Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.
A suborder of CRUSTACEA, order Diplostraca, comprising the water fleas. They are benthic filter feeders that consume PHYTOPLANKTON. The body is laterally compressed and enclosed in a bivalved carapace, from which the head extends.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or concept, it is a country located in South America, known officially as the Federative Republic of Brazil. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or science, I'd be happy to help answer those!
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
Infections with viruses of the genus HANTAVIRUS. This is associated with at least four clinical syndromes: HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME caused by viruses of the Hantaan group; a milder form of HFRS caused by SEOUL VIRUS; nephropathia epidemica caused by PUUMALA VIRUS; and HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME caused by SIN NOMBRE VIRUS.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Structures which collect and store urine and are emptied by catheterization of a cutaneous stoma or internal diversion to the urethra. The reservoirs are surgically created during procedures for urinary diversion.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.

Transmission of epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1 in rural western Kenya associated with drinking water from Lake Victoria: an environmental reservoir for cholera? (1/1741)

Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest reported cholera incidence and mortality rates in the world. In 1997, a cholera epidemic occurred in western Kenya. Between June 1997 and March 1998, 14,275 cholera admissions to hospitals in Nyanza Province in western Kenya were reported. There were 547 deaths (case fatality rate = 4%). Of 31 Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates tested, all but one were sensitive to tetracycline. We performed a case-control study among 61 cholera patients and age-, sex-, and clinic-matched controls. Multivariate analysis showed that risk factors for cholera were drinking water from Lake Victoria or from a stream, sharing food with a person with watery diarrhea, and attending funeral feasts. Compared with other diarrheal pathogens, cholera was more common among persons living in a village bordering Lake Victoria. Cholera has become an important public health concern in western Kenya, and may become an endemic pathogen in the region.  (+info)

Prevalence of enteric hepatitis A and E viruses in the Mekong River delta region of Vietnam. (2/1741)

A study of antibody prevalence for hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) was carried out in southwestern Vietnam in an area adjacent to a known focus of epidemic HEV transmission. The purpose of this investigation was first to provide a prevalence measure of hepatitis infections, and second to determine the outbreak potential of HEV as a function of the susceptible population. Blood specimens collected from 646 persons in randomly selected village hamlets were examined by an ELISA for anti-HEV IgG and anti-HAV IgG. The prevalences of anti-HEV IgG and anti-HAV IgG were 9% and 97%, respectively. There was a significant increase (P < 0.01) in age-specific anti-HEV IgG. A notable increase in anti-HAV IgG prevalence (P < 0.0001) occurred between child populations 0-4 (64%) and 5-9 (95%) years of age. No evidence of familial clustering of anti-HEV IgG-positive individuals was detected, and household crowding was not associated with the spread of HEV. Boiling of water was found to be of protective value against HEV transmission. A relatively low prevalence of anti-HEV indicates considerable HEV outbreak potential, against a background of 1) poor, water-related hygiene/sanitation, 2) dependence on a (likely human/animal waste)-contaminated Mekong riverine system, and 3) periodic river flooding.  (+info)

Serologic evidence for an epizootic dengue virus infecting toque macaques (Macaca sinica) at Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka. (3/1741)

Dengue is one of the most rapidly emerging diseases in the tropics. Humans are the principal reservoir of dengue viruses. It is unclear if nonhuman primates also serve as a reservoir of human dengue viruses under certain conditions. In this study, a cross-sectional serologic survey was carried out to characterize the pattern of transmission of a recently identified dengue virus among toque macaques in Sri Lanka. The results indicated that an epizootic dengue virus was active among the macaques. A single epizootic had taken place between October 1986 and February 1987 during which 94% of the macaques within the 3 km2 study site were exposed to the virus. The epizootic was highly focal in nature because macaques living 5 km from the study population were not exposed to the virus. The transmission of dengue viruses among macaques in the wild may have important public health implications.  (+info)

Comparison of Ehrlichia muris strains isolated from wild mice and ticks and serologic survey of humans and animals with E. muris as antigen. (4/1741)

In metropolitan Tokyo, the Ehrlichia muris seropositivity rate of 24 wild mice was 63% in Hinohara Village, but in the surrounding areas, it was 0 to 5%. This finding suggests that the reservoir of E. muris is focal. Among the 15 seropositive mice, ehrlichiae were isolated from 9 Apodemus speciosus mice and 1 A. argenteus mouse, respectively. Five ehrlichial isolates were obtained from 10 ticks (Haemaphysalis flava) collected in Asuke Town, Aichi Prefecture, where the E. muris type strain had been isolated. These new isolates were compared with the E. muris type strain. The mouse virulence and ultrastructure of the new isolates were similar to those of the type strain, and all of them were cross-reactive with each other, as well as with the type strain, by indirect immunofluorescent-antibody test. The levels of similarity of the base sequences of the 16S rRNA gene of one of the A. speciosus isolates and one of the tick isolates to that of the E. muris type strain were 99.79 and 99.93%, respectively. We suggest that all of these isolates are E. muris; that E. muris is not limited to Eothenomys kageus but infects other species of mice; and that E. muris is present at locations other than Aichi Prefecture. It appears that H. flava is a potential vector of E. muris. Twenty (1%) of 1803 humans from metropolitan Tokyo were found to be seropositive for E. muris antibodies. A serological survey revealed that exposure to E. muris or organisms antigenically cross-reactive to E. muris occurred among dogs, wild mice, monkeys, bears, deer, and wild boars in Gifu Prefecture, nearby prefectures, and Nagoya City, central Japan. However, human beings and Rattus norvegicus rats in this area were seronegative. These results indicate broader geographic distribution of and human and animal species exposure to E. muris or related Ehrlichia spp. in Japan.  (+info)

Antimicrobial susceptibilities and plasmid contents of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from commercial sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh: emergence of high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin. (5/1741)

Commercial sex workers (CSWs) serve as the most important reservoir of sexually transmitted diseases (STD), including gonorrhea. Periodic monitoring of the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a high-risk population provides essential clues regarding the rapidly changing pattern of antimicrobial susceptibilities. A study concerning the prevalence of gonococcal infection among CSWs was conducted in Bangladesh. The isolates were examined with regards to their antimicrobial susceptibility to, and the MICs of, penicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, and spectinomycin by disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. The total plasmid profile of the isolates was also analyzed. Of the 224 CSWs, 94 (42%) were culture positive for N. gonorrhoeae. There was a good correlation between the results of the disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. Some 66% of the isolates were resistant to penicillin, and 34% were moderately susceptible to penicillin. Among the resistant isolates, 23.4% were penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG). 60.6% of the isolates were resistant and 38.3% were moderately susceptible to tetracycline, 17.5% were tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae, 11.7% were resistant and 26.6% had reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, 2.1% were resistant and 11.7% had reduced susceptibility to cefuroxime, and 1% were resistant to ceftriaxone. All PPNG isolates contained a 3.2-MDa African type of plasmid, and a 24.2-MDa conjugative plasmid was present in 34.1% of the isolates. Since quinolones such as ciprofloxacin are recommended as the first line of therapy for gonorrhea, the emergence of significant resistance to ciprofloxacin will limit the usefulness of this drug for treatment of gonorrhea in Bangladesh.  (+info)

Serological evidence of infection with Ehrlichia spp. in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Switzerland. (6/1741)

Serum samples from 1,550 red foxes in Switzerland were tested for antibodies to the agents of canine granulocytic and monocytic ehrlichiosis by an indirect immunofluorescent technique. Forty-four (2.8%) of the samples were positive for Ehrlichia phagocytophila, which is an antigen marker for granulocytic ehrlichiosis. In contrast, none of the samples had antibodies specific to Ehrlichia canis, the agent of monocytic ehrlichiosis.  (+info)

Genetic diversity and distribution of Peromyscus-borne hantaviruses in North America. (7/1741)

The 1993 outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the southwestern United States was associated with Sin Nombre virus, a rodent-borne hantavirus; The virus' primary reservoir is the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Hantavirus-infected rodents were identified in various regions of North America. An extensive nucleotide sequence database of an 139 bp fragment amplified from virus M genomic segments was generated. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that SNV-like hantaviruses are widely distributed in Peromyscus species rodents throughout North America. Classic SNV is the major cause of HPS in North America, but other Peromyscine-borne hantaviruses, e.g., New York and Monongahela viruses, are also associated with HPS cases. Although genetically diverse, SNV-like viruses have slowly coevolved with their rodent hosts. We show that the genetic relationships of hantaviruses in the Americas are complex, most likely as a result of the rapid radiation and speciation of New World sigmodontine rodents and occasional virus-host switching events.  (+info)

Long-term studies of hantavirus reservoir populations in the southwestern United States: rationale, potential, and methods. (8/1741)

Hantaviruses are rodent-borne zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Asia and Europe and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North and South America. The epidemiology of human diseases caused by these viruses is tied to the ecology of the rodent hosts, and effective control and prevention relies on a through understanding of host ecology. After the 1993 HPS outbreak in the southwestern United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated long-term studies of the temporal dynamics of hantavirus infection in host populations. These studies, which used mark-recapture techniques on 24 trapping webs at nine sites in the southwestern United States, were designed to monitor changes in reservoir population densities and in the prevalence and incidence of infection; quantify environmental factors associated with these changes; and when linked to surveillance databases for HPS, lead to predictive models of human risk to be used in the design and implementation of control and prevention measures for human hantavirus disease.  (+info)

A disease reservoir refers to a population or group of living organisms, including humans, animals, and even plants, that can naturally carry and transmit a particular pathogen (disease-causing agent) without necessarily showing symptoms of the disease themselves. These hosts serve as a source of infection for other susceptible individuals, allowing the pathogen to persist and circulate within a community or environment.

Disease reservoirs can be further classified into:

1. **Primary (or Main) Reservoir**: This refers to the species that primarily harbors and transmits the pathogen, contributing significantly to its natural ecology and maintaining its transmission cycle. For example, mosquitoes are the primary reservoirs for many arboviruses like dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses.

2. **Amplifying Hosts**: These hosts can become infected with the pathogen and experience a high rate of replication, leading to an increased concentration of the pathogen in their bodies. This allows for efficient transmission to other susceptible hosts or vectors. For instance, birds are amplifying hosts for West Nile virus, as they can become viremic (have high levels of virus in their blood) and infect feeding mosquitoes that then transmit the virus to other animals and humans.

3. **Dead-end Hosts**: These hosts may become infected with the pathogen but do not contribute significantly to its transmission cycle, as they either do not develop sufficient quantities of the pathogen to transmit it or do not come into contact with potential vectors or susceptible hosts. For example, humans are dead-end hosts for many zoonotic diseases like rabies, as they cannot transmit the virus to other humans.

Understanding disease reservoirs is crucial in developing effective strategies for controlling and preventing infectious diseases, as it helps identify key species and environments that contribute to their persistence and transmission.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fresh Water" is not a medical term. It is a term used to describe water that contains low concentrations of dissolved salts and other dissolved minerals. It is distinguished from saline water, which includes saltwater found in the ocean and brackish water found in estuaries. Fresh water is essential for many biological processes and is the primary source of water for human consumption, agriculture, and industrial use.

"Rodentia" is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in biology. It refers to the largest order of mammals, comprising over 40% of all mammal species. Commonly known as rodents, this group includes mice, rats, hamsters, gerbils, guinea pigs, squirrels, prairie dogs, capybaras, beavers, and many others.

While "Rodentia" itself is not a medical term, certain conditions or issues related to rodents can have medical implications. For instance, rodents are known to carry and transmit various diseases that can affect humans, such as hantavirus, leptospirosis, salmonellosis, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCMV). Therefore, understanding the biology and behavior of rodents is important in the context of public health and preventive medicine.

Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans. They are caused by pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or fungi that naturally infect non-human animals and can sometimes infect and cause disease in humans through various transmission routes like direct contact with infected animals, consumption of contaminated food or water, or vectors like insects. Some well-known zoonotic diseases include rabies, Lyme disease, salmonellosis, and COVID-19 (which is believed to have originated from bats). Public health officials work to prevent and control zoonoses through various measures such as surveillance, education, vaccination, and management of animal populations.

Wild animals are those species of animals that are not domesticated or tamed by humans and live in their natural habitats without regular human intervention. They can include a wide variety of species, ranging from mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, to insects and other invertebrates.

Wild animals are adapted to survive in specific environments and have behaviors, physical traits, and social structures that enable them to find food, shelter, and mates. They can be found in various habitats such as forests, grasslands, deserts, oceans, rivers, and mountains. Some wild animals may come into contact with human populations, particularly in urban areas where their natural habitats have been destroyed or fragmented.

It is important to note that the term "wild" does not necessarily mean that an animal is aggressive or dangerous. While some wild animals can be potentially harmful to humans if provoked or threatened, many are generally peaceful and prefer to avoid contact with people. However, it is essential to respect their natural behaviors and habitats and maintain a safe distance from them to prevent any potential conflicts or harm to either party.

Phytoplankton are microscopic photosynthetic organisms that live in watery environments such as oceans, seas, lakes, and rivers. They are a diverse group of organisms, including bacteria, algae, and protozoa. Phytoplankton are a critical component of the marine food chain, serving as primary producers that convert sunlight, carbon dioxide, and nutrients into organic matter through photosynthesis. This organic matter forms the base of the food chain and supports the growth and survival of many larger organisms, including zooplankton, fish, and other marine animals. Phytoplankton also play an important role in global carbon cycling and help to regulate Earth's climate by absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and releasing oxygen.

Eutrophication is the process of excessive nutrient enrichment in bodies of water, which can lead to a rapid growth of aquatic plants and algae. This overgrowth can result in decreased levels of oxygen in the water, harming or even killing fish and other aquatic life. The primary cause of eutrophication is the addition of nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus, from human activities such as agricultural runoff, sewage and wastewater discharge, and air pollution.

In advanced stages, eutrophication can lead to a shift in the dominant species in the aquatic ecosystem, favoring those that are better adapted to the high-nutrient conditions. This can result in a loss of biodiversity and changes in water quality, making it difficult for many organisms to survive.

Eutrophication is a significant global environmental problem, affecting both freshwater and marine ecosystems. It can lead to harmful algal blooms (HABs), which can produce toxins that are dangerous to humans and animals. In addition, eutrophication can impact water use for drinking, irrigation, recreation, and industry, making it a critical issue for public health and economic development.

Cladocera is a order of small, freshwater crustaceans that are characterized by their compound eyes and leaf-like appendages. They are also known as water fleas due to their jumping motion in the water. Cladocerans are an important part of the aquatic food chain, serving as a food source for larger animals such as fish. They are often used as bioindicators of water quality due to their sensitivity to environmental changes.

Virus latency, also known as viral latency, refers to a state of infection in which a virus remains dormant or inactive within a host cell for a period of time. During this phase, the virus does not replicate or cause any noticeable symptoms. However, under certain conditions such as stress, illness, or a weakened immune system, the virus can become reactivated and begin to produce new viruses, potentially leading to disease.

One well-known example of a virus that exhibits latency is the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which causes chickenpox in children. After a person recovers from chickenpox, the virus remains dormant in the nervous system for years or even decades. In some cases, the virus can reactivate later in life, causing shingles, a painful rash that typically occurs on one side of the body.

Virus latency is an important concept in virology and infectious disease research, as it has implications for understanding the persistence of viral infections, developing treatments and vaccines, and predicting the risk of disease recurrence.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rivers" is not a medical term or concept. It is a geographical term referring to large, flowing bodies of water that usually empty into a sea or an ocean. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Water microbiology is not a formal medical term, but rather a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms found in water. It involves the identification, enumeration, and characterization of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other microscopic organisms present in water sources such as lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater, drinking water, and wastewater.

In a medical context, water microbiology is relevant to public health because it helps to assess the safety of water supplies for human consumption and recreational activities. It also plays a critical role in understanding and preventing waterborne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms that can lead to illnesses such as diarrhea, skin infections, and respiratory problems.

Water microbiologists use various techniques to study water microorganisms, including culturing, microscopy, genetic analysis, and biochemical tests. They also investigate the ecology of these organisms, their interactions with other species, and their response to environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient availability.

Overall, water microbiology is a vital field that helps ensure the safety of our water resources and protects public health.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Rodent-borne diseases are infectious diseases transmitted to humans (and other animals) by rodents, their parasites or by contact with rodent urine, feces, or saliva. These diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Some examples of rodent-borne diseases include Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Leptospirosis, Salmonellosis, Rat-bite fever, and Plague. It's important to note that rodents can also cause allergic reactions in some people through their dander, urine, or saliva. Proper sanitation, rodent control measures, and protective equipment when handling rodents can help prevent the spread of these diseases.

Chiroptera is the scientific order that includes all bat species. Bats are the only mammals capable of sustained flight, and they are distributed worldwide with the exception of extremely cold environments. They vary greatly in size, from the bumblebee bat, which weighs less than a penny, to the giant golden-crowned flying fox, which has a wingspan of up to 6 feet.

Bats play a crucial role in many ecosystems as pollinators and seed dispersers for plants, and they also help control insect populations. Some bat species are nocturnal and use echolocation to navigate and find food, while others are diurnal and rely on their vision. Their diet mainly consists of insects, fruits, nectar, and pollen, although a few species feed on blood or small vertebrates.

Unfortunately, many bat populations face significant threats due to habitat loss, disease, and wind turbine collisions, leading to declining numbers and increased conservation efforts.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "population density" is actually a term used in population geography and epidemiology, rather than medical terminology. It refers to the number of people living in a specific area or region, usually measured as the number of people per square mile or square kilometer.

However, understanding population density can be important in public health and medicine because it can influence various factors related to health outcomes and healthcare delivery, such as:

1. Disease transmission rates: Higher population densities can facilitate the spread of infectious diseases, particularly those that are transmitted through close contact between individuals.
2. Access to healthcare services: Areas with lower population density might have fewer healthcare resources and providers available, making it more challenging for residents to access necessary medical care.
3. Health disparities: Population density can contribute to health inequities, as urban areas often have better access to healthcare, education, and economic opportunities than rural areas, leading to differences in health outcomes between these populations.
4. Environmental factors: Higher population densities might lead to increased pollution, noise, and other environmental hazards that can negatively impact health.

Therefore, while "population density" is not a medical definition per se, it remains an essential concept for understanding various public health and healthcare issues.

Zooplankton are not a medical term, but they are an important concept in biology and ecology. Zooplankton refer to small, drifting or floating animals that live in watery environments such as oceans, seas, and freshwater bodies. They include various organisms like tiny crustaceans (such as copepods and krill), jellyfish, arrow worms, and larvae of larger aquatic animals. Zooplankton play a crucial role in food chains and nutrient cycling within aquatic ecosystems.

I apologize, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or condition. It is the largest country in both South America and Latin America by land area and population. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, please provide more information and I will do my best to help.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

"Peromyscus" is not a medical term, but a genus of rodents commonly known as "deer mice." They are small mammals that belong to the family Cricetidae and are found in various parts of North America. Peromyscus mice can carry and transmit diseases, such as Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS), although they are not typically referred to in a medical context unless discussing potential zoonotic risks.

I'm not aware of a medical definition for the term "water movements." It is possible that it could be used in a specific context within a certain medical specialty or procedure. However, I can provide some general information about how the term "water" is used in a medical context.

In medicine, "water" often refers to the fluid component of the body, which includes all the fluids inside and outside of cells. The movement of water within the body is regulated by various physiological processes, such as osmosis and hydrostatic pressure. Disorders that affect the regulation of water balance can lead to dehydration or overhydration, which can have serious consequences for health.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you mean by "water movements," I may be able to give a more specific answer.

Hantavirus infections are a group of viral diseases caused by rodent-borne hantaviruses. These viruses are primarily transmitted to humans through the inhalation of aerosolized urine, droppings, or saliva from infected rodents, particularly the deer mouse, white-tailed mouse, and rice rat in North America.

There are several different types of hantavirus infections, including Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) and Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS). HPS is more common in the Americas, while HFRS is more prevalent in Europe and Asia.

Symptoms of hantavirus infections can vary depending on the specific type of infection but may include fever, muscle aches, headache, fatigue, and coughing. In severe cases, hantavirus infections can lead to respiratory failure, shock, and even death.

Preventive measures include avoiding contact with rodents, sealing entry points to prevent their entry into homes or buildings, and using appropriate personal protective equipment when cleaning areas where rodents may have been present. Currently, there is no specific treatment for hantavirus infections, but early recognition and supportive care can improve outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "water supply" is not a medical term per se. It is a general term used to describe the system or arrangement providing water for consumption or use, such as a public water supply system or a private well. However, in a medical context, it could refer to the source of water used in a healthcare facility for drinking, cooking, cleaning, and patient care, which must meet certain quality standards to prevent infection and ensure safety.

Continent urinary reservoirs refer to an artificial bladder or storage system that is created to store urine in individuals with bladder dysfunction or those who have undergone bladder removal. These reservoirs are implanted inside the body and are designed to provide continence, which means they prevent leakage of urine until a patient decides to empty it.

Continent urinary reservoirs can be created using different techniques and materials, such as small intestine or stomach tissue, which are fashioned into a pouch-like structure. A stoma or opening is created in the abdominal wall through which the reservoir can be periodically drained using a catheter.

These types of urinary diversions are typically recommended for patients who cannot undergo more conventional forms of urinary reconstruction, such as bladder augmentation or neobladder construction, due to various medical reasons. Continent urinary reservoirs offer several advantages over incontinent urinary diversions, including improved quality of life, greater social acceptance, and reduced risk of skin irritation and dehydration. However, they also require regular catheterization and careful monitoring to ensure proper functioning and prevent complications such as infection or stone formation.

A disease vector is a living organism that transmits infectious pathogens from one host to another. These vectors can include mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, and other arthropods that carry viruses, bacteria, parasites, or other disease-causing agents. The vector becomes infected with the pathogen after biting an infected host, and then transmits the infection to another host through its saliva or feces during a subsequent blood meal.

Disease vectors are of particular concern in public health because they can spread diseases rapidly and efficiently, often over large geographic areas. Controlling vector-borne diseases requires a multifaceted approach that includes reducing vector populations, preventing bites, and developing vaccines or treatments for the associated diseases.

Hantavirus is an etiologic agent for several clinical syndromes, including hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). It's a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthohantavirus.

These viruses are primarily transmitted to humans by inhalation of aerosolized excreta from infected rodents. The symptoms can range from flu-like illness to severe respiratory distress and renal failure, depending upon the specific hantavirus species. There are no known treatments for HFRS, but early recognition and supportive care can significantly improve outcomes. Ribavirin has been used in some cases of HPS with apparent benefit, although its general efficacy is not well-established

(References: CDC, NIH, WHO)

Environmental monitoring is the systematic and ongoing surveillance, measurement, and assessment of environmental parameters, pollutants, or other stressors in order to evaluate potential impacts on human health, ecological systems, or compliance with regulatory standards. This process typically involves collecting and analyzing data from various sources, such as air, water, soil, and biota, and using this information to inform decisions related to public health, environmental protection, and resource management.

In medical terms, environmental monitoring may refer specifically to the assessment of environmental factors that can impact human health, such as air quality, water contamination, or exposure to hazardous substances. This type of monitoring is often conducted in occupational settings, where workers may be exposed to potential health hazards, as well as in community-based settings, where environmental factors may contribute to public health issues. The goal of environmental monitoring in a medical context is to identify and mitigate potential health risks associated with environmental exposures, and to promote healthy and safe environments for individuals and communities.

HIV-1 (Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1) is a species of the retrovirus genus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is primarily transmitted through sexual contact, exposure to infected blood or blood products, and from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. HIV-1 infects vital cells in the human immune system, such as CD4+ T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells, leading to a decline in their numbers and weakening of the immune response over time. This results in the individual becoming susceptible to various opportunistic infections and cancers that ultimately cause death if left untreated. HIV-1 is the most prevalent form of HIV worldwide and has been identified as the causative agent of the global AIDS pandemic.

... may refer to: Natural reservoir, the long-term host of the pathogen of an infectious disease Fomite, any ... capable of carrying infectious organisms This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Disease reservoir. ...
"Thousands of Neilston Pad trees axed after disease spreads". Barrhead News. Retrieved 15 March 2021. (Use dmy dates from April ... Craighall Reservoir, known locally as Craighall Dam, is one of a number of small reservoirs, situated around Neilston in East ... The reservoir is located on the western slopes of Neilston Pad and has a number of well maintained public access paths. As of ... The reservoir flows into Craig Burn, a small stream which runs along the western side of Neilston Pad, past Craig o' Neilston ...
Diseases were caused by polluted water. The Hong Kong Government needed an urgent solution to the problem. Thus, it prepared a ... Pok Fu Lam Reservoir, formerly known as the Pokefulum Reservoir, is the first reservoir in Hong Kong. It is located in a valley ... It is actually two reservoirs with capacity of 260,000 m3. Before the completion of the reservoir in 1863, the people in the ... Another reservoir above the original was built to meet the needs of the growing colony in 1877. 6 Historic Structures of Pok Fu ...
Diseases Whilst reservoirs are helpful to humans, they can also be harmful as well. One negative effect is that the reservoirs ... Warm climate reservoirs generate methane, a greenhouse gas when the reservoirs are stratified, in which the bottom layers are ... "Sediment bypass tunnels to mitigate reservoir sedimentation and restore sediment continuity". Reservoir sedimentation. CRC ... The creation of reservoirs can alter the natural biogeochemical cycle of mercury. Studies conducted on the formation of an ...
It helped quell typhoid epidemics and other communicable diseases throughout the city. In 1907 the reservoir and filtration ... McMillan Reservoir The McMillan Reservoir is a reservoir in Washington, D.C., that supplies the majority of the city's ... It was originally called the Howard University Reservoir or the Washington City Reservoir, and was completed in 1902 by the U.S ... The Macmillan Reservoir was built in 1902 on the site of Smith Spring, one of the springs previously used for drinking water. ...
It is used to treat brain tumors, leukemia/lymphoma or leptomeningeal disease by intrathecal drug administration. In the ... An Ommaya reservoir is an intraventricular catheter system that can be used for the aspiration of cerebrospinal fluid or for ... In January 2017, researchers at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Centre used an Ommaya reservoir to measure the ... It consists of a catheter in one lateral ventricle attached to a reservoir implanted under the scalp. ...
Numerous outbreaks of disease prompted Birmingham City Council to petition the British government which passed the Birmingham ... Water from the reservoirs is carried by gravity to Frankley Reservoir in Birmingham via the Elan aqueduct. Pumping is not ... The reservoirs are now owned and managed by Dŵr Cymru Welsh Water. The water filtration works further down the valley is run by ... The Elan Valley Reservoirs (Welsh: Cronfeydd Cwm Elan) are a chain of man-made lakes created from damming the Elan and Claerwen ...
As with many outdoor areas there are some animal transmittable diseases to be aware of. Ticks in the area have been known ... Courtright Reservoir is a reservoir in Fresno County, California. The reservoir is at an elevation of 8,170 feet (2,490 m) in ... Wishon Reservoir, an on-channel reservoir a couple of miles downstream on the Kings River, is the lower reservoir and main ... The Dam Truth About Reservoirs "There are 2 broad categories of reservoirs, the valley reservoir [or on-river storage,] and the ...
Gene Likens William H. Schlesinger "Deconstructing Lyme disease". The New York Times. "Reservoir rats". The Economist. "Can ... "Why diseases like Zika could unfairly target America's poor". Washington Post. Lewis, Danny. "Streams around Baltimore are ... Cary Institute's grounds have been home to long-term studies on the ecology of tick-borne disease for more than 20 years. ... Findings underpin The Tick Project, a 5-year study testing interventions with the potential to reduce Lyme disease and protect ...
... factors affecting latent reservoirs of HIV; and host factors that modulate viral infection and/or disease progression. The ... Acute Infection and Early Disease Research Program Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group AIDS Research and Reference Reagent Program ... and mechanisms of disease progression and transmission. HIV pathogenesis research also supports studies of how the immune ... persistent HIV reservoirs even with the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Despite these advances, questions ...
... and some southern states have persistent cycles of disease transmission between insect vectors and animal reservoirs, which ... Chagas disease is classified as a neglected tropical disease. Chagas disease occurs in two stages: an acute stage, which ... Centers for Disease Control Chagas information from the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative Chagas disease information for ... Chagas disease, Parasitic infestations, stings, and bites of the skin, Insect-borne diseases, Protozoal diseases, Tropical ...
It improved sanitation and helped reduce outbreaks of cholera, typhus and other diseases associated with contaminated water. ... The reservoir is operated by Irish Water. The original (lower) reservoir was completed in 1863 and has a capacity of 11.3 ... Vartry Reservoir (Irish: Taiscumar Fheartraí) is a reservoir at Roundwood in County Wicklow, Ireland. The water is piped from ... The lower reservoir and its capacity is mentioned in chapter 17 of James Joyce's Ulysses. Image of Dublin City Council sign at ...
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 17 May 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2019. "Ebola Reservoir Study". Centers for Disease ... Megabats are the reservoirs of several viruses that can affect humans and cause disease. They can carry filoviruses, including ... Other megabats implicated as disease reservoirs are primarily Pteropus species. Notably, flying foxes can transmit Australian ... The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lists a total of 601 confirmed cases of Marburg virus disease from ...
Wetlands, however, are not long term reservoirs. The disease presents in two very different forms: acute and chronic. Birds ... Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 42: 81-91 K.R. Rhoades and R.B. Rimler, Avian pasteurellosis, in "Diseases of poultry", ed. by M. ... Chronic carriers can always lead to re-emerging of the disease in susceptible birds... In wild birds, this disease is most ... and these individuals are believed to be long term migrating reservoirs for the disease. Once the bacteria gets introduced into ...
Humans are the natural hosts of the virus; no animal reservoirs are known to exist. The virus causes measles, a highly ... contagious disease transmitted by respiratory aerosols that triggers a temporary but severe immunosuppression. Symptoms include ...
The disease is usually self-limiting. However, it does respond to antibiotics. Severe (accompanying fevers, blood in stools) or ... pathogenesis and reservoirs". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 10 (12): 6292-6304. doi: ... Campylobacteriosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the genus Campylobacter. In most people who become ill with ... "Campylobacter: Questions and Answers". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2019-12-20. Retrieved 2020-01-02. " ...
Han HJ, Wen HL, Zhou CM, Chen FF, Luo LM, Liu JW, Yu XJ (2015). "Bats as reservoirs of severe emerging infectious diseases". ... Bluetongue disease, a disease caused by an orbivirus broke out in sheep in France in 2007. Until then the disease had been ... The diseases caused by viruses such as HIV and influenza virus have proved to be more difficult to control. Other diseases, ... The disease was first recorded in 1894 and outbreaks of the disease occurred in eastern Africa throughout the 20th century, ...
"Emerging infectious diseases in cetaceans worldwide and the possible role of environmental stressors". Diseases of Aquatic ... Transmission could also occur from feeding on fish infected with brucellosis through reservoirs that have the ability to ... Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease: marine mammal brucellosis can infect other species, including human beings. B. ceti is a ... Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that has many different strains pertaining to different host species. There have been four ...
"Chimpanzee Reservoirs of Pandemic and Nonpandemic HIV-1". Science. 313 (5786): 523-6. Bibcode:2006Sci...313..523K. doi:10.1126/ ... "Nationally Notifiable Infectious Diseases - 2007". Center for Disease Control. 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-06-24. ... Since 2002, Giardia cases must be reported to the Center for Disease Control, according to the CDC's Reportable Disease ... Cyclospora infection must be reported to the Center for Disease Control according to the CDC's Reportable Disease Chart The ...
Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 9(4), 368-375. van Rooyen, C. & Diamond, M. (2008). Wildlife-Powerline Interaction Management. ... They may be killed by flying into novel man-made objects, including wires and massive dams along reservoirs. Habitat ... Anderson, M. D., Maritz, A. W., & Oosthuysen, E. (1999). Raptors drowning in farm reservoirs in South Africa. Ostrich, 70(2), ...
Serious diseases such as Ebola and AIDS are also caused by viruses. Many viruses cause little or no disease and are said to be ... They serve as important reservoirs of the virus. If the proportion of carriers in a given population reaches a given threshold ... Viruses cause different diseases depending on the types of cell that they infect. Some viruses can cause lifelong or chronic ... In both diseases, the drugs stop the virus from reproducing and the interferon kills any remaining infected cells. HIV ...
An environmental reservoir is presumed. Strain ATCC 29548 = CCUG 47452 = CIP 105049 = DSM 44634 = NCTC 11185. Mycobacterium ... Biosafety level 2 First isolated in Israel from a subcutaneous granuloma from a patient with Hodgkin's disease. ...
... results from the Global Burden of Disease study". Infectious Diseases of Poverty. 10 (1): 24. doi:10.1186/s40249-021-00803-w. ... Humans are the only known reservoirs of M. tuberculosis. A misconception is that M. tuberculosis can be spread by shaking hands ... "Drug-resistant TB". Center for Disease Control. April 2014. Cole ST, Brosch R, Parkhill J, Garnier T, Churcher C, Harris D, et ... However, major spread is through air droplets originating from a person who has the disease either coughing, sneezing, speaking ...
Asymptomatic humans serve as a significant reservoir for the disease. Little is known about other reservoirs of the disease.[ ... The disease exists in Africa and tropical Americas, spread by biting midges or blackflies. It is usually asymptomatic. ... Since most Mansonelliasis is asymptomatic, it has been considered a relatively minor filarial disease, and has a very low, if ... little has formally been done to control the disease.[citation needed] There is no consensus on optimal therapeutic approach. ...
Ticks are vectors, reservoirs, and amplifiers of this disease. There are currently three known tick specifics that commonly ... The disease was first discovered in North America and since then has been identified in almost every corner of the earth. The ... Since R. rickettsii needs a moving vector to contract the disease to a viable host it is more likely that this pathogen has ... This disease is worst for elderly patients, males, African-Americans, alcoholics, and patients with G6PD deficiency. Deaths ...
Thus, adults can become natural reservoirs of certain diseases. While some agents (such as Shigella) only occur in primates, ... in those with celiac disease). Crohn's disease is also a non-infectious cause of (often severe) gastroenteritis. Disease ... Pancreatic insufficiency, short bowel syndrome, Whipple's disease, coeliac disease, and laxative abuse should also be ... 2008). Essential infectious disease topics for primary care. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-58829-520-0. Archived ...
This disease is not zoonotic. Asymptomatic carrier fish and contaminated water provide reservoirs for disease. Transmission is ... Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) is a bacterial disease of freshwater fish, specifically salmonid fish. It is caused by the ... BCWD may be referred to by a number of other names including cold water disease, peduncle disease, fit rot, tail rot and ... If the disease is caught at an early stage, diagnosing BCWD accurately by a veterinarian is important for not only the fish's ...
Margaletic, J (2003). "Small rodents in the forest ecosystem as infectious disease reservoirs". Acta Med Croatica (in Croatian ... and act as reservoirs of human and livestock disease. The term forest-dependent people is used to describe any of a wide ... There are also many natural factors that can cause changes in forests over time, including forest fires, insects, diseases, ... Wilcox, B.A.; Ellis, B. "Forests and emerging infectious diseases of humans". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United ...
Another important protozoan disease associated with cats is Toxoplasma gondii, for which cats act as the definitive reservoir. ... The disease has been found in Asia, Africa, India, North, South and Central America. It is not uncommon and estimates of those ... The disease is spread by touching an infected cat. The rash may be scaly, reddened, and circular. Ringworm on the scalp usually ... Some disease-carrying arthropods use cats as a vector, or carrier. Fleas and ticks can carry pathogenic organisms that infect a ...
The lost soil fills rivers and reservoirs with silt. One solution is no-till farming, a practice not in wide use. The world's ... In this case a disease called witch's broom was directly responsible for falling production, which started in the year 1989. A ... They are widely used to protect crops from pests, disease and invading species. Indiscriminate use causes unnecessary ... in addition to the absence of diseases in the region. The most famous users of the product, however, acquire 90% to 100% of ...
Disease reservoir may refer to: Natural reservoir, the long-term host of the pathogen of an infectious disease Fomite, any ... capable of carrying infectious organisms This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Disease reservoir. ...
Identifying Rodent Hantavirus Reservoirs, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2127-2134. doi:10.3201/ ... Souza LTM, Suzuki A, Pereira LE, Ferreira IB, Souza RP, Cruz AS, Identification of hantavirus rodent reservoirs species in ... lasiurus as rodent host reservoir for ARA virus, as well as O. nigripes as rodent host reservoir for the JUQ-like virus in the ... Hantavirus: a global disease problem. Emerg Infect Dis. 1997;3:95-104. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
An artificial form of HIV adapted to cause infection and disease in monkeys. It combines elements of a virus that affects ... reservoir. The HIV reservoir is a group of cells that are infected with HIV but have not produced new HIV (latent stage of ... Latent HIV reservoirs are established during the earliest stage of HIV infection. Although antiretroviral therapy can reduce ... The most exciting aspect of IMMTAV cells is that they have been shown to kill reservoir cells without being used alongside an ...
Reservoir. Aspergillus is ubiquitous in the environment; it can be found in soil, decomposing plant matter, household dust, ... Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases ( ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People ...
Disease reservoirs. Domestic cats (Felis domesticus) are the reservoirs of B henselae, which may be transmitted via cat bites ... 6] The disease has since been described in patients following organ transplantation [1, 7, 8] and in other individuals with a ... The disease is the second-most-common cause of angiomatous skin lesions in persons infected with HIV. (See Treatment and ... Humans appear to be the only reservoir of B quintana; the human body louse, Pediculus humanus, is the transmission vector. ...
... Cite CITE. Title : American robins as reservoir hosts for lyme ... American robins as reservoir hosts for lyme disease spirochetes.. 6(6). Randolph, S. "American robins as reservoir hosts for ... Gern, L. and Humair, P. F. "American robins as reservoir hosts for lyme disease spirochetes." 6, no. 6 (2000). Gern, L. and ... Randolph, S. "American robins as reservoir hosts for lyme disease spirochetes." vol. 6, no. 6, 2000. Export RIS Citation ...
Emerging Infectious Diseases: Animal Reservoirs. Related Terms:. Antigenic drift. Related Images:. Antigenic shift in the ...
Clinical Infectious Diseases : An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 52(9), 1116-1122. doi: ... Reservoir: Shellfish, HumansFootnote 1. Zoonosis: None. Vectors: None. Section IV: Stability and viability. Drug susceptibility ... Communicability: Individuals can spread virus particles without showing symptoms of diseaseFootnote 2. Those who have recovered ... Wikswo, M. E., Cortes, J., Hall, A. J., Vaughan, G., Howard, C., Gregoricus, N., & Cramer, E. H. (2011). Disease transmission ...
This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. ... Dry AMD patients may benefit from blue-light filtering Reading Stem cell reservoir found in the human eye 1 minute Next ...
Recent emerging infectious disease outbreaks have emphasized their role as reservoirs and amplifiers of disease and highlight ... Feral pigs as a reservoir for zoonotic and transboundary diseases in the Western Pacific Region Authors. * Andrew M Adamu ... Feral pigs as a reservoir for zoonotic and transboundary diseases in the Western Pacific Region. Western Pac Surveill Response ... Diarrhoeal disease surveillance in Papua New Guinea: findings and challenges , Western Pacific Surveillance and Response: Vol. ...
Active Surveillance of Neglected Tropical Diseases: A Fresh Push to Identify Reservoir Hosts. ... Gene-based vaccines to combat bacterial diseases, hurdles and opportunities. Canceled - to be re-scheduled ... James O Olopade, Humboldt Research Hub for Zoonotic Arboviral Diseases, University of Ibadan. ...
In order to detect Valley fever earlier, Banner Health Banner Urgent Care facilities now have a disease dashboard and a new ... Salt River Projects reservoirs, which the utility uses to feed the metro Phoenix water system, were 83% full as of Wednesday, ... Its still too soon to tell if the snowmelt will fill up the reservoirs to the point where SRP has to open its dams to the ... So, depending on where we go from here, we may be able to fill up those reservoirs like we did last year." ...
Read on for information about diseases and other medical inflictions that frequently impact cats. ... Feral cat populations remain a reservoir host for the rabies virus.. Rabies Prevention ... Diagnosing Heartworm Disease Heartworm disease is not as easily diagnosed in cats as it is in dogs. ... If a diabetic cat is not treated, he can develop kidney disease, neurological disorders or other metabolic diseases. Cats with ...
Like for Lyme disease agent, we know the white-footed mouse are the reservoirs for the agent. But for this particular virus, we ... But if the disease progresses to to the next stage. That is a stage the virus enters the brain or spinal cord, causing ... Thangamani is a professor of microbiology and immunology at Upstate and director of the SUNY Center for Vector-Borne Diseases. ... Powassan virus is a rare disease spread by ticks, but it can be deadly. The first fatal case of 2023 was confirmed in Maine. To ...
Learn about the treatment options for peripheral artery disease at MedStar Health. Schedule a consultation with a PAD ... 3800 Reservoir Rd. NW. Washington, DC, 20007. Get directions Miles away. 202-444-2000 ... Developing an individualized plan to manage a common vascular disease. Treatment of peripheral artery disease (PAD) depends on ... Peripheral artery disease (PAD). PAD occurs when blood flow to the arms and legs is reduced due to narrowed or blocked arteries ...
MMVM007: Diseases of Animal Systems: Gastrointestinal Diseases of Animals. *MMVM009: Diseases of Animal Systems: Multi-System ... Such reservoirs will become increasingly important as control is scaled up and there is a move towards interruption and even ... Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) causes severe disease in cattle and water buffalo and is transmitted by hematophagous arthropod ... VMS2003: Foundations of Disease Three - Pathology Integument and Alimentary Systems. *VMS2005: Foundations of Disease Five - ...
The obtained data, along with the known data, suggest that the primary reservoir of the H9 influenza virus is wild birds, from ... The obtained data, along with the known data suggest that the primary reservoir of the H9 influenza virus is wild birds, from ... Wild birds are considered the primary reservoir of all subtypes in nature. After discovering the H9 influenza A viruses in bats ... and wild birds are considered the primary reservoir of all subtypes in nature. After discovering the H9 influenza A viruses in ...
In Washington State, bats are the only known reservoir for rabies. The percentage of bats in the wild that are infected with ... Communicable Disease. Director: Keith Higman. *Communicable Disease. Public HealthCommunicable DiseasesFood Permits and Food ... Public Health Communicable Disease Program. 301 Valley Mall Way, Suite 110. Mount Vernon, WA 98273. Operation Hours: 8:30 a.m ... Communicable Disease Data and Weekly Respiratory Reports. Reporting of Notifiable Conditions To report notifiable conditions to ...
... a disease transmitted through sand flies causes horrible open sores as well as disfiguring skin lesions ... As a result, cutaneous leishmaniasis has begun to emerge in areas where displaced Syrians and disease reservoirs exist side by ... Disfiguring tropical disease sweeps across Middle East A woman receives treatment for a tropical skin disease (Getty Images ) ... Disfiguring tropical disease sweeps across Middle East Cutaneous leishmaniasis, a disease transmitted through sand flies causes ...
The olfactory bulb as the entry site for prion-like propagation in neurodegenerative diseases Neurobiology of Disease 109(Pt B ... Is the brain a reservoir organ for SARS2‐CoV2? J Med Virol. 2020 May 21;jmv.26046. ... However, since COVID-19 is such as novel disease, it is still early to rule out the possibility that COVID-19 survivors may be ... Despite the short history since COVID-19 emerged, it is clear that it is not only a respiratory disease but that it affects ...
Although TB rates are decreasing in the United States, the disease is becoming more common in many parts of the world. ... is the most common cause of infectious disease-related mortality worldwide. ... a multisystemic disease with myriad presentations and manifestations, ... Humans are the only known reservoir for M tuberculosis. The organism is spread primarily as an airborne aerosol from an ...
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Also in Spanish * National Center for Environmental Health (Centers for Disease ... Surface water includes rivers, lakes and reservoirs. Groundwater comes from underground. The United States has one of the ... Keep Food and Water Safe After a Disaster or Power Outage (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Also in Spanish ... Lead in Drinking Water (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) * Persistence of Plastics: Can Tiny Plastic Pieces Affect ...
27, 2019 For the first time ever, investigators have identified a washing machine as a reservoir of multidrug-resistant ... Scientist Uses Cauliflower DNA To Show How Disease Spreads In Child Care Settings. Date:. June 4, 1997. Source:. Johns Hopkins ... "Scientist Uses Cauliflower DNA To Show How Disease Spreads In Child Care Settings." ScienceDaily. /. ... 1997, June 4). Scientist Uses Cauliflower DNA To Show How Disease Spreads In Child Care Settings. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April ...
These health issues often emerge from the viral reservoirs where HIV has laid hold of immune cells. Currently, there is no HIV ... People with HIV tend to develop complications ranging from brittle bones to heart-related diseases or changes in their ... examine if adding Fostemsavir to existing antiretroviral therapy treatments leads to a reduction in cardiovascular diseases. ...
  • Some parasites, such as mosquitoes and ticks, may be carriers ('vectors') for other disease-causing pathogens such as malaria. (
  • Aphids are vectors of virus diseases. (
  • These pathogens have animal reservoirs as vectors for transmission. (
  • The initial data from our investigation indicates the presence of Leptospira sp in rodent vectors, Rattus, Lophuromys and Praomys , which are the potential small mammalian reservoirs of this pathogen in Cote d'Ivoire. (
  • Babesiosis is a zoonotic disease maintained by the interaction of tick vectors, transport hosts, and animal reservoirs. (
  • The spatial dynamics of a CL epidemic emergence and related vectors (e.g. mosquitos, sand flies) and the mammalian reservoirs were explored using spatial simulation techniques. (
  • The models highlighted areas where pathogens of infectious disease were dispersed locally by examining the interactions between vectors, reservoirs and susceptible people (hosts) in a spatially explicit environment. (
  • have an action plan against vectors and reservoirs. (
  • Disease reservoir may refer to: Natural reservoir, the long-term host of the pathogen of an infectious disease Fomite, any inanimate object or substance capable of carrying infectious organisms This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Disease reservoir. (
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • Created 20 years ago and coordinated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, PulseNet includes 83 state and federal laboratories and identifies about 1,750 disease clusters every year. (
  • The forum this year included research into curing chronic hepatitis B infection as well as HIV, as the two viruses share similarities, the chief one being that they mainly cause disease by generating a damaging immune response to their viruses rather than, as other viruses do, killing cells directly. (
  • The 'HIV reservoir' is a group of cells that are infected with HIV but have not produced new HIV (latent stage of infection) for many months or years. (
  • An artificial form of HIV adapted to cause infection and disease in monkeys. (
  • In immunocompetent hosts: Localized pulmonary infection in people with underlying lung disease, allergic bronchopulmonary disease, and allergic sinusitis. (
  • As a healthcare worker, it's crucial for you to update your knowledge on the spread and containment of infectious diseases, and what you can do to help break the chain of infection and contain the spread. (
  • Although the index of suspicion should be high in areas endemic for Babesia infection, patients with babesiosis have few, if any, localizing signs to suggest the disease. (
  • Sheep, cattle, and goats are the principal reservoirs for human infection. (
  • For more detailed recommendations on treatment and prophylaxis, please refer to the Infectious Diseases Society of America's Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Aspergillosis . (
  • The reader is referred to the 2014 guidelines published by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) for the treatment of bacillary angiomatosis (see Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Skin and Soft Tissue Infections: 2014 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America ). (
  • Infectious Diseases: How Do You Break the Chain? (
  • Infectious diseases are illnesses caused by pathogenic organisms, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. (
  • Infectious diseases differ from non-infectious diseases (noncommunicable diseases) such as deficiency diseases, hereditary diseases and cardiovascular diseases, because rather than being related to internal factors such as lifestyle and genetics, they are caused by organisms that are not naturally found in the body (Aakash BYJU'S 2022). (
  • The symptoms and severity of infectious diseases vary greatly depending on the pathogen causing them (Mayo Clinic 2022). (
  • Last week was World Antibiotics Awareness Week, and a new study in The Lancet Infectious Diseases showed just how dire the antibiotics situation has gotten. (
  • They may be transmitted by people, animals (zoonotic diseases) or environmental sources (e.g. water), depending on the specific pathogen (Mayo Clinic 2022). (
  • Ebola virus disease (EVD), otherwise known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a severe illness with a case fatality rate that can be as high as 90%.1 It is caused by the Ebola virus that was first isolated in 1976. (
  • Since the first Ebola Virus Disease cases were reported from the the region of Nzerekore of Guinea in March 2014, five other countries in West Africa -- Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal and Sierra Leone -- have been affected by the EVD epidemic. (
  • Ebola viral disease: fact sheet. (
  • Fruit bats as reservoirs of Ebola virus. (
  • Ebola virus disease outbreak occurred in 2014 in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone, Monkeypox virus in Nigeria in 2017 and most recently Lassa virus in Nigeria, Togo and Benin in 2018. (
  • American robins as reservoir hosts for lyme disease spirochetes. (
  • So the one thing that I always tell people when it comes to the tick tick-borne viruses, is that unlike Borrelia, the Lyme disease causing agent that takes about 24 hours to 48 hours post a tick bite. (
  • [ 10 ] In each location, the Ixodes tick vector for Babesia is the same vector that locally transmits Borrelia burgdorferi , the agent implicated in Lyme disease. (
  • Recent emerging infectious disease outbreaks have emphasized their role as reservoirs and amplifiers of disease and highlight the need for increased surveillance in the Western Pacific Region. (
  • 4 Resolution AFR/RC48/R2, Integrated epidemiological surveillance of diseases: Regional strategy for communicable diseases. (
  • ABSTRACT This descriptive, cross-sectional study of Sudanese medical schools aimed to describe and analyse the proportion of their curricula currently allocated for teaching of communicable diseases and to assess the teaching methods and student assessment tools. (
  • The infectious disease physicians in regions with designated ports or airports are only responsible for coordinating communicable disease control within their region. (
  • Bats are reservoir species for numerous viruses including coronaviruses. (
  • Given that they do not appear to be affected by diseases transmitted by these viruses. (
  • Malaria is a disease that continues to cause tremendous suffering and mortality in the tropics. (
  • Tuberculosis (TB) (see the image below), a multisystemic disease with myriad presentations and manifestations, is the most common cause of infectious disease-related mortality worldwide. (
  • This will bring new insights to the policy makers and provide information for the scenario planning of public health authorities to decrease the risk of actual deaths due to the disease (mortality). (
  • Partner with a recognized leader in offering care ranging from straightforward vascular disease to the most complex vascular disorders. (
  • Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) in Iran as well as Chronic Vascular Disease (CVD) were used as case study diseases. (
  • Powassan virus is a rare disease spread by ticks, but it can be deadly. (
  • Individuals can spread virus particles without showing symptoms of disease Footnote 2 . (
  • Primarily a disease in younger cats, the virus doesn't always manifest symptoms, so it is important to have your cat tested regularly to prevent transmission and progression. (
  • There is no cure, but we can help you manage your symptoms and reduce the progression of the disease. (
  • You may also be able to manage the symptoms and halt the progression of the disease by exercising, eating a healthy diet, and maintaining a healthy weight. (
  • There are five species of malaria parasite that are known to cause disease in humans, of which Plasmodium knowlesi is the most recently identified. (
  • Our findings strongly indicate that P. knowlesi is a zoonosis in this area, that is to say it is passed by mosquitoes from infected monkeys to humans, with monkeys acting as a reservoir host," explains Professor Singh. (
  • Acute disease causes a febrile illness that often affects the respiratory system, although sometimes the liver is involved. (
  • Q fever is an acute or chronic disease caused by the rickettsial-like bacillus Coxiella burnetii . (
  • Chronic disease manifestations reflect the organ system affected. (
  • Cancer is a class of diseases in which cells grow uncontrollably, invade surrounding tissue and may spread to other areas of the body. (
  • Cancer is a "multifactorial" disease, which means it has no known single cause. (
  • Technical Guidelines for Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response in the African Region, 2nd Edition, 2010, WHO Regional Office for Africa, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo. (
  • Effect of daily aciclovir on HIV disease progression in individuals in Rakai, Uganda, co-infected with HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2: a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. (
  • Monkeys infected with an emerging malaria strain are providing a reservoir for human disease in Southeast Asia, according to recent research. (
  • Initial published studies on the reconstructive pouch-anal anastomosis procedure were mainly centred on clinical results including complications and function, but the form of the reservoir soon became an area of development. (
  • Malaria is a potentially deadly disease that kills over a million people each year. (
  • The disease is caused by malaria parasites, which are transmitted by infected mosquitoes and injected into the bloodstream. (
  • Thangamani is a professor of microbiology and immunology at Upstate and director of the SUNY Center for Vector-Borne Diseases. (
  • He's a professor of microbiology and immunology at Upstate, and he's director of the SUNY Center for Vector-borne diseases. (
  • The diagnosis of cutaneous bacillary angiomatosis and extracutaneous disease is most often based on clinical features coupled with biopsies of lesions. (
  • Or, where not fatal, to suppress the disease burden with diminishing the number of people who suffer from the disease (morbidity) in a certain period of time, for the population at risk. (
  • Unlike rickettsial diseases, acute Q fever does not cause a rash. (
  • Prophylaxis against aspergillosis is recommended during prolonged neutropenia for patients who are at high risk for aspergillosis, allogeneic stem cell transplant patients with graft versus host disease, lung transplant recipients, and certain other solid organ transplant recipients under certain conditions. (
  • Hence, agent based modeling approaches were applied to simulate various socio-ecological processes associated with spatial patterns of disease incidences. (
  • In contrast, cattle constitute the primary animal reservoir in Europe. (
  • This disease is caused by Plasmodium parasites. (
  • The combination of the two increases the risk of irreversible lung disease. (
  • The main purpose of this study is to provide a better understanding of the spatial distribution of the risk of a disease in an area of interest. (
  • The disease most severely affects patients who are elderly, immunocompromised, or asplenic. (
  • Home humidifiers are another common reservoir for mold. (
  • Although TB rates are decreasing in the United States, the disease is becoming more common in many parts of the world. (
  • Topics include infectious disease control and treatment, traveler screening, global health security, and international health regulations. (
  • Out of the 23 medical schools and protocols for treatment, prevention to the priority health problems of the that satisfied the inclusion criteria, 20 and control of those diseases [3-11]. (
  • Satan, the author of disease and misery, will approach God's people where he can have the greatest success. (
  • The fishes have not escaped the same increase of diseases as manifested in other forms of animal life. (
  • The means through which the infectious agent escapes from the reservoir. (
  • Many diseases of fishes are caused by small, usually microscopic organisms which are dependent upon the fish for their existence. (
  • Salt River Project's reservoirs, which the utility uses to feed the metro Phoenix water system, were 83% full as of Wednesday , up from 79% at this time last year. (
  • But basically, we release water from the Verde and the Salt side depending on the time of year just to manage those reservoirs, just to make sure that they're not filling up too soon. (
  • So, depending on where we go from here, we may be able to fill up those reservoirs like we did last year. (
  • These collections of genome sequences, or subsets of them will be analysed by different bioinformatic and comparative genomics techniques, and coupled to epidemiological data such as isolation source, year, geographic location and disease outcome. (
  • See 11 Travel Diseases to Consider Before and After the Trip , a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify and manage infectious travel diseases. (
  • The association of meat-eating men and animals, as has long been known, results in the multiplication of the diseases of both. (
  • Used for naturally occurring diseases in animals, or for diagnostic, preventive, or therapeutic procedures used in veterinary medicine. (
  • So it is a rare disease to get, but it can be fatal in 15% of the cases approximately. (
  • Artificial neural networks, fuzzy models and Bayesian probability models were all utilized to identify the most susceptible areas for a fatal disease incidence. (
  • However, since there is a whole virus present, there is always a risk of activation of the virus and thus transmission of the disease. (
  • Since only part of the virus is injected, there is no risk of transmission of the disease. (
  • Alan Parks added the construction of a reservoir or 'pouch' made from 40-50 centimetres of the small bowel (ileum) immediately above the excised colon and rectum before performing the anastomosis between the ileal pouch and the anus. (
  • There is evidence that apparently healthy fish may act as carriers which greatly increases the difficulty of preventing the spread of the disease. (
  • The disease can be localized (confined to one area, like a tumor) or generalized (spread throughout the body). (
  • Do not wash roots in water after harvest as contaminated water may spread the disease from infected roots to healthy. (