The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
The fundamental tenet of modern medicine that certain diseases are caused by microorganisms. It was confirmed by the work of Pasteur, Lister, and Koch.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from health professional or health care worker to patients. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Travel by a group of physicians for the purpose of making a special study or undertaking a special project of short-term duration.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from patients to health professionals or health care workers. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.
A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE containing one species: Infectious salmon anemia virus.
Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A commercially important species of SALMON in the family SALMONIDAE, order SALMONIFORMES, which occurs in the North Atlantic.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.
Fish of the genera ONCORHYNCHUS and Salmo in the family SALMONIDAE. They are anadromous game fish, frequenting the coastal waters of both the North Atlantic and Pacific. They are known for their gameness as a sport fish and for the quality of their flesh as a table fish. (Webster, 3d ed).
A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.
Acute respiratory illness in humans caused by the Muerto Canyon virus whose primary rodent reservoir is the deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus. First identified in the southwestern United States, this syndrome is characterized most commonly by fever, myalgias, headache, cough, and rapid respiratory failure.
Infections with viruses of the genus HANTAVIRUS. This is associated with at least four clinical syndromes: HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME caused by viruses of the Hantaan group; a milder form of HFRS caused by SEOUL VIRUS; nephropathia epidemica caused by PUUMALA VIRUS; and HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME caused by SIN NOMBRE VIRUS.
A species of HANTAVIRUS which emerged in the Four Corners area of the United States in 1993. It causes a serious, often fatal pulmonary illness (HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME) in humans. Transmission is by inhaling aerosolized rodent secretions that contain virus particles, carried especially by deer mice (PEROMYSCUS maniculatus) and pinyon mice (P. truei).
A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.
A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.
A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of swine, poultry, and man. It may be pathogenic.
A species of bacteria present in man and many kinds of animals and birds, often causing infertility and/or abortion.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.
Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.
Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.

Demographic, clinical and social factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted diseases in a cohort of women from the United Kingdom and Ireland. MRC Collaborative Study of women with HIV. (1/1248)

BACKGROUND: Clinical experience suggests many women with HIV infection have experienced no other sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Our objective was to test the hypothesis that a substantial proportion of women with HIV infection in the United Kingdom and Ireland have experienced no other diagnosed STD and to describe the demographic, clinical and social factors associated with the occurrence of other STD in a cohort of HIV infected women. METHOD: Analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from a prospective study of 505 women with diagnosed HIV infection. The setting was 15 HIV treatment centres in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The main outcome measures were occurrence of other STD diagnosed for the first time before and after HIV diagnosis. Data were obtained from interview with women and clinic notes. We particularly focused on occurrence of gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis after HIV diagnosis, as these are the STD most likely to reflect recent unprotected sexual intercourse. RESULTS: The women were mainly infected via heterosexual sex (n = 304), and injection drug use (n = 174). 151 were black Africans. A total of 250 (49.5%) women reported never having been diagnosed with an STD apart from HIV, 255 (50.5%) women had ever experienced an STD besides HIV, including 109 (21.6%) who had their first other STD diagnosed after HIV. Twenty-five (5%) women reported having had chlamydia, gonorrhoea or trichomoniasis diagnosed for the first time after HIV diagnosis, possibly reflecting unprotected sexual intercourse since HIV diagnosis. In all 301 (60%) women reported having had sex with a man in the 6 months prior to entry to the study. Of these, 168 (58%) reported using condoms 'always', 66(23%) 'sometimes' and 56 (19%) 'never'. CONCLUSIONS: Half the women in this study reported having never experienced any other diagnosed STD besides HIV. However, after HIV diagnosis most women remain sexually active and at least 5% had an STD diagnosed which reflect unprotected sexual intercourse.  (+info)

Incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related Kaposi's sarcoma in the Aquitaine Cohort, France, 1988-1996. Groupe d'Epidemiologie Clinique du SIDA en Aquitaine. (2/1248)

OBJECTIVE: To assess secular trends of the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) between 1988 and 1996 in the Aquitaine Cohort of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV1)-infected subjects (southwestern France). METHODS: Adults of both sexes of all HIV-transmission categories were included. We distinguished between incident and prevalent KS and in case of multiple acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) defining illnesses between initial or subsequent KS. Only incident KS were considered for annual incidence rate calculation. RESULTS: Overall, 21.2% (356/1678) of homosexuals and 1.9% (58/3030) of the other patients were diagnosed with KS over time. Although there was a sharp decrease in 1996 for initial KS, the annual incidence rate of KS was stable over time in the overall cohort as well as in homosexuals (4.3% per year on the average for KS as an initial AIDS-defining illness and 2.1% per year for subsequent KS in homosexuals). The median CD4+ cell count at the time of diagnosis of KS was 56 per mm3 (78 for initial KS, 14 for subsequent KS), with no significant variation over time. CONCLUSION: In the Aquitaine Cohort, the annual incidence of KS has remained stable between 1988 and 1995 with a recent decline in 1996, only for initial KS, while case management of HIV-infected subjects changed drastically.  (+info)

Hygiene behaviour in rural Nicaragua in relation to diarrhoea. (3/1248)

BACKGROUND: Childhood diarrhoea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Nicaragua. Amongst the risk factors for its transmission are 'poor' hygiene practices. We investigated the effect of a large number of hygiene practices on diarrhoeal disease in children aged <2 years and validated the technique of direct observation of hygiene behaviour. METHODS: A prospective follow-up study was carried out in a rural zone of Nicaragua. From the database of a previously conducted case-control study on water and sanitation 172 families were recruited, half of which had experienced a higher than expected rate of diarrhoea in their children and the other half a lower rate. Hygiene behaviour was observed over two mornings and diarrhoea incidence was recorded with a calendar, filled out by the mother, and collected every week for 5 months. RESULTS: Of 46 'good' practices studied, 39 were associated with a lower risk of diarrhoea, five were unrelated and only for two a higher risk was observed. Washing of hands, domestic cleanliness (kitchen, living room, yard) and the use of a diaper/underclothes by the child had the strongest protective effect. Schooling (>3 years of primary school) and better economic position (possession of a radio) had a positive influence on general hygiene behaviour, education having a slightly stronger effect when a radio was present. Individual hygiene behaviour appeared to be highly variable in contrast with the consistent behaviour of the community as a whole. Feasible and appropriate indicators of hygiene behaviour were found to be domestic cleanliness and the use of a diaper or underclothes by the child. CONCLUSION: A consistent relationship between almost all hygiene practices and diarrhoea was detected, more schooling producing better hygiene behaviour. The high variability of hygiene behaviour at the individual level requires repeated observations (at least two) before and after the hygiene education in the event one wants to measure the impact of the campaign on the individual.  (+info)

Virulence evolution in a virus obeys a trade-off. (4/1248)

The evolution of virulence was studied in a virus subjected to alternating episodes of vertical and horizontal transmission. Bacteriophage f1 was used as the parasite because it establishes a debilitating but non-fatal infection that can be transmitted vertically (from a host to its progeny) as well as horizontally (infection of new hosts). Horizontal transmission was required of all phage at specific intervals, but was prevented otherwise. Each episode of horizontal transmission was followed by an interval of obligate vertical transmission, followed by an interval of obligate horizontal transmission etc. The duration of vertical transmission was eight times longer per episode in one treatment than in the other, thus varying the relative intensity of selection against virulence while maintaining selection for some level of virus production. Viral lines with the higher enforced rate of infectious transmission evolved higher virulence and higher rates of virus production. These results support the trade-off model for the evolution of virulence.  (+info)

Dirt and diarrhoea: formative research in hygiene promotion programmes. (5/1248)

Investment in the promotion of better hygiene for the prevention of diarrhoeal diseases and as a component of water and sanitation programmes is increasing. Before designing programmes capable of sustainably modifying hygiene behaviour in large populations, valid answers to a number of basic questions concerning the site and the intended beneficiaries have to be obtained. Such questions include 'what practices favour the transmission of enteric pathogens?', 'what advantages will be perceived by those who adopt safe practices?' and 'what channels of communication are currently employed by the target population?' A study of hygiene and diarrhoea in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, used a mixture of methods to address such questions. This paper draws on that experience to propose a plan of preliminary research using a variety of techniques which could be implemented over a period of a few months by planners of hygiene promotion programmes. The techniques discussed include structured observation, focus group discussions and behavioural trials. Modest investment in such systematic formative research with clear and limited goals is likely to be repaid many times over in the increased effectiveness of hygiene promotion programmes.  (+info)

The quality of immunization data from routine primary health care reports: a case from Nepal. (6/1248)

Reported high immunization coverage achieved in Nepal over the last ten years is expected to reduce child mortality in the country. The present study, carried out in hill district in mid-west Nepal, aimed to assess the quality of immunization data in Nepal. The number of children who received different vaccines during one year was obtained from three sources: 1) the Immunization REgister of three Primary Health Care Service Outlets (PHCSOs) where each immunized child is recorded; 2) monthly PHC Reports, which are based on the Immunization Register; 3) monthly DHO Reports, which are based on the above PHC Reports (the DHO reports are the source of official statistics). The number of children in the PHC Reports was higher than the number in the Immunization REgisters for all vaccines. The number of immunizations in the DHO Reports was higher than the number in the PHC Reports for BCG, DPT, and measles; the number was lower for poliomyelitis. The overall number of immunizations was higher in the DHO Reports than in the Immunization Registers, by 31% for BCG, 44% for DPT, 155% for polio, and 71% for measles. We conclude that the official report overestimates the immunization coverage in the district. The immunization programme, therefore, might not result in the expected reduction of morbidity and mortality despite the investment in the programme and reported high coverage.  (+info)

Evolution and biological characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype E gp120 V3 sequences following horizontal and vertical virus transmission in a single family. (7/1248)

It has been suggested that immune-pressure-mediated positive selection operates to maintain the antigenic polymorphism on the third variable (V3) loop of the gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Here we present evidence, on the basis of sequencing 147 independently cloned env C2/V3 segments from a single family (father, mother, and their child), that the intensity of positive selection is related to the V3 lineage. Phylogenetic analysis and amino acid comparison of env C2/V3 and gag p17/24 regions indicated that a single HIV-1 subtype E source had infected the family. The analyses of unique env C2/V3 clones revealed that two V3 lineage groups had evolved in the parents. Group 1 was maintained with low variation in all three family members regardless of the clinical state or the length of infection, whereas group 2 was only present in symptomatic individuals and was more positively charged and diverse than group 1. Only virus isolates carrying the group 2 V3 sequences infected and induced syncytia in MT2 cells, a transformed CD4(+)-T-cell line. A statistically significant excess of nonsynonymous substitutions versus synonymous substitutions was demonstrated only for the group 2 V3 region. The data suggest that HIV-1 variants, possessing the more homogeneous group 1 V3 element and exhibiting the non-syncytium-inducing phenotype, persist in infected individuals independent of clinical status and appear to be more resistant to positive selection pressure.  (+info)

Identification of MaTu-MX agent as a new strain of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and serological indication of horizontal spread of LCMV in human population. (8/1248)

In this study we elucidated the molecular character of MaTu-MX, previously described as an unusual transmissible agent. Amino acid sequencing of peptides generated from a 58-kDa MX-related protein purified from MaTu human carcinoma cells allowed us to identify it as a nucleoprotein (NP) of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Northern blot analysis detected LCMV-specific RNAs in MaTu cells. Comparative immunoprecipitations showed cross-reactivity between NP of LCMV strain WE and MX NP. Using RT-PCR, we have cloned MX NP cDNA. According to sequence comparison, MX LCMV is as closely related to both LCMV strains WE and Armstrong as these strains are to one another. Based on this finding we propose that MX is a new strain of LCMV. We also showed that the stability of MX NP in MaTu cells is very high and that the virus is transmissible by cell-to-cell contact or by cell-free extract to human HeLa and monkey Vero cells, but not to human AGS, canine MDCK, mouse NIH 3T3, and hamster CHO cells. Finally, employing MX LCMV NP in immunoprecipitation and solid-phase radioimmunoassay, we found 37.5% prevalence of anti-LCMV antibodies in human sera, suggesting possible horizontal spread of the virus in the human population.  (+info)

Interconnect assemblies having resilient contact elements and methods for making these assemblies. In one aspect, the interconnect assembly includes a substrate and a resilient electrical contact element disposed on the substrate. A first portion of the resilient contact structure is disposed on the substrate and a second portion extends away from the substrate and is capable of moving from a first position to a second position under the application of a force. A stop structure is disposed on the surface of the substrate and on a surface of the first portion of the resilient contact structure. According to another aspect of the present invention, a beam portion of the resilient contact structure has a substantially triangular shape.
A method for producing a contact structure for establishing electrical connection with contact targets. The contact structure is formed of a contact substrate and a plurality of contactors. The contactor has a tip portion at one end of the contactor to contact with the contact target, a base portion at another end of the contactor which is inserted in a through hole provided on the contact substrate in such a way that an end of the contactor functions as a contact pad for electrical connection at a surface of the contact substrate, and a spring portion provided between the tip portion and the base portion which produces a contact force when the contactor is pressed against the contact target.
A contact structure for establishing electrical connection with contact targets. The contact structure is formed of a contact substrate and a plurality of contactors. The contactor has an intermediate portion which is inserted in the through hole provided on the contact substrate in a vertical direction, a contact portion which is connected to the intermediate portion and positioned at one end of the contactor to function as a contact point for electrical connection with a contact target, and a base portion which is provided at other end of the contactor, and a spring portion having a cantilever shape upwardly inclined relative to the surface of the contact substrate and provided between the base portion and the intermediate portion.
Contact structures are formed by building a core structure on a substrate and over coating the core structure with a material that is harder or has a greater yield strength than the material of the core structure. The core structure may be formed by attaching a wire to the substrate and spooling the wire out from a spool. While spooling the wire out, the spool may be moved to impart a desired shape to the wire. The wire is severed from the spool and over coated. As an alternative, the wire is not over coated. The substrate may be an electronic device, such as a semiconductor die.
The present invention relates to coupler device, processing apparatus and method of processing a plurality of body-coupled communication signals which have been detected by using an electrode arrangement with a plurality of electrodes or electrode segments ( 40, 42; 40, 43 ). Respective transmission parameters of the body-coupled communication signals are estimated and at least one of a selecting and weighting processing is applied to the detected body-coupled communication signals based on the estimated transmission parameters. Then, the processed body-coupled communication signals are combined to generate a diversity output signal. Thereby, robustness against coupler misplacement and user convenience is increased in body-coupled or body-based communication systems.
Dec 19, 2016 , Atlanta, GA. The demand and the average time on the waiting lists for organ transplants are growing, while the supply of organs remains comparatively limited.. According to UNOS, the United Network for Organ Sharing, currently more than 121,480 people across the United States are waiting for an organ, while 30,970 people received transplants in 2015. In the same year, 6,648 people died on the transplant waitlist, while 6,702 were removed from the list after waiting so long that they became too sick to undergo transplant surgery.. A possible resolution to this problem is to increase the availability of organs. In the past, organs with a small risk of infection were often not chosen for transplant. After several transmissions of infectious diseases that occurred through transplants where these infections (or the risk) were not detected ahead of time, use of many more organs were discouraged because of problems with understanding the risk.. A collaborative project between ISyE and ...
Health,William Paxton and Colleagues from University of Amsterdam has found t... Information on Breast feeding in Medindia: Feeding ...,Breast,feeding,can,prevent,HIV,infection,transmission,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Among the care commonly provided at hospitals is infection care. When hospital staff are caring for patients that have or ... Medical Malpractice
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Looking for horizontal transmission? Find out information about horizontal transmission. Passage of genetic information by invasive processes between individual organisms or cells of different species Explanation of horizontal transmission
by Farhad Memarzadeh, PhD, PE How does room ventilation affect airborne disease transmission in a health care facility? This monograph addresses the topic through a review of the literature. Noting that the majority of studies conducted on ventilation and disease transmission have been observational or animal studies not applicable to human disease, Farhad Memarzadeh, PhD, PE, examines research findings that consider the effects of air changes per hour (ACH) on airborne infection transmission. Current recommended ventilation rates are not always based on hard data, but on experience. The monograph looks at research on hospitals, schools, aircraft, and other vehicles.. ...
0048] The composite material in which the reducing agent is dispersed in the metal matrix can be manufactured, for example, as described below. In a plating bath that includes a metal salt of the metal as primary component, the reducing agent that is capable of reducing the oxide of the metal at room temperature is added. The reducing agent is dissolved uniformly or becomes a colloidal solution state if the reducing agent is not dissolved. A complexing agent is added to the plating bath as needed, and a plated member is treated with electroplating. Accordingly, eutectoid of the metal matrix and the reducing agent is formed on the plated member ...
Describing contact patterns is crucial to understanding infectious disease transmission dynamics and guiding targeted transmission mitigation interventions. Data on contact patterns in Africa, especially South Africa, are limited. We measured and compared contact patterns in a rural and urban community, South Africa. We assessed participant and contact characteristics associated with differences in contact rates. We conducted a cross-sectional study nested in a prospective household cohort study. We interviewed participants to collect information on persons in contact with for one day. We described self-reported contact rates as median number people contacted per day, assessed differences in contact rates based on participant characteristics using quantile regression, and used a Poisson model to assess differences in contact rates based on contact characteristics within age groups. We also calculated cumulative person hours in contact within age groups at different locations. We conducted 535 interviews
The potential for transmission of infectious diseases in the outpatient setting is an increasingly important concern as more (and more invasive) medical care is delivered outside of the hospital. This study begins the important task of developing a systematic approach to infection control for outpatient settings by providing a review of published reports of cases of infections acquired in outpatient settings. As the authors acknowledge, the conclusions that can be drawn are limited by biases that affect whether an infectious outbreak is reported, including, among others, the ease of documentation of specific organisms involved, the degree of interest in the circumstances or etiologic agent, and the number of persons involved. Further, information about the numbers and types of patients who did not develop the diseases being studied is not reported. Thus, this study does not permit conclusions regarding the frequency of outpatient transmission of infectious diseases, the specific infections that ...
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On the technical side, I had some ideas. Wonder if they made sense and if any of these tools (apps) already exist:. One of the big tools in the response is transmission tracking and isolation. Going ahead this seems a common part of the response to any pandemic. But from reading the news this seems to be still done in a relatively primitive way. These days most everyone has a smartphone. With a combination of GPS and perhaps blue tooth shouldnt it be possible to create a list of potential contacts? This way, the moment a positive for an infection is detected (through a symptomatic case, or random screening etc.) instantaneously a list of probables for infection transmission could be generated and then triaged. Not sure how much damage reduction we already can do but surely for future pandemics this sort of thing can squelch the spread right at the start? Perhaps, GPS alone will generate a moving circle too large for this to make good use of; typical transmission tracking would want to only ...
List of Human Disease Caused By Virus & Bacteria Disease Causing Agent Infection / Transmission AIDS Human T -cell Leukemia Virus HTLV-III blood and sperms , th. GK, General Studies, Optional notes for UPSC, IAS, Banking, Civil Services.
Hygiene is a top priority in times of Corona. Particularly at frequently used vending machines, such as ticket machines, the surfaces of input screens are not cleaned after use. For infection transmission, it doesnt take long to catch a few germs, bacteria or viruses. The CleanScreen project (Funding reference 16KN082123), funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), now aims to find a remedy. Together with its partners Fischer Electronicsysteme GmbH + Co.KG, RBC GmbH and GMBU e. V. (Department Halle) the Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP is developing an automated solution for the continuous cleaning of touch displays at public vending machines. The project is initiated within the BMWi-funded innovation network CleanHand and coordinated by the FGMD GmbH.. ...
Healthcare professionals working in interprofessional areas should be educated in the correct application and removal of personal protective equipment in order to protect both themselves and their patients. Correctly donning and doffing PPE is a crucial step in preventing infection transmission.
Provides an overview of the roles of glycans in HIV Includes focus on the role of innate immune lectins Covers topics of infection/transmission,
Sasakian manifolds were first introduced in 1962. This books main focus is on the intricate relationship between Sasakian and Kähler geometries, especially when the Kähler structure is that of an algebraic variety. The book is divided into three parts. The first five chapters carefully prepare the stage for the proper introduction of the subject. After a brief discussion of G-structures, the reader is introduced to the theory of Riemannian foliations. A concise review of complex and Kähler geometry precedes a fairly detailed treatment of compact complex Kähler orbifolds. A discussion of the existence and obstruction theory of Kähler-Einstein metrics (Monge-Ampère problem) on complex compact orbifolds follows. The second part gives a careful discussion of contact structures in the Riemannian setting. Compact quasi-regular Sasakian manifolds emerge here as algebraic objects: they are orbifold circle bundles over compact projective algebraic orbifolds. After a discussion of symmetries of Sasakian
We will focus in our lectures on the following : 1. J-complex discs in almost complex manifolds : general properties. Linearization and compactness. Gromovs method : the Fredholm alternative for the d-bar operator. Attaching a complex disc to a Lagrangian manifold. Application : exotic symplectic structures. Hulls of totally real manifolds : Alexanders theorem. 2. Real surfaces in (almost) complex surfaces. Filling real 2-spheres by a Levi-flat hypersurface (Bedford -Gaveau-Gromov theorem). Some applications. Symplectic and contact structures. Reeb foliation and the Weinsten conjecture. Hofers proof of the Weinstein conjecture. 3. J-complex lines and hyperbolicity. The KAM theory and Mosers stability theorem for entire J-complex curves in tori. Global deformation and Bangerts theorem.
The lines of experimentation that supplied the data herein reported, stated in very general terms, were as follows: (1) Tuber-line selection studies (2) Relation of environmental conditions to seed-potato production (3) Seed-potato strain trials of certified and uncertified stock (4) Spindle-tuber transmission experiments. Most of these general lines of experimentation will not be completely discussed as a unit in any one part of the bulletin. For the sake of clarity, consecutive thought, and elimination of repetition, data will be selected from any experiment for insertion and discussion under the most logical heading in any part of the bulletin. Unless otherwise stated, all the data presented in this bulletin deal with the Bliss Triumph variety.
You searched for: Creator Centers for Disease Control (U.S.) Remove constraint Creator: Centers for Disease Control (U.S.) Creator CDC Remove constraint Creator: CDC Format Text Remove constraint Format: Text Subject Disease Transmission, Infectious Remove constraint Subject: Disease Transmission, Infectious ...
Unit 8: Physiology Left Side Pg Right Side Pg Unit Page 48 Table of Contents 49 Neuron/Synapse 50 C.N. - Control Systems 51 Homeostasis 52 Section 35-2 53 Flow Map: Blood Glucose 54 Flow Map: Leptin & Hunger 55 Tree Map: Body Maintenance Systems 56 C.N. Body Maintenance Systems 57 Word Bank: Control Systems 58 Word Bank: Maintenance Systems 59 Double Bubble C.N. - Immune System 61 Word Bank (Cont.) 63 60 Word Bank - Immune system 62 Immune System Part 1: Infectious Disease Chapter 40-1 & 2 Infectious Disease   Disrupts normal body function (homeostasis) Caused by a pathogen.  Pathogen: anything that invades your body & causes a disease   Ex: bacteria, protozoan, fungi, viruses, parasites, worms It can be contagious = infectious Disease Transmission  People may carry a disease without even knowing it.   Can be spread during the incubation period (before symptoms occur) Transmission by:  1. Direct contact   2. Indirect contact-through the air   Kissing ...
The 2017 county fair season in the U.S. is nearing its close. Fewer and fewer weekends are filled with the bright lights of rapidly assembled Ferris wheels, the air is less filled with the scent of toasty elephant ears (non-Americans, check these out) and fewer animals are ambling into the trailer to be brought to […]. ...
A method for testing and burning-in semiconductor components such as semiconductor dice on a semiconductor wafer, is provided. The method includes the step of providing all of the components on the wafer with resilient contact structures, such as metal pins having integral spring segments. The resilient contact structures are used to test the components to identify functional and non-functional components. Following this test, the resilient contact structures on the non-functional components are deformed, such that electrical communication with the non-functional components is prevented in a subsequent burn-in test. This permits the burn-in test to be performed using
A colonization is the usual presence of non-pathogenic and even potentially pathogenic microbes on the skin, in the nose, mouth, bowel, penile or vaginal mucosa, as a part of normal human flora, in the amount not harmful for the body - this is not an infection. An example is the presence of Lactobacilus acidophilus bacteria in the colon.. A contamination is the presence of germs which do not multiply, for example, in a contaminated (not infected)wound. Infected or septic wound contains multiplying microbes. Contamination also refers to presence of pathogenic microbes on medical equipment, in the water, food etc.. A carrier state is the non-usual presence of pathogenic microbes in the body, in the way not harmful for the carrier, but potentially dangerous for others, since the carrier is usually contagious. For example, if you have Staphylococcus aureus bacteria (a common cause of skin infections) in your nose, you may infect others, even if you alone never develop an infection.. An overgrowth of ...
The relative amount of transmission in I2 (ϕ) also has a large effect on ESS virulence (figure 1b). As the amount of transmission in I2 increases, the ESS virulence decreases, and the rate of decrease depends on the level of mortality that occurs in the I1 class. As the level of transmission in I2 and the disease mortality rate in the I1 class (ρ) approach zero, the ESS virulence goes to infinity (figure 1b). These results can be understood by realizing that for any fixed level of virulence (α), decreases in the transmission parameter ϕ reduce the fitness benefit of reaching the second class (I2), while increases in ρ both decrease the probability of reaching the second class and decreases the infectious period in the first class. Therefore, as both parameters reach zero, there is no benefit in reaching the second class and no cost to virulence in the first class. Thus, ESS virulence is very high and virulence will have a greater tendency to increase after introduction.. The effect of the ...
In this work we develop an experimental method to study interparticle force transmission in 3D. An initial 2D study of volumetric data for commercially available polyethylene fluorescent microspheres shows that three-dimensional effects play a significant role in deformation of real granular assemblies. This highlights the need for more experimental work to validate existing numerical models and motivate further development of theory and models describing real 3D granular media. A full 3D analysis method is described where volumetric images are captured via confocal microscopy and the displacement fields for each particle are determined using digital volume correlation (DVC). This data is then used to determine the average strain in each particle as well as the assemblys fabric (geometric descriptors of particles and contacts) which are in turn used for the Granular Element Method (GEM) to determine interparticle forces. Additionally, we perform a DVC analysis for an in-house produced ...
IC package with non-uniform dielectric layer thickness | Interconnect structure and method of forming the same | Electric contact structure having a diffusion barrier for an electronic device and method for manufacturing the... | Split contact structure and fabrication method thereof | Planar polysilicon regions for precision resistors and electrical fuses and method of fabrication |
Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region in 2013, with serious implications for population health in the region. In 2016, the World Health Organization declared the ZIKV outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern following a cluster of associated neurological disorders and neonatal malformations. In 2017, Zika cases declined, but future incidence in LAC remains uncertain due to gaps in our understanding, considerable variation in surveillance and the lack of a comprehensive collation of data from affected countries. Our analysis combines information on confirmed and suspected Zika cases across LAC countries and a spatio-temporal dynamic transmission model for ZIKV infection to determine key transmission parameters and projected incidence in 90 major cities within 35 countries. Seasonality was determined by spatio-temporal estimates of Aedes aegypti vectorial capacity. We used country and state-level data from 2015 to mid-2017 to infer key model
Existing estimates of the basic reproduction number, R0, for human schistosomes are mostly in the range 1-4, implying that schistosomes should be relatively easy to eliminate from endemic areas, which is contrary to practical experience. An estimate of R0 for a site in Zimbabwe is obtained here using a mathematical model explicitly incorporating two features believed to be epidemiologically significant; age-dependent exposure and acquired immunity. Parameter estimates are, as far as possible, obtained independently, but the coefficients representing man-snail and snail-man transmission, as well as parameters representing effects of acquired immunity, must be estimated indirectly by fitting the model to field data. Heterogeneity in human exposure and contamination is crudely incorporated by considering `wormy and non-wormy fractions of the population. The results suggest R0 to be in the range 4-5 or more, higher than previous estimates and despite only moderate levels of infection at this site. ...
Author Summary Resistance of influenza to common antiviral agents carries the possibility of causing large morbidity and mortality through failure of treatment and should be taken into account when planning public health interventions focused on stopping transmission. Here we present a mathematical model of influenza transmission which incorporates heterogeneous contact structure and stochastic transmission events. We find scenarios when treatment either induces large levels of resistance or no resistance at identical values of transmission rates depending on the number initially infected. We also find, contrary to previous results, that targeted treatment causes more resistance at lower treatment levels than non-targeted treatment. Our results have important implications for the timing and distribution of antivirals in epidemics and highlight important differences in how transmission is modeled and where assumptions made in previous models cause them to lead to erroneous conclusions.
A graduate will after passing the course describe individual types of microorganisms and clarify their pathogenicity factors. He/she is able to enumerate basic components of immunity system and understand their function. He/she is able to clarify the infection transmission process and draws options of fighting against infectious diseases. He/she is able to enumerate the most common infectious diseases of individual organ systems and describe general rules of urgent care in infections threatening patients life. He/she is able to explain the meaning of hospital infections. He/she is able to enumerate infectious and non-infectious labour risks of health related professionals. He/she is able to describe the structure of of hygienic service in the Czech Republic. He/she is able to enumerate factors of natural and working environment that influence human health. He/she is able to enumerate risk factors of so called lifestyle diseases, make an assessment of options of their prevention ...
egg. Covid has proved rather less lethal than I thought it might in March last year: as the Doomlord rightly notes, that was a time of radical uncertainty, uncertainty that diminished, as it tends to, with time. We should count our blessings.. Yet the insistence by some here that any government response was an over-reaction is as nonsensical as was the Economists Letter that, on its face, denied the existence of any trade-offs between economic activity and the Covid suppression. There are obvious trade-offs: we would never abandon all economic activity for the sake of suppressing a disease, and despite the inflated claims of some lockdown opponents, we never did. Moreover there are dynamic (ie, inter-temporal) trade-offs: the price of some economic activity today, with the risk of infection transmission, was the likelihood of more wide-spread infection tomorrow. The point the Economists Letter should have made was that, in the view of its authors, the benefits of continued steps toward ...
In this paper, we investigate a disease transmission model of SIRS type with latent period τ≥0 and the specific nonmonotone incidence rate, namely, For the basic reproduction number R0>1, applying monotone iterative techniques, we establish sufficient conditions for the global asymptotic stability of endemic equilibrium of system which become partial answers to the open problem in [Hai-Feng Huo, Zhan-Ping Ma, Dynamics of a delayed epidemic model with non-monotonic incidence rate, Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 15 (2010) 459-468]. Moreover, combining both monotone iterative techniques and the Lyapunov functional techniques to an SIR model by perturbation, we derive another type of sufficient conditions for the global asymptotic stability of the endemic equilibrium ...
Epidemiology strongly parallels the study of ecology, primarily being concerned with the incidence, distribution, reproduction and persistence of species. The spread of disease, or its transmission, is arguably the most important incident studied in epidemiology, underpinning a pathogens ability to reproduce and persist within a host population. However, observations of individual transmission events are often impossible to observe directly, making variation in this process difficult to study. This has resulted in a great deal of epidemiological theory being based on homogenous transmission of disease through host populations. Understanding disease transmission as a heterogeneous process requires an appreciation of the ecological dynamics determining a pathogens ability to transmit. In this thesis a cross-disciplinary approach is taken to examine the ecological dynamics that may affect disease transmission at different ecological scales. In Chapter 2 I review empirical evidence in support of ...
We give a survey of results on global stability for deterministic compartmental epidemiological models. Using Lyapunov techniques we revisit a classical result, and give a simple proof. By the same methods we also give a new result on differential susceptibility and infectivity models with mass action and an arbitrary number of compartments. These models encompass the so-called differential infectivity and staged progression models. In the two cases we prove that if the basic reproduction ratio R0 \leq 1, then the disease free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable. If R0 | 1, there exists an unique endemic equilibrium which is asymptotically stable on the positive orthant.
Provides in-depth study of the biological features of infectious and tropical diseases, both domestically and globally. Emphasizes the use of epidemiologic methods to study the biological, social and biological determinants of infectious disease transmission, pathogenesis, immunity and control. Students achieve basic mastery of microbiology and immunology in addition to methods to understand transmission dynamics and the impact of prevention and treatment interventions.
You searched for: Creator CDC Remove constraint Creator: CDC Subject Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Remove constraint Subject: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Subject Disease Transmission, Infectious Remove constraint Subject: Disease Transmission, Infectious ...
The spatial structure and local contact network for dihydropteroate synthase (1aj0).(a) The local structure of the catalytic resi
Learn how molecular and epidemiological data are used together to understand infectious disease transmission and to help preventing and controlling...
Abstract: The threat of new or emerging diseases, such as avian influenza, has prompted many researchers to construct detailed predictive models of infectious disease transmission between humans in order to advise healthcare policy. At the heart of many of these models, however, are crude assumptions regarding the mixing and contact rates between individuals. Here, I will present the results from a diary-based contact survey which describes how often individuals encountered others, as well as the level of intimacy and the social context of the encounter. Simulations demonstrate the important characteristics of this data for transmission of infection. see: DIMACS Computational and Mathematical Epidemiology Seminar Series 2006 - 2007 ...
The SEIRS model for infectious disease dynamics The SEIRS model Phase Plane Equations Download Credits Basic reproduction number R 0 Infectious period 1/γ (days) Latent period 1/σ (days) Immunity duration 1/ω (years) Life expectancy 1/μ (years) Death onset 1/α (days) vaccination level p (%) log 10 axes show time points show SIR I(t) trajectory interpretive text figure ...
The transmission of infections is once again in the forefront of worldwide concerns. The current Ebola virus outbreak which started in Africa has killed many people and the future of this epidemic is unknown. When studying infectious disease transmission and prevention, the hospital as a building is a virtual guinea pig. The high rates of patient deaths due to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) indicate that this guinea pig is very sick indeed. Why is the hospital physical environment a place where infections flourish? Hospitals are shelters . . .
Individuals living in communities more remote at baseline had lower travel rates compared with less remote villages (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.38, 0.67). Our model predicts that less remote villages are, therefore, at increased disease risk. Though road building and travel increased for all communities, this risk differential remained over 10 years of observation. Our transmission model also suggests that travelers and nontravelers have different roles in disease transmission. Adults travel more than children (adjusted OR = 1.73; 95% CI = 1.30, 2.31) and therefore disseminate infection from population centers to rural communities. Children are more likely than adults to be infected locally (attributable fraction = 0.24 and 0.09, respectively) and were indirectly affected by adult travel patterns ...
Phylogenetic clustering of HIV sequences from a random sample of patients can reveal epidemiological transmission patterns, but interpretation is hampered by limited theoretical support and statistical properties of clustering analysis remain poorly understood. Alternatively, source attribution methods allow fitting of HIV transmission models and thereby quantify aspects of disease transmission. A simulation study was conducted to assess error rates of clustering methods for detecting transmission risk factors. We modeled HIV epidemics among men having sex with men and generated phylogenies comparable to those that can be obtained from HIV surveillance data in the UK. Clustering and source attribution approaches were applied to evaluate their ability to identify patient attributes as transmission risk factors. We find that commonly used methods show a misleading association between cluster size or odds of clustering and covariates that are correlated with time since infection, regardless of their
Achromobacter bacteria seen in chronic CF lung infections showed patient-to-patient transmission and emerging antibiotic resistance in study.
Connect and collaborate with Patricia Campbell at University of Melbourne, with research interests in Modelling of infectious disease transmission, on Mendeley.
INFECTIOUS DISEASES TABLE OF CONTENTS INFECTIOUS DISEASES Infectious Diseases... ID 1 Categories & How Diseases Spread...ID 1 ID 3 OTHER RESOURCES Guidelines For Infectious Diseases Reporting & Exclusions
Learn about the veterinary topic of Introduction to Diseases Spread between Animals and People (Zoonoses). Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the Merck Vet Manual.
The Genetics Society of America (GSA), founded in 1931, is the professional membership organization for scientific researchers and educators in the field of genetics. Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level.. Online ISSN: 1943-2631. ...
Introducing Perspectives, a video series with peer-to-peer conversations on how COVID-19 has impacted work and the workplace. In this first episode, watch Dr. Lydia Bourouiba, director of MITs Fluid Dynamics of Disease Transmission Laboratory, as she talks with Steelcase CEO Jim Keane about what we know today on mitigating disease transmission at work.. ...
Please always remember to consult your medical professional regarding your medical questions; this forum is intended to provide patient-to-patient support. We can offer advice and suggestions, but ultimately it is the patients responsibility to communicate information to his or her physician, and vice-versa. Take is possible! ...
suspect transmission problem 1998 Volvo S70 - no history of automatic transmission problems Lately our car has - Volvo 1998 S70 question
After how many miles shoud the transmission fluid in a 2009 4 cyl chevy malibu be changed? - After how many miles shoud the transmission fluid in a 2009 4 ...
When detected early, the disease can be treated with a course of antibiotics. When it is not recognized, as in Lauras case, the disease spreads and wreaks havoc throughout the body.
Katso sanan transmission käännös englanti-suomi. Ilmainen Sanakirja on monipuolinen sanakirja netissä. Suomi, englanti, ruotsi ja monta muuta kieltä!
Causes and transmission of infectious diseases[edit]. See also: Infection. Infections may be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi ... Airborne transmission - Pathogen carrying spores. *Vector transmission - An organism that does not cause disease itself but ... There are four kinds of microorganisms that cause infectious disease: bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses, and one type of ... Diagnosis of infectious disease is nearly always initiated by consulting the patient's medical history and conducting a ...
Jones, RM; Brosseau, L. M. (May 2015). "Aerosol transmission of infectious disease". Journal of Occupational and Environmental ... Related diseases groupings[edit]. Waterborne diseases are diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms that most commonly are ... This is one particular type of fecal-oral transmission. Neglected tropical diseases also contains many diseases transmitted via ... This publication explained transmission routes and barriers to the transmission of diseases from the focal point of human feces ...
Transmission electron micrograph of Marburg virus. Specialty. infectious disease. [edit on Wikidata] ... Jacob, H.; Solcher, H. (1968). "An infectious disease transmitted by Cercopithecus aethiops ("marbury disease") with glial ... "Journal of Infectious Diseases. 204 (Suppl 3): S796-S799. doi:10.1093/infdis/jir312. PMC 3203392 . PMID 21987753.. ... "The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 201 (12): 1909-1918. doi:10.1086/652748. PMC 3407405 . PMID 20441515.. ...
"Transmission of human papillomavirus in heterosexual couples". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 14 (6): 888-894. doi:10.3201/ ... "Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2006: 1-5. doi:10.1155/IDOG/2006/40470. PMC 1581465 . PMID 16967912.. ... "The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 196 (8): 1146-1152. doi:10.1086/521629. PMC 3904649 . PMID 17955432.. ... The Journal of Infectious Diseases Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 2 March ...
"Risk of person-to-person transmission of pneumonic plague". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 40 (8): 1166-72. doi:10.1086/428617 ... "Emerging Infectious Diseases. 8 (9). doi:10.3201/eid0809.010536 - via Centers of Disease Control and Prevention.. ... "Emerging Infectious Diseases. 13 (10): 1459-62. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070284. PMC 2851531. PMID 18257987.. ... The Plague of Justinian is said to have been "completed" in the middle of the 8th century.[14] Because the infectious disease ...
Jones, RM; Brosseau, L. M. (May 2015). "Aerosol transmission of infectious disease". Journal of Occupational and Environmental ... Disease transmission through droplet nuclei is not a concern for many pathogens, because they are not excreted in feces or ... A 1975 study by Charles P. Gerba popularized the concept of disease transmission through toilet plumes. The term "toilet plume ... There is no direct experimental evidence on disease transmission by toilet aerosols. Whether or not aerosols can contain ...
Jones, RM; Brosseau, L.M. (May 2015). "Aerosol transmission of infectious disease". Journal of Occupational and Environmental ... By 1890 there was increased public awareness of disease and of carelessly disposed human waste being infectious. In common ... but as of 2015 no direct experimental studies had clearly demonstrated or refuted actual disease transmission from toilet ... "Probable transmission of norovirus on an airplane". JAMA. 293 (15): 1859-60. doi:10.1001/jama.293.15.1859. ISSN 1538-3598. PMID ...
Risk of infectious disease transmission related to use of a common communion cup exists but it is low. No case of transmission ... "Risk of Infectious Disease Transmission from a Common Communion Cup". American Journal of Infection Control. 26 (5): 538-39. ... Experimental studies have demonstrated that infectious diseases can be transmitted. The most likely diseases to be transmitted ... "International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 17 (11): e945-48. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2013.05.001. PMID 23791225.. ...
Disease transmission[edit]. Since they are scavengers, the hornets can also transmit some serious diseases. They transmit ... infectious microbes to fruits and other human foods.[9] They may also transmit diseases by attacking infected honey bee hives ... Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases. 20 (22). Retrieved 29 September 2014.. ... the hornets may also serve as a transmitter of disease following consumption of infected plants.[9] The hornets are a primary ...
"Malaria on the move: human population movement and malaria transmission". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 6 (2): 103-9. doi ... Displacement of a people can create favorable conditions for disease transmission. Refugee camps are typically heavily ... "PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 10 (1): 1-12. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004399. PMC 4725727. PMID 26809063.. ... US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) (2017). "Control of ...
In addition, transfusion risks infectious disease transmission. A large supply of safe RBCs generated in vitro would help to ... Chronic lung diseases, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and cystic fibrosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and ... Stroke and many neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral ... Diseases that attack myelin, such as multiple sclerosis, result in nerve signals that cannot propagate to nerve endings and as ...
"Chronic Wasting Disease and Potential Transmission to Humans". Emerging Infectious Diseases. Centers for Disease Control and ... The disease has been found among farmed deer in the US and western Canada, but New Zealand has not identified the disease among ... Since it is unknown whether chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy among deer (similar to mad ... cow disease, scientifically known as bovine spongiform encephalopathy), can pass from deer to humans through the consumption of ...
"Chronic Wasting Disease and Potential Transmission to Humans". Emerging Infectious Diseases. Centers for Disease Control and ... Since chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy similar to mad cow disease, can pass from wild ... The New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries undertakes an extensive testing programme which would identify the disease if ...
"Chronic Wasting Disease and Potential Transmission to Humans". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 10 (6): 977-984. doi:10.3201/ ... "Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Elk Antler Velvet". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 15 (5): 696-703. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081458 ... Efforts to eliminate infectious diseases from elk populations, largely by vaccination, have had mixed success. Some cultures ... Elk are susceptible to a number of infectious diseases, some of which can be transmitted to livestock. ...
"Transmission of infectious diseases during commercial air travel". Lancet. 365 (9463): 989-96. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)71089- ... Journal of Infectious Diseases. 195 (5): 621-22. doi:10.1086/511439. PMC 7109684. PMID 17262701. Globalization and infectious ... "Globalization and infectious diseases: A review of the linkages" (PDF). The WHO.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link ... and no data on the relative importance of any of these methods of transmission for specific diseases, and therefore very little ...
"Infectious disease: Tough choices to reduce Ebola transmission". Nature. Vol. 515, Issue 7526 (13 November 2014). doi:10.1038/ ... "Infectious disease: Tough choices to reduce Ebola transmission , Ebola Response Anthropology Platform". www.ebola-anthropology. ... "Infectious disease: Tough choices to reduce Ebola transmission", explaining the UK government's response to Ebola in support of ... "Infectious disease: Tough choices to reduce Ebola transmission". Nature. 515 (7526): 192-194. Bibcode:2014Natur.515..192W. doi: ...
Retrieved 3 April 2019.(subscription required) Mangili A, Gendreau MA (2005). "Transmission of infectious diseases during ... Emerging Infectious Diseases - CDC". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 10 (2): 256-60. doi:10.3201/eid1002.030732. PMC 3322930. ... "Infectious diseases on aircraft". European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Retrieved 8 January 2021. Johnson, Mark; ... many people to find anybody with an infectious disease". Infra-red scanners may not detect disease in its incubation period and ...
"Infectious disease: Tough choices to reduce Ebola transmission , Ebola Response Anthropology Platform". www.ebola-anthropology. ... "Infectious disease: Tough choices to reduce Ebola transmission", explaining the UK government's response to Ebola in Sierra ... "Infectious disease: Tough choices to reduce Ebola transmission". Nature. 515 (7526): 192-194. Bibcode:2014Natur.515..192W. doi: ... Jeremy Farrar seeks innovative backgrounds to help fight infectious diseases, Wired UK on YouTube Whitty, Christopher J. M.; ...
"Infectious disease: Tough choices to reduce Ebola transmission , Ebola Response Anthropology Platform". ... director of the MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, and head of the Department of Infectious Disease ... "Infectious disease: Tough choices to reduce Ebola transmission", explaining the UK government's response to ebola in Sierra ... "Infectious disease: Tough choices to reduce Ebola transmission". Nature. 515 (7526): 192-94. Bibcode:2014Natur.515..192W. doi: ...
Biosecurity - A set of preventive measures designed to reduce the risk of transmission of infectious diseases Epidemiology - ... "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-Transmission". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 17 March 2020. ... the latest executive order specifies the following infectious diseases: cholera, diphtheria, infectious tuberculosis, plague, ... Guidance on when and how human rights can be restricted to prevent the spread of infectious disease is found in The Siracusa ...
"Vectorborne Transmission of Leishmania infantum from Hounds, United States". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 21 (12): 2209-2212 ... "International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 13 (4): 513-7. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2008.08.023. PMID 19095480.. ... Although in utero transmission is likely the predominant method of disease spread amount the L. infantum Mon1 strain, it is ... Transmission[edit]. Traditionally, canine transmission is directly from sandfly to dog. Cases in the United States have proven ...
"Current Infectious Disease Reports. 19 (4): 18. doi:10.1007/s11908-017-0576-7. PMC 5382184. PMID 28382547.. ... Bleach wipes containing 0.55% sodium hypochlorite have been shown to kill the spores and prevent transmission.[58] Installing ... "Clinical Infectious Diseases. 55 Suppl 2: S65-70. doi:10.1093/cid/cis319. PMC 3388017. PMID 22752867.. ... "Clinical Infectious Diseases. 55 Suppl 2: S93-103. doi:10.1093/cid/cis499. PMC 3388031. PMID 22752871.. ...
"Chronic Wasting Disease and Potential Transmission to Humans" (PDF). Emerging Infectious Diseases. CDC. 10 (6): 977-984. doi: ... Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a neurological disease and has been found in a growing percentage of deer and elk in certain ... Although there have been reports in the popular press of humans being affected by CWD, a study by the Centers for Disease ... ore epidemiologic and laboratory studies are needed to monitor the possibility of such transmissions." The epidemiological ...
"Epidemiology and Transmission Dynamics of West Nile Virus Disease". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 11 (8): 1167-1173. doi: ... Like other mosquito-born infectious diseases, there is concern that climate change will increase the spread and replication of ... 2003). "West Nile Virus Infection in Crocodiles". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 9 (7): 887-89. doi:10.3201/eid0907.020816. PMC ... It can occur in outbreaks of disease. Severe disease may also occur in horses, for which a vaccine is available. A surveillance ...
Majumder, Maimuna S. (Maimuna Shahnaz) (2018). Modeling transmission heterogeneity for infectious disease outbreaks (Thesis ... Her Ph.D. thesis focused on modeling disease transmission dynamics during real-world outbreaks, taking into account that there ... and to think about the basic reproduction number of an infectious disease as a mean of a random variable. While at ... The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 17 (4): 361-362. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30122-6. ISSN 1473-3099. PMID 28346168. "Social ...
2005). "Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of West Nile Virus Disease". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 11 (8): 1167-73. doi: ... 2002). "Introduction of West Nile virus in the Middle East by migrating White Storks". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 8 (4): 392 ... Infectious Diseases. 23 (3): 147-56. doi:10.1007/s10096-003-1085-1. PMID 14986160. S2CID 24372103. Malkinson, Mertyn; Banet, ... Avian Diseases. 47 (2): 506-12. doi:10.1637/0005-2086(2003)047[0506:CFIFWS]2.0.CO;2. PMID 12887215. Sitko, J.; Heneberg, P. ( ...
"Vector Blood Meals and Chagas Disease Transmission Potential, United States". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 18 (4): 646-649. ... This behaviour causes disease or the likelihood of disease that varies with the organism: Chagas disease in humans, dourine and ... This is a contagious disease and can be transmitted through a number of ways: congenital transmission, blood transfusion, organ ... Chagas disease undergoes two phases, which are the acute and the chronic phase. The acute phase can last from two weeks to two ...
In 1992 she obtained her PhD from Imperial College London for a thesis on the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases. ... where she leads a team of infectious disease epidemiologists. She has undertaken research on various infectious diseases, ... She has performed research on the transmission dynamics of various infectious diseases, including malaria, influenza and COVID- ... Heterogeneity and the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases (PhD thesis). Imperial College London. EThOS ...
"Chronic Wasting Disease and Potential Transmission to Humans". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Emerging Infectious ... Examples of these diseases are hemorrhagic disease (HD), epizootic hemorrhagic disease and bluetongue viruses, which are ... Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the country and is found in twelve states in Eastern America. In 2009, ... Another issue that exists with high deer density is the spreading of infectious diseases. Increased deer populations lead to ...
Inter-Agency Task Force for the Management of Emerging Infectious Diseases (Philippines) ... Transmission of COVID-19. *Treatment and management of COVID-19. U. *List of unproven methods against COVID-19 ...
The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 184 (5): 582-90. doi:10.1086/322803. ISSN 0022-1899. JSTOR 30137322. PMID 11474432.. ... "Transmission". Retrieved 24 Oct 2017.. *^ Baucells, B.J.; Mercadal Hally, M.; Álvarez Sánchez, A.T.; Figueras Aloy, J ... Diseases and symptoms[edit]. Pneumonia is the most common of the S. pneumoniae diseases which include symptoms such as fever ... 16: Pneumococcal Disease". In Atkinson W; Wolfe S; Hamborsky J. Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases ( ...
Infectious diseasesEdit. Imaging infections with molecular imaging technologies can improve diagnosis and treatment follow-up. ... transmission scans directly measure attenuation values at 511keV.[52] Attenuation occurs when photons emitted by the ... The concept of emission and transmission tomography was introduced by David E. Kuhl, Luke Chapman and Roy Edwards in the late ... Cardiology, atherosclerosis and vascular disease study: In clinical cardiology, FDG-PET can identify so-called "hibernating ...
Jones RM, Brosseau LM (May 2015). "Aerosol transmission of infectious disease". Journal of Occupational and Environmental ... "Ebola Virus Disease". SRHD. Retrieved 15 September 2020.. *^ a b c d "Q&A on Transmission, Ebola". Centers for Disease Control ... "Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Transmission". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 5 November 2014. Archived from the ... in countries without widespread Ebola disease transmission: direct contact with a person showing symptoms of the disease while ...
The results of this research was used as a model for Kashin-Beck disease. Kashin-Beck is a result of combinatorial ... Transmission electron micrograph of a mesenchymal stem cell displaying typical ultrastructural characteristics. ... The disease has symptoms similar to those resulting from Trsp gene knockout.[12] ... a putative model for Kashin-Beck disease". PLOS Genet. 5 (8): e1000616. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000616. PMC 2721633. PMID ...
European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases *^ Garrison, Fielding H. (1966). History of Medicine. ... Robert Koch's discoveries around 1880 of the transmission of disease by bacteria, and then the discovery of antibiotics around ... past infectious diseases or vaccinations, history of known allergies. ... listen)) is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.[4][5] The word "medicine" is ...
The risk of infectious transmission increases with the duration of tick attachment.[23] It requires between 36 and 48 hours of ... Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is an infectious disease caused by the Borrelia bacterium which is spread by ... clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 43 (9): 1089-134. ... Further information: Weather and climate effects on Lyme disease exposure. Transmission[edit]. Lyme disease is classified as a ...
... and the widespread transmission of infectious diseases spread through livestock and crops.[8] Humans both create and destroy ... states that the megafaunal die-off was due to an indirect transmission of diseases by newly arriving aboriginal humans.[118][ ... Disease has to be very virulent to kill off all the individuals in a genus or species, and even such a virulent disease as West ... DiseaseEdit. See also: Decline in amphibian populations, White nose syndrome, Colony collapse disorder, and Pesticide toxicity ...
Transmission from person to person has been established, presenting a disease risk for healthcare workers. The virus is present ... Researchers at the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases facility, where military biologists ... Emerging Infectious Diseases. 6. 16: 1040-41. doi:10.3201/eid1606.100080.. *. Branco, Luis M.; Grove, Jessica N.; Boisen, Matt ... The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 184 (3): 345-349. doi:10.1086/322033. PMID 11443561.. ...
These pollutants can cause gastrointestinal cancers and greater vulnerability to infectious diseases.[102] They can also be ... Cranford, T.W.; Krysl, P.; Hildebrand, J.A. (2008). "Acoustic pathways revealed: simulated sound transmission and reception in ... Nummela, Sirpa; Thewissen, J.G.M; Bajpai, Sunil; Hussain, Taseer; Kumar, Kishor (2007). "Sound transmission in archaic and ...
"Infectious Diseases Related to Travel". Yellow Book. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on ... The evolutionary origins of yellow fever most likely lie in Africa, with transmission of the disease from nonhuman primates to ... Mitchell misdiagnosed the disease that he observed and treated, and the disease was probably Weil's disease or hepatitis. See: ... International Society for Infectious Diseases. Archived from the original on 16 February 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2017.. ...
... public health professional and diplomat known for his work in the field of Infectious Diseases[1][2] and HIV/AIDS in particular ... which has led to significant delay in care-seeking behavior of the infected mother and led to significant transmission of HIV ... In 2015, Sarkar joined the World Health Organization (WHO) as the Director of Communicable diseases for its South East Asian ... He retired as the Director of Communicable diseases at the World Health Organization, South East Asia regional Office (WHO ...
This family includes Infectious flacherie virus and SeIV-1 virus. Another virus is Nora virus from Drosophila melanogaster. ... Transmission routes are fecal-oral, contact, ingestion, and air borne particles. Picornaviruses have a viral protein (VPg) ... Partial crystal structures for VPgs of foot and mouth disease virus and coxsackie virus B3 suggest that there may be two sites ... In 1897, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the first animal virus, was discovered. FMDV is the prototypic member of the ...
Jacobs Altman, Linda (1998). Plague and Pestilence: A History of Infectious Disease. United States: Enslow Publishing. ISBN 978 ... The medical community and others in 1793 did not understand the role of mosquitoes in the transmission of yellow fever, malaria ... Mitchell misdiagnosed the disease that he observed and treated, and that the disease was probably Weil's disease, or hepatitis ... Like all hospitals of that time, the Pennsylvania Hospital did not admit patients with infectious diseases. ...
Exposure to respiratory infectious diseases like tuberculosis (caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and influenza can be ... Annual TB testing is no longer recommended unless there is a known exposure or ongoing transmission at a healthcare facility. ... exposure to infectious diseases and hazardous substances leading to illness or death, and in some countries threat of ... is the first-line mode of protection for healthcare workers from infectious diseases. For it to be effective against highly ...
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases, 2018; Abr 1, pp: 1951936. DOI: 10.1155/2018/1951936. ISSN: 2090-6625 [Consulta: 15 abril ... Skotarczak, BI «The role of ticks in transmission cycle of Toxoplasma gondii» (en anglès). Ann Parasitol, 2016 Oct 1; 62 (3), ... Hinze-Selch, D «Toxoplasma gondii infection and neuropsychiatric disease: current insight» (en anglès). Reports in Parasitolog ... Wallon M, Peyron F «Congenital Toxoplasmosis: A Plea for a Neglected Disease» (en anglès). Pathogens, 2018 Feb 23; 7 (1), pii: ...
Infectious diseases - viral systemic diseases (A80-B34, 042-079). Oncovirus. DNA virus. HBV Hepatocellular carcinoma. HPV ... "Potential transmission of human polyomaviruses through the gastrointestinal tract after exposure to virions or viral DNA". J. ... Zu Rhein, G.M.; Chou, S.M. (1965). "Particles Resembling Papova Viruses in Human Cerebral Demyelinating Disease". Science. 148 ... Zurhein, G; Chou, S. M. (1965). "Particles Resembling Papova Viruses in Human Cerebral Demyelinating Disease". Science. 148 ( ...
"for the discovery of پنی‌سیلین and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"[۴۶] ... "for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"[۴۴] ۱۹۴۴ جوزف ارلنگر[۱] United States "for their ... "for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"[۶۲] ...
"Emerging Infectious Diseases. 6 (5): 543-547. doi:10.3201/eid0605.000517. PMC 2627956. PMID 10998388.. ... Jensen, P.M.; Magnussen, E. (2015). "Is it too cold for Leptospira interrrogans transmission on the Faroese Islands?". ... DiseasesEdit. Similar to other rodents, brown rats may carry a number of pathogens,[83] which can result in disease, including ... Plagues & Poxes: The Impact of Human History on Epidemic Disease, Demos Medical Publishing, 2004, ISBN 978-1-888799-79-8, p. 23 ...
Hurons were devastated by European infectious diseases, such as measles and smallpox, to which they had no immunity.[35] By ... OPG is not, however, responsible for the transmission of power, which is under the control of Hydro One. Despite its diverse ... The approvals process for transmission projects would also be streamlined and (for the first time in Ontario) the bill would ...
NAT - National Cancer Institute (NCI) - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) - National Institute of ... pelvic inflammatory disease - peptide - perianal - perinatal - perinatal transmission - peripheral neuritis - peripheral ... efficacy - empirical - encephalitis - end-stage disease - endemic - endogenous - endoscopy - endotoxin - endpoint - enteric - ... HIV disease - HIV prevention trials network (HPTN) - HIV set point - HIV vaccine trials network (HVTN) - HIV-1 - HIV-2 - HIV- ...
These are infectious RNA- or DNA-containing viruses which are transmitted from individual to individual. ... addressing treatment options for various diseases.[3][12] Retroviral mutations can be developed to make transgenic mouse models ... "Cell-to-cell transmission of retroviruses: Innate immunity and interferon-induced restriction factors". Virology. 411 (2): 251 ... although endogenous retroviruses have not yet been proven to play any causal role in this class of disease.[8] ...
For over a century, the Institut Pasteur has been at the forefront of the battle against infectious disease. This worldwide ... His insight into the mode of transmission occurred while he was visiting the hospital: patients were washed and given clean ... Pasteur scientists also help to monitor epidemics and control outbreaks of infectious diseases throughout the world. These ... The Institut Pasteur and Robert Koch's Institute for Infectious Diseases compared," in Andrew Cunningham and Perry Williams, ...
Risser, Jan M.H., Risser, William L., Risser, Amanda (December 2008). "Epidemiology of Infections in Women", Infectious Disease ... transmission, although transmission is possible through vaginal and cervical secretions. The highest rate of transmission of ... Transmission of specific sexually transmitted diseases among women who have sex with women depends on the sexual practices ... Gollmann, Wilhelm (1855). The Homeopathic Guide, In All Diseases of the Urinary and Sexual Organs, Including the Derangements ...
This process would be similar to the secretion and transmission of infectious particles through the synaptic cleft between ... In Diseases of the cardiac pump (1st ed., Vol. 7, pp. 59-61). Paris: Springer. Gabrilovich, D. (2013). Mechanisms of neutrophil ... In Vascular endothelium in health and disease (Vol. 242, pp. 3-5). New York City, New York: Plenum Press. Capillaries. (n.d.). ... This method is especially useful in cell-to-cell propagation of infectious cytosolic protein aggregates. In one study, protein ...
Cross-species transmission. *Emerging infectious disease - Infectious disease of emerging pathogen, often novel in its outbreak ... Infectious disease. Major modern diseases such as Ebola virus disease and salmonellosis are zoonoses. HIV was a zoonotic ... A zoonosis (plural zoonoses, or zoonotic diseases) is an infectious disease caused by a pathogen (an infectious agent, such as ... Lists of diseasesEdit. Disease[28]. Pathogen(s) Animals involved Mode of transmission Emergence ...
At this time, there were still debates about the transmission of the disease. The Leprosy Mission were heartened to find that ... This was the first document concerning believed infectious aspect of the disease.[52] Japan passed leprosy prevention laws in ... which can mean any disease causing scaly skin) in the Septuagint. While the condition may sometimes be a symptom of the disease ... The word leprosy comes from ancient Greek Λέπρα [léprā], "a disease that makes the skin scaly", in turn, a nominal derivation ...
Initially successful at combating infectious diseases, the effectiveness of the socialized model declined with underinvestment ... In 2016, Thailand became the first country in Asia to eliminate HIV transmission from mother to child, owing to its robust ... As hospital facilities in the country are limited, patients with diseases that cannot be treated in Bhutan, such as cancer, are ... "Thailand eliminates mother-to-child HIV transmission". CNN. Retrieved February 5, 2018.. ...
"Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy. Retrieved 30 December 2014.. *^ "WHO - Recommended composition of influenza ... However, other hosts appear capable of similar coinfection (e.g., many poultry species), and direct transmission of avian ... "Center for infectious Disease Research and Policy. 21 Feb 2013. Retrieved 2 October 2013.. ... "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 29 January 2018.. ...
A number of infectious diseases can sometimes cause ALS-like symptoms,[4] including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T ... Journal of Neural Transmission. 125 (4): 591-613. doi:10.1007/s00702-018-1851-y. PMID 29417336.. ... Disease Primers. 3 (17071): 17071. doi:10.1038/nrdp.2017.71. PMID 28980624.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v van ... Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neurone disease (MND) or Lou Gehrig's disease, is a specific disease ...
Infectious disease: Tough choices to reduce Ebola transmission. * Christopher J. M. Whitty2, ... The force of transmission of a disease outbreak is quantified as R, the average number of people infected by each newly ... W. John Edmunds is professor of infectious-disease modelling at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, UK.. *W. John ... Transmission occurs through bodily fluids: diarrhoea, vomit, blood and probably sweat and semen. Patients become infectious ...
A high-resolution human contact network for infectious disease transmission. Marcel Salathé, Maria Kazandjieva, Jung Woo Lee, ... A high-resolution human contact network for infectious disease transmission. Marcel Salathé, Maria Kazandjieva, Jung Woo Lee, ... A high-resolution human contact network for infectious disease transmission. Marcel Salathé, Maria Kazandjieva, Jung Woo Lee, ... A high-resolution human contact network for infectious disease transmission Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ...
... the infectious disease H7N9 transmission. In order to aid analysis and modeling of the flocking and the disease transmission, ... Moreover, these infectious diseases may be transmitted to the human such as the infectious disease H7N9 which is spreading in ... flocking birds and its effect on the infectious disease spread from the viewpoint of the transmission of the infectious disease ... Research on an Infectious Disease Transmission by Flocking Birds. Mingsheng Tang,1,2 Xinjun Mao,1 and Zahia Guessoum2 ...
Here we evaluate evidence that reduced biodiversity affects the transmission of infectious diseases of humans, other animals ... Felicia Keesing and colleagues review the evidence that reduced biodiversity affects the transmission of infectious diseases of ... In principle, loss of biodiversity could either increase or decrease disease transmission. However, mounting evidence indicates ... they conclude that the evidence that biodiversity exerts a protective effect on infectious diseases is sufficiently strong to ...
Outbreak: Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Disease grants support research on disease transmission. ... the evolution and spread of virulent infectious diseases, the macroecology of infectious disease, and the persistence of foot- ... The benefits of research on the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases include development of theories about how diseases ... and-mouth disease.. Tackling the infectious diseases that threaten the health of humans and livestock is a critical need, ...
Infectious disease transmission in fish, mammals, other animals has implications for humans. ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. ... Leishmaniasis is a neglected and poorly reported disease with an underestimated or undetermined burden in most countries of the ...
Environmental change and infectious disease: How new roads affect the transmission of diarrheal pathogens in rural Ecuador. ... Environmental change and infectious disease: How new roads affect the transmission of diarrheal pathogens in rural Ecuador ... Environmental change and infectious disease: How new roads affect the transmission of diarrheal pathogens in rural Ecuador ... Environmental change and infectious disease: How new roads affect the transmission of diarrheal pathogens in rural Ecuador ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M ... The number of HIV-infected women is steadily increasing, as is the transmission of the ... ...
Autochthonous transmission of the Chagas disease parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, was detected in a patient in rural New Orleans, ... Autochthonous Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, Louisiana. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):605. doi:10.3201/ ... risk for Chagas disease transmission is associated with longer residence in disease-endemic areas), lack of other risk factors ... Autochthonous transmission of the Chagas disease parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, was detected in a patient in rural New Orleans, ...
Norwegian Computing Center develop stochastic simulation models to describe how infectious diseases are transmitted between ... fish farms, including models for infectious salmon anaemia, pancras disease and sea lice. ... Infectious diseases constitute a constant threat to the Norwegian fish farming industry with major economic implications, in ... Modeling transmission of infectious diseases in aquaculture Modeling transmission of infectious diseases in aquaculture ...
AASLD, IDSA, IAS-USA guidelines: HCV risk & transmission. Take Quiz. AASLD, IDSA, IAS-USA guidelines: HCV tests & interpreting ... AASLD, IDSA, IAS-USA guidelines: HCV risk & transmission. Take Quiz. AASLD, IDSA, IAS-USA guidelines: HCV tests & interpreting ... From AIDS 2018: PrEP use and transmission of HIV in the US. Take Quiz. ...
... outbreak in southern Argentina found evidence of person-to-person transmission of a hantavirus. The infection control ... Hantavirus Transmission in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1997;3(3):361-365. doi:10.3201/eid0303.970314.. ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, * National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Office of ... Emerging Infectious Disease journal ISSN: 1080-6059 Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For this ...
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, * National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Office of ... Emerging Infectious Disease journal ISSN: 1080-6059 Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For this ... Campylobacter has been isolated from flies, and the low infectious dose required to cause human disease would make this route ... Within-family transmission. (93). Person-to-person transmission can occur.. No obvious reason explains why within-household ...
The following factors are needed to reduce risk for M. tuberculosis transmission in the captive elephant industry: increased ... tuberculosis and delayed or inadequate infection control practices likely contributed to transmission. ... Elephant-to-Human Transmission of Tuberculosis, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(3):366-371. doi:10.3201/ ... This statement was endorsed by the Council of the Infectious Disease Society of America, September 1999. Am J Respir Crit Care ...
Transmission,Of,Infectious,Disease,On,Planes,Analyzed,,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters, ... Transmission Of Infectious Disease On Planes Analyzed Based on findings of a recent study researchers say people arent the ... ... Reducing HIV Transmission. 2. Drugs said to Reduce HIV Transmission to Baby. 3. Drug Found To Reduce The Transmission Of Herpes ... which has been proven to reduce the transmission of airborne and other infectious diseases be followed by passengers and they ...
... *. [ Not Yet Rated ] [ Discuss This Article ... disease transmission. However, mounting evidence indicates that biodiversity loss frequently increases disease transmission. In ... Here we evaluate evidence that reduced biodiversity affects the transmission of infectious diseases of humans, other animals ... Fibromyalgia Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & M.E. Lyme Disease Natural Wellness Supplement News Forums Our Story ...
The statements, opinions and data contained in the journal Water are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publisher and the editor(s ...
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People ... MDR TB Transmission, Singapore Cynthia B.E. Chee. , Li-Yang Hsu, Li-Hwei Sng, Yee-Sin Leo, Jeffery Cutter, and Yee-Tang Wang ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. ... the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for ...
Most infectious disease surveillance maintains a single-disease focus, but broader testing of existing serologic surveys with ... where integrated surveillance could add more value to public health efforts than the current trend of independent disease ... range from undervaccination to emerging pathogens to multilayered health disparities that span diverse communicable diseases. ... are unique among biomarkers in their ability to identify persons with protective immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases and ...
Read chapter 3 Understanding Infectious Disease Transmission in Urban Built Environments: The urban built environment is a ... 3 Understanding Infectious Disease Transmission in Urban Built Environments 17-34 * 4 Translating Conceptual Models of ... Infectious Diseases in the Built Environment: Proceedings of a Workshop (2018) Chapter: 3 Understanding Infectious Disease ... Understanding Infectious Disease Transmission in Urban Built Environments. Session 1 of the workshop focused on potential ...
An appropriate quantification of the transmission potential requires the estimation of the cohort generation time during the ... Although the generation time of an infectious disease plays a key role in estimating its transmission potential, the impact of ... N. C. Grassly and C. Fraser, Mathematical models of infectious disease transmission,, Nat. Rev. Microbiol., 6 (2008), 477. ... N. C. Grassly and C. Fraser, Mathematical models of infectious disease transmission,, Nat. Rev. Microbiol., 6 (2008), 477. ...
... an effective vaccine targeting strain-specific components of the Lyme disease spirochete can neutralize bacteria within the ... HIV and Emerging Infectious Diseases*Partnership for Access to Clinical Trials (PACT)*Meet the PACT Team ... Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases*Office of the Director. *Office of Biodefense Research Resources and ... There are many different strains of the bacterium that can cause Lyme disease in people following transmission from feeding ...
Scientists from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health ( ... Two experimental vaccines can restrict Zika virus transmission from pregnant mice to their fetuses and can prevent Zika virus- ... Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases*Office of the Director. *Office of Biodefense Research Resources and ... Scientists from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health ( ...
With the large number of people who travel frequently from New York City to active Zika virus transmission areas, DOHMH has ... "It will be fundamental to developing prevention and treatment strategies against the disease." ... will implement a sentinel surveillance system to detect cases of local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus for the ... and the temporal lag between viremia and disease diagnosis in an infected patient, DOHMH is augmenting its mosquito control ...
... ... Protecting against infectious disease transmission during equipment maintenance: lessons from the 2003 SARS outbreak. Health ... Protecting against infectious disease transmission during equipment maintenance: lessons from the 2003 SARS outbreak. Health ... This is to ensure the safety of personnel and to minimize disease transmission. However, if you must enter the room, follow ...
My research focuses on dynamic transmission models for infectious diseases. I am currently working on several topics. One study ... Mass action and contact network models for social mixing in infectious disease transmission modeling. ... The way people interact is crucial to understand the path taken by a disease in order to assess efficient con-tainment ... She will link for the first time two different mathematical models to simulate person-to-person disease spread, one assuming ...
Experts in Their Field Shed Light on the Disparities of Infectious Disease Transmission in Rural and Urban Areas with ... COVID-19 CHHS Webinar Series: Rural Populations and Infectious Disease Transmission: Implications for COVID-19. June 24, 2020 ... "There are distinct strengths and vulnerabilities rural communities face when combatting infectious disease transmission," ... Geographic disparities are common in infectious diseases due to contrasting industries that drive the economy in rural and ...
With this in mind, this review considers the commonly used term of aerosol transmission in the context of some infectious ... and airborne transmission which is meant by most authors to be synonymous with aerosol transmission, although some use the term ... It also discusses other agents, like influenza virus, where the potential for airborne transmission is much more dependent on ... The concept and definition of aerosols is also discussed, as is the concept of large droplet transmission, ...
The potential for transmission of infectious diseases in the outpatient setting is an increasingly important concern as more ( ... Review: Infectious disease transmission in outpatient settings is associated with nonadherence to infection control procedures ... Transmission of infectious diseases in outpatient health care settings. JAMA. 1991 May 8;265:2377-81. ... Most of the reported transmissions of infectious diseases in outpatient settings were associated with nonadherence to 1 of 3 ...
  • In 1996, investigation of a hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) outbreak in southern Argentina found evidence of person-to-person transmission of a hantavirus. (
  • A case-control study performed early in the outbreak showed that high density peridomestic rodent populations were a key risk factor for disease (1) , a finding consistent with knowledge of Old World hantaviruses (including Puumala, Seoul, Hantaan, and Dobrava viruses), which can cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans who inhale aerosolized excreta from infected rodents (2) . (
  • When person-to-person transmission of a hantavirus was suggested by the results of an HPS outbreak investigation in southern Argentina (3) , we reviewed the epidemiology of HPS in the United States for evidence of nosocomial or secondary transmission. (
  • To determine the extent of the outbreak, identify risk factors for TST conversion among humans, and develop strategies to prevent ongoing zoonotic transmission, we conducted an investigation. (
  • Concerns about the COVID-19 coronavirus outbreak-first detected in China, in late 2019-have prompted ECRI Institute to reissue some of its past guidance related to infectious disease outbreaks. (
  • During the initial outbreak, 774 deaths were attributed to the disease. (
  • In the case of SARS, transmission of the disease was quickly controlled, and the outbreak was declared over by July 2003. (
  • Nevertheless, concern existed that SARS could in fact be a seasonal disease and that another outbreak could occur in later years. (
  • As the authors acknowledge, the conclusions that can be drawn are limited by biases that affect whether an infectious outbreak is reported, including, among others, the ease of documentation of specific organisms involved, the degree of interest in the circumstances or etiologic agent, and the number of persons involved. (
  • Person-to-person transmission of ANDV Sout lineage was described during an outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southwest Argentina. (
  • The study, which was published in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B , found that the risk of a disease outbreak is highest if the HRE occurs early in the transmission season, or the period of time when mosquitos are able to pass on the virus to humans. (
  • Using a simulation framework for viral transmission and evolution and real data from ten HCV outbreaks, we demonstrate that error-correction with TreeFix-TP improves phylogenetic accuracy and outbreak source detection. (
  • This model simulates the infectious disease outbreak dynamics in a population influenced by different transmission rate, mortality, and human mobility. (
  • Without adequate instrument sterilization, virus transmission can continue and amplify an outbreak. (
  • However, transmission trees from one outbreak do not generalize to future outbreaks. (
  • A simulation study confirms that this leads to more efficient estimates of hazard ratios for infectiousness and baseline hazards of infectious contact, and we use these methods to analyze data from a foot-and-mouth disease virus outbreak in the United Kingdom in 2001. (
  • The modeling of infectious diseases is a tool that has been used to study the mechanisms by which diseases spread, to predict the future course of an outbreak and to evaluate strategies to control an epidemic. (
  • The most frequent infectious diseases in humans-and those with the highest potential for rapid pandemic spread-are usually transmitted via droplets during close proximity interactions (CPIs). (
  • Here we evaluate evidence that reduced biodiversity affects the transmission of infectious diseases of humans, other animals and plants. (
  • Changes in biodiversity have the potential to affect the risk of infectious disease exposure in plants and animals-including humans-because infectious diseases by definition involve interactions among species. (
  • Projects funded through the EEID program allow scientists to study how large-scale environmental events--such as habitat destruction, invasions of non-native species and pollution--alter the risks of emergence of viral, parasitic and bacterial diseases in humans and other animals. (
  • This year's EEID projects bring together multiple scientific fields to address how human and natural processes influence infectious diseases in humans and other animals, including diseases that affect wildlife and agriculture, as well as those of significant public health concern in the developing world,' says Christine Jessup, EEID program director at NIH's Fogarty Center. (
  • Tackling the infectious diseases that threaten the health of humans and livestock is a critical need, especially in the face of a growing global human population expected to reach 9 billion by 2050,' says Douglas Kell, BBSRC chief executive. (
  • Zoonotic transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from elephants to humans working in close proximity was described in the late 1990s. (
  • R. M. Anderson and R. M. May, "Infectious Diseases of Humans: Dynamics and Control,", Oxford University Press , (1991). (
  • Because of the known potential for Aedes mosquitoes to transmit Zika virus among humans, the anticipated large number of imported human cases into NYC, and the temporal lag between viremia and disease diagnosis in an infected patient, DOHMH is augmenting its mosquito control program, specifically source control, as well as larviciding and adult mosquito control," Dr. Christopher T. Lee and his associates wrote in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (
  • Despite the fact that rodents are considered to be the infectious source of hantavirus for humans, another route of transmission was demonstrated. (
  • Many of the most common primary pathogens of humans only infect humans, however many serious diseases are caused by organisms acquired from the environment or which infect non-human hosts. (
  • In this situation the abundance of mosquitoes typically results in transmission of the virus to humans, when infected mosquitoes are forced to seek blood meals outside their natural targets. (
  • Type B influenza viruses normally infect only humans, but have not caused pandemics (global outbreaks of disease). (
  • As long as creatures continue to thrive on this planet, infectious diseases will always be pose a serious risk to the well-being of those creatures, including humans. (
  • If soil or water bodies are polluted with fecal material, humans can be infected with waterborne diseases or soil-transmitted diseases . (
  • Ebola, previously known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a severe, most often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates. (
  • Reston ebolavirus, has caused disease in nonhuman primates but not in humans. (
  • Since it is unknown whether chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy among deer (similar to mad cow disease, scientifically known as bovine spongiform encephalopathy), can pass from deer to humans through the consumption of venison, there have been some fears of dangerous contamination of the food supply from wild deer carrying CWD. (
  • The construction of a new road in a previously roadless area of northern coastal Ecuador provides a valuable natural experiment to examine how changes in the social and natural environment, mediated by road construction, affect the epidemiology of diarrheal diseases. (
  • The impact on the epidemiology and the transmission patterns of TB need to be captured and understood to adapt TB control strategies. (
  • Epidemiology , the study of the patterns, causes, and effects of health and disease conditions in populations, is an important part of medical microbiology, although the clinical aspect of the field primarily focuses on the presence and growth of microbial infections in individuals, their effects on the human body, and the methods of treating those infections. (
  • Epidemiology is another important tool used to study disease in a population. (
  • The epidemiology of Ross River virus (RRv) disease illustrates the varying effect of climatic phenomena on a complex infectious disease transmission cycle. (
  • We use an agent-based model to simulate TB epidemiology in the five highest TB burden countries-India, Indonesia, China, the Philippines and Pakistan-providing unique insights into patterns of transmission and disease. (
  • Dynamic transmission models are increasingly being used to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of healthcare-associated infections (HCAI). (
  • The exact risk for infection associated with organ or tissue transplantation is unknown but is related to multiple factors, including epidemiology of specific infectious exposures, tissue tropism of the organism, and transmissibility of potential pathogens through transplantation. (
  • Provides essential understanding of current and future epidemics * Presents a crossover perspective for disciplines in the medical and social sciences and public policy, including public health, infectious diseases, population science, epidemiology, microbiology, food safety, defense preparedness and humanitarian relief * Creates a new perspective on ecology based on the interaction of microbes and human activities. (
  • The combination of survival analysis and algorithms linking phylogenies to transmission trees is a rigorous but flexible statistical foundation for molecular infectious disease epidemiology. (
  • On the one hand, high biodiversity may provide a larger potential source of novel pathogens, but on the other hand, biodiversity can reduce further pathogen transmission for both long-established and newly emerging diseases. (
  • Researchers supported by the EEID program are advancing basic theory related to infectious diseases, and improving understanding of how pathogens spread through populations at a time of increasing environmental change. (
  • Given the increasing number of emerging pathogens recently identified, there is an urgent need to understand how environmental change influences disease burden. (
  • Antibodies are unique among biomarkers in their ability to identify persons with protective immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases and to measure past exposure to diverse pathogens. (
  • Throughout, we illustrate how information generated through integrated surveillance platforms can create new opportunities to more quickly and precisely identify global health program gaps that range from undervaccination to emerging pathogens to multilayered health disparities that span diverse communicable diseases. (
  • Robust disease surveillance is a cornerstone of global health efforts that range from detecting emerging pathogens and epidemics to the control or elimination of vaccine-preventable diseases, HIV, malaria, and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) ( ) ( 2 - 4 ). (
  • Antibody response provides an objective and sensitive way to uncover immunization coverage gaps or waning immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases ( 5 - 7 ) and monitor a population's exposure to malaria ( 8 ), enteric pathogens ( 9 - 12 ), and many NTDs ( 13 - 17 ). (
  • David Smith, professor of global health at the University of Washington, explored the migration and movement of pathogens through pathways within, into, and out of urban centers, highlighting a project that mapped the transmission of malaria using cellular phone data in Kenya. (
  • In a new study published in PLoS Pathogens , scientists at NIAID's Rocky Mountain Laboratories studied the impact of the infection history of the mammalian host upon Lyme disease spirochetes within a feeding tick. (
  • Some responses to the latter have attempted to put these theoretical risks in a more practical light [ 4 ], and this nicely illustrates the quandary of how to classify such emerging or re-emerging pathogens into either the large droplet (short-range) versus airborne (short and possibly long-range) transmission categories. (
  • KRISP Researcher and Fulbright scholar Dr. Eduan Wilkinson news from the US: HiPerGator supercomputer is enabling infectious disease transmission research in UF's Emerging Pathogens Institute. (
  • By analyzing sequences we can construct relationships between pathogens so we can see what's driving the transmission. (
  • A medical microbiologist studies the characteristics of pathogens , their modes of transmission, mechanisms of infection and growth. (
  • The fact is many infectious pathogens (germs, bacteria, viruses) can remain viable-alive and able to infect-in the air far beyond 48 hours, even weeks in certain circumstances. (
  • pathogens are able to cause disease in animals and/or plants. (
  • Infectious disease results from the interplay between those few pathogens and the defenses of the hosts they infect. (
  • Infectious microorganisms, or microbes, are therefore classified as either primary pathogens or as opportunistic pathogens according to the status of host defenses. (
  • Organisms which cause an infectious disease in a host with depressed resistance are classified as opportunistic pathogens . (
  • Primary pathogens may also cause more severe disease in a host with depressed resistance than would normally occur in an immunosufficient host. (
  • Traditional compartmental approaches to modelling infectious diseases, while powerful, often require simplifying assumptions about the characteristics of both pathogens and populations. (
  • The fecal-oral route (also called the oral-fecal route or orofecal route ) describes a particular route of transmission of a disease wherein pathogens in fecal particles pass from one person to the mouth of another person. (
  • We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse bacterial, protozoal, viral, that incorporate multiple transmission strategies vector-borne, environmental exposure-ingestion, and direct contact, and that vary in species-specificity. (
  • Research programs can use advanced microbiological technologies to define infectious risks posed by pathogens that are known to be transplant transmissible and provide insights into transmission potential of emerging infectious diseases for which transmission characteristics are unknown. (
  • Similarly, with regard to new pathogens or pathogens that are found in new regions or populations, i.e., emerging pathogens, there are few data regarding optimal approaches to assessing risks of allograft-associated transmission. (
  • Recent work has attempted to use whole-genome sequence data from pathogens to reconstruct the transmission trees linking infectors and infectees in outbreaks. (
  • The Chapter 8 entitled 'Risk of infectious disease transmission' elaborates the medical history and behavioral history of infection risk of asymptomatic donors, basic screening highlights of various types of infections, transmission risk, prevention and control strategies of various pathogens. (
  • Mechanical vs Biological Transmission of Pathogens. (
  • Aerosol transmission is biologically plausible when infectious aerosols are generated by or from an infectious person, the pathogen remains viable in the environment for some period of time, and the target tissues in which the pathogen initiates infection are accessible to the aerosol. (
  • Only 5 autochthonous cases of infection with the Chagas disease parasite have been reported in the United States: 3 in infants in Texas ( 2 , 3 ), 1 in an infant in Tennessee ( 4 ), and 1 in a 56-year-old woman in California ( 5 ). (
  • Indirect exposure to aerosolized M. tuberculosis and delayed or inadequate infection control practices likely contributed to transmission. (
  • The following factors are needed to reduce risk for M. tuberculosis transmission in the captive elephant industry: increased knowledge about M. tuberculosis infection in elephants, improved infection control practices, and specific occupational health programs. (
  • Another study that examined transmission of SARS during air travel found sitting up to seven rows away could result in infection. (
  • Some studies in the past have indicated that doubling the air exchange could cut the infection risk from tuberculosis in half and using disinfectants to clean the cabin between flights to areas of the world prone to malaria and other vector-borne diseases can help reduce disease transmission. (
  • Yuguo Li, professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Hong Kong, described some of the mechanisms and implications of human exposure to microbes in urban buildings, with a focus on the three major routes of respiratory infection transmission. (
  • Infection history of the blood-meal host dictates pathogenic potential of the Lyme disease spirochete within the feeding tick vector. (
  • ECRI Institute produced a series of articles in 2003 and 2004 discussing the risks associated with SARS, reviewing recommendations from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), discussing the role of hospital facilities staff and clinical engineers in SARS preparations, and updating ECRI's recommendations for infection control procedures during equipment servicing. (
  • Although short-range large-droplet transmission is possible for most respiratory infectious agents, deciding on whether the same agent is also airborne has a potentially huge impact on the types (and costs) of infection control interventions that are required. (
  • To review reports of outbreaks or clusters of infections resulting from transmission in outpatient health care settings and, based on this evidence, to develop potential infection-control and prevention strategies for these settings. (
  • Drug use and transmission of Hepatits C occurs with contaminated needles, which is the most common route of infection with Hepatitis C. (
  • The purpose of this review is to describe the most frequent and relevant nosocomial viral respiratory infections, their mechanisms of transmission and the infection control measures to prevent their spread in the healthcare setting. (
  • The pathogenesis and transmission potential of this virus (CA18), along with two genetically related and widely studied viruses, chicken/California/2002 and chicken/Belize/2008, were evaluated in both 3-week- and 62-week-old chickens given a low, medium, or high challenge dose (10 2 , 10 4 , 10 6 EID50), oculo-nasal infection. (
  • This new evidence of hematogeneous and vertical spread of HPV suggests that these modes of transmission should be investigated in greater detail to obtain a better understanding of the infection and a fuller awareness of the preventive measures that can be taken against HPV-related diseases. (
  • synonymous with an infectious disease, as an infection may not cause important clinical symptoms or impair host function. (
  • Koch's postulates cannot be met ethically for many human diseases because they require experimental infection of a healthy individual with a pathogen produced as a pure culture. (
  • A group based behavioral intervention reduced the sexual risk for HIV infection and transmission by nearly 40% in young transgender women, according to new findings published in JAMA Pediatrics . (
  • Understanding of transmission is limited by the asymptomatic nature of latent infection and the pathogen's capacity for late reactivation. (
  • He holds an honorary appointment with the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, and is an investigator on a Centre of Research Excellence on policy-relevant infectious disease modelling, funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council. (
  • The sanitation and hygiene barriers when placed correctly prevent the transmission of an infection through hands, water and food. (
  • Ebola is a rare and deadly disease caused by infection with a virus of the family Filoviridae, genus Ebolavirus. (
  • Diagnosis of Ebola infection in a infected person is difficult for only a few days because the early symptoms, such as fever, are not specific to Ebola infection and are seen often in patients with more commonly occurring diseases, such as malaria and typhoid fever. (
  • 2019. Insights into exosomes role in disease transmission gained using NanoSight from Malvern . (
  • The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has revealed the global importance of robust diagnostic testing to differentiate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from other routine respiratory infections and guide appropriate clinical management. (
  • Evaluating and testing persons for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). (
  • Emerging Infectious Diseases;26(12):2844-2853, 2020. (
  • More than half of the patients who recovered from COVID-19 experienced persistent fatigue regardless of their disease severity, shows a study presented at ECCVID 2020. (
  • Recent findings Although most mechanisms of transmission and control measures of nosocomial viral infections are already known, improved diagnostic tools allow better characterization of these infections and also lead to the discovery of new viruses such as the coronavirus, which is the cause of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or the human bocavirus. (
  • Newcastle Disease viruses that are virulent for chickens and cause ND are not commonly isolated in the U.S. (
  • bacteria , fungi , parasites and viruses , and one type of infectious protein called prion . (
  • Are There Infectious Agents Simpler Than Viruses? (
  • So what do genes actually do in regards to infectious agents such as bacteria and viruses? (
  • Nosocomial transmissions of dengue viruses by needle stick have been reported in three instances ( 2 - 4 ) and by bone marrow transplant in one instance ( 5 ). (
  • Infectious mononucleosis is caused by viruses. (
  • Transmission in dense urban populations presents challenges never before seen. (
  • Anthropogenic environmental changes that cause populations to move and settle in new ways can provide the opportunity to observe the relationship between environmental change and disease transmission. (
  • For that we prospectively investigated the dynamics of TB transmission between TB high-prevalence immigrant and TB low-prevalence local populations with molecular epidemiological methods and conventional contact investigations. (
  • Linkages of this information to unique features of sub-populations including social behaviour and integration patterns will facilitate the identification of chains of transmission and, ultimately, the design and implementation of appropriate control strategies. (
  • Our study objectives were to prospectively describe the dynamics of TB transmission between immigrant and local populations in one of the federal states of Germany (Baden-Württemberg) with the help of molecular epidemiological tools and traditional contact investigations and to assess transmission in relation to the degree of integration. (
  • 1993). Substantial rainfall from late winter enables early and prolific breeding of Aedes populations and an extended period of virus build-up, thus increasing the transmission potential. (
  • The initial symptoms of Ebola (which may include fever, diarrhoea and vomiting) mimic those of many common diseases, including malaria, pneumonia and gastrointestinal infections. (
  • malaria: Is our interaction with the environment somehow responsible for the increased incidence of these diseases? (
  • ionizing radiation, or as a result of an infectious disease with immunosuppressive activity (such as with measles , malaria or HIV disease ). (
  • The anopheline mosquitoes that carry malaria were present 100 million years ago, new research shows, potentially shedding fresh light on the history of a disease that continues to kill more than 400,000 people annually. (
  • Many of these diseases are vector-borne, including malaria (re-emerging), West Nile virus, Lyme disease, American boutonneuse fever (a new rickettsial disease), and others. (
  • Biological plausibility of aerosol transmission is evaluated for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus and norovirus and discussed for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, influenza, and Ebola virus. (
  • The concept of aerosol transmission is developed to resolve limitations in conventional definitions of airborne and droplet transmission. (
  • Thus in conclusion researchers suggest that simple measures such as frequent hand washing, which has been proven to reduce the transmission of airborne and other infectious diseases be followed by passengers and they also urge the use of HEPA filters on airplanes to further reduce the risk of transmission of infectious diseases. (
  • The concept and definition of aerosols is also discussed, as is the concept of large droplet transmission, and airborne transmission which is meant by most authors to be synonymous with aerosol transmission, although some use the term to mean either large droplet or aerosol transmission. (
  • With this in mind, this review considers the commonly used term of 'aerosol transmission' in the context of some infectious agents that are well-recognized to be transmissible via the airborne route. (
  • It also discusses other agents, like influenza virus, where the potential for airborne transmission is much more dependent on various host, viral and environmental factors, and where its potential for aerosol transmission may be underestimated. (
  • The classification of an infectious agent as airborne and therefore 'aerosol-transmissible' has significant implications for how healthcare workers (HCWs) need to manage patients infected with such agents and what sort of personal protective equipment (PPE) they will need to wear. (
  • 9 instances of airborne or droplet transmission and 1 of person-to-person transmission occurred. (
  • Dental settings were the sites in 13 reports, of which 11 were person-to-person, 1 was common-source, and 1 was airborne or droplet transmission. (
  • Airborne diseases are also spread through direct contact with infected dogs and contact with other contaminated objects. (
  • Infectious diseases (commonly referred to as communicable diseases)-those transmitted from an infected animal or human to another via airborne inhalation, bodily fluids, or food-is still a major threat to humanity. (
  • [2] [3] It can also operate through droplet or airborne transmission through the toilet plume from contaminated toilets. (
  • My research focuses on dynamic transmission models for infectious diseases. (
  • HOUSTON - The brain damage that characterizes Alzheimer's disease may originate in a form similar to that of infectious prion diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow) and Creutzfeldt-Jakob, according to newly published research by The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) . (
  • Mad Cow Disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) is an illness that attacks the brain and spinal cord in adult cattle. (
  • Thus, this study does not permit conclusions regarding the frequency of outpatient transmission of infectious diseases, the specific infections that are most important, the types of patients and providers who are most at risk, or the most appropriate response to the problem. (
  • For these infections, there were 232.2 couple-years of follow-up, 12,447 condomless anal intercourse acts during periods when HIV-positive partners had viral suppression and HIV-negative partners did not use pre-exposure prophylaxis, representing an upper confidence interval limit transmission rate of 1.59 per 100 couple-years of follow-up. (
  • Florida health officials report there have been at least 28 local Zika infections in that locale, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has advised that pregnant women not travel to the area. (
  • Abstract: Infectious diseases impose a significant health and economic burden upon individuals and societies. (
  • The joint National Science Foundation (NSF) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Diseases (EEID) program is providing answers. (
  • The benefits of research on the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases include development of theories about how diseases are transmitted, improved understanding of unintended health effects of development projects, increased capacity to forecast disease outbreaks, and knowledge of how infectious diseases emerge and reemerge. (
  • The study was supported by grant number 1414374 from the National Science Foundation (NSF) as part of the joint NSF-National Institutes of Health-U.S. Department of Agriculture Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Diseases Program. (
  • Does genetics play a critical role in the evolution of infectious diseases? (
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • Serum samples from both residents of the house were tested for antibodies to T . cruzi at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) by an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test. (
  • The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (
  • It will be fundamental to developing prevention and treatment strategies against the disease. (
  • Medical microbiology , the large subset of microbiology that is applied to medicine , is a branch of medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases . (
  • In May of 2018, virulent Newcastle disease virus was detected in sick, backyard, exhibition chickens in southern California. (
  • Viral suppression and HIV transmission in serodiscordant male couples: an international, prospective, observational, cohort study [published online July 16, 2018]. (
  • Infectious diseases constitute a constant threat to the Norwegian fish farming industry with major economic implications, in addition to being a problem for fish welfare and the environment. (
  • Today, infectious and parasitic diseases cause about one-third of deaths and are the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality. (
  • Dietz, K.: Models for vector-borne parasitic diseases. (
  • We are currently working on whether disease transmission can happen in real life under more natural routes of exposure. (
  • The mechanism of SARS-CoV transmission was understood to be associated with close contact with a SARS-infected person or exposure to large-droplet secretions from an infected person's cough or sneeze. (
  • The highest rates of sexual transmission are associated with multiple sex partners, and the increased risk may be associated with traumatic sex that results in blood exposure. (
  • Project LifeSkills may be both feasible and efficacious in reducing behaviors that increase the risk for HIV exposure/transmission in young transgender women. (
  • Investigators assert that according to their study results, Project LifeSkills may be both feasible and efficacious in reducing behaviors that increase the risk for HIV exposure/transmission in young transgender women. (
  • Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease FIV was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases - vector-borne for Bartonella spp. (
  • Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better understand the mechanisms driving disease exposure and to predict zones of cross-species pathogen transmission among wild and domestic felids. (
  • Stochastic models depend on the chance variations in risk of exposure, disease and other illness dynamics. (
  • Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) provides a powerful tool to trace and identify TB transmission chains and outbreaks. (
  • Evaluation of Investigations Conducted to Detect and Prevent Transmission of Tuberculosis. (
  • Guidelines for preventing the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in health-care facilities, 1994. (
  • Patterns of tuberculosis transmission in central Los Angeles. (
  • Outcomes of contact investigations of infectious tuberculosis patients. (
  • Profiling Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission and the resulting disease burden in the five highest tuberculosis burden countries. (
  • The finding demonstrates that an effective vaccine targeting strain-specific components of the Lyme disease spirochete can neutralize bacteria within the tick but would need to be specifically designed to protect against multiple strains. (
  • Further progress in reducing the burden of HCAI is hindered by uncertainty surrounding the role of asymptomatic carriers [ 3 , 4 ], environmental transmission [ 5 - 7 ] and the recent emergence of bacteria other than MRSA and C. difficile , such as enterobacteriaceae (e.g. (
  • An appropriate quantification of the transmission potential requires the estimation of the cohort generation time during the initial growth phase of an epidemic or adjustment of the time-effect (e.g., adjustment of the growth rate of the epidemic during the sampling time) on the period generation time. (
  • The complex and unprecedented Ebola epidemic ongoing in West Africa has highlighted the need to review the epidemiological characteristics of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) as well as our current understanding of the transmission dynamics and the effect of control interventions against Ebola transmission. (
  • We show that mathematical modeling offers useful insights into the risk of a major epidemic of EVD and the assessment of the impact of basic public health measures on disease spread. (
  • This study highlights factors that affect Community Health Centers' ability to reduce infectious disease transmission related to the opioid epidemic. (
  • Mathematical models can project how infectious diseases progress to show the likely outcome of an epidemic and help inform public health interventions. (
  • The timing of a hurricane is one of the primary factors influencing its impact on the spread of mosquito-borne infectious diseases such as West Nile Virus, dengue, chikungunya and Zika, according to a study led by Georgia State University. (
  • The main aim of this paper is to propose a procedure for predicting relative risk in order to suggest approximate future dengue disease progression patterns for Malaysia. (
  • Then, we apply this procedure to generate predictions for our case studies relating to dengue disease in Malaysia for discrete time-space data. (
  • Results of the numerical analysis that we implemented to generate predictions of relative risk based on discrete time-space stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission models using dengue data of Malaysia suggest that the future forecasts of posterior predictive relative risk have strikingly similar patterns as the fitted posterior expected relative risks. (
  • Do warmer temperatures increase dengue transmission? (
  • As NIFA and the scientific community work toward solutions that ensure our food security, research on the evolution and spread of infectious diseases will help us understand how best to prevent, predict and respond to these threats. (
  • Modelling the spread of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) among salmon farms based on seaway distances between farms and genetic relationships between ISA virus isolates. (
  • Transmission is usually by contamination of a person with parasite-laden feces of a triatomine bug (family Reduviidae , subfamily Triatominae , commonly known as kissing bugs), which deposits feces on the skin while feeding. (
  • No evidence shows that the seasonality of human disease is largely due to unpasteurized milk because this product is not commonly consumed. (
  • This year has been a particularly rough one for pet care facilities in the U.S. as Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease Complex (CIRDC), or as it's more commonly known "kennel cough" or "canine cough," caused outbreaks and closures even at facilities with the most stringent of cleaning protocols. (
  • It is more commonly known as glandular fever, kissing disease, or mono. (
  • Experience from past outbreaks has established reliable methods to control transmission in hospitals and at funerals of people who die from Ebola - two of the three main venues for transmission (see 'Hospitals and funerals' ). (
  • Many existing methods for estimation of infectious disease transmission networks use a phylogeny of the infecting strains as the basis for transmission network inference, and accurate network inference relies on accuracy of this underlying evolutionary history. (
  • However, phylogenetic reconstruction can be highly error prone and more sophisticated methods can fail to scale to larger outbreaks, negatively impacting downstream transmission network inference.We introduce a new method, TreeFix-TP, for accurate and scalable reconstruction of transmission phylogenies based on an error-correction framework. (
  • Many estimation methods require linking cases by direct transmission, a difficult task for most diseases. (
  • Common methods and standards for evaluating potential donors of organs and tissues are needed to facilitate effective data collection for assessing the risk for infectious disease transmission. (
  • Donor screening methods include evaluating the donor's medical history and physical examination results and assessing (often in the form of a questionnaire) the donor for behavioral risk factors associated with a higher prevalence of communicable diseases. (
  • Despite the importance of this transmission route, very little is known about the dynamic patterns of CPIs. (
  • 'I look at disease patterns of the past in order to understand the global clinical and epidemiological patterns of the disease,' said Paisie. (
  • An innovative approach is contact network modeling that captures realistic diversity in contact patterns where diseases may spread along different routes with varying degrees of transmission risk. (
  • The fact is it can happen to virtually anyone but understanding the basics of infectious disease transmission and air cleaning not only helps prevent infectious diseases outbreaks, it helps mitigate the impact to get you up and running more quickly, and gives you the knowledge to help your clients understand. (
  • With a death toll in the thousands, and mortality at around 70%, it has undermined fragile health-care systems by filling hospitals with highly infectious patients and killing health workers. (
  • Patients become infectious when they are symptomatic, and remain highly infectious until they begin to recover. (
  • Corpses are highly infectious. (
  • The results showing a potentially infectious spreading of Alzheimer's disease in animal models were published in the Oct. 4, 2011 online issue of Molecular Psychiatry , part of the Nature Publishing Group. (
  • Relying only on the observed distribution of disease to understand the age profile of transmission is potentially misleading. (
  • We report 2 cases of LD in immunocompromised patients in France, potentially caused by L. pneumophila transmission through flushing toilets. (
  • If the effect of each species on pathogen transmission were entirely idiosyncratic, one would expect that diversity declines would be equally likely to cause a decrease or an increase in disease transmission in the remaining species. (
  • However, in recent years, a consistent picture has emerged-biodiversity loss tends to increase pathogen transmission and disease incidence. (
  • Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. (
  • Do Genetics Affect Communicable Disease? (
  • Current donor evaluation protocols rely on reviewing the potential donor's epidemiologic and clinical history (i.e., donor screening) and communicable disease test results (i.e., donor testing). (
  • Among the almost infinite varieties of microorganisms, relatively few cause disease in otherwise healthy individuals. (
  • In this talk, I will describe our application of individual-based modelling to two policy-relevant challenges in infectious disease control. (
  • The earliest account of mathematical modelling of spread of disease was carried out in 1760 by Daniel Bernoulli. (
  • Results suggest sitting within two rows of a contagious individual during a flight lasting longer than eight hours places passengers at risk of getting the disease. (
  • These industries are more susceptible to in-person contact, with higher risk of transmission," explains Frankenfeld. (
  • Occupational hazards of traditional healers: repeated unprotected blood exposures risk infectious disease transmission. (
  • The risk of sexual transmission of Hepatitis C (HCV) is much lower than the risk associated with contaminated needles, but still present. (
  • This risk increases if the mother is infected with both HCV and HIV, with reported transmission rates of 5 to 36 percent. (
  • Chowell notes that as HREs become more frequent in the southern U.S. and other tropical areas there's a need to develop further quantitative tools to assess how these disasters can affect the risk of disease transmission. (
  • 100 The use of various substances-including alcohol, heroin, prescription stimulants, methamphetamine, and cocaine-is independently associated with increased risk for cardiovascular and heart disease. (
  • Substance use also increases the risk of infectious disease transmission, including HIV 110 and the hepatitis C virus (HCV). (
  • This study provides evidence that HIV transmission in the context of viral suppression is very low, although we cannot exclude higher levels of risk based on the upper [confidence interval] limit," the researchers wrote. (
  • The primary goal of this study was to assess the efficacy of Project LifeSkills, an intervention that addresses the specific challenges to sexual safety in young transgender women, in reducing sexual risk for HIV acquisition and transmission in transgender women age 16 to 29. (
  • The calibrated per-contact transmission risk was found to be similar in each of the five countries despite their very different TB burdens. (
  • Determination of donor-derived infectious risk associated with organ and tissue transplantation is challenging and limited by availability and performance characteristics of current donor epidemiologic screening (e.g., questionnaire) and laboratory testing tools. (
  • This judgment is enhanced by consideration of the available published information on the risks of participation, the risk of acquiring a disease as a result of participation in the sport, and the severity of that disease. (
  • An internet search showed the potential for transmission of Chagas disease, and the woman sought help from a local health sciences center. (
  • Articles were identified from a MEDLINE search for the years 1966 to 1989, a hand search of relevant journals for the years 1980 to 1990, and a review of over 2900 epidemiologic field investigations in which the Centers for Disease Control and other agencies participated (1946 to 1989). (
  • Various studies have examined the impact of road construction on disease incidence ( 4 ). (
  • Barbecue use on its own is unlikely a big enough, or seasonal enough, driver of disease to account for seasonal changes in incidence. (
  • They used phylogenetic analysis to identify HIV transmission and calculated incidence per couple-year of follow-up. (
  • We estimate that the 15-19-year-old age group is involved in more than 20% of transmission events in India, Indonesia, the Philippines and Pakistan, despite representing only 5% of the local TB incidence. (
  • Emerging infectious diseases continue to increase both in incidence and geographic distribution worldwide. (
  • Transmission occurs through bodily fluids: diarrhoea, vomit, blood and probably sweat and semen. (
  • Although Chagas disease occurs mostly as heart disease, megasyndrome (enlargement of the visceral organs) is also seen in patients in South America. (
  • Our findings open the possibility that some of the sporadic Alzheimer's cases may arise from an infectious process, which occurs with other neurological diseases such as mad cow and its human form, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease," said Claudio Soto, Ph.D. , professor of neurology at The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, part of UTHealth. (
  • According to the study, an HRE that occurs on July 1 results in 70 percent fewer disease cases compared to an HRE that occurs on June 1. (
  • Transmission occurs by fecal-oral route following ingestion of the cysts in contaminated food or water. (
  • Transmission usually occurs when someone inhales contaminated aerosols from showers, cooling towers, faucets, or fountains. (
  • This book will be a succinct reference for the very important interface between infectious diseases and medical entomology.Jerome Goddard summarizes the latest thinking about the biological, entomological, and clinical aspects of the major vector-borne diseases around the world. (
  • At a time when vector-borne diseases have increased their spread, Infectious Diseases and Arthropods provides physicians, infectious disease specialists, medical entomologists, and public health officials with an up-to-date, readily accessible, gold-standard reference source. (
  • This short, excellent review from Centers for Disease Control, USA is worth reading in full! (
  • This year's EEID awardees will conduct research on such topics as the emergence of Tasmanian devil facial tumor disease, honeybees and their parasites, the evolution and spread of virulent infectious diseases, the macroecology of infectious disease, and the persistence of foot-and-mouth disease. (
  • For HIV-positive men who have sex with men, viral suppression through HIV treatment effectively helps prevent transmission, according to results published in The Lancet . (
  • Norwegian Computing Center develop stochastic simulation models to describe how infectious diseases are transmitted between fish farms, including models for infectious salmon anaemia, pancras disease and sea lice. (
  • A stochastic model for the assessment of the transmission pathways of heart and skeleton muscle inflammation, pancreas disease and infectious salmon anaemia in marine fish farms in Norway. (
  • A stochastic model for infectious salmon anemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon farming. (
  • Stochastic models (which include the role of chance in the transmission process) are becoming increasingly common. (
  • Retrieved on February 25, 2021 from (
  • The name "Mad Cow Disease" comes from the strange behavior and symptoms seen in cattle that have the disease. (
  • It is characterized by a short period of infectious symptoms, followed by an extended bout of fatigue. (
  • Here we examine how biodiversity affects the transmission and emergence of infectious diseases and evaluate the evidence that reduced disease transmission is an important ecosystem service provided by high biodiversity. (
  • Intriguingly, biodiversity may play a dual role in the emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. (
  • We first review the effects of biodiversity on the transmission of established diseases and then turn to disease emergence. (
  • The EEID program supports efforts to understand the ecological and biological mechanisms behind human-induced environmental changes and the emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. (
  • Environmental change plays a large role in the emergence of infectious disease. (
  • The more public health scientists learn about infectious disease processes, the more they can implicate environmental changes in the recent emergence or reemergence of infectious diseases ( 1 ⇓ - 3 ). (
  • Our results show that using TreeFix-TP can lead to significant improvement in transmission phylogeny inference and that its performance is robust to variations in transmission and evolutionary parameters. (
  • In this perspective, we highlight multiple areas for potential synergy where integrated surveillance could add more value to public health efforts than the current trend of independent disease monitoring through vertical programs. (
  • Second, we highlight multiple areas for synergy through integration, where the combined result will add more value to public health efforts than independent disease monitoring through vertical programs. (
  • Data for the study included: 1) case data routinely collected by the local public health staff and transmitted to the state health office and the national surveillance centre, 2) a study questionnaire designed to capture social interactions of relevance for TB transmission and 3) molecular genotyping data (IS 6110 DNA fingerprint and spoligotyping). (
  • Jackie Schutz, communications director for Florida Gov. Rick Scott, said Thursday that public health officials "have not confirmed a new zone of active transmission" outside of Wynwood, but "there are multiple cases being investigated. (
  • Reconstruction of transmission trees is most useful to public health if it leads to generalizable scientific insights about disease transmission. (
  • Infectious pathologies are usually qualified as contagious diseases (also called communicable diseases) due to their potentiality of transmission from one person or species to another. (
  • Further, information about the numbers and types of patients who did not develop the diseases being studied is not reported. (
  • infectious agent be identified only in patients and not in healthy controls, and that patients who contract the agent also develop the disease. (
  • We describe 2 cases of healthcare-associated Legionnaires' disease in patients in France hospitalized 5 months apart in the same room. (
  • No complications were observed and the disease resolved within 10 days after onset in both patients. (
  • Since mosquito-borne diseases tend to be spread by the movement of people rather than the movement of mosquitoes, disaster-induced movements of people can shift where and when outbreaks occur," said Charles Perrings, professor in the School of Life Sciences at Arizona State University and a co-author of the study. (
  • Mosquito-Borne Diseases. (
  • Aerosol transmission reflects a modern understanding of aerosol science and allows physically appropriate explanation and intervention selection for infectious diseases. (
  • Andreasen, V., Christiansen, F. B.: Persistence of an infectious disease in a subdivided population. (
  • The underlying mechanism of Alzheimer's disease is very similar to the prion diseases. (
  • Social Ecology of Infectious Diseases explores how human activities enable microbes to disseminate and evolve, thereby creating favorable conditions for the diverse manifestations of communicable diseases. (
  • Introduction: What constitutes the social ecology of infectious diseases? (
  • The author provides for each disease a description of the vector involved, notes on its biology and ecology, distribution maps, and general clinical guidelines for treatment and control. (
  • Overall, despite many remaining questions, current evidence indicates that preserving intact ecosystems and their endemic biodiversity should generally reduce the prevalence of infectious diseases. (
  • In the northern tropical region the disease is endemic, and cases occur in most months of every year. (
  • Computer simulations of the spread of an influenza-like disease on the weighted contact graph are in good agreement with absentee data during the most recent influenza season. (
  • Finally, I am developing a transmission model for seasonal influenza to offer guidance for prioritising influenza vaccine target groups in Belgium. (
  • His current work aims to analyze COVID-19 transmission throughout rural and urban communities across the United States, and he has previously provided pandemic response for influenza, Ebola, Zika and now COVID-19 support for Virginia and the Department of Defense. (
  • Up until the 1400's, Native Americans were never introduced to diseases such as influenza, smallpox, yellow fever, or the plague. (