The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
Diseases of plants.
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A genus of OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae. Most species are obligatory parasites and many are plant pathogens.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
A genus of FUNGI, in the family Magnaporthaceae of uncertain position (incertae sedis). It is best known for its species, M. grisea, which is one of the most popular experimental organisms of all fungal plant pathogens. Its anamorph is PYRICULARIA GRISEA.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including some economically important plant parasites. Teleomorphs include Mycosphaerella and Venturia.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
A genus of destructive parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae, order Peronosporales, affecting numerous fruit, vegetable, and other crops. Differentiation of zoospores usually takes place in the sporangium and no vesicle is formed. It was previously considered a fungus.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
A genus in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE whose cells produce a yellow pigment (Gr. xanthos - yellow). It is pathogenic to plants.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS. Some species in this genus are called deadly nightshade which is also a common name for ATROPA BELLADONNA.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae that is the causative agent of late blight of potato.
A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A group of compounds which can be described as benzo-pyrano-furano-benzenes which can be formed from ISOFLAVONES by internal coupling of the B ring to the 4-ketone position. Members include medicarpin, phaseolin, and pisatin which are found in FABACEAE.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The use of DNA recombination (RECOMBINATION, GENETIC) to prepare a large gene library of novel, chimeric genes from a population of randomly fragmented DNA from related gene sequences.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A genus of mitosporic Phyllachoraceae fungi which contains at least 40 species of plant parasites. They have teleomorphs in the genus Glomerella (see PHYLLACHORALES).
A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including several plant pathogens and at least one species which produces a highly phytotoxic antibiotic. Its teleomorph is Lewia.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
A mitosporic Ceratobasidiaceae fungal genus that is an important plant pathogen affecting potatoes and other plants. There are numerous teleomorphs.
The largest genus in the family Myxobolidae, class MYXOSPOREA, containing over 400 species.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A plant genus of the family APIACEAE used for flavoring food.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
A mitosporic fungal genus commonly isolated from soil. Some species are the cause of wilt diseases in many different plants.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
A genus of plant viruses in the family FLEXIVIRIDAE, that cause mosaic and ringspot symptoms. Transmission occurs mechanically. Potato virus X is the type species.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus XANTHOMONAS, which causes citrus cankers and black rot in plants.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Potent cholinesterase inhibitor used as an insecticide and acaricide.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.
A mitosporic fungal genus including both saprophytes and plant parasites.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is pathogenic for plants.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
A genus of RNA plant viruses in the family FLEXIVIRIDAE, containing slightly flexuous filaments, often transmitted by aphids in a non-persistent manner. Carnation latent virus is the type species.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
Plant growth factor derived from the root of Scopolia carniolica or Scopolia japonica.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is a source of SPARTEINE, lupanine and other lupin alkaloids.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.
A plant genus of the family LINACEAE that is cultivated for its fiber (manufactured into linen cloth). It contains a trypsin inhibitor and the seed is the source of LINSEED OIL.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a trans-activator protein that specifies rapid growth in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.
Infections with bacteria of the family FLAVOBACTERIACEAE.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes rotting, particularly of storage tissues, of a wide variety of plants and causes a vascular disease in CARROTS; and POTATO plants.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of PHENYLALANINE to form trans-cinnamate and ammonia.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that may be pathogenic for frogs, fish, and mammals, including man. In humans, cellulitis and diarrhea can result from infection with this organism.
Common name of the order Siluriformes. This order contains many families and over 2,000 species, including venomous species. Heteropneustes and Plotosus genera have dangerous stings and are aggressive. Most species are passive stingers.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
An order of insects, restricted mostly to the tropics, containing at least eight families. A few species occur in temperate regions of North America.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes a number of species which are parasitic on higher plants, insects, or fungi. Other species are saprotrophic.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.
The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.
A plant species of the family POACEAE that is widely cultivated for its edible seeds.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SERRATIA.
A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A large increase in oxygen uptake by neutrophils and most types of tissue macrophages through activation of an NADPH-cytochrome b-dependent oxidase that reduces oxygen to a superoxide. Individuals with an inherited defect in which the oxidase that reduces oxygen to superoxide is decreased or absent (GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC) often die as a result of recurrent bacterial infections.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A commercially important species of SALMON in the family SALMONIDAE, order SALMONIFORMES, which occurs in the North Atlantic.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.

Trichothecenes in cereal grains. (1/759)

Trichothecenes are sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins associated with fusarium head blight (FHB) of cereals, with worldwide economic and health impacts. While various management strategies have been proposed to reduce the mycotoxin risk, breeding towards FHB-resistance appears to be the most effective means to manage the disease, and reduce trichothecene contamination of cereal-based food products. This review provides a brief summary of the trichothecene synthesis in Fusarium species, their toxicity in plants and humans, followed by the current methods of screening and breeding for resistance to FHB and trichothecene accumulation.  (+info)

Calcium signaling during the plant-plant interaction of parasitic Cuscuta reflexa with its hosts. (2/759)


A single dominant locus, ren4, confers rapid non-race-specific resistance to grapevine powdery mildew. (3/759)


Development of a host-induced RNAi system in the wheat stripe rust fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. (4/759)


The genetic basis of resistance to downy mildew in Cucumis spp.--latest developments and prospects. (5/759)


Molecular cloning of ATR5(Emoy2) from Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, an avirulence determinant that triggers RPP5-mediated defense in Arabidopsis. (6/759)


Resistance to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus accumulation in the tomato wild relative Solanum habrochaites associated with the C4 viral protein. (7/759)


Population genetics of malaria resistance in humans. (8/759)


1. Innate immunity: This is the body's first line of defense against infection, and it involves the recognition and elimination of pathogens by cells and proteins that are present from birth.
2. Acquired immunity: This type of immunity develops over time as a result of exposure to pathogens, and it involves the production of antibodies and other immune cells that can recognize and eliminate specific pathogens.
3. Cell-mediated immunity: This is a type of immunity that involves the activation of immune cells, such as T cells and macrophages, to fight off infection.
4. Genetic resistance: Some individuals may have a genetic predisposition to disease resistance, which can be influenced by their ancestry or genetic makeup.
5. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental factors, such as sunlight, clean water, and good nutrition, can also contribute to disease resistance.

Disease resistance is an important concept in the medical field, as it helps to protect against infectious diseases and can reduce the risk of illness and death. Understanding how disease resistance works can help healthcare professionals develop effective strategies for preventing and treating infections, and it can also inform public health policies and interventions aimed at reducing the burden of infectious diseases on individuals and communities.

1. Heartworms: A parasite that infects the heart and lungs of dogs and cats, causing respiratory problems and potentially leading to heart failure.
2. Tapeworms: A type of parasite that can infect the digestive system of animals, causing weight loss, diarrhea, and other symptoms.
3. Mites: Small, eight-legged parasites that can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in animals.
4. Lice: Small, wingless parasites that feed on the blood of animals, causing itching and scratching.
5. Hookworms: A type of parasite that can infect the digestive system of animals, causing weight loss, anemia, and other symptoms.
6. Roundworms: A common type of parasite that can infect animals, causing a range of symptoms including diarrhea, vomiting, and weight loss.
7. Ticks: Blood-sucking parasites that can transmit diseases to animals, such as Lyme disease and anaplasmosis.
8. Fleas: Small, wingless insects that feed on the blood of animals, causing itching and scratching.
9. Leishmaniasis: A parasitic disease caused by a protozoan parasite that can infect dogs and other animals, causing skin lesions and other symptoms.
10. Babesiosis: A parasitic disease caused by a protozoan parasite that can infect dogs and other animals, causing fever, anemia, and other symptoms.

Parasitic diseases in animals are often diagnosed through physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and the severity of the infection, but may include antiparasitic medications, antibiotics, and supportive care such as fluid therapy and nutritional support. Prevention is key in avoiding parasitic diseases in animals, and this can be achieved through regular deworming and vaccination programs, as well as taking measures to reduce exposure to parasites such as fleas and ticks.

Some common types of fish diseases include:

1. Bacterial infections: These are caused by bacteria such as Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, and Mycobacterium. Symptoms can include fin and tail rot, body slime, and ulcers.
2. Viral infections: These are caused by viruses such as viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) and infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN). Symptoms can include lethargy, loss of appetite, and rapid death.
3. Protozoan infections: These are caused by protozoa such as Cryptocaryon and Ichthyophonus. Symptoms can include flashing, rapid breathing, and white spots on the body.
4. Fungal infections: These are caused by fungi such as Saprolegnia and Achlya. Symptoms can include fuzzy growths on the body and fins, and sluggish behavior.
5. Parasitic infections: These are caused by parasites such as Ichthyophonus and Cryptocaryon. Symptoms can include flashing, rapid breathing, and white spots on the body.

Diagnosis of fish diseases is typically made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and observation of the fish's behavior and environment. Treatment options vary depending on the type of disease and the severity of symptoms, and can include antibiotics, antifungals, and medicated baths. Prevention is key in managing fish diseases, and this includes maintaining good water quality, providing a balanced diet, and keeping the fish in a healthy environment.

Note: The information provided is a general overview of common fish diseases and their symptoms, and should not be considered as professional medical advice. If you suspect your fish has a disease, it is recommended that you consult with a veterinarian or a qualified aquarium expert for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Flavobacteriaceae infections are a type of bacterial infection caused by bacteria belonging to the family Flavobacteriaceae. These bacteria are commonly found in soil, water, and on plants and animals. While they can cause a range of diseases in different organisms, their impact on human health is relatively limited compared to other types of bacterial infections.

Types of Flavobacteriaceae Infections:

1. Endophthalmitis: This is a serious eye infection that can cause vision loss if left untreated. It is caused by bacteria such as Flavobacterium and Truepera, which can enter the eye through contact lens use or other means.
2. Wound infections: Flavobacteriaceae bacteria can infect wounds, especially those that are slow to heal or have a lot of bacteria present. These infections can be difficult to treat and may require surgical debridement.
3. Respiratory tract infections: Some species of Flavobacteriaceae, such as Flavobacterium and Cellulomonas, can cause respiratory tract infections like pneumonia or bronchitis. These infections are typically mild but can be more severe in people with weakened immune systems.
4. Skin infections: Flavobacteriaceae bacteria can also infect the skin, causing conditions like cellulitis or abscesses. These infections may be caused by bacteria entering the skin through cuts or scrapes.
5. Infections in immunocompromised individuals: People with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or undergoing chemotherapy, are more susceptible to Flavobacteriaceae infections. These infections can be severe and difficult to treat.

Causes of Flavobacteriaceae Infections:

1. Contact with contaminated soil or water: Bacteria in the Flavobacteriaceae family are commonly found in soil and water, so contact with these environments can lead to infection.
2. Cuts or scrapes: Open wounds provide an entry point for bacteria to enter the body and cause infection.
3. Weakened immune system: People with weakened immune systems are more susceptible to Flavobacteriaceae infections. This includes individuals with HIV/AIDS, those undergoing chemotherapy, or those taking immunosuppressive drugs.
4. Medical equipment: Bacteria in the Flavobacteriaceae family can contaminate medical equipment, such as catheters or implantable devices, leading to infection.
5. Contaminated food or water: In rare cases, Flavobacteriaceae bacteria can be transmitted through contaminated food or water, causing infection.

Symptoms of Flavobacteriaceae Infections:

1. Skin rashes or lesions
2. Respiratory symptoms like coughing, sneezing, or difficulty breathing
3. Fever
4. Chills
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Swollen lymph nodes
7. Inflammation of the skin or soft tissues
8. Painful urination (if the infection affects the urinary tract)

Diagnosis of Flavobacteriaceae Infections:

1. Physical examination and medical history
2. Blood tests to check for bacterial presence and measure inflammatory markers
3. Imaging studies like X-rays or CT scans to evaluate the extent of infection
4. Culture tests to isolate and identify the bacteria causing the infection
5. Biopsy to collect tissue samples for further examination

Treatment of Flavobacteriaceae Infections:

1. Antibiotics: The type of antibiotic used will depend on the severity and location of the infection, as well as the patient's medical history and allergies.
2. Supportive care: Patients with severe Flavobacteriaceae infections may require hospitalization for intravenous antibiotics, fluid replacement, and pain management.
3. Surgical intervention: In some cases, surgical removal of infected tissue or drainage of abscesses may be necessary to treat the infection effectively.

Prevention of Flavobacteriaceae Infections:

1. Good wound care: Keeping wounds clean and dry, and covering them with sterile dressings can help prevent infection.
2. Proper hand hygiene: Healthcare providers should wash their hands regularly, especially before touching patients or handling medical equipment.
3. Avoiding close contact with people who are sick: This can reduce the risk of transmission of Flavobacteriaceae infections.
4. Vaccination: Some vaccines can help prevent certain types of bacterial infections, including those caused by Flavobacteriaceae.
5. Proper sterilization and disinfection of medical equipment: This can reduce the risk of transmission of Flavobacteriaceae infections through contaminated medical equipment.

1. Malaria: A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito. It can cause fever, chills, and flu-like symptoms.
2. Giardiasis: A disease caused by a parasite that is found in contaminated food and water. It can cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and weight loss.
3. Toxoplasmosis: A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the consumption of contaminated meat or cat feces. It can cause fever, headache, and swollen lymph nodes.
4. Leishmaniasis: A group of diseases caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bite of an infected sandfly. It can cause skin sores, fatigue, and weight loss.
5. Chagas disease: A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bite of an infected triatomine bug. It can cause heart problems, digestive issues, and brain damage.
6. Trichomoniasis: A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted through sexual contact with an infected person. It can cause vaginal itching, burning during urination, and abnormal vaginal discharge.
7. Cryptosporidiosis: A disease caused by a parasite that is found in contaminated water and food. It can cause diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach cramps.
8. Amoebiasis: A disease caused by a parasite that is found in contaminated water and food. It can cause diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding.
9. Babesiosis: A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick. It can cause fever, chills, and fatigue.
10. Angiostrongyliasis: A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the ingestion of raw or undercooked snails or slugs. It can cause eosinophilic meningitis, which is an inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord.

It's important to note that these are just a few examples of parasitic diseases, and there are many more out there. Additionally, while some of these diseases can be treated with antiparasitic medications, others may require long-term management and supportive care. It's important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you have been infected with a parasite or if you experience any symptoms that could be related to a parasitic infection.

There are several types of disease susceptibility, including:

1. Genetic predisposition: This refers to the inherent tendency of an individual to develop a particular disease due to their genetic makeup. For example, some families may have a higher risk of developing certain diseases such as cancer or heart disease due to inherited genetic mutations.
2. Environmental susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to exposure to environmental factors such as pollutants, toxins, or infectious agents. For example, someone who lives in an area with high levels of air pollution may be more susceptible to developing respiratory problems.
3. Lifestyle susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to unhealthy lifestyle choices such as smoking, lack of exercise, or poor diet. For example, someone who smokes and is overweight may be more susceptible to developing heart disease or lung cancer.
4. Immune system susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to an impaired immune system. For example, people with autoimmune disorders such as HIV/AIDS or rheumatoid arthritis may be more susceptible to opportunistic infections.

Understanding disease susceptibility can help healthcare providers identify individuals who are at risk of developing certain diseases and provide preventive measures or early intervention to reduce the risk of disease progression. Additionally, genetic testing can help identify individuals with a high risk of developing certain diseases, allowing for earlier diagnosis and treatment.

In summary, disease susceptibility refers to the predisposition of an individual to develop a particular disease or condition due to various factors such as genetics, environment, lifestyle choices, and immune system function. Understanding disease susceptibility can help healthcare providers identify individuals at risk and provide appropriate preventive measures or early intervention to reduce the risk of disease progression.

Some common types of Serratia infections include:

1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): Serratia bacteria can infect the urinary tract and cause symptoms such as burning during urination, frequent urination, and abdominal pain.
2. Skin infections: Serratia bacteria can cause skin infections, including cellulitis and abscesses, which can lead to redness, swelling, and pain in the affected area.
3. Respiratory tract infections: Serratia bacteria can infect the lungs and cause pneumonia, which can lead to symptoms such as coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing.
4. Bloodstream infections (sepsis): Serratia bacteria can enter the bloodstream and cause sepsis, a serious condition that can lead to organ failure and death if left untreated.
5. Endocarditis: Serratia bacteria can infect the heart valves and cause endocarditis, which can lead to symptoms such as fever, fatigue, and difficulty swallowing.

Serratia infections are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood cultures and urinalysis. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics to eliminate the bacteria, and in severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.

Preventive measures to reduce the risk of Serratia infections include practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, avoiding close contact with individuals who are sick, and maintaining proper cleanliness and sterilization practices in healthcare settings. Vaccines are not available for Serratia infections, but research is ongoing to develop new antimicrobial therapies and vaccines to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria like Serratia.

Gram-negative bacterial infections can be difficult to treat because these bacteria are resistant to many antibiotics. In addition, some gram-negative bacteria produce enzymes called beta-lactamases, which break down the penicillin ring of many antibiotics, making them ineffective against the infection.

Some common types of gram-negative bacterial infections include:

* Pneumonia
* Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
* Bloodstream infections (sepsis)
* Meningitis
* Skin and soft tissue infections
* Respiratory infections, such as bronchitis and sinusitis

Examples of gram-negative bacteria that can cause infection include:

* Escherichia coli (E. coli)
* Klebsiella pneumoniae
* Pseudomonas aeruginosa
* Acinetobacter baumannii
* Proteus mirabilis

Gram-negative bacterial infections can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including blood cultures, urine cultures, and tissue samples. Treatment typically involves the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as carbapenems or cephalosporins, which are effective against many types of gram-negative bacteria. In some cases, the infection may require hospitalization and intensive care to manage complications such as sepsis or organ failure.

Prevention of gram-negative bacterial infections includes good hand hygiene, proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and appropriate use of antibiotics. In healthcare settings, infection control measures such as sterilization and disinfection of equipment, and isolation precautions for patients with known gram-negative bacterial infections can help prevent the spread of these infections.

Overall, gram-negative bacterial infections are a significant public health concern, and proper diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and reduce the risk of transmission.

The most common types of mycoses include:

1. Ringworm: This is a common fungal infection that causes a ring-shaped rash on the skin. It can affect any part of the body, including the arms, legs, torso, and face.
2. Athlete's foot: This is a common fungal infection that affects the feet, causing itching, redness, and cracking of the skin.
3. Jock itch: This is a fungal infection that affects the groin area and inner thighs, causing itching, redness, and cracking of the skin.
4. Candidiasis: This is a fungal infection caused by Candida, a type of yeast. It can affect various parts of the body, including the mouth, throat, and vagina.
5. Aspergillosis: This is a serious fungal infection that can affect various parts of the body, including the lungs, sinuses, and brain.

Symptoms of mycoses can vary depending on the type of infection and the severity of the infection. Common symptoms include itching, redness, swelling, and cracking of the skin. Treatment for mycoses usually involves antifungal medications, which can be applied topically or taken orally. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.

Preventive measures for mycoses include practicing good hygiene, avoiding sharing personal items such as towels and clothing, and using antifungal medications as prescribed by a healthcare professional. Early diagnosis and treatment of mycoses can help prevent complications and reduce the risk of transmission to others.

Explanation: Genetic predisposition to disease is influenced by multiple factors, including the presence of inherited genetic mutations or variations, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices. The likelihood of developing a particular disease can be increased by inherited genetic mutations that affect the functioning of specific genes or biological pathways. For example, inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer.

The expression of genetic predisposition to disease can vary widely, and not all individuals with a genetic predisposition will develop the disease. Additionally, many factors can influence the likelihood of developing a particular disease, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and other health conditions.

Inheritance patterns: Genetic predisposition to disease can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or multifactorial pattern, depending on the specific disease and the genetic mutations involved. Autosomal dominant inheritance means that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the disease, while autosomal recessive inheritance requires two copies of the mutated gene. Multifactorial inheritance involves multiple genes and environmental factors contributing to the development of the disease.

Examples of diseases with a known genetic predisposition:

1. Huntington's disease: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expansion of a CAG repeat in the Huntingtin gene, leading to progressive neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.
2. Cystic fibrosis: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, leading to respiratory and digestive problems.
3. BRCA1/2-related breast and ovarian cancer: An inherited increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer due to mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.
4. Sickle cell anemia: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a point mutation in the HBB gene, leading to defective hemoglobin production and red blood cell sickling.
5. Type 1 diabetes: An autoimmune disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including multiple genes in the HLA complex.

Understanding the genetic basis of disease can help with early detection, prevention, and treatment. For example, genetic testing can identify individuals who are at risk for certain diseases, allowing for earlier intervention and preventive measures. Additionally, understanding the genetic basis of a disease can inform the development of targeted therapies and personalized medicine."

There are several different types of obesity, including:

1. Central obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
2. Peripheral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat in the hips, thighs, and arms.
3. Visceral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the internal organs in the abdominal cavity.
4. Mixed obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by both central and peripheral obesity.

Obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lack of physical activity, poor diet, sleep deprivation, and certain medications. Treatment for obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet, and in some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to achieve weight loss.

Preventing obesity is important for overall health and well-being, and can be achieved through a variety of strategies, including:

1. Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is low in added sugars, saturated fats, and refined carbohydrates.
2. Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, jogging, or swimming.
3. Getting enough sleep each night.
4. Managing stress levels through relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing.
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and quitting smoking.
6. Monitoring weight and body mass index (BMI) on a regular basis to identify any changes or potential health risks.
7. Seeking professional help from a healthcare provider or registered dietitian for personalized guidance on weight management and healthy lifestyle choices.

1. Common cold: A viral infection that affects the upper respiratory tract and causes symptoms such as sneezing, running nose, coughing, and mild fever.
2. Influenza (flu): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinus and ear infections.
3. Measles: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, rashes, coughing, and redness of the eyes.
4. Rubella (German measles): A mild viral infection that can cause fever, rashes, headache, and swollen lymph nodes.
5. Chickenpox: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, itching, and a characteristic rash of small blisters on the skin.
6. Herpes simplex virus (HSV): A viral infection that can cause genital herpes, cold sores, or other skin lesions.
7. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): A viral infection that attacks the immune system and can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
8. Hepatitis B: A viral infection that affects the liver, causing inflammation and damage to liver cells.
9. Hepatitis C: Another viral infection that affects the liver, often leading to chronic liver disease and liver cancer.
10. Ebola: A deadly viral infection that causes fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and internal bleeding.
11. SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia and respiratory failure.
12. West Nile virus: A viral infection that can cause fever, headache, and muscle pain, as well as more severe symptoms such as meningitis or encephalitis.

Viral infections can be spread through contact with an infected person or contaminated surfaces, objects, or insects such as mosquitoes. Prevention strategies include:

1. Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
3. Covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.
4. Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels or utensils.
5. Using condoms or other barrier methods during sexual activity.
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viral infections, such as HPV and hepatitis B.
7. Using insect repellents to prevent mosquito bites.
8. Screening blood products and organs for certain viruses before transfusion or transplantation.

Treatment for viral infections depends on the specific virus and the severity of the illness. Antiviral medications may be used to reduce the replication of the virus and alleviate symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, or mechanical ventilation.

Prevention is key in avoiding viral infections, so taking the necessary precautions and practicing good hygiene can go a long way in protecting oneself and others from these common and potentially debilitating illnesses.

Type 2 diabetes can be managed through a combination of diet, exercise, and medication. In some cases, lifestyle changes may be enough to control blood sugar levels, while in other cases, medication or insulin therapy may be necessary. Regular monitoring of blood sugar levels and follow-up with a healthcare provider are important for managing the condition and preventing complications.

Common symptoms of type 2 diabetes include:

* Increased thirst and urination
* Fatigue
* Blurred vision
* Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal
* Tingling or numbness in the hands and feet
* Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections

If left untreated, type 2 diabetes can lead to a range of complications, including:

* Heart disease and stroke
* Kidney damage and failure
* Nerve damage and pain
* Eye damage and blindness
* Foot damage and amputation

The exact cause of type 2 diabetes is not known, but it is believed to be linked to a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as:

* Obesity and excess body weight
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet and nutrition
* Age and family history
* Certain ethnicities (e.g., African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native American)
* History of gestational diabetes or delivering a baby over 9 lbs.

There is no cure for type 2 diabetes, but it can be managed and controlled through a combination of lifestyle changes and medication. With proper treatment and self-care, people with type 2 diabetes can lead long, healthy lives.

Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) can develop when a person with TB does not complete their full treatment course as prescribed by a healthcare provider, or if they do not take their medications correctly. It can also develop in people who have weakened immune systems or other underlying health conditions that make them more susceptible to the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

MDR-TB is a significant global public health concern because it is harder to treat and can spread more easily than drug-sensitive TB. Treatment for MDR-TB typically involves using stronger medications that are more effective against drug-resistant bacteria, such as fluoroquinolones or aminoglycosides. However, these medications can have more side effects and may be less effective in some cases.

Preventing the development of MDR-TB is crucial, and this can be achieved by ensuring that all patients with TB receive complete and correct treatment as prescribed by a healthcare provider. Additionally, screening for drug resistance before starting treatment can help identify patients who may have MDR-TB and ensure they receive appropriate treatment from the outset.

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.

There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:

1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)

The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss

If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)

HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.

Prevention methods for HIV infection include:

1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.

It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.

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... disease resistance are generally preferred. Breeding for disease resistance began when plants were first domesticated. Breeding ... they could provide durable disease resistance to Ug99 and its derivatives. Another class of plant disease resistance genes ... Disease control is achieved by use of plants that have been bred for good resistance to many diseases, and by plant cultivation ... A plant line with acceptable resistance against one pathogen may lack resistance against others. Breeding for resistance ...
In the case of apples, in which research is being carried out in order to develop resistance to diseases such as apple scab ( ... Breeding for plant disease resistance generally has involved finding suitable genetic material amongst existing stocks or in ... Plant disease resistance Plant pathology Plant defense against herbivory (Articles with short description, Short description ... Another drawback to resistance is that depending on the host pathogen system, resistance is sometimes not long lasting as new ...
Disease Markers. 2017: 4190107. doi:10.1155/2017/4190107. PMC 5676439. PMID 29209099.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors ... Crohn's resistance was a result of the absence of a receptor, which prevent the HIV from infecting CD4 present on the exterior ... This resistance is not due to the primate's ability to control the virus in a manner that is substantially more effective than ... It is estimated that the proportion of people with some form of resistance to HIV is under 10%. In 1994, Stephen Crohn became ...
"Facts about Antibiotic Resistance". Infectious Diseases Society of America. Archived from the original on January 3, 2013. ... Journal of Infectious Diseases (The Journal of Infectious Diseases , Oxford Academic) Open Forum Infectious Diseases (Open ... "Antimicrobial Resistance". Infectious Diseases Society of America. Archived from the original on May 27, 2012. Retrieved May 30 ... "Chronic Lyme Disease" Fact Sheet". National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. April 17, 2009. Archived from the ...
Disease resistance. Potatoes with resistances to local pests and diseases could be helpful, especially in adapting to diseases ... specifically the rates of pathogen infection and the resistance of the host plant. Also impacted by plant disease are the ... The increasing incidence of flooding and heavy rains also promotes the growth of various other plant pests and diseases. On the ... Climate change is predicted to affect many potato pests and diseases. These include: Insect pests such as the potato tuber moth ...
"Disease resistance terminology". Rev. Appl. Mycol. 48: 593-606. Robinson, R.A. (1971). "Vertical resistance". Rev. Plant. ... Robinson, R.A. (1982). "Theoretical resistance models". Durable Resistance in Crops. Plenum Press, New York and London. pp. 45- ... "Recurrent selection for quantitative resistance to soil-borne diseases in beans in the Mixteca region, Mexcico". Euphytica. 130 ... Robinson, R.A. (1973). "Horizontal resistance". Rev. Appl. Mycol. 52: 483-501. Robinson, R.A. (1974). "Terminal report of the ...
"Resistance to Disease". The West Australian. Vol. 51, no. 15, 250. Western Australia. 10 May 1935. p. 8. Retrieved 30 May 2021 ... "Infectious Diseases". The Albany Advertiser. Vol. 4, no. 525. Western Australia. 26 October 1931. p. 4. Retrieved 30 May 2021 ... effective child-rearing and immunisation against disease. She also pushed for pre-school clinics to be established to care for ...
"COVID-19 & Antibiotic Resistance". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 18 November 2021. Retrieved 21 February 2022. ... Resistance in bacteria can arise naturally by genetic mutation, or by one species acquiring resistance from another. Resistance ... Antibiotic resistance is a subset of antimicrobial resistance. This more specified resistance is linked to pathogenic bacteria ... Fungi evolve antifungal resistance. Viruses evolve antiviral resistance. Protozoa evolve antiprotozoal resistance, and bacteria ...
Selected cultivars 'Amerika Touch-O-Pink' - large bracts, tinged pink; large leaves; good disease resistance. 'Appalachian ... The selection of healthy, disease-free planting stock is essential and transplanting trees from the forest should be avoided. ... Kay's Appalachian Mist' - stiff, creamy white bracts; red fall foliage; good resistance to powdery mildew. 'Plena' - double ... Karen's Appalachian Blush' - delicate white bracts edged in pink; some powdery mildew resistance. ' ...
The best method of control for eyespot disease is breeding for resistance. Currently the gene conferring resistance to eyespot ... Link showing the eyespot on a wheat stem Link showing infection of disease (Webarchive template wayback links, Wheat diseases, ... Disease Resistance - Eyespot. Retrieved October 28, 2007, from [5] Archived 2007-10-09 at the Wayback Machine K-State Research ... Use of fungicide can be effective in the short term but is not a long term solution as the pathogen can develop resistance to ...
The World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have identified antimicrobial resistance as one of ... The inaugural Infectious Diseases Pharmacists Day took place on May 22nd, 2021. Given the important role infectious diseases ... the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS), and the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (SIDP). As a partner ... One major Public Outreach event is Infectious Diseases Pharmacists Day which is an annual event held on May 22nd to celebrate ...
The resistance of a genospecies of Lyme disease spirochetes to the bacteriolytic activities of the alternative complement ... Lyme disease organizations at Curlie CDC - Lyme Disease Lyme Disease Tests - Lab Tests Online NIH - Lyme Disease NICE ... "Lyme disease rashes and look-alikes". Lyme Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 21 December 2018. Archived from ... "Lyme Disease Data and surveillance". Lyme Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 5 February 2019. Archived from ...
Flag Smut of Wheat - Pathogen Biology and Host Resistance." Disease resistance in wheat. 1 ed. Wallingford, Oxfordshire: CABI, ... "Smut diseases G. Fuentes-Dávila, B.J. Goates, P. Thomas, J. Nielsen, B. Ballantyne." Smut diseases. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. ... Hettel, Gene; McNab, Alma (1996). Bunt and Smut Diseases of Wheat : Concepts and Methods of Disease Management. Mexico, D.F.: ... Fungal plant pathogens and diseases, Wheat diseases, Ustilaginomycotina, Fungi described in 1848). ...
Van Der Biezen, E.; Jones, J. D. G. (1998). "Plant disease-resistance proteins and the gene-for-gene concept". Trends in ... Hammond-Kosack, K. E.; Jones, J. D. G. (1997). "Plant Disease Resistance Genes". Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant ... "Bacterial disease resistance in Arabidopsis through flagellin perception". Nature. 428 (6984): 764-767. Bibcode:2004Natur.428.. ... Laboratory and a professor at the University of East Anglia using molecular and genetic approaches to study disease resistance ...
Grafting for disease resistance. HortScience. Pg 1673-1676 Black, L.L., D.L. Wu, J.F. Wang, T. Kalb, D. Abbass, and J.H. Chen. ... Grafting for Disease Resistance in Heirloom Tomatoes College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, ed. North Carolina Cooperative ... Tomato grafting became popular in the 1960s as a way to reduce certain diseases caused by soilborne plant pathogens such as ... and nematode diseases. Furthermore, many researchers are looking to utilize specific rootstocks as an alternative to methyl ...
"Drug Resistance in Antiviral Therapy". Clinics in Liver Disease. Chronic Hepatitis B: An Update. 14 (3): 439-459. doi:10.1016/j ... Drug resistance Pesticide resistance Périchon, B. "Cross Resistance". ScienceDirect. Encyclopedia of Microbiology. Retrieved 26 ... Chapman, John S. (2003). "Disinfectant resistance mechanisms, cross-resistance, and co-resistance". International ... Cross-resistance is when something develops resistance to several substances that have a similar mechanism of action. For ...
"Molecular Genetics of Mosquito Resistance to Malaria Parasites". In Sullivan, D; Krishna, S. (eds.). Malaria: Drugs, Disease, ... "The History of Malaria, an Ancient Disease". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 31 May 2016. McFadden, ... Resistance to quinine spurred the development of a broad array of antimalarial medications through the 20th century including ... Again, some species of Plasmodium can cause severe disease in some of these hosts, while many appear not to. Over 150 species ...
2013). "Prevalence and Impact of SDHI Fungicide Resistance in Alternaria solani". Plant Disease. 97 (7): 952-960. doi:10.1094/ ... "Plant Disease Control". Guide to Field Crop Protection (PDF). Carman, Manitoba: Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural ... "SDHI Fungicides". Fungicide Resistance Action Committee. Archived from the original on 22 June 2013. Veloukas, Thomas; ... Studies have shown specific efficacy against diseases such as black point, Botrytis gray mold, early blight, and powdery mildew ...
"Antibiotic resistance 101". Retrieved 2011-10-25. Mathew, A.; et al. (2007). "Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria Associated with ... They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion. When used for growth promoting ... there is difficulty in transmitting resistance across genera and species).: 4 Bacterial antibiotic resistance is a process that ... Resistant bacteria and their genetic material that codes for resistance are not only found in food, but also the environment. ...
Infection and Drug Resistance. 12: 2457-2465. doi:10.2147/IDR.S209971. PMC 6689547. PMID 31496759. "SA's private hospitals have ... The main goal of the NICD is to be the national organ for South Africa for public health surveillance of communicable disease ... The NICD serves as a resource of knowledge and expertise of communicable diseases to the South African Government, Southern ... The National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) is the national public health institute of South Africa, providing ...
"Stress and disease resistance." pp 170-175. In: J.F. Muir and R.J. Roberts (eds). Recent Advances in Aquaculture. Blackwell ... "Stress alters immune function and disease resistance in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)." J. Endocrinol. 120:135-142 ... some of the early work describing the negative effects of cortisol and stress on immune function and disease resistance in fish ...
In these regions it has devastated native populations of elms that did not have resistance to the disease. The name "Dutch elm ... All four have the Siberian elm U. pumila as a parent, the source of disease-resistance and drought-tolerance genes. 'Morfeo' ... Διαμαντής και X. Περλέρου (:Resistance test of Greek Field Elm against Dutch Elm Disease, by S. Diamantis and H. Perlerou) [3 ... Valley Forge', released in 1995, has demonstrated the highest resistance of all the clones to Dutch elm disease in controlled ...
"Vector-borne diseases". Retrieved 2020-05-04. "Engineering malaria resistance in mosquitoes". National Institutes ... Hospital for Tropical Diseases Tropical medicine Infectious disease Neglected diseases List of epidemics Waterborne diseases ... Tropical diseases are diseases that are prevalent in or unique to tropical and subtropical regions. The diseases are less ... Conquest and Disease or Colonisation and Health', lecture by Professor Frank Cox on the history of tropical disease, given at ...
"Genetic Factors in Malaria Resistance". In Boulyjenkov, V.; Berg, K.; Christen, Y. (eds.). Genes and Resistance to Disease. ... Resistance and the State: Nepalese Experiences (Revised ed.). New York: Berghahn Books. pp. 199-243. ISBN 9781845452162. Brydon ...
The three major types of inherited genetic resistance - sickle cell disease, thalassemias, and G6PD deficiency - were present ... Human genetic resistance to malaria refers to inherited changes in the DNA of humans which increase resistance to malaria and ... Since lethal diseases kill many persons who lack protective mutations, in time, many persons in regions where lethal diseases ... Sickle-cell disease was the genetic disorder to be linked to a mutation of a specific protein. Pauling introduced his ...
Disease resistance of Vitis spp. and the production of the stress metabolites resveratrol, epsilon -viniferin, alpha -viniferin ... It is also present in relation to resistance to Botrytis cinerea and Plasmopara viticola in Vitis vinifera and Vitis riparia. ...
Plant Disease. 99 (4): 544-550. doi:10.1094/PDIS-05-14-0460-RE. "Recommendations for QoI". FRAC (Fungicide Resistance Action ... Fungicides Resistance Action Committee, QoI Includes information on QoI working group activities. Gray Leaf Spot Resistance to ... Some fungicide resistance has been observed in many crop pathogens (such as in the case of wheat powdery mildew), so the ... FRAC (Fungicide Resistance Action Committee) (March 2021). "FRAC Code List ©*2021: Fungal control agents sorted by cross ...
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control. 9 (1): 100. doi:10.1186/s13756-020-00763-0. ISSN 2047-2994. PMC 7336106. PMID ... In diseases transmitted by droplets or aerosols, understanding air flow, particle and aerosol transport may lead to rational ... During the COVID-19 pandemic, cloth face masks for source control have been recommended by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control ... 16 (Carbone M, Lednicky J, Xiao SY, Venditti M, Bucci E. Coronavirus 2019 Infectious Disease Epidemic: Where We Are, What Can ...
Joseph Sargent, 89, American film director (The Taking of Pelham One Two Three, MacArthur, Jaws: The Revenge), heart disease. ... Knud Pedersen, 88, Danish artist and resistance fighter. Mandy Rice-Davies, 70, British model, figure in the Profumo affair, ... Yvonne Abbas, 92, member of the French Resistance. Ernst Albrecht, 84, German politician, Prime Minister of Lower Saxony (1976- ... Bill J. Dukes, 87, American politician, member of the Alabama House of Representatives (1994-2010), Parkinson's disease. Claude ...
The protection usually comes from acoustic foam - this absorbs sound waves by increasing air resistance, thus reducing the ... "Hearing Protector Device Compendium". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Wikimedia Commons has media related to ... General Environmental Noise". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2016-12-04. A-weighting Denisov, Eduard; ... Labour Hygiene and Occupational Diseases (in Russian). Moscow: Publishers "Medicine". 10 (6): 38-43. ISSN 0016-9919. PMID ...
Hundreds of Japanese soldiers were killed; thousands more died from disease, malnutrition, exhaustion and suicide. The Allies ... "carry out successful resistance to try to delay the enemy advance". This became the pattern, with the Japanese preferring to ... Japanese casualties were 420 killed and 136 found dead, victims of disease, malnutrition, and suicide. Only six Japanese ... resulting in disease, malnutrition, and privation for the Japanese soldiers. Meanwhile, the Allied supply system grappled with ...
Centers for Disease Control Prevention (CDC) (25 June 2010). "Detection of Enterobacteriaceae Isolates Carrying Metallo-Beta- ... Antibiotic resistance List of antibiotic resistant bacteria Medical tourism Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MCR-1 ... The British journal The Lancet refused to publish a rebuttal from the Indian National Centre for Disease Control, claiming lack ... In June 2014 it was reported that the molecule aspergillomarasmine A from the Aspergillus fungus turns off the resistance ...
Self 2012, p. 79 Bibby, Michael (1996). Hearts and Minds: Bodies, Poetry, and Resistance in the Vietnam Era. Perspectives on ... prostitution and sexually transmitted diseases. Other injustices included unsafe housing, malnutrition and the over- ...
He began the electrical research that, along with other scientific inquiries, would occupy him for the rest of his life, in ... Infectious disease deaths in Pennsylvania, Les Neuf Sœurs, Masonic Grand Masters, Members of the American Philosophical Society ... Franklin's electrical experiments led to his invention of the lightning rod. He said that conductors with a sharp rather than a ... News of his electrical discoveries was widespread in France. His reputation meant that he was introduced to many influential ...
Banana republic Dutch disease Exploitation colonialism Freight equalization policy in India High-level equilibrium trap Passive ... A 2020 study determined that low levels of oil and gas revenue actually increases the likelihood of nonviolent resistance in ... Real exchange rate increases, through capital inflows or the "Dutch disease" can make this appear an attractive option by ... All of these countries are considered "resource-cursed". Dutch disease makes tradable goods less competitive in world markets. ...
Those in the study who had syphilis were not told, nor were they informed that treatment was available for their disease, even ... "Wallace Ends Resistance as Guard Is Federalized; More Schools Integrate". The New York Times. Retrieved March 5, 2021.{{cite ... With funding cut by the Great Depression, staff cut back on medication to treat the disease and studied the effects of ... started to test treatments of the disease. 600 African-American men became involved, being offered free medical care by the U.S ...
Journal of Infectious Diseases. 182(5): pgs. 1331-1342 Collins PL, Hill MG... Murphy BR (1995). Production of infectious human ... 1761-1764 Clements ML, Betts RF... Murphy BR (1986). Serum and nasal wash antibodies associated with resistance to experimental ... He moved to the National Institutes of Health in 1970 as a research associate in the Laboratory of Infectious Diseases within ... In 2001, he became co-chief of the Laboratory of Infectious Diseases with Robert H. Purcell. He retired from the National ...
The people had been devastated by alcoholism, disease, starvation and exploitation. Their land had been taken from them, by ... These failures contributed to the 1885 North-West Rebellion/Resistance) He had seen the lives of the native peoples being ... destroyed by disease, alcohol and starvation and their lands being taken over by European/Canadian settlers. He was an ...
Inheritance of resistance to muskmelon necrotic spot virus in a melon aphid-resistant breeding line of muskmelon. J. Am. Soc. ... Management of the disease consists of preventing infection by rotating fields and crops, steam sterilization, and disposal of ... Lastly, breeding for resistance is the most effective method of control against MNSV. Two cultivars in melon that exhibit ... Preventing New Diseases - Melon Necrotic Spot Virus. Orange: Government of New South Wales - Department of Primary Industries, ...
During the next year and a half, Jews from smaller cities and villages were brought into the Warsaw Ghetto, while diseases ( ... The fighting in isolated pockets of resistance lasted for several days, but the defence was broken almost instantly. As with ... Tsarist policy towards the Jews of Poland alternated between harsh rules, and inducements meant to break the resistance to ... It occurred amid a period of violence and anarchy across the country, caused by lawlessness and anti-communist resistance ...
The yeast was characterized as "an opportunist pathogen for lung transplant and/or CF patients". Because of its resistance, it ... Animal fungal diseases). ...
... widespread disease, and severe inflation, which in turn led to widespread local discontent.: 924 In addition, new policies ... and prominent businesspeople to eliminate resistance.: 931 The total death toll from the incident remains in dispute and has ...
8,500 Japanese were killed at the same time, while disease and malnutrition killed another 9,800 and some 23,500 troops and ... In the resulting Battle of Tsimba Ridge, the Australians encountered determined resistance in heavily fortified positions, and ... Long's figures are quoted in the narrative, totalling 16,700 combat deaths and 26,400 deaths from disease and malnutrition. ... Footnotes Figure includes deaths from all causes: combat, disease, starvation, and accident. The Australians counted 21,000 to ...
Consequently, there was resistance to using this option, yet no other instruments were available to the Company to deal with ... People died of starvation or in a debilitated state were mowed down by diseases which spread especially where the starving ... Although the monsoon immediately after did bring plentiful rains, it also brought diseases to which many among the enfeebled ... Large areas depopulated due to death, disease, and desertion. For several years after the famine, deserted villages, and ...
Palmer's activities met resistance from the courts and some senior administration officials. No one told Wilson what Palmer was ... The health of Wilson's wife, Ellen, declined after he entered office, and doctors diagnosed her with Bright's disease in July ... Wilson became disenchanted with his job due to the resistance to his recommendations, and he began considering a run for office ... His mind remained relatively clear; but he was physically enfeebled, and the disease had wrecked his emotional constitution and ...
... "poverty is a disease that can never be cured." When not playing around with young chorus-girls, he actually felt quite lonely, ... and he held charity balls and performed to raise money for resistance efforts. Chevalier consistently refused to perform for ...
The French strikes knock out electrical power in the city of about 200,000 people. 16 November The United States makes its ... Fair for designing a system of fin-like devices that can be installed in the air inlets of a Boeing 737 to reduce disease ... Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula forces seize Riyan Airport outside Mukalla, Yemen, facing no resistance. SpaceX's second ...
There was substantial resistance from the suburbs to the merger, with the perception being that it was forced on the mostly ... This is believed to be due to outmigration, epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611, Champlain established ... "Alanis Obomsawin, Kanesatake: 270 Years of Resistance, National Film Board of Canada, 1993, accessed Jan 30, 2010". National ...
... but proved to be difficult to keep in captivity due to their feeding habits and low resistance to diseases. Nine of the 10 ... The Antiguan racer appears to have poor resistance to common snake mites, which are not naturally found in Antigua, which has ...
... insecticide resistance and vector-borne diseases (malaria and dengue fever) BLAST searches for all covered genomes Vectors in ... funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), a component of the National Institutes of Health ( ...
The tree is extremely vigorous and consistently self-sterile, and has good disease resistance. Annual Report of the Long Ashton ...
Viral resistance to the drug leads to the drug becoming useless since the virus evolves to have cells that are able to resist ... Impairs endothelial function in healthy HIV-negative men and may accelerate atherosclerotic disease. Indinavir is a white ... This fear of viral resistance caused a lot of users to be wary of the drug. The most common side effects of indinavir include: ... Currently, it is being replaced by newer drugs that are more convenient to take, less likely to promote virus resistance, and ...
Gaul was conquered, although it would not become a Roman province until 27 BC, and resistance would continue until as late as ... and other Roman authors assert that the Druids would offer human sacrifices on numerous occasions for relief from disease and ... In 51 BC and 50 BC, there was little resistance, and Caesar's troops were mostly mopping up. ...
2014 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 59 (2): e10-e52. doi:10.1093/cid/ ... The increased prevalence of antibiotic resistance is evident in MRSA species commonly involved in SSSIs, which worsen prognoses ... List of cutaneous conditions Linezolid Tedizolid SSTI is the preferred description of the Infectious Diseases Society of ... and major abscesses or a significant underlying disease state that complicates the response to treatment." The FDA further ...
Ferrara Receives Champalimaud Award for Role in Eye Disease Therapy, UC San Diego v t e (Articles with short description, Short ... in particular the role of factors produced by myeloid cells and fibroblasts in mediating resistance to VEGF inhibitors.[ ... where he pioneered the development of new treatments for angiogenic diseases such as cancer, age-related macular degeneration ( ...
While all Cushing's disease gives Cushing's syndrome, not all Cushing's syndrome is due to Cushing's disease. Several possible ... leading to high blood sugar and insulin resistance which can lead to diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance is accompanied by ... This etiology is called ectopic or paraneoplastic Cushing's disease and is seen in diseases such as small cell lung cancer. ... Cushing's disease is rare; a Danish study found an incidence of less than one case per million people per year. However, ...
Resistance to the early eighteenth Dynasty Egyptian rule by neighboring Kush is evidenced in the writings of Ahmose, son of ... disease, divine intervention, Hezekiah's surrender) as to why the Assyrians failed to take the city and withdrew to Assyria. ...
The H5N1 influenza virus, also known as bird flu, has resistance to interferon and other anti-viral cytokines that is ... Delayed IFN-I response contributes to the pathogenic inflammation (cytokine storm) seen in later stages of COVID-19 disease. ... Bhatti Z, Berenson CS (February 2007). "Adult systemic cat scratch disease associated with therapy for hepatitis C". BMC ... Long SS, Pickering LK, Prober CG (2012). Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Disease. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. ...
The threat of antibiotic resistance and what CDC is doing to protect people. ... Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases ( ... Tracking Antimicrobial Resistance in Kenya and Senegal. *CDC Core Elements to Help Resource-limited Settings Improve Antibiotic ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. ...
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ARS Annual Report on Science Developing new crop varieties with enhanced traits and disease resistance ... Developing New Crop Varieties with Enhanced Traits and Disease Resistance DOWNLOAD ONEPAGER PDF ... The following accomplishments are examples of ARS advances in crop breeding for disease resistance and trait enhancement that ... ARS advances multiple crop industries by developing new crop varieties with disease resistance and other trait enhancements and ...
Find articles about Antimicrobial Resistance from the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal at CDC. ... Antimicrobial Resistance: Beyond the Breakpoint David J. Pombo Volume 16, Number 9-September 2010 New Infectious Diseases and ... Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Incidence for Group B Streptococcus Disease in Infants and Antimicrobial Resistance, ... Use of Pneumococcal Disease Epidemiology to Set Policy and Prevent Disease during 20 Years of the Emerging Infections Program ...
Late blight disease is the number one constraint for potato farmers and has been since it caused the Irish potato famine in the ... Late blight disease is the number one constraint for potato farmers and has been since it caused the Irish potato famine in the ... During five years of restricted field trials in multiple locations in Uganda, these 3R varieties showed complete resistance to ... Over decades, breeders have crossed potatoes with wild relatives to produce varieties with moderate resistance to late blight, ...
Scientists at the University of Cambridge have used embryonic tissue from certain plant seeds to promote disease resistance and ... Scientists at the University of Cambridge have used embryonic tissue from certain plant seeds to promote disease resistance and ... Scientists at the University of Cambridge have used embryonic tissue from certain plant seeds to promote disease resistance and ... Our technique allows us to add disease resistance, or other beneficial properties like salt-tolerance, to grass-like plants ...
1998)‎. Emerging and other communicable diseases: antimicrobial resistance. World Health Organization. ...
Redding L. Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(12 ... Redding, L. (2019). Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 25 ... In this era of "superbugs" and rising antimicrobial resistance, Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and ... Challenges in Forecasting Antimicrobial Resistance Challenges in Forecasting Antimicrobial Resistance Manifestations and ...
Currently there is no treatment for the disease so it is vital we understand all the possible pathways to developing resistance ... Chemical clues in leaves can reveal ash tree resistance to deadly disease ... But, the same chemicals are used by trees to deter herbivorous insects, so selective breeding for ADB resistance could have the ... occurring compounds in ash leaves could be linked to susceptibility or resistance of individual trees to the fungal disease ash ...
Dry bean disease screening and development of germplasm with disease resistance. Project Title:. Dry bean disease screening and ... some of which will have resistance to bacterial blight diseases. ... Bacterial diseases halo blight and bacterial brown spot may ... Common bacterial blight is primarily a seed borne disease that hampers the dry bean industry in Ontario through damaged seed ... leverage expertise in dry bean genetics by developing germplasm that integrates tolerance to specific diseases, such as halo ...
Breeding for improved disease resistance in fresh market and home garden varieties ... Tomato: Breeding for improved disease resistance in fresh market and home garden varieties. Title. Tomato: Breeding for ... Tomato: Breeding for improved disease resistance in fresh market and home garden varieties ...
How is ESA resistance defined in patients with anemia of chronic disease and renal failure, and what are the common causes of ... ESA resistance. The working definition of ESA resistance is the requirement for greater than 150 units/kg of ESA at least 3 ... Although the diseases that lead to anemia, such as malignancy or chronic kidney disease (CKD), may cause obvious symptoms, the ... Cardiovascular disease. The risk of death from cardiovascular disease also increases with advancing age, and the impact of ...
... for resistance genes and determine the optimal combinations of resistance genes to enable greater durability of resistance in ... Foliar diseases, such as rust and yellow spot, are common and geographically widespread across the Australian wheat belt and ... This enables rapid disease screening all year round. Methods have been developed for yellow spot (Dinglasan et al. 2016), ... The frequency of disease severity and prevalence in Australia has notably increased with the introduction of minimum tillage ...
... ... Resistance to CBD is conferred by three genes; R, T and k from varieties Rume Sudan (RS), Hibrido de Timor (HDT) and K7 ... Resistance to CBD of the F2 genotypes from RSxSL28 was evaluated by hypocotyl inoculation test. Genomic DNA was extracted using ... The DNA markers for R and T genes were used to identify crosses within varieties R11 and Batian with multiple resistance to CBD ...
How is ESA resistance defined in patients with anemia of chronic disease and renal failure, and what are the common causes of ... ESA resistance. The working definition of ESA resistance is the requirement for greater than 150 units/kg of ESA at least 3 ... Although the diseases that lead to anemia, such as malignancy or chronic kidney disease (CKD), may cause obvious symptoms, the ... Cardiovascular disease. The risk of death from cardiovascular disease also increases with advancing age, and the impact of ...
A paper about genetic variability of the pathogen and location of the resistance, with special emphasis in the work carried out ... It also can be used to evaluate the germplasm resistance of wheat cultivars with isolates with high genetic differences. In ... During the last decades studies about the genetic variability of the pathogen and location of the resistance have been ... The incorporation of the known genes in new cultivars could contribute to broadening the resistance to the pathogen. ...
Diet and resistance to disease / edited by Marshall Phillips and Albert Baetz. Contributor(s): Phillips, Marshall , Baetz, ... Albert , Symposium on Diet and Resistance to Disease (1980 : Houston, Texas)Material type: TextSeries: Advances in experimental ...
... M. Jafarzade1, M. Ramezani1, F. Hedayati1, Z. ... Resistance against rhizomania disease via RNA silencing in sugar beet. Plant Pathol. 64:35-42. ... For assessment of disease resistance in hairy roots, virus content was determined by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked ... So far, such resistance is mainly conferred by dominant Rz1 and Rz2 genes. Recently, broken Rz-based resistance against BNYVV ...
Resistance Training Maintains White Matter and Physical Function in Older Women with Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: An ... Aged; Alzheimers disease; cerebral small vessel diseases; dementia; magnetic resonance imaging; randomized controlled trial; ... Resistance Training Maintains White Matter and Physical Function in Older Women with Cereb ... such as cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). The progression of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), a key hallmark of CSVD, ...
Exercise perceptions and experiences in adults with Crohns disease following a combined impact and resistance training ... Exercise perceptions and experiences in adults with Crohns disease following a combined impact and resistance training ... Background: Exercise is increasingly being recognized to counteract specific complications of Crohns disease (CD). The aim of ... this study was to explore exercise experiences and perceptions after engaging in a combined impact and resistance training ...
Medical Diseases & Conditions - Mayo Clinic * Young woman dies after short and hard fight against meningococcal disease - ... Drug resistance linked to antibiotic use and patient transfers in hospitals Understanding the role of antibiotic use patterns ... Costly stem cell treatment only option to treat teachers neurological disease - Stuff ...
... inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists is increasingly used in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ... MUC1 deficiency mediates corticosteroid resistance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 20 November 2018 ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major and increasing global health problem [1]. COPD has a complex underlying ... Pease JE, Sabroe I (2002) The role of interleukin-8 and its receptors in inflammatory lung disease: implications for therapy. ...
Human multidrug resistance protein (MRP/ABCC) family contains 9 members (MRP1-9) which transport a structurally diverse array ... Inflammatory diseases, Multidrug Resistance Proteins, substrate, MRP, inhibitor, inflammatory disease, drug resistance, ... Inflammatory diseases, Multidrug Resistance Proteins, substrate, MRP, inhibitor, inflammatory disease, drug resistance, ... Articles by Disease Articles By Disease Bentham is offering subject-based scholarly content collections which are tailored to ...
Second Patient with Extremely Rare Genetic Resistance to Alzheimers Disease Discovered. *Cancer ... or residual disease as a surgery adjuvant … Importantly, as AAV-MAEGI activates endogenous genes, the acquisition of additional ...
Origin and maintenance of a broad-spectrum disease resistance locus in Arabidopsis ... Origin and maintenance of a broad-spectrum disease resistance locus in Arabidopsis. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 21. pp. ...
Pollution from a variety of sources is driving up the incidence of resistance to the compounds used to treat infections, ... Restore linked habitat to protect tropical amphibians from disease: Study by Sean Mowbray 8 February 2023 ... Pollution and climate change set stage for rise in antimicrobial resistance by John Cannon 8 February 2023 ... leading to more disease, though more research is needed. ...
  • To address this growing problem, NIAID is funding and conducting research to better understand how microbes develop and pass on resistance genes. (
  • International Potato Center (CIP) scientists thus used bioengineering to transfer 3 resistance genes (3R) from potato wild relatives into varieties that are popular with farmers and consumers in East Africa. (
  • We obtained 78 human blood samples from areas in Haiti with high transmission of malaria and found no drug resistance-associated mutations in Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter and Kelch 13 genes. (
  • However, that pathogen induction and / or high R gene expression are necessary for extreme resistance when transgenic events bear a stack of three R genes was not observed. (
  • A methodology for accurate screening of Brassica species for blackleg resistance was created and two B. napus lines with novel R genes were identified. (
  • To identify new major resistance genes for blackleg disease through the phenotypic screening of 500 accessions of Brassica napus , B. rapa and B. oleracea with a differential set of Leptosphaeria maculans isolates. (
  • An intensive screening of over 1,100 accessions (plant materials collected from a particular area) of B. napus and B. rapa was conducted to search for novel resistance (R) genes against blackleg. (
  • Candidate genes were also investigated, suggesting the importance of involved pathways of phagocytosis and T-cell activation in ESC resistance. (
  • 2018). Based on these findings, ongoing work is aiming to functionally validate candidate genes within the novel genomic regions and determine the value in terms of protecting grain yield under disease conditions. (
  • The objective of this program is to increase diversity for resistance genes and determine the optimal combinations of resistance genes to enable greater durability of resistance in deployed cultivars, and ultimately more sustainable barley cropping systems for Australian growers. (
  • The objectives of this study were: to evaluate the suitability of the RSxSL28 F2 genotypes for mapping of a dominant gene, to identify the DNA marker for R gene in RS, to identify genotypes within R11 and Batian with T and R genes using MAS and to pyramid the three genes for CBD resistance in one population. (
  • The DNA markers for R and T genes were used to identify crosses within varieties R11 and Batian with multiple resistance to CBD, which were further utilized to develop a population with the three CBD resistant genes by crossing them to K7. (
  • Eleven coffee genotypes were confirmed with multiple resistance conferred by T and R-genes. (
  • In this study, the 84 F2 genotypes are suitable for genetic mapping and are recommended for mapping genes for other diseases, segregating between the two parents. (
  • The 11 crosses confirmed with multiple resistance to CBD are recommended for further distribution to growers since their resistance is broad-based and thus durable while the pyramiding population developed with T, R and k genes is recommended for subsequent selfing to fix the k gene and release as varieties with durable resistance. (
  • In addition, the knowledge of the genes conditioning resistance in different genotypes allows getting precise combination in new germplasm. (
  • The incorporation of the known genes in new cultivars could contribute to broadening the resistance to the pathogen. (
  • Additionally, people who have more than one polymorphism in a gene or polymorphisms in multiple genes associated with warfarin resistance have a higher tolerance for the drug's effect or are able to process the drug more quickly. (
  • Similarly to the mutations that can make humans less fit, there are recessive genes that have the potential to cause serious genetic diseases. (
  • Under severe epidemics they can lead to food insecurity threats amid the continuous evolution of new races of the pathogens, shifts in population dynamics and their virulence patterns, thereby rendering several effective resistance genes deployed in wheat breeding programs vulnerable. (
  • Deployment of multiple rust resistance genes including major and minor genes in wheat lines could enhance the durability of resistance thereby reducing pathogen evolution. (
  • Application of breeder's friendly KASP assays in the wheat breeding program has expedited the identification and pyramiding of rust resistance alleles/genes in elite lines. (
  • It will also highlight the outcome and research impact of cost-effective NGS technologies and cloning of rust resistance genes amid the public availability of common and tetraploid wheat reference genomes. (
  • Bacteria, fungi, and other microbes evolve over time and can develop resistance to antimicrobial drugs. (
  • Why Is the Study of Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance a Priority for NIAID? (
  • Antimicrobial resistance is a significant public health problem in the U.S. and around the world as infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat, especially in healthcare facilities and in people with weakened immune systems. (
  • The ARLG oversees a clinical research network that conducts studies on important aspects of antimicrobial resistance, including testing novel therapeutics and diagnostics. (
  • Antibiotics and similar drugs, together called antimicrobial agents, have been used for the last 70 years to treat people who have infectious diseases. (
  • HIV and Tuberculosis are both very prone to developing antimicrobial resistance, yet they adopt opposite strategies for doing so, said Dr. Patrick Cudahy. (
  • Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the top ten global public health challenges. (
  • We have further developed the three-hierarchical Global One Health Index (GOHI)-AMR indicator scheme, which consists of five key indicators, 17 indicators, and 49 sub-indicators, by incorporating 146 countries' data from diverse authoritative databases, including WHO's Global Antimicrobial Resistance and Use Surveillance System (GLASS) and the European CDC. (
  • Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), universally recognized as one of the most serious public health challenges of the twenty-first century [ 1 ], has grown into a global pandemic that poses a threat to human health and well-being, including health care, food production, and life expectancy [ 2 ]. (
  • According to the UK government's Antimicrobial Resistance Review , AMR would result in ten million annual deaths and a cumulative economic loss of GBP 100 trillion by 2050 [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched a Global Antimicrobial Resistance and Use Surveillance System (GLASS), which collected, evaluated, and integrated data on AMR in humans across countries and territories. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) provides technical and logistical support to the Ministry to control many communicable diseases, including tuberculosis (TB), hepatitis, HIV/AIDS and neglected tropical diseases, and to tackle antimicrobial resistance, collect communicable disease surveillance data and help ensure adequate response to outbreaks. (
  • As a result of the misuse and overuse of antibiotics antimicrobial resistance has become a serious global public health challenge. (
  • There are, however, no available data on antimicrobial resistance in Iraq. (
  • With technical support from WHO, the Ministry of Health developed a national action plan on antimicrobial resistance for Iraq and 50 health officials were trained in surveillance using the global antimicrobial resistance surveillance system (GLASS) platform. (
  • Since the 1940s, these drugs have greatly reduced illness and death from infectious diseases. (
  • Comparative genomics and host resistance against infectious diseases. (
  • Qureshi, S. T. and Skamene, E. and Malo, D. "Comparative genomics and host resistance against infectious diseases. (
  • In recent years, catfish industry has been facing numerous challenges, including increased costs of feed and fuel, international competition, and infectious diseases. (
  • Among infectious diseases, enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by the bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri, resulted in the most significant losses. (
  • Unlike Zika , this problem has long been predicted, as first reported by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) in its 2006 Clinical Infectious Diseases cover story titled "Bad Bugs, No Drugs. (
  • Anemia of chronic illness traditionally encompassed any inflammatory, infectious, or malignant disease of a long-standing nature. (
  • Antibiotics resistance / STI / Infectious Disease specialists? (
  • The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) conducts and supports basic and applied research to better understand, treat, and ultimately prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases. (
  • NIAID research provides the foundation for developing medical products and strategies to diagnose, treat, and prevent a wide range of infectious diseases, whether those diseases emerge naturally or are deliberately introduced as an act of bioterrorism. (
  • Since the 2001 anthrax attacks, NIAID has vastly expanded its portfolio in biodefense and emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. (
  • NIAID also supports biodefense and emerging infectious disease research through training programs and enhancement of research infrastructure and capacity, and by providing needed research resources and reagents to the scientific community. (
  • Late blight disease is the number one constraint for potato farmers and has been since it caused the Irish potato famine in the 1840s. (
  • The latest Ministry of Health and Environment statistics show that communicable diseases account for 17% of all deaths in Iraq and are the second largest cause of mortality and morbidity in the country. (
  • WHO also supports the Ministry's analysis of data to evaluate the impact of interventions to control common communicable diseases and improve surveillance. (
  • ARS advances multiple crop industries by developing new crop varieties with disease resistance and other trait enhancements and providing new tools and approaches that will support future breeding efforts. (
  • ARS scientists in Wooster, OH, completed a survey of PHS resistance in a population of nearly 200 diverse soft wheat breeding lines over 3 years and over 2 years in a second, and a more diverse population of older varieties. (
  • These findings provide important information for breeders about varieties with tolerance to PHS and the potential for future breeding of PHS resistance. (
  • Over decades, breeders have crossed potatoes with wild relatives to produce varieties with moderate resistance to late blight, but because pathogen populations eventually evolve ways to overcome their resistance, widely cultivated varieties become less resistant over time. (
  • Popular potato varieties that were late blight-resistant when they were released decades ago are now just as susceptible to the disease as any potato, which means farmers have to apply large amounts of fungicides to grow them. (
  • During five years of restricted field trials in multiple locations in Uganda, these 3R varieties showed complete resistance to late blight without any fungicide applications. (
  • The epidemics of Coffee Berry Disease (CBD), caused by Colletotrichum kahawae, destroy up to 80% of the crop on susceptible varieties if not controlled. (
  • however, using antibiotics too often in humans and animals and in cases where antibiotics are not an appropriate treatment can make resistance develop more quickly. (
  • The assumption is that reducing the vast level of antibiotic abuse (current data show that one half of all inpatients in CMS-funded US hospitals are receiving antibiotics [ 20 ] ) will slow the development of resistance. (
  • As expected, high-income countries (HICs) outperform the other three income groups on overall rankings and all five key indicators of GOHI-AMR, whereas low-income countries unexpectedly outperform upper-middle-income countries and lower-middle-income countries on the antibiotics-resistant key indicator (ARR) and ARR-subordinate indicators, including carbapenem-, β-lactam-, and quinolone resistance, and even HICs on aminoglycoside resistance. (
  • I am looking for a clinic, hospital, lab, or doctor that can test for antibiotics resistance of a potential STI. (
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (
  • Examples of such programs include the Inner-City Asthma Consortium, the Consortium of Food Allergy Research, the Atopic Dermatitis Research Network and the Asthma and Allergic Diseases Cooperative Research Centers. (
  • According to the study authors, the research has implications for the control of serious soil-borne pathogens including Panama Disease, which has been destroying banana plantations for over 30 years. (
  • The pathogens are diverse and they're able to reproduce sexually and have the ability to rapidly develop new virulences and overcome genetic resistance, hence it is important to identify novel sources of resistance. (
  • The marker sequences were associated with proteins for plant defense mechanisms to disease pathogens. (
  • The use of genetic resistance has been marked as eco-friendly and to curb the further evolution of rust pathogens. (
  • Family members who carry a rare gene mutation called Presenilin 1 ( PSEN1 ) E280A , have a 99.9% risk of developing early-onset Alzheimer's disease. (
  • The research suggests that a drug or gene therapy that could reduce APOE and HSPG binding has the potential to be a new way to treat or prevent Alzheimer's disease. (
  • We evaluated 2 drug resistance markers, the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter ( pfcrt ) gene and the artemisinin resistance gene Kelch 13 ( k13 ), in malaria parasites in Haiti to determine prevalences and provide information and recommendations for clinical practice to support malaria elimination efforts. (
  • The interspecific backcrosses provide an ideal system for the identification of QTL, because both disease resistance gene and trait are segregating in this population. (
  • The major outcomes of this project was the discovery of genomic regions conferring stable resistance to leaf rust in elite breeding populations, as well as the characterisation of a new adult plant resistance gene called Rph24 (Ziems et al. (
  • The study also recommends the mapping of the k gene in K7 for efficiency in selection for multiple resistance to CBD. (
  • which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to result in warfarin resistance. (
  • But a few of them might actually be impervious to treatment and that's how HIV drives resistance," said the Yale School of Medicine instructor. (
  • Ghrelin, a hormone produced in the stomach, may be used to boost resistance to, or slow, the development of Parkinson's disease, Yale School of Medicine researchers report in a study published in a recent issue of the Journal of Neuroscience . (
  • Dr. Karen Jacobson trained in Cape Town, South Africa, not long after scientists had first sequenced the TB genome and begun to recognize mutations predicting resistance to first line drugs (isoniazid, rifapentine, and rifampin). (
  • The frequency of disease severity and prevalence in Australia has notably increased with the introduction of minimum tillage cropping practices, less frequent precipitation events during the growing season and more frequent heat waves due to climate change. (
  • Warfarin resistance is thought to be a rare condition, although its prevalence is unknown. (
  • During the last decades studies about the genetic variability of the pathogen and location of the resistance have been intensive around the world. (
  • A paper about genetic variability of the pathogen and location of the resistance, with special emphasis in the work carried out in Argentina, is presented. (
  • Resistance to CBD of the F2 genotypes from RSxSL28 was evaluated by hypocotyl inoculation test. (
  • Azzam H, Elwakeel H, Awad I, El-Farahaty R, El-Gilany AH, El-Sharawy S. VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes in Egyptian patients with warfarin resistance. (
  • 2022). In partnership with Curtin University, genomic regions conferring resistance to septoria nodorum blotch have also been uncovered in the Vavilov wheats (Phan et al. (
  • Scientists at the University of Cambridge have used embryonic tissue from certain plant seeds to promote disease resistance and other beneficial traits. (
  • Developmental traits in breeding for disease resistance in so. (
  • Antibiotic resistance to STI is a real concern - I believe it causes "Bangkok Rose" where the penis sort of peels from the inside out. (
  • ABC transporters : diseases & drug resistance / Michael Gottesman and Win Arias. (
  • Multi-drug resistance is a major problem, making Salmonella, Clostridium difficile, and cholera particularly difficult to treat in the settings where it is most likely to develop a fatal outcome. (
  • Unlocking the genetic resistance of soft winter wheat preharvest sprouting (PHS). (
  • To accelerate the discovery of new sources of genetic resistance, the HickeyLab has developed innovative phenotyping methods that are adapted to speed breeding conditions. (
  • The deployment of genetic resistance is the most economical, effective, and ecologically sustainable approach to control foliar cereal diseases. (
  • The following accomplishments are examples of ARS advances in crop breeding for disease resistance and trait enhancement that were made in FY 2020. (
  • Clinical studies are part of clinical research and at the heart of all medical advances, including rare diseases. (
  • New advances on critical implications of tumor- and metastasis-initiating cells in cancer progression, treatment resistance and disease recurrence. (
  • Examination of the resistance alleles indicated their origin from blue catfish. (
  • Parkinson's disease is caused by a degeneration of dopamine neurons in an area of the midbrain known as the substantia nigra, which is responsible for dopamine production. (
  • Recent human studies show that body mass index, stored fat and diabetes are linked to Parkinson's disease. (
  • The mechanism of action of amantadine hydrochloride in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions is not known. (
  • Although there is evidence of shared dysregulated pathways between diabetes and Parkinson's disease, epidemiologic research on an association between the two diseases has produced inconsistent results. (
  • We aimed to assess whether known metabolomic markers of insulin resistance and diabetes are also associated with Parkinson's disease development. (
  • We used conditional logistic regression models to assess whether plasma levels of branched chain amino acids, acylcarnitines, glutamate, or glutamine were associated with incident development of Parkinson's disease. (
  • In the primary analyses, none of the metabolites of interest were associated with Parkinson's disease development. (
  • In investigations of the association between each metabolite and Parkinson's disease at different time intervals prior to diagnosis, some metabolites showed marginally significant association but, after correction for multiple testing, only C18 : 2 acylcarnitine was significantly associated with Parkinson's disease among subjects for whom blood was collected less than 60 months prior to case diagnosis. (
  • Plasma levels of diabetes-related metabolites did not contribute to predict risk of Parkinson's disease. (
  • Further investigation of the relationship between pre-diagnostic levels of diabetes-related metabolites and Parkinson's disease in other populations is needed to confirm these findings. (
  • Defying the odds, an individual at high risk for early-onset Alzheimer's disease remained dementia-free for many years beyond what was anticipated. (
  • Early-onset Alzheimer's disease is rare, representing less than 10% of all people who have Alzheimer's. (
  • Risk for both early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease is affected by genetic factors. (
  • She did have large amounts of amyloid protein deposits, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, in her brain. (
  • The individual is from the same family participating in the ongoing Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer's Disease (ADAD) trial, which is designed to find out if the anti-amyloid treatment crenezumab can prevent the disease. (
  • Since that time, other studies have reported no or few chloroquinine-resistance haplotypes ( 3 - 6 ), but an in vivo study reported a decrease in susceptibility to this drug ( 7 ). (
  • Naturally occurring compounds in ash leaves could be linked to susceptibility or resistance of individual trees to the fungal disease ash dieback (ADB). (
  • Scientists at the University of Warwick and University of Exeter have identified a group of chemicals present in ash leaves which could be used as biomarkers to look for susceptibility or resistance to ADB. (
  • For more than 30 years CR has been considered the most significant fungal disease of temperate cereal crops in Queensland and northern New South Wales. (
  • Scientists from the NIH's National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases led research which found that transferring the gut microbes from wild mice to laboratory mice promotes fitness and significantly improves responses to an otherwise lethal flu virus infection and to colorectal cancer. (
  • Abstract: DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM). (
  • PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Effective treatments for cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes remain one of the largest unmet needs in the public health. (
  • This proposal postulates vitamin D as a novel therapeutic agent to decrease vascular inflammation and cardiovascular disease in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. (
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes and associated with cardiovascular risks. (
  • Currently there is no treatment for the disease so it is vital we understand all the possible pathways to developing resistance. (
  • Anemia may arise as a complication of several chronic diseases, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in particular. (
  • When Do Symptoms of Warfarin resistance Begin? (
  • The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for immunoglobulin resistance, including clinical symptoms such as arthritis and the pH of intravenous immunoglobulin . (
  • British Library EThOS: Molecular markers as selection tools for introgression of alien disease resistance into wheat. (
  • Foliar diseases, such as rust and yellow spot, are common and geographically widespread across the Australian wheat belt and worldwide. (
  • 2017). To identify new sources of resistance to rust and yellow spot, the HickeyLab team is screening the Vavilov Wheat Collection, which includes diverse wheat accessions from around the world - collected by renowned Russian botanist Nikolai Vavilov and his colleagues prior to modern plant breeding. (
  • It also can be used to evaluate the germplasm resistance of wheat cultivars with isolates with high genetic differences. (
  • Wheat production globally is challenged by biotic stresses such as pests and diseases. (
  • Of the 50 diseases of wheat that are of economic importance, the three rust diseases are the most ubiquitous causing significant yield losses in the majority of wheat production environments. (
  • The ability of insulin to stimulate glucose uptake varies widely from person to person, and these differences, as well as how the individual attempts to compensate for them, are of fundamental importance in the development and clinical course of what are often designated as diseases of Western civilization. (
  • In contrast, evidence is presented supporting the view that the combination of insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia predisposes to the development of a cluster of abnormalities, including some degree of glucose intolerance, an increase in plasma triglyceride and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, high blood pressure, hyperuricemia, smaller denser low-density lipoprotein particles, and higher circulating levels of plaminogen activator inhibitor 1. (
  • ARS scientists from Corvallis, OR, and Poplarville, MS, searched blueberry genetic resources for resistance to that fruit fly. (
  • But selecting trees with lower levels of these compounds and breeding for resistance could leave the UK ash tree population open to attack from invading insect pests in the future, according to scientists at the University of Warwick. (
  • The significantly associated markers should be useful for marker-assisted introgression to develop catfish breeds with ESC resistance. (
  • The Two SNP markers associated with CBD resistance in RS are recommended for use in MAS. (
  • For the first part of my dissertation work, I conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for ESC disease resistance using the first-generation backcrosses. (
  • Enteric Diseases. (
  • The global burden of enteric disease is second only to respiratory infection as a cause of sickness and death. (
  • Enteric diseases range from persistent, low-grade infections to severe, acute epidemic cholera. (
  • An additional burden of disease occurs because enteric infection greatly exacerbates the pathogenicity of diseases such as malaria and HIV/AIDS. (
  • One of the most severe enteric infections is cholera, the most rapidly killing bacterial disease. (
  • 2011) with Rph24 provided a pathway for barley breeders to develop new cultivars with high levels of leaf rust resistance. (
  • Clinical trials determine if a new test or treatment for a disease is effective and safe by comparing groups receiving different tests/treatments. (
  • Participants with a disease may participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and additional care from clinical study staff. (
  • 8 of them exhibited extreme LB resistance while the remaining 9 transgenic events showed hypersensitive response (HR). 6 transgenic events (2 'Tigoni' and 4 'Shangi') with extreme resistance by DLA were subjected to WPA and they all exhibited extreme resistance to LB. Hence, this study demonstrates that a simple DLA predicts high level of resistance to late blight. (
  • These government investigators, including Dr. Chetlin, are continuing to examine the effects of a validated, evidence-based mechanical loading "resistance-type" exercise protocol on these transgenic CMT1A rats. (
  • To maintain Iraq's malaria-free status WHO trained 25 malaria focal points in the prevention, management and control of the disease. (
  • Our work shows that the small molecules in leaves could give a pretty reliable indication of a tree's resistance as well as new insight into possible resistance mechanisms. (
  • These results will help in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying ESC resistance and host responses to E. ictaluri in catfish. (
  • Our technique allows us to add disease resistance, or other beneficial properties like salt-tolerance, to grass-like plants without resorting to genetic modification or lengthy breeding programs. (
  • But, the same chemicals are used by trees to deter herbivorous insects, so selective breeding for ADB resistance could have the unintended consequence of leaving the UK ash population open to attack by invading pests. (
  • Based on new cancer stem/progenitor cell concepts of carcinogenesis, it is suggested that a small subpopulation of highly tumorigenic and migrating cancer stem/progenitor cells, also designated as cancer- and metastasis-initiating cells, can provide critical roles for primary tumor growth, metastases at distant tissues and organs, treatment resistance and disease relapse. (
  • Those with incomplete warfarin resistance can achieve the benefits of warfarin treatment with a high dose of warfarin. (
  • Individuals with complete warfarin resistance do not respond to warfarin treatment, no matter how high the dose. (
  • Warfarin resistance does not appear to cause any health problems other than those associated with warfarin drug treatment. (
  • Barley leaf rust, caused by Puccinia hordei , is arguably the most common and widely distributed disease of barley crops. (
  • Finally, these studies could provide the foundation for future research to evaluate the effects of vitamin D and/or the new vitamin D analogs on common complications affecting diabetic patients, such as cerebrovascular disease, dementia, diabetic nephropathy, and retinopathy. (
  • They build public awareness of the disease and are a driving force behind research to improve patients' lives. (
  • Participating in research helps researchers ultimately uncover better ways to treat, prevent, diagnose, and understand human diseases. (
  • If a person is exposed to drug-resistant TB-or develops resistance due to being given the wrong drugs or being unable to take their drugs reliably-then they need second line medications," said Cudahy. (
  • It's an urgent challenge to make important food crops resistant to the diseases that are destroying them. (
  • Channel catfish and blue catfish exhibit great contrast in ESC resistance, with channel catfish being highly susceptible and blue catfish being very resistant. (
  • Arthritis was a presenting symptom in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease in 8% (6/80, all male ) and was seen in significant association with immunoglobulin resistance in comparison to those without arthritis (16.7% vs. 0.2%, p=0.008). (
  • Use button below to search for studies by disease, terms, or country. (
  • Twenty-nine blueberry species were tested with a bioassay for resistance to feeding by the fruit fly larvae and adults. (
  • Throughout this, a methodology for accurate and rigorous screening of Brassica species for blackleg resistance was created. (
  • In a project funded by the GRDC (2013-2017) conducted in partnership with the University of Sydney, the HickeyLab applied innovative approaches to accelerate the utilisation and deployment of durable adult plant resistance to leaf rust in barley. (
  • Sustainable and effective prevention/control strategies of ESC have been elusive, and improved understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism could help develop broodstocks with enhanced ESC resistance. (
  • The Ministry of Health has developed an integrated vector management and control plan to strengthen prevention and control of neglected tropical diseases in the country, the most prevalent of which are leishmaniasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis and rabies. (
  • Public health surveillance provides national health authorities with accurate and timely data to facilitate the prevention and control of disease outbreaks and ensure an adequate response to any public health incident. (
  • Both types of warfarin resistance are related to how the body processes warfarin. (
  • The severity of these abnormal processes determines whether the warfarin resistance is complete or incomplete. (