "WHO , Vector control". WHO. Archived from the original on August 22, 2017. Retrieved 2019-03 ... "New vector-control response seen as game-changer". www.who.int. Retrieved 2019-03-19. Desowitz, Robert S. (1993). The Malaria ... The Innovative Vector Control Consortium (IVCC) is a not-for-profit public-private partnership that was established in 2005. ...
This is done by performing disease surveillance, controlling vectors and conducting community outreach. In 1952, the Southeast ... It is one of five mosquito and vector control districts in Los Angeles County. The vector control district's mission is to ... Mosquitoes are primary vectors in transmitting West Nile virus in California. The first reported sign of West Nile virus didn't ... Following a 6th Circuit Court of Appeals ruling in 2010 that vector control agencies are subject to the Clean Water Act and ...
Gene therapy is a promising treatment for a number of diseases where a "normal" gene carried by the vector is inserted into the ... Examples of yeast expression vector in Pichia are the pPIC series of vectors, and these vectors use the AOX1 promoter which is ... Examples of mammalian expression vectors include the adenoviral vectors, the pSV and the pCMV series of plasmid vectors, ... and these vectors are called shuttle vectors. An expression vector must have elements necessary for gene expression. These may ...
Padaki, P.; Savio, J. (2020). "Lophomonas blattarum - A blunder!". International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 101 (S1): 177 ... Vectors. 7: 284. doi:10.1186/1756-3305-7-284. PMC 4077114. PMID 24957324. 284. Failoc-Rojas, Virgilio E.; Iglesias-Osores, ... Martínez-Girón, Rafael; van Woerden, Hugo Cornelius (2014). "Bronchopulmonary lophomoniasis: Emerging disease or ... Case Reports in Infectious Diseases. 2016: 1-2. doi:10.1155/2016/2614187. PMC 4757678. PMID 26966601. 2614187. Nakhaei, Maryam ...
Dantas-Torres, F. (2008). "Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil". Parasites & Vectors. 1 (1): 25. doi:10.1186/1756-3305-1-25 ... The sandfly species Lutzomyia longipalpis serves as the primary vector for the transmission of the disease. Leishmania infantum ... Emerging Infectious Diseases. 8 (12): 1480-5. doi:10.3201/eid0812.010485. PMC 2738513. PMID 12498667. Le Blancq SM, Peters W ( ...
nov". Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 16 (10): 636-642. doi:10.1089/vbz.2016.1981. PMID 27626126. Breitschwerdt, E. B.; ... Berkhoffii and Bartonella henselae bacteremia in a father and daughter with neurological disease" (PDF). Parasites & Vectors. 3 ... berkhoffii can cause diseases in humans. Those two subspecies are named after J. William Vinson and Herman A. Berkhoff. Brenner ...
Borrelia is a bacterium that can cause Lyme disease. This can be transferred to humans, and be given a fever along with the ... in Amblyomma varanense from Python reticulatus". Parasites & Vectors. 9 (1): 359. doi:10.1186/s13071-016-1629-8. ISSN 1756-3305 ... phylogenetically different from Lyme disease- and relapsing fever-related Borrelia spp. ...
The vector carrying the highest number of diseases is the mosquito, which is responsible for the tropical diseases dengue and ... Hospital for Tropical Diseases Tropical medicine Infectious disease Neglected diseases List of epidemics Waterborne diseases ... Tropical diseases are diseases that are prevalent in or unique to tropical and subtropical regions. The diseases are less ... Insects such as mosquitoes and flies are by far the most common disease carrier, or vector. These insects may carry a parasite ...
Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 14 (8): 563-70. doi:10.1089/vbz.2013.1512. PMC 4117269. PMID 25072986. Rosado FG, Stratton ... Cat-scratch disease (CSD) or felinosis is an infectious disease that most often results from a scratch or bite of a cat. ... Cat-scratch disease has a worldwide distribution, but it is a nonreportable disease in humans, so public health data on this ... "Cat Scratch Disease". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 2021-03-29. Carithers, H. A. (1985-11-01). "Cat-scratch disease. An overview ...
Vectors. 1 (1): 40. doi:10.1186/1756-3305-1-40. PMC 2627840. PMID 18937874. Hugot JP, Alberti C, Berrebi D, Bingen E, Cézard JP ... National Research Council (2003). "Johne's Disease and Crohn's Disease". Diagnosis and Control of Johne's Disease. Washington, ... Grave's disease and Crohn's disease. Coghlan A (January 10, 2018). "A single gene can either raise or lower Crohn's disease ... Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any segment of the gastrointestinal tract. ...
"Canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Italy: current situation and perspectives". Parasites & Vectors. 3 (1): 2. doi: ... In the United States, R. sanguineus is a vector of many disease-causing pathogens in dogs, including Ehrlichia canis, which ... Rhipicephalus sanguineus is one of the most important vectors of diseases in dogs worldwide. ... "Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Questions and Answers , Tickborne Rickettsial Diseases". Centers for Disease Control and ...
Vectors. 11 (1): 208. doi:10.1186/s13071-018-2765-0. ISSN 1756-3305. PMC 5870519. PMID 29587811. Wang, Qiao-Ping; Lai, De-Hua; ... Gastropod-borne parasitic diseases (GPDs) are a group of infectious diseases that require a gastropod species to serve as an ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Parasitic diseases, Human diseases and disorders). ... "Will All Scientists Working on Snails and the Diseases They Transmit Please Stand Up?". PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 6 (12 ...
... the major vector of Chagas disease in Argentina which makes triatoma virus a major candidate for biological vector control as ... Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. About seven to eight million people are estimated to have Chagas disease in ... antibodies in Chagas disease patients". Parasites & Vectors. 8 (1): 29. doi:10.1186/s13071-015-0632-9. ISSN 1756-3305. PMC ... viral vector controls are being investigated. Hesitations in early uses of Triatoma virus as a biological vector control agent ...
Mosbacher M, Elliott SP, Shehab Z, Pinnas JL, Klotz JH, Klotz SA (Sep-Oct 2010). "Cat scratch disease and arthropod vectors: ... Zoonotic diseases caused by bacteria of the genus Bartonella: new reservoirs? new vectors?] (PDF). Bull. Acad. Natl. Med. (in ... Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 20 (6): 960-7. doi:10.3201/eid2006.130956. PMC ... The course of the diseases (acute or chronic) and the underlying pathologies are highly variable. Treatment is dependent on ...
The steps to eliminating the disease include passive and active case detection, early diagnosis and treatment, and vector ... Chagas disease is not a problem in India. Chagas disease, like African trypanosomiasis, has a Trypanosoma parasite as its cause ... Neglected tropical diseases in India occur in areas of both urban and rural poverty. The neglected tropical diseases which ... The neglected tropical diseases are diseases of poverty and poverty reduction in society will reduce them.[citation needed] ...
Vectors. 9 (1): 579. doi:10.1186/s13071-016-1869-7. PMC 5109812. PMID 27842570. Watkins LR, Milligan ED, Maier SF (August 2001 ... such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, as well as cardiac diseases, glaucoma, and viral and ... Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease where the brain develops abnormal clumps (amyloid plaques ... Both Cathepsin B, MMP-1 and MMP-3 have been found to be increased in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cathepsin B is increased in ...
"Global numbers of infection and disease burden of soil transmitted helminth infections in 2010". Parasites & Vectors. 7: 37. ... PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 6 (9): e1814. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001814. ISSN 1935-2735. PMC 3435256. PMID 22970336. ...
"Editorial Board". Parasites & Vectors. Retrieved 2018-12-30. Okumu, Fredros O.; Madumla, Edith P.; John, Alex N.; Lwetoijera, ... Senthilingam, Meera (10 April 2017). "How soap, chairs and clothing could stop mosquito bites -- and diseases". CNN. Retrieved ... Okumu is an associate editor at the journal Parasites & Vectors. Okumu's research interests include the effectiveness of ... Vectors. 3 (1): 12. doi:10.1186/1756-3305-3-12. ISSN 1756-3305. PMC 2838860. PMID 20193085. Okumu, Fredros (29 January 2018), ...
Despommier DD, Griffin DO, Gwadz RW, Hotez PJ, Knirsch CA (2017). Parasitic Diseases (6 ed.). ISBN 978-0-9978400-1-8. Leles D, ... Vectors. 5 (42): 42. doi:10.1186/1756-3305-5-42. PMC 3293767. PMID 22348306. (CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list, Articles ... One species, Ascaris lumbricoides, affects humans and causes the disease ascariasis. Another species, Ascaris suum, typically ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 30 May 2013. Hall, Andrew; Hewitt, Gillian; Tuffrey, Veronica; de Silva, ...
2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-7216-2921-6. Orton DI, Warren LJ, ... D. gallinae poses a significant threat to public health as the mite may be a vector/reservoir of several zoonotic pathogens, ... May 2019). "Darkness increases the population growth rate of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae". Parasites & Vectors. ... which in turn has led to increasing numbers of infestations and a dangerous propagation of the disease. Due to it being an ...
Vectors. 3 (1): 5. doi:10.1186/1756-3305-3-5. PMC 2825508. PMID 20205846. Esch, G. W. (2007). Parasites and Infectious Disease ... 1909 discovery of the tropical parasitic disease which bears his name, Chagas disease, has been looked on by some historical ... Nobel disease The political status of Kosovo is disputed. Having unilaterally declared independence from Serbia in 2008, Kosovo ... "The Nobel cause". The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 5 (11): 665. 1 November 2005. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(05)70245-0. PMID ...
It is a potential vector of babesiosis and human Kyasanur Forest disease. It is a three-host tick. "Species Details : ... Parasites & Vectors. Retrieved 11 February 2017. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides. ... Bhat, HR; Naik, SV; Ilkal, MA; Banerjee, K (1978). "Transmission of Kyasanur Forest disease virus by Rhipicephalus ...
Vector-Borne Disease (DVBD) - resources and guidance from the Division of Vector-Borne Disease ... CDC Vector-Borne Disease Resources:. *Ticks - information on preventing bites, removing ticks, tickborne diseases, and symptoms ... Vector-borne pathogens not currently found in the United States, such as chikungunya, Chagas disease, and Rift Valley fever ... Climate is one of the factors that influence the distribution of diseases borne by vectors (such as fleas, ticks, and ...
Current Research in Parasitology and Vector-borne Diseases Science Direct, Vector-borne Diseases CDC Diseases Carried by ... WHO page on vector-borne diseases Wikimedia Commons has media related to Disease vectors. Biological mosquito eradication in ... Airborne disease Asymptomatic carrier Fomite Globalization and disease Insect vectors of human pathogens Insect vectors of ... These factors include animals hosting the disease, vectors, and people. Humans can also be vectors for some diseases, such as ...
What do I do if I think I may have Chagas disease?. If you suspect you have Chagas disease, consult your health-care provider. ... Evidence for Vector-borne Transmission of the Parasite That Causes Chagas Disease Among United States Blood Donorsexternal icon ... The parasite that causes the disease is in the bug feces. The bug generally poops on or near a person while it is feeding on ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. ...
... vector-borne disease program based on a three-tiered approach that focuses on the most relevant vector-borne diseases in a ... National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) ... Tier 2 activities are enhanced capacities for vector-borne disease laboratory testing, surveillance, or response across a sub- ... Tier 3 activities are comprehensive capacities to serve as reference centers for vector-borne disease laboratory testing, and ...
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. 800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636). Contact CDC- ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC 24/7: Saving Lives. Protecting People.™ ...
... (Lyme disease, Japanese Encephalitis, Yellow Fever) ... Vector-Borne Diseases (Lyme disease, Japanese Encephalitis, Yellow Fever) Centers for Disease Control, Division of Vector-Borne ... Symptoms of acute Lyme disease. Symptoms of chronic Lyme disease. Treatment of Lyme disease. Prevention of Lyme disease. Lyme ... DIVISION OF VECTOR-BORNE INFECTIOUS DISEASES. CDC (NCID) Carol Snarey. 1600 Clifton Rd. NE MS(C-14). Atlanta, GA 30333. This ...
... in partnership with the Northeast Regional Center for Excellence in Vector-Borne Diseases, recently hosted the three-day ...
Union Health Minister Harsh Vardhan had kickstarted the drive to fight against vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue ... Vector-Borne Diseases. Vector-borne diseases are infectious diseases or illness transmitted through insects such as mosquitoes ... Drive to Combat Vector-borne Diseases in Delhi Personalised Printable Document (PDF). Please complete this form and well send ... Delhi government has released Rs 109 crore to all three municipal corporations to fight vector-borne diseases like dengue and ...
Comparte "Collaboration with the New Vectors of Disease". × Términos Puedes compartir este material en la red o impreso bajo ... As fast as we rid the world of the microbial causes of pestilence and famine, they are replaced by new vectors of disease in ... As fast as we rid the world of the microbial causes of pestilence and famine, they are replaced by new vectors of disease in ... Collaboration with the New Vectors of Disease. Dr. Michael Greger · 17 septiembre 14 · Volumen 20 ...
... have contributed to the spread of canine vector-borne diseases. These are mostly emerging and neglected diseases, so … ... as well as an increase in the movement of reservoirs and new species of competent vectors, ... have contributed to the spread of canine vector-borne diseases. These are mostly emerging and neglected diseases, some of them ... Current Distribution of Selected Vector-Borne Diseases in Dogs in Spain Front Vet Sci. 2020 Oct 22;7:564429. doi: 10.3389/fvets ...
Now in its 11th year, VectorBase currently hosts the genomes of 35 organisms including a number of non-vectors for comparative ... VectorBase is a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases supported Bioinformatics Resource Center (BRC) for ... VectorBase: an updated bioinformatics resource for invertebrate vectors and other organisms related with human diseases Nucleic ... Now in its 11th year, VectorBase currently hosts the genomes of 35 organisms including a number of non-vectors for comparative ...
... vector-borne diseases - Raising our voices to improve health around the world. ... This year World Health Day focuses on vector-borne diseases. More than half the world is at risk from vector-borne diseases. ... Tags Angola, Chagas Disease, dengue, Haiti, lymphatic filariasis, vector-borne diseases, World Health Day ... Categories Archive, child health, infectious disease, malaria, mosquito-borne disease, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), ...
Here we are focusing on the development of a novel anti-malarial and virucidal agent with biocidal effects also on its vectors ... derivative which showed significant larvicidal and pupicidal properties against a malarial and a dengue vector and a lethal ... Mosquito borne diseases are on the rise because of their fast spread worldwide and the lack of effective treatments. ... Synthesis of new series of quinoline derivatives with insecticidal effects on larval vectors of malaria and dengue diseases. * ...
... and to the control of other Chagas disease vectors as well, is also envisaged. ... Furthermore, ensuring the long-term and sustainable control of this overwhelming disease remains a major challenge. Here we ... is the most relevant parasitic disease in Latin America, being a major burden that affects mostly poor human populations living ... Triatoma infestans is the vector of major relevance in the southern Cone of South America. Current control strategies, heavily ...
Control of Disease Vectors in Ports: The purpose is to control vector density (i.e., any infectious disease carrier such as ... Eliminating Breeding Sites of Dengue Fever Vectors: Empty containers that are prone to retain water (bottles, jars, tires, etc ... Taiwan CDC has taken the following measures to eliminate the breeding of vectors. ... and check monthly to track the breeding of vector mosquitoes.. *Setting Ovitraps: Cloth traps moistened with temephos are ...
... of all infectious diseases. Egypt is affected by at least seven vector-borne diseases of public health concern, including ... However, many of these diseases are preventable through evidence-based protective measures. ... Vector-borne diseases are illnesses caused by pathogens and parasites in human populations and account for more than 17% ... Vector-borne diseases are illnesses caused by pathogens and parasites in human populations and account for more than 17% of all ...
... to support neglected disease surveillance. She even persuaded a local vector control agency in an emerging Chagas disease ... To date, Nolan has given more than 200 live TV, film or print media interviews on vector-borne and infectious diseases in news ... In alignment with her primary research areas, which focus on vector-borne diseases that disproportionately affect underserved ... Melissa Nolan awarded $5.4 million, health policy fellowship to continue fighting COVID-19, vector-borne diseases and the ...
Use of dry blots for serotyping and genotyping of dengue viruses: A pilot study : Journal of Vector Borne Diseases. ... Journal of Vector Borne Diseases 60(1):p 74-78, Jan-Mar 2023. , DOI: 10.4103/0972-9062.361172 ... Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw in Journal of Vector Borne Diseases.. ... Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw in Journal of Vector Borne Diseases.. ...
Mosquito Control-Practical Methods for Abatement of Disease Vectors and Pests published on Mar 1941 by The American Society of ... Mosquito Control-Practical Methods for Abatement of Disease Vectors and Pests By William Brodbeck Herms, Sc.D., and Harold F ...
蟲媒傳染病 vector-borne disease .modal-title { float: left; } .LinkIcon { background: #F44336; width: 32px; height: 32px; border- ... How to prevent the four major summer diseases 對付夏日疾病四大天王(英文) ... click me】How to prevent the four major summer diseases 對付夏日疾
We examined host persistence in the face of introduced vector-borne diseases in Hawaii, where introduced avian malaria and ... The past quarter century has seen an unprecedented increase in the number of new and emerging infectious diseases throughout ... introduced vectors have had a negative impact on most populations of Hawaiian f ... Host population persistence in the face of introduced vector-borne diseases: Hawaii amakihi and avian malaria January 1, 2005 ...
The Iowa Department of Public Health Vector-Borne Disease Weekly Surveillance Report summarizes cases of vector-borne disease ... 2019) Vector-Borne Disease Weekly Surveillance Report, Jan 4, 2018. Public Health, Department of (Health and Human Services, ... Health and medicine , Diseases. Health and medicine , Public health. Health and medicine , Public health , Epidemiology. ... Vector, West Nile, dengue, malaria, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, lyme, mosquito, tick. ...
We also find that outbreaks of vector-borne diseases are associated with the increase in areas of palm oil plantations. Our ... We also find that outbreaks of vector-borne diseases are associated with the increase in areas of palm oil plantations. Our ... Taking into account the human population growth, we find that the increases in outbreaks of zoonotic and vector-borne diseases ... Taking into account the human population growth, we find that the increases in outbreaks of zoonotic and vector-borne diseases ...
Journal / Biology / Chitosan / interfererende RNA nanodeeltjes gemedieerde gen silencing in Disease Vector muggenlarven… ... Chitosan / interfererende RNA nanodeeltjes gemedieerde gen silencing in Disease Vector muggenlarven. Article DOI: 10.3791/52523 ... Vet orgel cultuur lichaamssysteem in Aedes Aegypti, een Vector van Zika-Virus… ... Vet orgel cultuur lichaamssysteem in Aedes Aegypti, een Vector van Zika-Virus… ...
Ebola virus disease Ebola IVD EUAL status after PHEIC termination. On 29 March 2016, WHOs Director General announced that the ... Zika virus disease (IVDs) emergency use assessment and listing (EUAL) status after PHEIC termination ...
Professor Who Called Students Vectors of Disease in Video Is Suspended Professor Who Called Students Vectors of Disease in ... Young people are vectors of disease, especially in this day and age. When I was in college I had plenty of professors who could ... RE: Professor Who Called Students Vectors of Disease in Video Is Suspended (01-18-2022 05:45 PM)Gene C Wrote: A teacher at ... RE: Professor Who Called Students Vectors of Disease in Video Is Suspended (01-19-2022 04:48 PM)Rob Wick Wrote: To me, the ...
Read Bee Vectoring Technologies Targets European Market with First Registration Submission for Advanced Disease Control ... Bee Vectoring Technologies Targets European Market with First Registration Submission for Advanced Disease Control Technology. ... About Bee Vectoring Technologies International Inc.:. BVT has developed and owns patent-pending bee vectoring technology that ... MISSISSAUGA, Ontario -- Bee Vectoring Technologies International, Inc (BVT) (TSXV:BEE) announced today that it has submitted ...
RE: Professor Who Called Students Vectors of Disease in Video Is Suspended I dont understand the context of this post or ... RE: Professor Who Called Students Vectors of Disease in Video Is Suspended - Gene C - 01-17-2022, 02:09 PM ... RE: Professor Who Called Students Vectors of Disease in Video Is Suspended - David Lockmiller - 01-18-2022, 12:21 AM ... RE: Professor Who Called Students Vectors of Disease in Video Is Suspended - Rob Wick - 01-17-2022, 07:00 PM ...
  • Climate is one of the factors that influence the distribution of diseases borne by vectors (such as fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes, which spread pathogens that cause illness). (cdc.gov)
  • Vector-borne pathogens not currently found in the United States, such as chikungunya, Chagas disease, and Rift Valley fever viruses, are also threats. (cdc.gov)
  • Pool feeders such as the sand fly and black fly, vectors for pathogens causing leishmaniasis and onchocerciasis respectively, will chew a well in the host's skin, forming a small pool of blood from which they feed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some plants and fungi act as vectors for various pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Airborne disease Asymptomatic carrier Fomite Globalization and disease Insect vectors of human pathogens Insect vectors of plant pathogens VectorBase: genomic database of invertebrate vectors of human pathogens List of diseases caused by insects Natural reservoir Waterborne disease 2007 Yap Islands Zika virus outbreak "Vector-borne zoonotic diseases are those that naturally infect wildlife and are then transmitted to humans through carriers, or vectors, such as mosquitoes or ticks. (wikipedia.org)
  • VectorBase is a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases supported Bioinformatics Resource Center (BRC) for invertebrate vectors of human pathogens. (nih.gov)
  • Vector-borne diseases are illnesses caused by pathogens and parasites in human populations and account for more than 17% of all infectious diseases. (who.int)
  • Application of Clonostachys rosea CR-7 before pathogens infect the plant, not only controls disease, but can improve plant vigor as well as quality and yield at harvest. (farms.com)
  • The Emerging Viral Diseases-Expert Laboratory Network (EVD-LabNet) is organising a training course on "Introduction to virology, diagnostics and molecular epidemiology on emerging and vector-borne disease viral pathogens" on Wednesday 21 June 2023 and Thursday 22 June 2023 - 13:00-17:00 CEST (Stockholm time). (europa.eu)
  • What are the environmental factors determining distribution and activity of the relevant vectors and pathogens in eastern Africa? (ilri.org)
  • The Broad Institute's Genomic Center for Infectious Diseases (GCID) was established in 2014 by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) to to apply innovative genomic technologies to address fundamental gaps in our knowledge of the basic biology that underlies the interactions between hosts and pathogens. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Taxonomic relationships of leafhopper vectors of plant pathogens. (insectvectors.science)
  • Vector-borne diseases are infectious diseases or illness transmitted through insects such as mosquitoes, sandflies, ticks, and bugs. (medindia.net)
  • Dengue is a tropical disease caused by mosquitoes carrying the dengue virus. (medindia.net)
  • Control of Disease Vectors in Ports: The purpose is to control vector density (i.e., any infectious disease carrier such as rats or mosquitoes) at ports to prevent the spread of communicable diseases. (gov.tw)
  • Eliminating Breeding Sites of Dengue Fever Vectors: Empty containers that are prone to retain water (bottles, jars, tires, etc.) and check monthly to track the breeding of vector mosquitoes. (gov.tw)
  • Mosquitoes' response to artificial lights including color has been exploited in trap designs for improved sampling of mosquito vectors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Currently, the detection and monitoring of mosquitoes, is performed primarily using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps with incandescent bulbs, which are considered the industry standard for mosquito surveillance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our pets can be exposed to a variety of diseases and infections through infected hosts such as mosquitoes, fleas, and ticks. (innovovet.ca)
  • In Canada, the disease is problematic in areas where mosquitoes are prevalent, such as along waterways in most parts of Ontario. (innovovet.ca)
  • North Americans are currently at risk from numerous vector-borne diseases, including Lyme, dengue fever, West Nile virus disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, plague, and tularemia. (cdc.gov)
  • A changing climate's impact on the geographical distribution and incidence of vector-borne diseases in other countries where these diseases are already found can also impact North Americans, especially as a result of increasing trade with, and travel to, tropical and subtropical areas. (cdc.gov)
  • Examples of vector-borne zoonotic diseases include: Lyme disease Plague West Nile virus Many factors affect the incidence of vector-borne diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The World Health Organization (WHO) states that control and prevention of vector-borne diseases are emphasizing "Integrated Vector Management (IVM)", which is an approach that looks at the links between health and environment, optimizing benefits to both. (wikipedia.org)
  • Funds are intended to support building a comprehensive vector-borne disease program based on a three-tiered approach that focuses on the most relevant vector-borne diseases in a jurisdiction. (cdc.gov)
  • Union Health Minister Harsh Vardhan had kickstarted the drive to fight against vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue and chikungunya in Delhi. (medindia.net)
  • The three-day awareness campaign aimed for prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. (medindia.net)
  • The minister emphasised that children were the true ambassadors of health and therefore the initiative aimed to create awareness about vector-borne diseases among school-going children. (medindia.net)
  • Delhi government has released Rs 109 crore to all three municipal corporations to fight vector-borne diseases like dengue and chikungunya. (medindia.net)
  • Currently, climate change, modifications of landscapes and habitats due to human activities, as well as an increase in the movement of reservoirs and new species of competent vectors, have contributed to the spread of canine vector-borne diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and distribution of four major canine vector-borne diseases ( Dirofilaria immitis, Leishmania infantum, Anaplasma spp. (nih.gov)
  • Co-infections by two and three vector-borne diseases were reported in 13% and 2% of the infected dogs, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • The studied vector-borne diseases are widely distributed throughout the Spanish geography, being observed and expanding northward in the case of D. immitis and L. infantum . (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, a close collaboration between veterinarians, physicians and health authorities would be necessary for such zoonotic vector-borne diseases. (nih.gov)
  • This year World Health Day focuses on vector-borne diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • More than half the world is at risk from vector-borne diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Mosquito borne diseases are on the rise because of their fast spread worldwide and the lack of effective treatments. (nature.com)
  • Egypt is affected by at least seven vector-borne diseases of public health concern, including lymphatic filariasis, malaria, schistosomiasis and Rift Valley fever. (who.int)
  • In alignment with her primary research areas, which focus on vector-borne diseases that disproportionately affect underserved groups, Nolan will use her time as a fellow to learn how to best advocate for these groups and increase the representation of its members and other underrepresented populations (including women and minorities) in influential/decision-making circles (e.g., researchers, policy makers). (sc.edu)
  • Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw in Journal of Vector Borne Diseases. (lww.com)
  • We examined host persistence in the face of introduced vector-borne diseases in Hawaii, where introduced avian malaria and introduced vectors have had a negative impact on most populations of Hawaiian forest birds for nearly a century. (usgs.gov)
  • Taking into account the human population growth, we find that the increases in outbreaks of zoonotic and vector-borne diseases from 1990 to 2016 are linked with deforestation, mostly in tropical countries, and with reforestation, mostly in temperate countries. (frontiersin.org)
  • We also find that outbreaks of vector-borne diseases are associated with the increase in areas of palm oil plantations. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our study gives new support for a link between global deforestation and outbreaks of zoonotic and vector-borne diseases as well as evidences that reforestation and plantations may also contribute to epidemics of infectious diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • In Southeast Asia, a recent meta-analysis showed that increasing prevalence of vector-borne diseases such as dengue or chikungunya was associated with land conversion, including forests, to commercial plantations such as teak, rubber and oil palm ( 11 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This project aims to improve the ability to predict and to communicate the extent and severity of future outbreaks of water-related, vector-borne diseases under different environmental change scenarios. (ilri.org)
  • Outbreaks of water-related, vector-borne diseases have complex relationships with environmental conditions. (ilri.org)
  • The project focuses on three water-related, high-impact vector-borne diseases (malaria, Rift Valley fever and schistosomiasis) in eastern Africa. (ilri.org)
  • To what extent are outbreaks in the three target vector-borne diseases also a reflection of socio-economic conditions, including migration, form of settlement and conflict? (ilri.org)
  • What are the implications for other parts of Africa and for Europe of predicted changes in the distribution and emergence of the three target vector-borne diseases in the study area? (ilri.org)
  • Dengue case hit a new mark, even as the season for vector-borne diseases is coming to an end. (ndtv.com)
  • While the number seems to increase at this point of time, there is an overall decrease in the number of cases of dengue, chikungunya and malaria as the season for vector-borne diseases are coming to an end. (ndtv.com)
  • Vector-borne diseases are usually reported from mid-July to November and may even extend till mid-December. (ndtv.com)
  • National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Disease (U.S.). Director, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • For more information about vector borne diseases, check out our pet health library! (innovovet.ca)
  • Water resources development and vector-borne diseases in Zambia : report of a national seminar, Kafue Gorge, Zambia, 6-10 November 1995. (who.int)
  • Six groups of environment and health issues stand out to be tackled as a priority: household water security, hygiene and sanitation, air pollution (including indoor air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke), vector- borne diseases, chemical hazards (for example lead and the unsafe use of pesticides), and unintentional injuries. (who.int)
  • Many vector-borne diseases pose a specific threat to children's health. (who.int)
  • agents regarded as vectors are organisms, such as parasites or microbes. (wikipedia.org)
  • We studied birds, parasites, and vectors in nine study areas from 0 to 1,800 m on Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii from January to October, 2002. (usgs.gov)
  • A better understanding of the mechanisms allowing coexistence of hosts and parasites may ultimately lead to tools for mitigating disease impacts on wildlife and human populations. (usgs.gov)
  • Impact of socio-economic development on populations of some parasites and vectors in Ghana : its medical implications / W. A. Chinery. (who.int)
  • Several articles, recent to early 2014, warn that human activities are spreading vector-borne zoonotic diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Daily, seasonal, or year-to-year climate variability can sometimes result in vector/pathogen adaptation and shifts or expansions in their geographic ranges. (cdc.gov)
  • Such shifts can alter disease incidence depending on vector-host interaction, host immunity, and pathogen evolution. (cdc.gov)
  • The first major discovery of a disease vector came from Ronald Ross in 1897, who discovered the malaria pathogen when he dissected a mosquito. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initial or pathogen positivity between disease-endemic and non- evidence for this hypothesis used PCR detection of the disease-endemic sites, and between abundance of biting insertion sequence IS 2404 to document M. ulcerans' as- hemipterans and M. ulcerans positivity. (cdc.gov)
  • Early detection of the vectors and this pathogen is essential to reduce disease risk to humans and animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (cdc.gov)
  • Tier 3 activities are comprehensive capacities to serve as reference centers for vector-borne disease laboratory testing, and surveillance, response, and coordination with multiple external partners. (cdc.gov)
  • Corporate Authors(s) : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.). Office for State, Tribal, Local and Territorial Support. (cdc.gov)
  • Initiating the Jan Jagrukta Abhiyaan from Hauz Khas, the Health Minister said: "Among the strategies that need to be put in place for combating malaria, dengue and chikungunya, our main focus should be on controlling the vector itself. (medindia.net)
  • DEN initially shows symptoms similar to other diseases such as Chikungunya, malaria and influenza[ 4 , 5 ]. (lww.com)
  • The Anopheles mosquito, a vector for malaria, filariasis, and various arthropod-borne-viruses (arboviruses), inserts its delicate mouthpart under the skin and feeds on its host's blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • An assessed 3.3 billion of the world human population lives in areas with risk of Malaria infection 2 is contaminated with its mosquito vector Anopheles spp. (nature.com)
  • The deadly vector-borne from the mosquito continues to claim numerous lives from the country capital. (ndtv.com)
  • Also, another deadly disease caused by the mosquito, malaria is on the rise where 1139 people have been reported infected with the disease. (ndtv.com)
  • Therefore, we investigated if LEDs can be effective substitutes for incandescent lamps used in CDC light traps for mosquito surveillance, and if so, determine the best color for attraction of important Rift Valley Fever (RFV) vectors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, improving mosquito-based arbovirus surveillance by increasing trap captures remains a priority to maximize viral detection probability especially during the inter-epidemic period (IEP) characterized by low vector population density and sporadic transmission foci. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, the geographic distribution of mosquito species known to be competent JEV vectors in the country was estimated by combining known mosquito occurrences and ecological drivers of distribution to reveal insights into communities at highest risk of infectious disease transmission. (mdpi.com)
  • Most recently, WHO facilitated in a training of district vector surveillance (and control) officers (DVSOs) who collect mosquito samples in district 32 sentinel sites across the country for analysis. (who.int)
  • The behavior of mosquito that transmit malaria is critical to design tactics to control or limit human contact with the vector. (who.int)
  • Whether a changing climate in the U.S. will increase the chances of domestically acquiring diseases such as dengue fever is uncertain due to vector-control efforts and lifestyle factors, such as time spent indoors, that reduce human-insect contact. (cdc.gov)
  • Belostomatidae, Nepidae) in 15 disease-endemic and 12 or insect bites ( 2 , 4 , 9 - 11 ). (cdc.gov)
  • reservoirs, remains tenuous, and thus, the role of aquatic however, past epidemiologic studies have associated BU insect vectors is uncertain. (cdc.gov)
  • Microorganisms (including fungi, bacteria, and viruses) and insect vectors are both key model systems for genomics and important organisms for clinical medicine. (broadinstitute.org)
  • The infective forms of T cruzi are contained in the feces of the insect vectors and gain entry into its mammalian hosts through contamination. (medscape.com)
  • Epimastigotes are an extracellular and noninfective form of the parasite found in the midgut of insect vectors, where they multiply by binary fission. (medscape.com)
  • The epimastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi is the multiplying stage of the parasite that grows in the gut of the insect vector and also in cell-free culture medium as shown here. (medscape.com)
  • Papers presented at the Symposium on Insect Vector Biology, held at Madras during November 22-24 1979. (who.int)
  • The market, by retroviral vectors, has been further segmented into lentiviral vectors and gamma-retroviral vectors. (medgadget.com)
  • Experience with a range of AAV serotypes and lentiviral vectors. (uk-cpi.com)
  • Infectious disease transmission is sensitive to local, small-scale differences in weather, human modification of the landscape, the diversity of animal hosts, and human behavior that affects vector-human contact, among other factors. (cdc.gov)
  • The epidemiologist's infectious disease expertise has proven essential to fighting the COVID-19 pandemic for both the university and the state - and even at the national level. (sc.edu)
  • This project works with minorities and rural populations to elevate their voices and create innovative testing solutions not only for the current pandemic, but for other health concerns, such as diabetes, prostate cancer, and for future infectious disease outbreaks. (sc.edu)
  • Genomic technologies are providing infectious disease researchers an unprecedented capability to study at a genetic level the viruses that cause disease and their interactions with infected hosts. (broadinstitute.org)
  • This study explores at global scale whether the loss and gain of forest cover and the rise of oil palm plantations can promote outbreaks of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • The COVID-19 pandemic has called to investigate the consequences of biodiversity loss for the emergence of zoonotic diseases ( 1 - 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • On this Page Malaria The Reality of Outbreak Investigations: Dengue in Angola Chagas disease and the kissing bug Lymphatic filariasis: Spotlight on elimination in Haiti April 7 marks World Health Day. (cdc.gov)
  • These results do not prove that bed bugs are relevant vectors of MRSA in nature," the study authors wrote. (umn.edu)
  • As environmental conditions change, such as through climate and land use changes, then the incidence of disease outbreaks is likely to change. (ilri.org)
  • Although all those living in areas where conditions become conducive to disease outbreaks are vulnerable, generally the most marginalised members of society are at greatest risk. (ilri.org)
  • How is the spatial interaction of the risk of disease transmission and outbreaks amongst highly heterogeneous socio-economic conditions, cultures and communities likely to influence vulnerability to disease impacts? (ilri.org)
  • Vector-Best company will participate as silver partner in the Medlab Asia & Asia Health 2023 (Hall 6, stand № B39). (vector-best.ru)
  • The disease is a bacterial infection caused by the bites of certain, very small, infected ticks. (cdc.gov)
  • Lyme disease and the ticks that carry it are rare or non-existent in the Rocky Mountain States, Hawaii, and Alaska. (cdc.gov)
  • In nature, the Lyme disease bacteria exist in a cycle involving ticks and small animals, most specifically the wild white-footed mouse. (cdc.gov)
  • Birds may also transport these ticks for great distances and be a factor in the spread of the disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Only ticks have been shown to be of any importance in Lyme disease transmission to humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Ticks which transmit Lyme disease do bite and can infect both dogs and cats. (cdc.gov)
  • Although pets do not directly transmit Lyme disease to man, the presence of infected ticks on the pet may pose a hazard to both the pet and owner. (cdc.gov)
  • Triatomine bugs are responsible for the transmission of a trypanosome, Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes Chagas disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Triatomine bugs are a type of reduviid bug that can carry Trypanosoma cruzi , the parasite that causes Chagas disease. (cdc.gov)
  • In areas of Latin America where human Chagas disease is an important public health problem, the bugs nest in cracks and holes of substandard housing. (cdc.gov)
  • Can I get Trypanosoma cruzi , the parasite that causes Chagas disease, from a triatomine bug? (cdc.gov)
  • This project will take place alongside Nolan's ongoing activities, including teaching and media work and her own research program focused on zoonoses , such as tick-borne illnesses and Chagas disease. (sc.edu)
  • She even persuaded a local vector control agency in an emerging Chagas disease hotspot of California to receive training from her team and launch a weekly surveillance program of the "kissing" bug (Triatomine) that spreads the illness. (sc.edu)
  • Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi . (medscape.com)
  • A minority of persons with long-standing T cruzi infection develop the serious cardiac and gastrointestinal problems that characterize chronic symptomatic Chagas disease. (medscape.com)
  • The Iowa Department of Public Health Vector-Borne Disease Weekly Surveillance Report summarizes cases of vector-borne disease cases in Iowa such as West Nile virus, Dengue and malaria. (iowa.gov)
  • New cases of vector-borne T cruzi infection usually occur in persons who live in primitive houses in areas where the sylvatic cycle is active. (medscape.com)
  • Presenters reviewed with participants the epidemiology and clinical manifestation of Zika virus disease and how early recognition and reporting of suspected cases can mitigate the risk of local transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • We have synthesized a new quinoline (4,7-dichloroquinoline) derivative which showed significant larvicidal and pupicidal properties against a malarial and a dengue vector and a lethal toxicity ranging from 4.408 µM/mL (first instar larvae) to 7.958 µM/mL (pupal populations) for Anopheles stephensi and 5.016 µM/mL (larva 1) to 10.669 µM/mL (pupae) for Aedes aegypti . (nature.com)
  • The impact of fish on Aedes larvae and disease was assessed based on baseline and post-intervention observations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Proper water storage practices, focused IEC with Poecilia introductions and vector sanitation involving the local administration and community, is suggested as the best strategy for Aedes control. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A novel approach to modeling epidemic vulnerability, applied to Aedes aegypti-vectored diseases in Perú. (bvsalud.org)
  • We present a three-stage approach to modeling the spatial distribution of outbreak vulnerability to Aedes aegypti -vectored diseases in Perú . (bvsalud.org)
  • However, the incidence of the disease was reported much earlier this year. (ndtv.com)
  • However, recent studies of cats with heart and respiratory diseases h ave found an incidence of heartworms that is far greater than previously thought. (innovovet.ca)
  • Of the studied dogs, 22.14% were positive for one or several diseases while the prevalence was 6.25% (CI: 5.59-6.98) for D. immitis , and the seroprevalences were 10.36% (CI: 9.52-11.27) for L. infantum , 5.06% (CI: 4.47-5.73) for Anaplasma spp. (nih.gov)
  • The Americas is projected to dominate the global viral vector manufacturing market due to a well-developed healthcare sector and rising prevalence of autoimmune and chronic diseases. (medgadget.com)
  • Chosen from locations that represent a varied rate of malaria prevalence in Tanzania, the vector control officers provide vital information that informs decisions on malaria prevention in Tanzania. (who.int)
  • There are several species of Thrips that act as vectors for over 20 viruses, especially Tospoviruses, and cause all sorts of plant diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, many other fungi in Chytridiomycota have been shown to vector plant viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gnat and pest, spreading viruses and diseases, gnats flock, repellent or spray promo poster vector concept. (adobe.com)
  • For instance, in April 2018, GE Healthcare, a subsidiary of General Electric Company, launched a ready-to-run factory-in-a-box to speed up the manufacturing of viral vector-based therapeutics, including viral vector-based vaccines, oncolytic viruses and gene and cell therapies. (medgadget.com)
  • More directly, when they twine from one plant to another, parasitic plants such as Cuscuta and Cassytha have been shown to convey phytoplasmal and viral diseases between plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Introduction: Malaria is a common parasitic disease of the tropics, resulting in a million deaths every year. (medindia.net)
  • Heartworm ( Dirofilaria immitis ) disease continues to increase and spread, remaining one of the most important and pathogenic parasitic diseases of dogs, despite the regular use of macrocyclic lactones (MLs) in preventive products. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This parasitic filarial disease is characterized by the presence of sexually mature dimorphic adults in the pulmonary arteries that produce microfilariae (MF) circulating in the bloodstream [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The market, on the basis of type, has been segmented retroviral vectors, adenoviral vectors, adeno-associated viral vectors, and other viral vectors. (medgadget.com)
  • Why is this adenoviral vector-based therapy important? (medscape.com)
  • WHO is supporting the MoHP to scale up vector mapping and enhance surveillance of malaria vector risk in hot spot areas. (who.int)
  • Tanzania Strengthens Malaria Vector Surveillance to control it spread. (who.int)
  • Following World Health Organisation's (WHO) alert on a new and more potent malaria vector in Africa, Tanzania is taking measures to strengthen vector surveillances and monitoring updates. (who.int)
  • The malaria vector entomological surveillance was established in Tanzania in 2016 with support from WHO, the WHO has since been providing guidance in updating the protocol and review of collected data. (who.int)
  • Malaria vector surveillance officers from 32 sentinel sites of the government, collect, identify malaria then transport samples of dead female anopheles for more in-depth lab analysis at a designated centre of the National Institute of Medical Research in Muheza Tanga. (who.int)
  • If I don't do my job diligently, I may be misleading decision makers by providing information that does not help them make the right decisions about malaria interventions in vector control and treatment," said Paschal Thobias Lutubija, a Malaria Vector Surveillance Officer from Ruangwa district. (who.int)
  • Commitment at all levels is essential for prevention and control of these diseases," he added. (medindia.net)
  • As no new products are available utilizing a novel drug class for the prevention of this disease, the only options for combating ML resistance include increasing the dose and/or changing the dosage regime of current MLs, or by optimizing the formulations of MLs currently available. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Based on the data summarized here, these products offer important advances in heartworm prevention and provide additional options for veterinarians and pet owners to protect their dogs from developing heartworm disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • With limited adulticidal treatments available, the severity of damage associated with this disease, and the potential complications associated with its treatment, the prevention of heartworm disease development is crucial [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Flu disease prevention, cold symptoms flat line icons set. (istockphoto.com)
  • Disease prevention through vector control : guidelines for relief organisations / Madeleine C. Thomson. (who.int)
  • WHO has worked with the MoHP to conduct a vector control needs analysis and provided assistance in the development of a plan of action to build national capacity in the areas of integrated vector management, vector mapping and resistance monitoring, as well as sound management of public health pesticides. (who.int)
  • The Parasite and Vector Genomics group applies genomic and transcriptomic sequencing data to profile variation among individuals and divergence among species to understand the basic biology underlying vector-borne disease transmission, with a focus on malaria. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Via collaborations with academic and industry partners, we explore the evolutionary basis of drug and insecticide resistance, develop new methods of generating and applying genomic data in parasite and vector systems, and identify the genetic determinants of vaccine efficacy. (broadinstitute.org)
  • In Cas9 nuclease-mediated genome editing, we constructed an all-in-one vector expressing Cas9 nuclease and seven gRNAs and targeted seven genomic loci. (nature.com)
  • Enhanced vector surveillance and human disease tracking are needed to address these concerns. (cdc.gov)
  • Tier 1 activities are the required core capacities for locally-relevant vector-borne disease surveillance, laboratory, and response. (cdc.gov)
  • Tier 2 activities are enhanced capacities for vector-borne disease laboratory testing, surveillance, or response across a sub-set of jurisdictions. (cdc.gov)
  • WHO supports the MoHP in the scale up of vector mapping and increased surveillance of vector risk in key areas. (who.int)
  • WHO works with the MoHP building the capacity to carry out epidemiological surveillance, which is essential for the monitoring and evaluation of disease occurrence and impact of mass drug administration activities. (who.int)
  • Nolan has also leveraged her skillset in translating and effectively communicating scientific information to engage policymakers to enact state and federal legislation to support neglected disease surveillance. (sc.edu)
  • Other institutions that participated in the training of 56 vectors surveillance officers are the national institute of medical research, national malaria control program, Ifakara health institute, PSI, and the ministry of health. (who.int)
  • During November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016, a total of 155 suspected Zika virus disease cases were identified in Puerto Rico, including 82 reported through passive surveillance, and 73 specimens tested through the enhanced surveillance protocol. (cdc.gov)
  • MMWR: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women and Women of Reproductive Age with Possible Zika Virus Exposure - United States, 2016 Updated guidelines include a new recommendation to offer serologic testing to asymptomatic pregnant women (women who do not report clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease) who have traveled to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • The most common symptoms of Zika virus disease are fever, rash, joint pain, and conjunctivitis. (cdc.gov)
  • Zika virus disease can often be diagnosed by performing reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on serum. (cdc.gov)
  • WHO issued a vector alert following recording the Anopheles stephensi, in Djibouti in 2012. (who.int)
  • Using the knowledge of the behavior and biological make up of vectors including anopheles, experts have developed chemicals for spraying and insecticide treated nets," said Dr. Jovin Kitau, WHO Malaria Expert. (who.int)
  • The geographic and seasonal distribution of vector populations, and the diseases they can carry, depends not only on climate but also on land use, socioeconomic and cultural factors, pest control, access to health care, and human responses to disease risk, among other factors. (cdc.gov)
  • The past quarter century has seen an unprecedented increase in the number of new and emerging infectious diseases throughout the world, with serious implications for human and wildlife populations. (usgs.gov)
  • According to a study published by Partnership to Fight Chronic Disease (PFCD) in 2016, 191 million people in America had at least 1 chronic disease, whereas 75 million had 2 or more chronic diseases in the year 2015. (medgadget.com)
  • Now in its 11th year, VectorBase currently hosts the genomes of 35 organisms including a number of non-vectors for comparative analysis. (nih.gov)
  • Success of the vector control programme is related to community participation and ownership. (medindia.net)
  • Control Of disease vectors in ports. (gov.tw)
  • BVT has developed and owns patent-pending bee vectoring technology that is designed to harmlessly utilize bumble bees and honey bees as natural delivery mechanisms for a variety of powdered mixtures comprised of organic compounds that inhibit or control common crop diseases, while at the same time enhancing crop vigor and productivity. (farms.com)
  • The efficiency of selected colored LED CDC light traps (red, green, blue, violet, combination of blue-green-red (BGR)) to sample RVF vectors was evaluated relative to incandescent light (as control) in a CDC light trap in two RVF hotspots (Marigat and Ijara districts) in Kenya. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Researchers, academia, and national malaria control programme are collaborating to ensure the vector monitoring system can detect any new vectors and provide updates as guided by WHO. (who.int)
  • Vector behavior is a critical science in disease control. (who.int)
  • WHO/FAO/UNEP/UNCHS Panel of Experts on Environmental Management for Vector Control. (who.int)
  • Guidelines for cost-effectiveness analysis of vector control / by Margaret Phillips, Anne Mills and Christopher Dye. (who.int)
  • In April 2014, WHO launched a campaign called "Small bite, big threat" to educate people about vector-borne illnesses. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is estimated that over 80% of the world's population resides in areas under threat of at least one vector borne disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vector-borne maladies are providing a serious threat to the well-being and public health around the world. (nature.com)
  • Ambrosia beetles are a threat to avocado where they have been found to vector a symbiotic fungus, Raffaelea lauricola, the causal agent of the laurel wilt disease. (escholarship.org)
  • Air pollution is a major environment-related health threat to children and a risk factor for both acute and chronic respiratory disease as well as other diseases. (who.int)
  • Vectors can be either biological carriers or mechanical carriers. (medindia.net)
  • The goals of the Broad Viral Genomics Group are to pioneer the application of these technologies to address the crucial unanswered biological questions in viral disease, and to foster a community of research leaders focused on using genomics to advance preventative and therapeutic strategies for viral diseases. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Viral vector methods are used in effective transfer of therapeutic gene into the target cells. (medgadget.com)
  • We know current methods of viral vector manufacture are highly inefficient which is putting a strain on drug developers and manufacturers alike. (uk-cpi.com)
  • Lyme disease is named after the town of Lyme, Connecticut, where it was discovered in 1977. (cdc.gov)
  • however, the symptoms of chronic, untreated Lyme disease can occur at any time of the year. (cdc.gov)
  • Lyme disease is not transmitted from person to person. (cdc.gov)
  • Acute Lyme disease, except for the peculiar skin rash it produces in 60 to 80% of the patients in which it occurs, is a summer 'flu-like' illness without a cough. (cdc.gov)
  • The most characteristic symptom of early Lyme disease is the skin rash which occurs at the site of the tick bite from 5 to 40 or more days after the bite. (cdc.gov)
  • A rash which occurs immediately after a bite is due to an allergic reaction and is not Lyme disease. (cdc.gov)
  • The Lyme disease rash is flat, circular and is, or will become, at least 2 inches in diameter. (cdc.gov)
  • Lyme disease is transmitted to dogs through the bite of a tick. (innovovet.ca)
  • Once in the bloodstream, the Lyme disease organism is carried to many parts of the body and is likely to localize in joints or kidneys causing pain. (innovovet.ca)
  • Resource Type: Publication Authors: Delphin Degla, Sophie Faye, Hawa Barry, André Zida, Yann Derrriennic Published: September 2018 Resource Description: Dans le cadre de la lutte contre le paludisme, le Bénin a adopté la politique de la gratuité de la prise en charge des cas de paludisme chez les femmes enceintes et les enfants de moins de cinq ans en Octobre 2011. (hfgproject.org)
  • To what extent have these influencing factors varied in the documented past and what have been the disease impacts of these variations? (ilri.org)
  • Humans can also be vectors for some diseases, such as Tobacco mosaic virus, physically transmitting the virus with their hands from plant to plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buruli ulcer is a necrotizing skin disease caused by humans ( 2 - 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • This agent, which was approved by the FDA on December 16, 2022, is the first gene therapy indicated for non-muscle-invasive disease. (medscape.com)
  • WHO issued reports indicating that vector-borne illnesses affect poor people, especially people living in areas that do not have adequate levels of sanitation, drinking water and housing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results are discussed in light of the importance of forests for biodiversity, livelihoods and human health and the need to urgently build an international governance framework to ensure the preservation of forests and the ecosystem services they provide, including the regulation of diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nonetheless, it remains difficult to disentangle the respective influences of forest loss and conversion, other land use changes, demography, increased human and agricultural encroachments or the pressures of hunting on the rise of infectious diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Viral diseases have an enormous impact on human health worldwide. (broadinstitute.org)
  • We further demonstrated successful examples of multiple targeting including chromosomal deletions in human cells using the all-in-one CRISPR/Cas9 vectors constructed with our novel system. (nature.com)
  • CPI can help you accelerate viral vector development towards in-human trials and enhance product manufacturability by improving process yield and reducing process variability by generating a robust, scalable and fully transferable process. (uk-cpi.com)
  • albopictus still cannot be considered an inter-human vector in dengue epidemics in Brazil. (scielo.br)
  • This mechanism of transmission contrasts with that of the two subspecies of African trypanosomes that cause human disease, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense , which are transmitted via the saliva of their vectors, and with the mechanism by which a nonpathogenic trypanosome found in the Americas, Trypanosoma rangeli , is transmitted to its mammalian hosts. (medscape.com)
  • The strategic plan aims to prevent human-vector contact in a cost-effective manner to cover the entire population at risk of malaria in all settings. (who.int)
  • aegypti-vectored diseases in this setting, however stage 3 scores appear better suited to diseases with direct human -to- human transmission . (bvsalud.org)
  • For example, the big-vein disease of lettuce was long thought to be caused by a member of the fungal division Chytridiomycota, namely Olpidium brassicae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Is the Subject Area "Fungal diseases" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • MISSISSAUGA, Ontario -- Bee Vectoring Technologies International, Inc (BVT) (TSXV:BEE) announced today that it has submitted registration documents in Switzerland for its proprietary active ingredient, Clonostachys rosea CR-7 for use against fungal diseases in production agriculture. (farms.com)
  • Not only the emergence of new diseases, but also epidemics of infectious diseases appear to be linked to deforestation as recently evidenced for malaria epidemics in Brazil ( 16 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • A proactive approach to preventing and responding to emerging infectious diseases is critical to global health security. (bvsalud.org)
  • The expression cassettes of the gRNAs are tandemly ligated into a single vector using the Golden Gate cloning method. (nature.com)
  • UNLABELLED: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) avirulent strain LaSota was used to coexpress gp160 Env and p55 Gag from a single vector to enhance both Env-specific and Gag-specific immune responses. (duke.edu)
  • This accumulation of PDGF stimulates the migration of smooth muscle cells into the tunica media, causing the rough velvety appearance observed in the pulmonary arteries in heartworm disease [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The vascular changes and pathology associated with heartworm disease include right heart enlargement, main and lobar pulmonary artery enlargement and tortuous vasculature, with resulting congestive heart failure, hypertension, and the potential development of caval syndrome over time [ 4 , 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While melarsomine dihydrochloride is approved for the treatment of adult heartworms in canine heartworm disease, there are no approved therapeutics for the treatment of adult heartworms in cats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The most obvious clinical signs of heartworm disease are a soft, dry cough, shortness of breath, weakness, listlessness, and loss of stamina. (innovovet.ca)
  • In most cases, one simple in-house blood tests will diagnose heartworm disease. (innovovet.ca)
  • Further diagnostic tests are often required in heartworm-positive dogs to determine your pet can safely undergo heartworm disease treatment. (innovovet.ca)
  • The treatment of heartworm disease is dependent on the progression of the disease. (innovovet.ca)
  • Our veterinary care team is experienced in heartworm disease treatment and will create a heartworm treatment plan that works for you and your pet. (innovovet.ca)
  • Heartworm disease is much more common in dogs than in cats. (innovovet.ca)
  • Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the infectious bacterial organism Anaplasma phagocytophilum causing causes lameness, joint pain, fever, lethargy, and anorexia. (innovovet.ca)
  • Browse 100,500+ cold and flu stock illustrations and vector graphics available royalty-free, or search for child with a cold or sick to find more great stock images and vector art. (istockphoto.com)
  • However, many of these diseases are preventable through evidence-based protective measures. (who.int)
  • It takes into account environmental/climatic trends and changes in socio-economic conditions to predict future risk to these diseases. (ilri.org)