Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.
A suborder of CRUSTACEA, order Diplostraca, comprising the water fleas. They are benthic filter feeders that consume PHYTOPLANKTON. The body is laterally compressed and enclosed in a bivalved carapace, from which the head extends.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
Infections with viruses of the genus HANTAVIRUS. This is associated with at least four clinical syndromes: HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME caused by viruses of the Hantaan group; a milder form of HFRS caused by SEOUL VIRUS; nephropathia epidemica caused by PUUMALA VIRUS; and HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME caused by SIN NOMBRE VIRUS.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Structures which collect and store urine and are emptied by catheterization of a cutaneous stoma or internal diversion to the urethra. The reservoirs are surgically created during procedures for urinary diversion.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.
Individuals with a degree in veterinary medicine that provides them with training and qualifications to treat diseases and injuries of animals.
The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.
Failure of a professional person, a physician or lawyer, to render proper services through reprehensible ignorance or negligence or through criminal intent, especially when injury or loss follows. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The emotional attachment of individuals to PETS.
Hospitals providing medical care to veterans of wars.
Former members of the armed services.
Postmortem examination of the body.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.
Medium-sized terrestrial carnivores, in the genus Canis, family CANIDAE. Three species are recognized, two found only in Africa and one found in Africa, Europe, and Asia.
A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.
Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
Any of several carnivores in the family CANIDAE, that possess erect ears and long bushy tails and are smaller than WOLVES. They are classified in several genera and found on all continents except Antarctica.
An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.

Transmission of epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1 in rural western Kenya associated with drinking water from Lake Victoria: an environmental reservoir for cholera? (1/1741)

Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest reported cholera incidence and mortality rates in the world. In 1997, a cholera epidemic occurred in western Kenya. Between June 1997 and March 1998, 14,275 cholera admissions to hospitals in Nyanza Province in western Kenya were reported. There were 547 deaths (case fatality rate = 4%). Of 31 Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates tested, all but one were sensitive to tetracycline. We performed a case-control study among 61 cholera patients and age-, sex-, and clinic-matched controls. Multivariate analysis showed that risk factors for cholera were drinking water from Lake Victoria or from a stream, sharing food with a person with watery diarrhea, and attending funeral feasts. Compared with other diarrheal pathogens, cholera was more common among persons living in a village bordering Lake Victoria. Cholera has become an important public health concern in western Kenya, and may become an endemic pathogen in the region.  (+info)

Prevalence of enteric hepatitis A and E viruses in the Mekong River delta region of Vietnam. (2/1741)

A study of antibody prevalence for hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) was carried out in southwestern Vietnam in an area adjacent to a known focus of epidemic HEV transmission. The purpose of this investigation was first to provide a prevalence measure of hepatitis infections, and second to determine the outbreak potential of HEV as a function of the susceptible population. Blood specimens collected from 646 persons in randomly selected village hamlets were examined by an ELISA for anti-HEV IgG and anti-HAV IgG. The prevalences of anti-HEV IgG and anti-HAV IgG were 9% and 97%, respectively. There was a significant increase (P < 0.01) in age-specific anti-HEV IgG. A notable increase in anti-HAV IgG prevalence (P < 0.0001) occurred between child populations 0-4 (64%) and 5-9 (95%) years of age. No evidence of familial clustering of anti-HEV IgG-positive individuals was detected, and household crowding was not associated with the spread of HEV. Boiling of water was found to be of protective value against HEV transmission. A relatively low prevalence of anti-HEV indicates considerable HEV outbreak potential, against a background of 1) poor, water-related hygiene/sanitation, 2) dependence on a (likely human/animal waste)-contaminated Mekong riverine system, and 3) periodic river flooding.  (+info)

Serologic evidence for an epizootic dengue virus infecting toque macaques (Macaca sinica) at Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka. (3/1741)

Dengue is one of the most rapidly emerging diseases in the tropics. Humans are the principal reservoir of dengue viruses. It is unclear if nonhuman primates also serve as a reservoir of human dengue viruses under certain conditions. In this study, a cross-sectional serologic survey was carried out to characterize the pattern of transmission of a recently identified dengue virus among toque macaques in Sri Lanka. The results indicated that an epizootic dengue virus was active among the macaques. A single epizootic had taken place between October 1986 and February 1987 during which 94% of the macaques within the 3 km2 study site were exposed to the virus. The epizootic was highly focal in nature because macaques living 5 km from the study population were not exposed to the virus. The transmission of dengue viruses among macaques in the wild may have important public health implications.  (+info)

Comparison of Ehrlichia muris strains isolated from wild mice and ticks and serologic survey of humans and animals with E. muris as antigen. (4/1741)

In metropolitan Tokyo, the Ehrlichia muris seropositivity rate of 24 wild mice was 63% in Hinohara Village, but in the surrounding areas, it was 0 to 5%. This finding suggests that the reservoir of E. muris is focal. Among the 15 seropositive mice, ehrlichiae were isolated from 9 Apodemus speciosus mice and 1 A. argenteus mouse, respectively. Five ehrlichial isolates were obtained from 10 ticks (Haemaphysalis flava) collected in Asuke Town, Aichi Prefecture, where the E. muris type strain had been isolated. These new isolates were compared with the E. muris type strain. The mouse virulence and ultrastructure of the new isolates were similar to those of the type strain, and all of them were cross-reactive with each other, as well as with the type strain, by indirect immunofluorescent-antibody test. The levels of similarity of the base sequences of the 16S rRNA gene of one of the A. speciosus isolates and one of the tick isolates to that of the E. muris type strain were 99.79 and 99.93%, respectively. We suggest that all of these isolates are E. muris; that E. muris is not limited to Eothenomys kageus but infects other species of mice; and that E. muris is present at locations other than Aichi Prefecture. It appears that H. flava is a potential vector of E. muris. Twenty (1%) of 1803 humans from metropolitan Tokyo were found to be seropositive for E. muris antibodies. A serological survey revealed that exposure to E. muris or organisms antigenically cross-reactive to E. muris occurred among dogs, wild mice, monkeys, bears, deer, and wild boars in Gifu Prefecture, nearby prefectures, and Nagoya City, central Japan. However, human beings and Rattus norvegicus rats in this area were seronegative. These results indicate broader geographic distribution of and human and animal species exposure to E. muris or related Ehrlichia spp. in Japan.  (+info)

Antimicrobial susceptibilities and plasmid contents of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from commercial sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh: emergence of high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin. (5/1741)

Commercial sex workers (CSWs) serve as the most important reservoir of sexually transmitted diseases (STD), including gonorrhea. Periodic monitoring of the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a high-risk population provides essential clues regarding the rapidly changing pattern of antimicrobial susceptibilities. A study concerning the prevalence of gonococcal infection among CSWs was conducted in Bangladesh. The isolates were examined with regards to their antimicrobial susceptibility to, and the MICs of, penicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, and spectinomycin by disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. The total plasmid profile of the isolates was also analyzed. Of the 224 CSWs, 94 (42%) were culture positive for N. gonorrhoeae. There was a good correlation between the results of the disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. Some 66% of the isolates were resistant to penicillin, and 34% were moderately susceptible to penicillin. Among the resistant isolates, 23.4% were penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG). 60.6% of the isolates were resistant and 38.3% were moderately susceptible to tetracycline, 17.5% were tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae, 11.7% were resistant and 26.6% had reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, 2.1% were resistant and 11.7% had reduced susceptibility to cefuroxime, and 1% were resistant to ceftriaxone. All PPNG isolates contained a 3.2-MDa African type of plasmid, and a 24.2-MDa conjugative plasmid was present in 34.1% of the isolates. Since quinolones such as ciprofloxacin are recommended as the first line of therapy for gonorrhea, the emergence of significant resistance to ciprofloxacin will limit the usefulness of this drug for treatment of gonorrhea in Bangladesh.  (+info)

Serological evidence of infection with Ehrlichia spp. in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Switzerland. (6/1741)

Serum samples from 1,550 red foxes in Switzerland were tested for antibodies to the agents of canine granulocytic and monocytic ehrlichiosis by an indirect immunofluorescent technique. Forty-four (2.8%) of the samples were positive for Ehrlichia phagocytophila, which is an antigen marker for granulocytic ehrlichiosis. In contrast, none of the samples had antibodies specific to Ehrlichia canis, the agent of monocytic ehrlichiosis.  (+info)

Genetic diversity and distribution of Peromyscus-borne hantaviruses in North America. (7/1741)

The 1993 outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the southwestern United States was associated with Sin Nombre virus, a rodent-borne hantavirus; The virus' primary reservoir is the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Hantavirus-infected rodents were identified in various regions of North America. An extensive nucleotide sequence database of an 139 bp fragment amplified from virus M genomic segments was generated. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that SNV-like hantaviruses are widely distributed in Peromyscus species rodents throughout North America. Classic SNV is the major cause of HPS in North America, but other Peromyscine-borne hantaviruses, e.g., New York and Monongahela viruses, are also associated with HPS cases. Although genetically diverse, SNV-like viruses have slowly coevolved with their rodent hosts. We show that the genetic relationships of hantaviruses in the Americas are complex, most likely as a result of the rapid radiation and speciation of New World sigmodontine rodents and occasional virus-host switching events.  (+info)

Long-term studies of hantavirus reservoir populations in the southwestern United States: rationale, potential, and methods. (8/1741)

Hantaviruses are rodent-borne zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Asia and Europe and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North and South America. The epidemiology of human diseases caused by these viruses is tied to the ecology of the rodent hosts, and effective control and prevention relies on a through understanding of host ecology. After the 1993 HPS outbreak in the southwestern United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated long-term studies of the temporal dynamics of hantavirus infection in host populations. These studies, which used mark-recapture techniques on 24 trapping webs at nine sites in the southwestern United States, were designed to monitor changes in reservoir population densities and in the prevalence and incidence of infection; quantify environmental factors associated with these changes; and when linked to surveillance databases for HPS, lead to predictive models of human risk to be used in the design and implementation of control and prevention measures for human hantavirus disease.  (+info)

The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection and AIDS. However, currently available ART requires life long treatment with significant potential side effects and a cost that places an inordinate burden on public health systems. While reduction of HIV viral loads below detectable limits is often achieved in ART-treated individuals, a treatment that can eradicate or functionally cure HIV infection remains elusive. Many studies indicate that the key obstacle to cure HIV infection is the presence of a persistent reservoir of latently infected cells that are not eliminated by ART [1], [2]. Thus, interruption of ART consistently results in a rebound of viremia to pre-treatment levels [3], [4]. Several biological aspects of this virus reservoir, including its exact cellular and anatomic origin as well as the mechanisms responsible for its establishment and persistence under ART remain poorly understood. This limited ...
Author Summary We explored the consequences of climate change for the spread of leishmaniasis in North America. We modeled the distribution of two sand fly vector and four rodent reservoir species found in northern México and the southern United States. Models were based on occurrence data and environmental and topographic layers. Successful models were projected to 2020, 2050, and 2080 using an extreme (A2) and a conservative (B2) future climate scenario. We predicted potential range shifts of vector and reservoir species varying assumptions about dispersal ability and capacity to persist in habitats with different degrees of ecological suitability. Even with the most conservative assumptions the distributions of both vector and reservoir species expand northwards, potentially reaching as far as southern Canada in the east. Assuming that at least one vector and one reservoir species must be present for a parasite cycle, the extent of this shift is predicted to be controlled by the availability of
Singh, H., D. Herlth, D. OHara, J. Bradshaw, S. Sandholm, R. Talbot, P. Crutzen, and M. Kanakidou (1992), Relationship of PAN to Active and Total Odd Nitrogen at Northern High Latitudes: Influence of Reservoir Species on NOx and O3, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 16,523-16 ...
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To identify viral characteristics that may explain how the SIVs have successfully infected other primate species, we analyzed the types and extent of SIVsm diversification in naturally infected SMs. Our findings of high intra-host extremes of SIVsm V1V2 nt diversity extend previous studies of naturally SIV-infected SMs and African green monkeys (AGMs) [56-63] by demonstrating that viruses found within a single animal can vary by greater than 35% at the aa level. The ranges of aa diversity in some intra-host pairwise SIVsm V1V2 sequence comparisons in this study rival that of inter-animal comparisons [40]. As our diversity calculations exclude V1V2 length variation, they represent an underestimate of the true magnitude of viral diversity. V1V2 length polymorphisms would be predicted to have dramatic effects on SIVsm Env conformation and phenotypic diversity [64,65].. Positive selection in V1V2 appears to explain the observed env diversification. Specific sites in V1 were consistently selected for ...
Isotope methods are important tools to evaluate the genesis of crude gas and oil. They allow the exploration of possible reservoirs near to the surface. The investigation of isotopes from hydrocarbons gains information about the genetic mechanisms of e.g. methane and the maturity of higher hydrocarbons.. In the course of the energy turnaround and the climate protection sustainable resources should replace fossil energy sources. The determination of the radioactive 14C verifies the amount of the renewable part in a product (e.g. synthetics, biogenic lubricants, oils, etc.). It is also possible to analyse the exhaust fumes from e.g. a biomass heating power plant for its fraction of renewable resources which are used in the combustion. ...
The eradication of smallpox by vaccination was achieved through worldwide vaccination programs and also because smallpox virus has no animal reservoir. In Reading 1 you learned that polio has been eliminated from many countries but not eradicated from Earth. What other viral diseases could be candidates for eradication? Which would not be candidates? Eradication of a disease requires an effective vaccine for that disease and no animal reservoir that would harbor the virus. Provided students had experienced Module 1, they should recognize that measles would be a good candidate since an effective vaccine is available and no reservoir host exists. Other candidates for eradication include measles, chicken pox, mumps and rubella.. Ebola would not be a good candidate since there is no vaccine and bats provide a reservoir host. SARS and Zika are also not candidates since they have animal reservoirs and no effective exists to date. You may want to have students do further research on this ...
Putzmeister Buffer storages are reservoirs for intermediate concrete storage & used for feeding stationary concrete pumps especially on large job sites. Visit us online.. Putzmeister provides products includes truck mounted concrete pumps, stationary concrete & placing booms, industrial technology, concrete placement, placing of concrete and more. Visit us online.
Based on the proximity of their habitat to the settlement, rats were classified as domestic, peridomestic, and sylvatic. Domestic rats are the most potent to transmit zoonotic diseases. Several studies report overlapping habitat on certain species as of transmission possibility between species in turn increase the number of reservoir species. This article purposes to criticize species domestication potency related to foraging and nesting behavior. The primary data were obtained from the rat survey result that was conducted in Banjarnegara district in 2017. The data were descriptively analyzed with the examination of the possibility of domestication phenomena on R. exulans, R. tiomanicus, and R. norvegicus species. The conclusion from this study is the rat domestication potency was relatively low on R. exulans and R. tiomanicus. Both species were good adapting with food resourced from humans food, however nesting behavior has become barriers to domestication. Rattus norvegicus has been long ...
We do not promote or intend to promote any one particular product or supplier or other websites which provide drugs or similar products. Ivermectin roundworms are known to cause diseases in livestock and their wild reservoir hosts in sub-saharan africa. In case of severe depression or suicidal thoughts, an overdose may occur; please keep all medicines out of the reach of children.
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Gas Reservoir Management 21 November, 2019 You are expected to be able to perform the following:Provide guidance and oversight on best-in-class reservoir ...
Parallel reservoir simulators are now widely used with availability of super computers. Modern massively parallel supercomputers demonstrate great power for simulating large-scale reservoir models. However, improving scalability and efficiency for f
Looking for ARGOS TECHNOLOGIES Pipetting Reservoir,Basin,25mL,PK100 (48WG03)? Graingers got your back. Price:$71.00. Easy ordering & convenient delivery. Log-in or register for your pricing.
Dedicated teams of multi-disciplined field engineers in each of these units perform sampling, and routine and specialized on-site analysis. These teams set the industry standard for high quality fluid measurements. Integrated studies within the Fluids Group provide full solutions to any reservoir fluids-related project. Our services include PVT/compositional analysis, produced oil and water testing, solids deposition evaluation and a complete sample management and storage capability. ...
While trying to figure out what kind of reservoir I wanted to use, it became apparent that there are several different types and there by locations involved. So just for S & Gs I thought I d do a poll to see the what and where on these things. For you rabid W/C aficionados with more than one system with different types hopefully the poll will let you pick more than one if applicable. If not, use your primary system. Also it would be nice if you would post the whys and wherefores on your
Ive got a failing pump in my Koolance PC2 rig, its got a reservoir with two submerged pumps inside (redundancy is a good thing). Problem is, the old part...
SKFDIA Beckmanulter Reservoir PT/Fib ACL1000 2/Pk - Model 18102496 : This product is a non stock item that must be ordered from the manufacturer. As
Looking for ARGOS TECHNOLOGIES Pipetting Reservoir,White,100mL,PK100 (48WG09)? Graingers got your back. Price:$78.75. Easy ordering & convenient delivery. Log-in or register for your pricing.
Vektora : Jurnal Vektor dan Reservoir Penyakit diterbitkan oleh Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Vektor dan Reservoir Penyakit (B2P2VRP) Salatiga
Daily News How Gaining and Losing Weight Affects the Body Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Epidermal Langerhans cells are not principal reservoirs of virus in HIV disease. AU - Kalter, D. C.. AU - Greenhouse, J. J.. AU - Orenstein, J. M.. AU - Schnittman, S. M.. AU - Gendelman, H. E.. AU - Meltzer, M. S.. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - Several reports implicate Langerhans cells of skin as susceptible targets, reservoirs, and vectors for transmission of HIV: 1) numbers of Langerhans cells in skin of HIV-infected patients were decreased about 50% of that in control skin; 2) as many as 30% of Langerhans cells in the skin of HIV-infected patients were morphologically abnormal; 3) viral particles typical for HIV were identified in or around 2 to 5% of these cells; and 4) infectious HIV was isolated from skin biopsies of infected patients. These results were consistent with similar observations of HIV-infected macrophages in such tissues as brain, lung, and lymph node. Despite these findings, other investigators find no evidence for virus infection in the epidermis of ...
These results indicate that it may not be as easy to eradicate dangerous viruses as had been assumed. For eliminating an infectious agent perma¬nently from the population by means of vaccination requires that there are no animal hosts from which a new infection might come. In bats, we assume that there is a vast reservoir of such agents, said Drosten. If the vaccination campaigns are stopped once a virus has been eradicated, this might present a potential risk - maybe we will have to rethink. This is why Drosten advocates taking into account ecological data when planning vaccination campaigns. Eradicating bats or other wild animals would be neither possible nor sensible. Bats and other small wild mammals are of immeasurable value for our planets ecosystems, Drosten summarized his and his colleagues unanimous opinion ...
In infectious disease ecology and epidemiology, a natural reservoir, also known as a disease reservoir or a reservoir of infection, is the population of organisms or the specific environment in which an infectious pathogen naturally lives and reproduces, or upon which the pathogen primarily depends for its survival. A reservoir is usually a living host of a certain species, such as an animal or a plant, inside of which a pathogen survives, often (though not always) without causing disease for the reservoir itself. By some definitions a reservoir may also be an environment external to an organism, such as a volume of contaminated air or water. Because of the enormous variety of infectious microorganisms capable of causing disease, precise definitions for what constitutes a natural reservoir are numerous, various, and often conflicting. The reservoir concept is applicable only for pathogens capable of infecting more than one host population and only with respect to a defined target population - ...
Wildlife Reservoirs of Disease and Tuberculosis Source: .M4a Language: English Edition: RVC - Podcast Running Time: 22:51 min. Description Badgers are often blamed for the persistence of tuberculosis in cattle herds in parts of the UK. Here Dr Julian Drewe describes his research on the dynamics of UK badger populations and meerkat communities in Africa and the potential importance of this for the spread of TB within and between species.
Two conformers, cis-cis and trans-perp HOONO, are identified in the 2vOH region by vibrational overtone initiated photodissociation spectroscopy, and the isomerization barrier from the less stable trans-perp to cis-cis HOONO is determined experimentally, statistically, and ab initio to be ~ 40 kJ/mol. This low barrier indicates that only cis-cis HOONO is atmospherically important. The complex vibrational spectroscopy of cis-cis HOONO is assigned with the aid of a simple two-dimensional OH-stretch/torsion coupling model of the planar, partially hydrogen-bound molecule. Combined with nonuniform quantum yield, this model explains the major features in the cis-cis HOONO spectrum. Its application to the fundamental region suggests an upward adjustment of the atmospherically important HOONO/HONO2 product branching ratio in the OH + NO2 association reaction. The rotational spectrum and dipole moment of cis-cis HOONO and DOONO are measured in the submillimeter region to characterize the molecular ...
The global emergence of a zoonotic pathogen such as SARS or HIV-1 and -2 requires 3 steps. First, the pathogen must be successfully transmitted between a wild reservoir and humans or their domestic animals. Several recently emerging zoonoses have achieved this stage without further transmission, e.g., Hendra virus. Second, the pathogen must be directly transmitted between humans. Finally, the pathogen must move from a local epidemic into the global population. Understanding and predicting the global emergence of pathogens require knowledge of the drivers of each of these steps or processes. These are, in fact, stages of emergence that have been described previously as invasion, establishment, and persistence of infectious diseases introduced into new host populations (8).. Evidence suggests that many pathogens are transmitted between their animal reservoirs and humans but fail to be transmitted from human to human or do so at rates that do not allow pathogen establishment within the human ...
Because the natural reservoir host of Ebola has not yet been confirmed, the way in which the virus first appears in a human at the start of an outbreak is unknown. However, scientists believe that the first patient becomes infected through contact with an infected animal, such as a fruit bat or primate (apes and monkeys), which is called a spillover event. Person-to-person transmission follows and can lead to large numbers of affected persons. In some past Ebola outbreaks, primates were also affected by Ebola, and multiple spillover events occurred when people touched or ate infected primates. In the current West African epidemic, animals have not been found to be a factor in ongoing Ebola transmission ...
Authors: Robert G. Webster, Yi Guan, Malik Peiris, and Honglin Chen The spread of the highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus from eastern Asia to India, Europe, and Africa raises concern that it will become endemic in wild birds throughout the world. Wild aquatic birds are reservoirs for all 16 subtypes of influenza virus, many of which rarely harm these hosts. H... More... ...
Although it prevails in areas where pork is eaten, many animals, including dogs, cats, rats, bears, foxes, and wolves, are reservoirs of infection.. Humans become infected by eating undercooked or raw meat containing encysted larvae, mainly pork. The cysts located in striated muscle, are digested, liberating larvae that mature to adult worms that attach to the wall of the small intestine.. Female worms there liberate larvae that invade the intestinal wall, enter the circulation, and penetrate striated muscle, where they encyst and remain viable for years. The clinical features are highly variable, depending on the number of larvae ingested, and patients may be asymtomatic or die of a fulminating disease. In subclinical disease the only sign is eosinophilia. The invasion of muscle by the larvae is associated with muscle pain, swelling of the eyelids and facial edema, eosinophilia, and pronounced fever. Respiratory and neurologic manifestatations may appear. Fatal cases are usually attributed to a ...
In the mid 1980s, we noticed that a few months after completing a project, the researchers at our laboratory were usually unable to reproduce their own computational work without considerable agony. In 1991, we solved this problem by developing a concept of electronic documents that makes scientific computations reproducible. Since then, electronic reproducible documents have become our principal means of technology transfer of scientific computational research. A small set of standard commands makes a documents results and their reproduction readily accessible to any reader. To implement reproducible computational research the author must use makefiles, adhere to a communitys naming conventions, and reuse (include) the communitys common building and cleaning rules. Since electronic reproducible documents are reservoirs of easily maintained, reusable software, not only the reader but also the author benefits from reproducible documents. On average, two PhD students graduate each year from ...
In the mid 1980s, we noticed that a few months after completing a project, the researchers at our laboratory were usually unable to reproduce their own computational work without considerable agony. In 1991, we solved this problem by developing a concept of electronic documents that makes scientific computations reproducible. Since then, electronic reproducible documents have become our principal means of technology transfer of scientific computational research. A small set of standard commands makes a documents results and their reproduction readily accessible to any reader. To implement reproducible computational research the author must use makefiles, adhere to a communitys naming conventions, and reuse (include) the communitys common building and cleaning rules. Since electronic reproducible documents are reservoirs of easily maintained, reusable software, not only the reader but also the author benefits from reproducible documents. On average, two PhD students graduate each year from ...
derly, and, consequently, beneficial manner, it is rience the dreadful consequences. Observe, afl necessary that the body be in a natural and up- the short ribs, from the lower end of the bre:181right position. The following engraving repre- bone, are unnaturally cramped inwardly lowara sents the Thorax, or Chest, which contains the. the spine, so that Ilean and Lungs; and reason teaches, that no or. the liver, stomach, gans should be in the least infringed upon, either. and other digestive by compressions, or hy sitting in a bent position.. organs in that vic; The Lungs are reservoirs for the air, out of which. niry, are pressed we make sounds, by condensation. All are famihar with the hand-bellows: observe the striking. in unie a small analogy between it and the body, in the act of. Il compass, that their speaking, singing and blowing. The wind-pipe is. functions are great like its nosle, the lungs like the sides, and the ab. ly interrupted, and dominal and dorsal muscles, like its handles; ...
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Understanding past zoonotic events to predict future ones. Many infectious diseases that are of high public health relevance today find their roots in past zoonotic events, e.g. the HIV-1 pandemics. Similarly, for these infectious diseases involving recurrent transmission from zoonotic reservoirs, most transmission events lie in the past, e.g. the historical pandemics of Yersinia pestis. These past events are an immense, precious and underexplored record of the processes leading to zoonotic emergence. There are two major ways to reconstruct these past transmission events: infer them from present-day pathogen genetic diversity or directly observe them using ancient DNA. This workshop aims to foster the interdisciplinary dialog of medical and veterinary sciences with disease ecology and evolution. The resulting interactions will promote interdisciplinary scientific progress and may ultimately help uncovering ways to prevent future zoonotic events.. Further information Deadline for registration is ...
General Information: Pathogenic strain. Causative agent of leptospirosis. This organism is the causative agent of leptospirosis, a tropical zoonosis transmitted by direct contact with the urine of infected animals. This motile and obligately aerobic organism grows optimally at 28-30 C. Many serovars are adapted for specific mammalian reservoir hosts, which harbor the organisms in their renal tubules and shed them in their urine. Because of the large spectrum of animal species that serve as reservoirs, leptospirosis is considered to be the worlds most widespread zoonotic disease. ...
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The present work deals with laboratory studies of tracers for geothermal applications. Analytical methods for the detection of molecules being used as non-reactive tracers are presented and investigations of their thermal stability as well. Furthermore, the synthesis of substances is described which can undergo a reaction by hydrolysis. Additionally, these substances are explored for their application as thermosensitive tracers by lab experiments. For the characterization of several geothermal reservoir properties, tracer tests are the method of choice. Only by tracer tests it is possible to track flow paths, to estimate reservoir fluid volumes and fluid dwell times, and various other parameters that are essential for the operation of a geothermal reservoir. But the results gained from tracer tests are often distorted or misguided due to a lack of knowledge of the substance behavior in the reservoir. Also, the analytical methods may be incorrect or not sensitive to the substance. Naphthalene ...
This SAE Recommended Practice specifies the performance test procedures and requirements of a plastic reservoir assembly suitable for use on a hydraulic brake master cylinder (reference SAE J1153). Intended usage is for on-road vehicles using brake fluid conforming to fMVSS-116 (DOT 3), and SAE J1703 specifications. This document includes the cap.cover and diaphragm as integral parts of the reservoir assembly. The fluid level sensor (FLS) is also included as an integral part of the assembly. However, additional FLS standards and/or requirements are applicable and necessary which are not covered in this document.. This document is intended to provide a recommended practice and minimum performance requirements of current established designs on those reservoir assemblies generally used by individual manufacturers which have demonstrated satisfactory field performance. This document is applicable to new reservoir assemblies for commercial or aftermarket production.. ...
SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering covers a wide range of topics, including reservoir characterization, geology and geophysics, core analysis, well logging, well testing, reservoir management, EOR, fluid mechanics, performance prediction, and reservoir simulation. ...
The upper part of the Saiq and lower part of the Mahil formations in the Oman Mountains represent outcrop time-equivalents to the highly prolific, hydrocarbon-bearing subsurface Middle and Upper members of the Khuff Formation (K4-K1 reservoir intervals). In this study, four outcrops sections on the northern flank of the Oman Mountains (Al Jabal al-Akhdar region) are sedimentologically documented and integrated with the sequence-stratigraphic scheme initially developed at the Saiq Plateau reference section.. The focus of this study is the description of the distribution and textural variation of grainstones as potential reservoir facies on a subregional (ca. 60 x 40 km) scale. Stratigraphic cross-sections are constructed based on two sequence-stratigraphic orders: (1) one second-order supersequence (DS2 18) that provides a well-constrained general framework and (2) four third-order depositional sequences (KS1-KS4), within which subtle temporal and spatial variations of grainstones occur. From ...
A method for continual monitoring of a physiologic analyte in a subject includes steps of contacting the subject with a collection reservoir such that the analyte can move from the subject into the collection reservoir, the contents of the collection reservoir being in operative communication with a detector, collecting the analyte in the collection reservoir, using the detector to detect the analyte in the collection reservoir, and, once the analyte has been detected, rendering the analyte undetectable by the detector. Also, apparatus for continual monitoring of a physiologic analyte in a subject includes a collection reservoir for receiving the analyte from the subject, the contents of the collection reservoir being in operative relationship with a detector that detects the analyte in the reservoir, and means for rendering the analyte, once detected, undetectable by the reservoir.
An automated sample-on-solid-support processing system includes a treatment solution supply subsystem which feeds solvent to a dispenser to dispense a measured amount of treatment solution to each well of a multi-well plate. The dispenser measures the solution within a fill container having a plurality of reservoir wells corresponding to the number of wells in the multi-well plate. The fill container is contained within a reservoir chamber that is filled with an excess of solution. Each reservoir well is surrounded by a plurality of bores which drains excess solution from the top of the fill container so that a precise amount of solution is left in the reservoir wells when solution is drained out of the reservoir chamber. Gas pressure is introduced into the reservoir chamber to force the solution out of the reservoir well through a bundle of tubes, with one tube per well, and into the wells of the multi-well plate.
The ecological health of Watauga Reservoir scored at the upper end of the fair range in 2012. Watauga has scored within the mid-fair to good range most years. The score of 60 in 1998 was the lowest recorded for Watauga. This was the result of several indicators concurrently scoring at the lower end of their historical ranges, rather than of a substantial change in any indicator. However, sediment quality has exhibited an overall improvement over the years.. TVA monitors two locations on Watauga Reservoir - the deep still water near the dam called the forebay, and the middle part of the reservoir.. ...
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Researchers at the University of North Carolina identified a better dosing strategy for a drug that exposes HIV hiding inside the bodys viral reservoir, ...
While only representative of a single individual in the trial, these data are very exciting, said Dr. June. They demonstrate that the ZFN-modified T-cells were well tolerated by the body and persisted in the circulation at stable levels for the duration of our monitoring. In fact, we calculate that more ZFN-modified cells were present at 20 weeks than were initially infused. Total CD4+ T-cell counts were also stable during this time. Interestingly, we also observed ZFN-modified cells in the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) which is a major reservoir of immune cells and a critical reservoir of HIV infection and suggests that the modified cells are functioning and trafficking normally in the body ...
X- Well Tomography (X-WT*) is TGTs latest technique for reservoir management, which integrates measurements obtained by TGTs Spectral Reservoir Platform (SRP*) with those by TGTs Cross-Well Pressure Coding Testing (X-PCT*). The X-Well Tomography helps our Customers to understand reservoir heterogeneity and continuity, improve water-flood balance and maximise sweep. The power of this service is based on the integration of data on actual fluid flow from the reservoir with real reservoir properties obtained by cross-well pressure interference tests, including dynamic permeability, compressibility, diffusivity and skin factor across the reservoir. ...
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Shop a large selection of products and learn more about Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics VITROS Universal Wash Reservoir Filter Universal Universal wash reservoir filter; 1/Pk..
While a cure for HIV remains elusive, new research suggests that eliminating HIV from the reservoirs where the virus persists is possible.
Findings in the abstracts are embargoed until 12:01 a.m. PDT, Wednesday Oct. 7th with the exception of research findings presented at the IDWeek press conferences.. ...
The condition of constant temperature is straightforward: the temperature is maintained throughout the process. Assume that there are two heat reservoirs, one at T2 and another at T1. To simplify matters, the reservoirs are so big that the heat extracted or added to the reservoirs is negligible, and the reservoir temperatures do not change. In real life, one could account for such changes, but to keep things simple, we simply assume that the reservoirs are very big ...
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BORD na Mona is ready to apply for planning permission for a controversial new reservoir in the midlands that will provide Dublin with water.
The blue of the Calanda reservoir amid the rugged landscape of northeastern Spain, as seen by ESAs oldest - and one of its smallest - Earth-observing missions, Proba-1, midway through its 15th year of operations.
View Notes - 26_LC-page8 from CHEM 290 at SUNY Stony Brook. Each type of system has its own advantages and disadvantages. Is the solvent reservoir limited? Does it produce pressure pulses? Can a
These reagent reservoirs are suitable for virtually all of your labs sample preparation and aliquoting needs. Design enhancements include pour spouts at each corner, a rigid sidewall design, and graduations for easy volume reference. Sterile variants are irradiated to guarantee a sterility assurance level SAL10|sup>-6|/sup>.
Nutrient Reservoir Definition - In a hydroponic system, plants need to have access to both a growing medium for support and stability, as well as...
CamelBak Mil Spec Antidote Reservoir 100 oz/3.0 L - Long. The lowest prices and free shipping available on Camelbak hydration systems from CopQuest.
Lan GJ,Zhang XM,Zhang XM,et al. Yolk-shell nanospheres with soluble aminopolystyrene as a reservoir for Pd NPs[J]. RSC Advances,2016,5(0):35730 ...
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Regenwater opgevangen in reservoirs en toegepast voor onder andere toiletspoeling is vaak fecaal verontreinigd en bevat soms ziekteverwekkende bacterien. Om het infectierisico bij toepassing van dit water te kunnen schatten is aanvullend onderzoek nodig waarbij ziekteverwekkers worden gekwantificeerd en getypeerd en waarbij onderzocht wordt in welke mate gebruikers worden blootgesteld aan het besmette water.Regenwater is aanvankelijk onbesmet, maar bij afstromen langs oppervlakken en tijdens opslag in reservoirs kan besmetting optreden met micro-organismen die ziekte bij de mens kunnen veroorzaken. Dit kan gebeuren wanneer bijvoorbeeld vogelfeces van het dak wordt gespoeld of ratten of andere dieren toegang hebben tot het reservoir of open leidingen. Onderzoek van opgevangen hemelwater op vier verschillende locaties in Nederland toonde de aanwezigheid van de indicatoren voor fecale verontreiniging, bacterien van de coligroep, E. coli en enterococcen, in respectievelijk 28, 27 en 27 van de 28 ...
how much do you think it costs to get an htlv test? say you find a doc in states willing to do it and u want to pay out of pocket? know where and how much?
RMSTM Local Model Update maximizes resource efficiency and enriches decision-making, empowering users to incorporate the latest reservoir data, without need to perform a field-wide history match each time new data becomes available ...
As disease reservoirs[edit]. The Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus), which has tested positive for Marburg virus and ... Megabats are the reservoirs of several viruses that can affect humans and cause disease. They can carry filoviruses, including ... Other megabats implicated as disease reservoirs are primarily Pteropus species. Notably, flying foxes can transmit lyssaviruses ... While other bat species have been suspected or implicated as the reservoir of diseases such as SARS and Ebola, flying foxes are ...
Reservoir of human disease[edit]. Hantavirus[edit]. The deer mouse came to the attention of the public when it was discovered ... Lyme disease[edit]. A recent study in British Columbia of 218 deer mice showed 30% (66) were seropositive for Borrelia ... Other diseases[edit]. Ehrlichiosis and babesiosis are also carried by the deer mouse.[1] ... Canada Communicable Disease Report (CCDR) - Vol.34 CCDR-01 - Public Health Agency of Canada. Phac-aspc.gc.ca (2008-01-30). ...
Gene Likens William H. Schlesinger "Deconstructing Lyme disease". The New York Times. "Reservoir rats". The Economist. "Can ... "Why diseases like Zika could unfairly target America's poor". Washington Post. Lewis, Danny. "Streams around Baltimore are ... Cary Institute's grounds have been home to long-term studies on the ecology of tick-borne disease for more than 20 years. ... Findings underpin The Tick Project, a 5-year study testing interventions with the potential to reduce Lyme disease and protect ...
... factors affecting latent reservoirs of HIV; and host factors that modulate viral infection and/or disease progression. The ... Acute Infection and Early Disease Research Program Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group AIDS Research and Reference Reagent Program ... and mechanisms of disease progression and transmission. HIV pathogenesis research also supports studies of how the immune ... persistent HIV reservoirs even with the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Despite these advances, questions ...
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 17 May 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2019. "Ebola Reservoir Study". Centers for Disease ... Megabats are the reservoirs of several viruses that can affect humans and cause disease. They can carry filoviruses, including ... Other megabats implicated as disease reservoirs are primarily Pteropus species. Notably, flying foxes can transmit Australian ... The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lists a total of 601 confirmed cases of Marburg virus disease from ...
Wetlands, however, are not long term reservoirs. The disease presents in two very different forms: acute and chronic. Birds ... Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 42: 81-91 K.R. Rhoades and R.B. Rimler, Avian pasteurellosis, in "Diseases of poultry", ed. by M. ... Chronic carriers can always lead to re-emerging of the disease in susceptible birds... In wild birds, this disease is most ... and these individuals are believed to be long term migrating reservoirs for the disease. Once the bacteria gets introduced into ...
Humans are the natural hosts of the virus; no animal reservoirs are known to exist. The virus causes measles, a highly ... contagious disease transmitted by respiratory aerosols that triggers a temporary but severe immunosuppression. Symptoms include ...
"Marburg virus disease: origins, reservoirs, transmission and guidelines". ((Great Britain)) GOV.UK. 5 September 2014. Archived ... The disease may have originated from the Columbian Exchange. From Naples, the disease swept across Europe, killing more than ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention "WHO Disease and injury country ... In some instances a disease can be carried with no symptoms, which leaves a greater risk of passing the disease on to others. ...
Han HJ, Wen HL, Zhou CM, Chen FF, Luo LM, Liu JW, Yu XJ (2015). "Bats as reservoirs of severe emerging infectious diseases". ... Bluetongue disease, a disease caused by an orbivirus broke out in sheep in France in 2007. Until then the disease had been ... The diseases caused by viruses such as HIV and influenza virus have proved to be more difficult to control. Other diseases, ... The disease was first recorded in 1894 and outbreaks of the disease occurred in eastern Africa throughout the 20th century, ...
"Emerging infectious diseases in cetaceans worldwide and the possible role of environmental stressors". Diseases of Aquatic ... Transmission could also occur from feeding on fish infected with brucellosis through reservoirs that have the ability to ... Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease: marine mammal brucellosis can infect other species, including human beings. B. ceti is a ... Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that has many different strains pertaining to different host species. There have been four ...
Infectious diseases whose transmission can be impacted by climate change include dengue fever, malaria, tick-borne disease, ... Increased evaporation will reduce the effectiveness of reservoirs. At the same time, human demand for water will grow for the ... deaths from diarrheal diseases and the spread of other infectious diseases. Climate change acts predominantly by exacerbating ... Global climate change has resulted a wide range of impacts on the spread of infectious diseases. Like other climate change ...
Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 9(4), 368-375. van Rooyen, C. & Diamond, M. (2008). Wildlife-Powerline Interaction Management. ... They may be killed by flying into novel man-made objects, including wires and massive dams along reservoirs. Habitat ... Anderson, M. D., Maritz, A. W., & Oosthuysen, E. (1999). Raptors drowning in farm reservoirs in South Africa. Ostrich, 70(2), ...
An environmental reservoir is presumed. Strain ATCC 29548 = CCUG 47452 = CIP 105049 = DSM 44634 = NCTC 11185. Mycobacterium ... Biosafety level 2 First isolated in Israel from a subcutaneous granuloma from a patient with Hodgkin's disease. ...
"What is Ebola Virus Disease?". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 5 November 2019. Retrieved 13 April 2020. Scientists ... Due to their physiology, bats are one type of animal that acts as a natural reservoir of many pathogens, such as rabies; and ... The disease is named after a white fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, found growing on the muzzles, ears, and wings of ... The fungus is mostly spread from bat to bat, and causes the disease. The fungus was first discovered in central New York State ...
Serious diseases such as Ebola and AIDS are also caused by viruses. Many viruses cause little or no disease and are said to be ... They serve as important reservoirs of the virus. If the proportion of carriers in a given population reaches a given threshold ... Viruses cause different diseases depending on the types of cell that they infect. Some viruses can cause lifelong or chronic ... In both diseases, the drugs stop the virus from reproducing and the interferon kills any remaining infected cells. HIV ...
The disease typically lasts 4-6 days. Worldwide, diarrhoeal disease, caused by cholera and many other pathogens, is the second- ... The main reservoirs of V. cholerae are aquatic sources such as rivers, brackish waters, and estuaries, often in association ... A study done by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Haiti found that in pregnant women who contracted the disease, 16% of ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, www.cdc.gov/cholera/preventionsteps. ...
Asymptomatic humans serve as a significant reservoir for the disease. Little is known about other reservoirs of the disease.[ ... The disease exists in Africa and tropical Americas, spread by biting midges or blackflies. It is usually asymptomatic. ... Since most Mansonelliasis is asymptomatic, it has been considered a relatively minor filarial disease, and has a very low, if ... little has formally been done to control the disease.[citation needed] There is no consensus on optimal therapeutic approach. ...
Ticks are vectors, reservoirs and amplifiers of this disease. There are currently three known tick specifics that commonly ... The disease was first discovered in North America and since then has been identified in almost every corner of the earth. The ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states that the diagnosis of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever must be made based on ... Since R. rickettsii needs a moving vector to contract the disease to a viable host it is more likely that this pathogen has ...
Thus, adults can become natural reservoirs of certain diseases. While some agents (such as Shigella) only occur in primates, ... in those with celiac disease). Crohn's disease is also a non-infectious source of (often severe) gastroenteritis. Disease ... Pancreatic insufficiency, short bowel syndrome, Whipple's disease, coeliac disease, and laxative abuse should also be ... 2008). Essential infectious disease topics for primary care. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-58829-520-0. Archived ...
The lost soil fills rivers and reservoirs with silt. One solution is no-till farming, a practice not in wide use. The world's ... In this case a disease called witch's broom was directly responsible for falling production, which started in the year 1989. A ... They are widely used to protect crops from pests, disease and invading species. Indiscriminate use causes unnecessary ... in addition to the absence of diseases in the region. The most famous users of the product, however, acquire 90% to 100% of ...
Margaletic, J (2003). "Small rodents in the forest ecosystem as infectious disease reservoirs". Acta Med Croatica (in Croatian ... and act as reservoirs of human and livestock disease. The management of forests is often referred to as forestry. Forest ... There are also many natural factors that can cause changes in forests over time including forest fires, insects, diseases, ... Wilcox, B.A.; Ellis, B. "Forests and emerging infectious diseases of humans". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United ...
In a propagated outbreak, the disease spreads person-to-person. Affected individuals may become independent reservoirs leading ... A few cases of a very rare disease may be classified as an epidemic, while many cases of a common disease (such as the common ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention defines epidemic broadly: "the occurrence of more cases of disease, injury, or ... depending on the disease), (7) disease-induced mortality, and (8) cross-species transmission. Influenza, the common cold, and ...
Another important protozoan disease associated with cats is Toxoplasma gondii, for which cats act as the definitive reservoir. ... The disease has been found in Asia, Africa, India, North, South and Central America. It is not uncommon and estimates of those ... The disease is spread by touching an infected cat. The rash may be scaly, reddened, and circular. Ringworm on the scalp usually ... Some disease-carrying arthropods use cats as a vector, or carrier. Fleas and ticks can carry pathogenic organisms that infect a ...
There is no known animal reservoir host. Like other human filariasis infections, Brugia timori filariasis causes acute fever ... Some researchers are confident that Brugia timori filariasis may be an eradicable disease. Related filarial nematodes have been ... Brugia timori is a filarial (arthropod-borne) nematode (roundworm) which causes the disease "Timor filariasis", or "Timorian ... "Lymphatic Filariasis Endemic Countries and Territories." Lymphatic Filariasis Disease. May 2006. The Carter Center. 13 May 2006 ...
August 2015). Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group (ed.). "Vector and reservoir control for preventing leishmaniasis". The ... Cutaneous disease is most common in Afghanistan, Algeria, Brazil, Colombia, and Iran, while mucocutaneous disease is most ... It is classified as a neglected tropical disease. The disease may occur in a number of other animals, including dogs and ... Nearly 13,000 cases of the disease were recorded in all of Colombia throughout 2004, and about 360 new instances of the disease ...
"Disease in Antiquity: Ancient Greece and Rome," in Diseases in Antiquity, editors: Don Brothwell and A. T. Sandison. ... The reservoir is thought to be mice. In the U.S., about half of all fatal cases of plague since 1970 have occurred in New ... This disease is thought to have originated in China. It then spread to Africa from where the huge city of Constantinople ... The disease reached the Territory of Hawaii in December 1899, and the Board of Health's decision to initiate controlled burns ...
reservoir. Pathophysiology. Distribution B. bacilliformis. Reservoir. Causes Carrion's disease (Oroya fever, Verruga peruana). ... Reservoir. Causes trench fever, bacillary angiomatosis, and endocarditis. Worldwide B. clarridgeiae. Incidental. Domestic cat. ... bacteremia and rheumatic symptoms in patients from Lyme disease-endemic region Medical publication, North Carolina State ... Cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, peliosis hepatis, endocarditis, bacteremia with fever, neuroretinitis, meningitis ...
Infectious diseases - Parasitic disease: protozoan infection: Excavata (A06-A07, B55-B57, 007, 085-086) ... Source/Transmission (Reservoir/Vector) Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and Acanthamoeba keratitis (eye infection) ... Infectious diseases - Parasitic disease: protozoan infection: Excavata (A06-A07, B55-B57, 007, 085-086) ... Chagas disease Trypanosoma cruzi colon, esophagus, heart, nerves, muscle and blood Giemsa stain - blood Mexico, Central America ...
... which contain the species that cause Marburg virus disease and Ebola virus disease, respectively. Though relatively few disease ... The natural reservoirs of ebolaviruses are unknown. However, some evidence indicates that megabats may be natural reservoirs. ... "Ebola virus disease". World Health Organization. 10 February 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020. "What is Ebola Virus Disease?". ... "The Pathogenesis of Ebola Virus Disease". Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease. 12: 387-418. doi:10.1146/annurev- ...
Some species of Borrelia cause Lyme disease, and ground-feeding birds like the song thrush may act as a reservoir for the ... "Migratory Passerine Birds as Reservoirs of Lyme Borreliosis in Europe" (PDF). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 12 (7): 1087-1094. ... the Lyme disease spirochaete". International Journal of Medical Microbiology. 296: 125-128. doi:10.1016/j.ijmm.2006.01.001. ... disease. Play media The song thrush is omnivorous, eating a wide range of invertebrates, especially earthworms and snails, as ...
The bats displayed no clinical signs of disease, which is considered evidence that these bats are a reservoir species of EBOV. ... "Ebola Virus Disease". SRHD. Retrieved 15 September 2020.. *^ a b c d "Q&A on Transmission, Ebola". Centers for Disease Control ... Reservoir. The natural reservoir for Ebola has yet to be confirmed; however, bats are considered to be the most likely ... "About Ebola Virus Disease". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. ...
... coronary heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease, because they ate mostly lean meats and plants and frequently engaged in ... caused by other factors such as disease and overhunting by humans.[16][17] New research suggests that the extinction of the ... It is also unlikely that Paleolithic hunter-gatherers were affected by modern diseases of affluence such as type 2 diabetes, ... "Hunter-gatherer diets: wild foods signal relief from diseases of affluence (PDF)" (PDF). In Ungar, Peter S.; Teaford, Mark F. ...
Diseases and parasitesEdit. The black wildebeest is particularly susceptible to anthrax, and rare and widely scattered ... Like the blue wildebeest, the black wildebeest seems to act as a reservoir for the virus and all animals are carriers, being ... Wild individuals can be competitors of commercial livestock, and can transmit fatal diseases such as rinderpest, and cause ... Malignant catarrhal fever is a fatal disease of domestic cattle caused by a gammaherpesvirus. ...
Wetlands, however, are not long term reservoirs.. The disease presents in two very different forms: acute and chronic. Birds ... Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 42: 81-91. *^ K.R. Rhoades and R.B. Rimler, Avian pasteurellosis, in "Diseases of poultry", ed. ... and these individuals are believed to be long term migrating reservoirs for the disease. ... Journal of Wildlife Disease. 42: 33-39. *^ Samuel et al. 2005. Avian Cholera in Waterfowl: The role of Lesser Snow Geese and ...
It is often described as being "a disease of the diseased", occurring in the very young, the very old, or the very sick. ... Dentures may therefore become covered in a biofilm, and act as reservoirs of infection, continually re-infecting the mucosa. ... Candidiasis can be a marker for underlying disease, so the overall prognosis may also be dependent upon this. For example, a ... 2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier. p. 308. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0. OCLC ...
... is classified as a zoonosis, as it is transmitted to humans from a natural reservoir among small mammals and birds ... "Lyme disease rashes and look-alikes". Lyme Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 21 December 2018. Archived from ... "Lyme Disease Data and surveillance". Lyme Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 5 February 2019. Archived from ... Treatment regimens for Lyme disease range from 14 days in early localized disease, to 14-21 days in early disseminated disease ...
"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 6 (9): e1839. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001839. PMC 3459880 . PMID 23029594.. ... a b Public Health England: Lassa fever: origins, reservoirs, transmission and guidelines Archived 2 February 2016 at the ... Descriptions of the disease date from the 1950s.[1] The virus was first described in 1969 from a case in the town of Lassa, in ... The disease is usually initially spread to people via contact with the urine or feces of an infected multimammate rat.[1] ...
Paterson, Sue (December 17, 2007). Skin Diseases of Exotic Pets. Blackwell Science, Ltd. pp. 74-79. ISBN 9780470752432. .. ... The albumin (9) further protects the embryo and serves as a reservoir for water and protein. The allantois (8) is a sac that ... The amnion (5) aids in osmoregulation and serves as a saltwater reservoir. The yolk sac (2) surrounding the yolk (3) contains ... Davis, Jon R.; DeNardo, Dale F. (2007-04-15). "The urinary bladder as a physiological reservoir that moderates dehydration in a ...
Contagious disease hospital[edit]. The contagious disease hospital comprised 8 two-story pavilions connected with a center ... Jersey City Reservoir No. 3. *Ellis, 2015 film. References[edit]. Notes[edit]. *^ "Ellis Island - Hudson County, New Jersey". ... "Ellis Island, Contagious Disease Hospital Kitchen, New York Harbor, New York County, NY". www.loc.gov. Retrieved June 14, 2019. ... Contagious disease hospital on island 3[edit]. Hospital #1 was designed as a General Hospital. The PHS intended to have a ...
... can serve as vectors and reservoirs of human afflictions. Throughout recorded history, epidemics of human diseases, such as ... Invasive exotic diseasesEdit. History is rife with the spread of exotic diseases, such as the introduction of smallpox into the ... Diseases may also be vectored by invasive insects such as the Asian citrus psyllid and the bacterial disease citrus greening.[ ... Another example is the Dutch elm disease, which has severely reduced the American elm trees in forests and cities.[citation ...
Alexander, T. L., & Buxton, D. (Eds.). (1986). Management and diseases of deer: a handbook for the veterinary surgeon. ... Babushkin, M. V., Kuznetsov, A. V., & Demina, O. A. (2017). White-Tailed Eagle on the Rybinsk reservoir: abundance, ecology, ... in the Rybinsk Reservoir, Russia and 1.72 kg (3.8 lb) in the Volga-Kama Nature Reserve, Russia.[104][105][106] Thus, the mean ... from the Kremenchug Reservoir, Middle Dnieper. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 17(1), 71-77. ...
... in the Cure of Acute and Chronic Diseases". in Fowlers and Wells' Water-Cure Library: Embracing all the most popular works on ... Brattleboro's surface water supply is the Pleasant Valley Reservoir, which the Pleasant Valley Water Plant siphons through ...
This species can also serve as a reservoir for Toxoplasma gondii, the parasite that causes toxoplasmosis, though the disease ... DiseasesEdit. Similar to other rodents, brown rats may carry a number of pathogens,[83] which can result in disease, including ... Plagues & Poxes: The Impact of Human History on Epidemic Disease, Demos Medical Publishing, 2004, ISBN 978-1-888799-79-8, p. 23 ... "Emerging Infectious Diseases. 6 (5): 543-547. doi:10.3201/eid0605.000517. PMC 2627956. PMID 10998388.. ...
"Supersuppression: Reservoir Competency and Timing of Mosquito Host Shifts Combine to Reduce Spillover of West Nile Virus". The ... cardinals biologically suppress the disease upon infection.[3] ...
... and placement of the pump in the scrotum and the reservoir in the retropubic space. Saline is used throughout the implantation ... Loss of the phallus from either disease or blood supply issues. *Cephalic vein thrombosis (blood clot) ...
Flavivirus: Akhurma virus,[13]Dengue,[14] Hepatit C, Kyasanur Forest disease virus,[15] Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus,[15] Sarı ... Olsson GE, Leirs H, Henttonen H (August 2010). "Hantaviruses and their hosts in Europe: reservoirs here and there, but not ... Seitz HM (1995). "[Parasitic diseases of the liver]". Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol (German). Cilt 79, s. 241-8. PMID 8600687.. KB1 ... Tandon BN, Acharya SK (April 1987). "Viral diseases involving the liver". Baillieres Clin. Gastroenterol. 1 (2), s. 211-30. ...
Zoonoses are infectious diseases which jump from an animal host or reservoir into humans.. ... Infectious disease. Major modern diseases such as Ebola virus disease and salmonellosis are zoonoses. HIV was a zoonotic ... Many modern diseases, even epidemic diseases, started out as zoonotic diseases. It is hard to establish with certainty which ... Lists of diseasesEdit. Disease[28]. Pathogen(s) Animals involved Mode of transmission Emergence ...
... and reservoirs evaporates, forms clouds, and returns as precipitation. Locally, however, if more fresh water is consumed ... Infectious disease. *Toxic algae blooms. *Hydropower damming and fragmenting of half the world's rivers ...
35.0 35.1 Tang J, Kaslow RA (2003). "The impact of host genetics on HIV infection and disease progression in the era of highly ... Blankson JN, Persaud D, Siliciano RF (2002). "The challenge of viral reservoirs in HIV-1 infection". Annu. Rev. Med. 53: 557- ... Centers for Disease Control (CDC) (1982). "Persistent, generalized lymphadenopathy among homosexual males". MMWR Morb Mortal ... 31.0 31.1 Morgan D, Mahe C, Mayanja B, Whitworth JA (2002). "Progression to symptomatic disease in people infected with HIV-1 ...
"Center for Disease Control and Prevention. March 2012. Arquivado dende o orixinal o 01 de maio de 2013. Consultado o 29 de xuño ... "Chimpanzee Reservoirs of Pandemic and Nonpandemic HIV-1". Science 313 (5786): 523-6. Bibcode:2006Sci...313..523K. PMC 2442710 ... "Center for Disease Control and Prevention. April 2012. Arquivado dende o orixinal o 13 de outubro de 2012. Consultado o 29 de ... "Current opinion in infectious diseases 25 (1): 51-7. PMC 3266126. PMID 22156901. doi:10.1097/QCO.0b013e32834ef5ef.. ...
... into the reservoir. When the needle is withdrawn, the reservoir cover reseals itself. The cover can accept hundreds of needle ... "Clinical Infectious Diseases. 52 (9): e162-93. doi:10.1093/cid/cir257. PMC 3106269. PMID 21460264.. ... Blood transfusions may also be used to treat a severe anaemia or thrombocytopenia caused by a blood disease. People with ... People with sickle-cell disease may require frequent blood transfusions. Early blood transfusions consisted of whole blood, but ...
Margaletic, J (2003). "Small rodents in the forest ecosystem as infectious disease reservoirs". Acta Med Croatica (in Croatian ... and act as reservoirs of human and livestock disease.[39][40]. The management of forests is often referred to as forestry. ... There are also many natural factors that can cause changes in forests over time including forest fires, insects, diseases, ... disease or fire are still considered forests even if they contain no trees. Land cover definitions define forests based upon ...
Order 2013 to protect the species from cross-breeding and disease as the species has suffered serious declines on the mainland. ... use the Montrose Basin as a winter roost in October and November as they do Loch Strathbeg and various lochs and reservoirs in ...
Archives of Disease in Childhood. 85 (5): 351-53. doi:10.1136/adc.85.5.351. PMC 1718987. PMID 11668090. Archived (PDF) from the ... Birds are thought to be the main animal reservoirs of influenza viruses.[226] Sixteen forms of hemagglutinin and nine forms of ... because the symptoms can be similar to those of other respiratory diseases.[189][190] The disease may have spread from Europe ... a b Time Lines of Infection and Disease in Human Influenza: A Review of Volunteer Challenge Studies Archived 13 June 2012 at ...
The "receiver" or "reservoir" was about 40 in (1,000 mm) long by 6 in (150 mm) in diameter and connected to the "generator" by ... Infectious disease deaths in Pennsylvania. *People from Chester, Pennsylvania. Hidden categories: *CS1: Julian-Gregorian ... and that the reservoir had been "carefully negatized". Keely also claimed to have achieved pressures of 50,000 psi, and that he ... reported that he suggested to Keely that it would be a more complete test of his power if he would discharge a large reservoir ...
The disease has been eradicated from many countries by testing for the disease and culling suspected animals. ... Pumps and reservoirs are common at milking facilities. Water can be warmed by heat transfer with milk. ... Crohn's disease has been linked to infection with the bacterium M. paratuberculosis,[19][20][21][22][23] which has been found ... paratuberculosis in Crohn's disease". Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 11 (12): 1123. doi:10.1097/01.MIB.0000191609.20713.ea. PMID 16306778. ...
Usage Note: disease, illness, sickness *---It is disease that actually makes you sick: He suffers from heart disease. Illness ... A dam is a high impervious barrier constructed across a river valley to form a deep storage reservoir; The surplus water is not ... note) a disease caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae; this bacterium causes a large, painful membrane on the ... disease, n. వ్యాధి; రోగం; రుగ్మత; రుజ; సంకటం; జాడ్యం; జబ్బు; తెగులు; ఆంతకం; ఉపతాపం; ఆమయం; సుస్తీ; అస్వస్థత; నలతగా ఉండడం; ...
Campbell was interested in another disease, kala azar, and was working under Napier.[ambiguous] Napier inoculated the strain ... "Plasmodium knowlesi: Reservoir Hosts and Tracking the Emergence in Humans and Macaques". PLoS Pathog. 7 (4): e1002015. doi: ... This may be because there are neither long-tailed nor pig-tailed macaques (the reservoir hosts of P. knowlesi) in Africa, and ... This makes it a potentially very severe disease if it remains untreated. Life cycle: merozoite → trophozoites → schizont → ...
This disease is part of the group of neglected tropical diseases.[86] ... During periods of epidemics humans are the reservoir of the virus. Because high amounts of virus are present in the blood in ... "PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 3 (3): e389. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000389. PMC 2647734. PMID 19274071.. ... "PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 7 (7): e2331. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002331. PMC 3723539. PMID 23936565.. ...
Reservoir of gut flora[change , change source]. Recent work shows the appendix is a safe place for useful bacteria when illness ... The appendix has no function in humans, but it can cause diseases (like appendicitis). In us, it is a vestigial organ. ... This reservoir of gut flora could then serve to repopulate the digestive system following a bout of dysentery or cholera.[8] ...
Disease reservoir may refer to: Natural reservoir, the long-term host of the pathogen of an infectious disease Fomite, any ... capable of carrying infectious organisms This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Disease reservoir. ...
2007)‎. Marburg fever outbreak leads scientists to suspected disease reservoir. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 85 ...
Commercial Bombus impatiens as reservoirs of emerging infectious diseases in central México. ... 2008); the role commercial B terrestris as reservoir of the parasites C. bombi, A. bombi and N. bombi in Scotland (Whitehorn et ... Fürst MA, McMahon DP, Osborne JL, Paxton RJ, Brown MJF (2014) Disease associations between honeybees and bumblebees as a threat ... 2014). The intensive production and global dispersal of commercial B. impatiens can transmit hymenopteran diseases to naturally ...
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People Centers for Disease Control ... Identifying Rodent Hantavirus Reservoirs, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(12):2127-2134. doi:10.3201/ ... Souza LTM, Suzuki A, Pereira LE, Ferreira IB, Souza RP, Cruz AS, Identification of hantavirus rodent reservoirs species in ... lasiurus as rodent host reservoir for ARA virus, as well as O. nigripes as rodent host reservoir for the JUQ-like virus in the ...
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People Centers for Disease Control ... Dantas-Torres F. Dogs as Reservoirs for Leishmania braziliensis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(2):326-327. doi:10.3201/ ... Dantas-Torres, F. (2011). Dogs as Reservoirs for Leishmania braziliensis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), 326-327. https ... Sousa and Pearson stated that "no animal reservoir other than dogs has been identified in Ceará" and that "a sylvatic reservoir ...
Control of nuisance mammals and birds and those constituting reservoirs of zoonotic diseases; exception. On and after December ... Control of nuisance mammals and birds and those constituting reservoirs of zoonotic diseases; exception Text contains those ... in the control of nuisance mammals and birds and those mammal and bird species that are reservoirs for zoonotic diseases, and ...
... Emerging Infectious Diseases 8:662-667. ... and exploring parasite-reservoir associations for other emerging diseases. ... We used this tool to identify host relationships of Triatoma species implicated in transmission of Chagas disease. Associations ... This approach may help in identifying Chagas disease risk areas, planning vector-control strategies, ...
Resistance of vectors and reservoirs of disease to pesticides : twenty-second report of the WHO Expert Committee on ...
... the reservoir host and the tick vector. In a prospective 5-ye … ... ticks is correlated with a high incidence of Lyme disease. The ... Reservoir targeted vaccine against Borrelia burgdorferi: a new strategy to prevent Lyme disease transmission J Infect Dis. 2014 ... Keywords: Borrelia burgdorferi; Lyme disease; Oral vaccine; enzootic cycle; transmission; wildlife reservoir. ... A high prevalence of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi in ixodid ticks is correlated with a high incidence of Lyme disease. ...
"The host reservoir for this virus throughout Eastern Europe is wild pigs, and Canada has a very significant wild pig population ... Disease can be tricky to diagnose, but vets say up to the task. Sep 6, 2018. Livestock ... Disease can be tricky to diagnose, but vets say up to the task. Sep 6, 2018. Livestock ... It has been reported in at least seven European Union countries at various times, and wild pigs are one of its reservoirs in ...
... of restricted areas to provide additional information for a better understanding of the present status of Chagas disease in ... cruzi in the human population along with domiciliary infestation by triatomine bugs in an area endemic for Chagas disease in ... f CHAGAS DISEASE IN RURAL AREAS OF CHACO PROVINCE, ARGENTINA: EPIDEMIOLOGIC SURVEY IN HUMANS, RESERVOIRS, AND VECTORS * ... CHAGAS DISEASE IN RURAL AREAS OF CHACO PROVINCE, ARGENTINA: EPIDEMIOLOGIC SURVEY IN HUMANS, RESERVOIRS, AND VECTORS ...
Pets as Reservoirs for Zoonotic Disease--What Should We Advise Our Clients? ... Emerging infectious Diseases 12, 389-394. 2. Greene CE, Levy JK, 2006. Immunocompromised people and shared human and animal ... In Greene, C.E.(edit), Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat 3rd edition. Saunders Elsevier pp. 1051-1068. ... The risk of disease transmission from pets to AIDS patients and other immunosuppressed individuals can be greatly reduced if ...
A substantial reservoir of DCIS is undetected during life. How hard pathologists look for the disease and, perhaps, their ... Using Autopsy Series To Estimate the Disease "Reservoir" for Ductal Carcinoma in Situ of the Breast: How Much More Breast ... Using Autopsy Series To Estimate the Disease "Reservoir" for Ductal Carcinoma in Situ of the Breast: How Much More Breast ... Premalignant and In Situ Breast Disease: Biology and Clinical Implications Annals of Internal Medicine; 143 (6): 446-457 ...
Rabies in Zimbabwe: reservoir dogs and the implications for disease control. C. J. Rhodes, R. P. D. Atkinson, R. M. Anderson, D ... Rabies in Zimbabwe: reservoir dogs and the implications for disease control. C. J. Rhodes, R. P. D. Atkinson, R. M. Anderson, D ... Rabies in Zimbabwe: reservoir dogs and the implications for disease control Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... This study suggests that the disease is regularly introduced to jackals by rabid dogs from populations associated with human ...
... even higher seroprevalence rates of leptospirosis and typhoid fever provide evidence of a major persistent reservoir of these ... of Bandarban district in southeastern Bangladesh revealed high proportions of seropositivity for selected infectious diseases ( ... f Evidence of a Major Reservoir of Non-Malarial Febrile Diseases in Malaria-Endemic Regions of Bangladesh * Paul Swoboda, Hans- ... Evidence of a Major Reservoir of Non-Malarial Febrile Diseases in Malaria-Endemic Regions of Bangladesh ...
... initiates a slowly progressive degenerative disease of the immune system termed the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). ... Mononuclear Phagocytes as Targets, Tissue Reservoirs, and Immunoregulatory Cells in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease. ... 1989). Indeed, in late-stage disease about 1 in 40 CD4+ T cells harbor virus. Attempts to detect viral protein or mRNA in blood ... 1989a). Studies further show that virtually all infected blood leukocytes throughout HIV disease are CD4+ T cells (Schnittman ...
The objective is to explore the role of the aquatic reservoir on the persistence of endemic cholera as well as to define ... The importance of the aquatic reservoir depends on the sanitary conditions of the community. Seasonal variations of contact ... Here, I formulate a mathematical model of cholera epidemiology that incorporates an environmental reservoir of V. cholerae. ... The environmental reservoir reduces the susceptible threshold. In the presence of a permanent reservoir of V. cholerae (nb ...
LA Volumes and Reservoir Function Are Associated With Subclinical Cerebrovascular Disease. Cesare Russo, Zhezhen Jin, Rui Liu, ... LA Volumes and Reservoir Function Are Associated With Subclinical Cerebrovascular Disease. Cesare Russo, Zhezhen Jin, Rui Liu, ... LA Volumes and Reservoir Function Are Associated With Subclinical Cerebrovascular Disease Message Subject (Your Name) has ... LA volumes and reservoir function and subclinical cerebrovascular disease. Participants with SBI had greater LAVmin (17.1 ± 9.3 ...
"Emerging" infectious diseases can be defined as infections that have newly appeared in a population or have existed but are ... Zoonoses with a wildlife reservoir represent a major public health problem, affecting all continents. Hundreds of pathogens and ... Monitoring Water Sources for Environmental Reservoirs of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1, Haiti ...
Genetic Diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto in Peromyscus leucopus, the Primary Reservoir of Lyme Disease in a ... Genetic Diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto in Peromyscus leucopus, the Primary Reservoir of Lyme Disease in a ... Genetic Diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto in Peromyscus leucopus, the Primary Reservoir of Lyme Disease in a ... Genetic Diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto in Peromyscus leucopus, the Primary Reservoir of Lyme Disease in a ...
Disease Reservoirs Dispatch Infectivity New York Prevalence Reservoir Competence Tick-borne Diseases Ticks Vertebrate Hosts ... including those causing Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, Borrelia miyamotoi disease, Powassan virus disease, and ... Quantitative factors proposed to influence the prevalence of canine tick-borne disease agents in the United States ... In recent decades, the number of reported cases of notifiable tick-borne diseases has steadi... ...
This raises concern regarding the potential of this host as an endemic reservoir for zoonotic diseases. Consequently, ... namaquensis as a reservoir for zoonotic diseases in southern Africa is urgently needed. ... The disease status of the most commonly collected tick (Rhipicephalus distinctus) is currently unknown. Only flea burdens ... only a small number of these are known as vectors of diseases of medical and/or veterinary importance but occur at high ...
Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America Volume 34, issue 1, pages 91-97. Published in print January 2002 ... An understanding of these reservoirs for HIV-1 in the setting of virally suppressive HAART will be critical for the development ...
Africa, a reservoir of new virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus?. Servan de Almeida R., Fridolin Maminiaina O., Gil P., ...
View the review history for Sylvatic host associations of Triatominae and implications for Chagas disease reservoirs: a review ... Diotaiuti L (2017) Peer Review #2 of Sylvatic host associations of Triatominae and implications for Chagas disease reservoirs ... Diotaiuti L (2017) Peer Review #2 of Sylvatic host associations of Triatominae and implications for Chagas disease reservoirs ... Sylvatic host associations of Triatominae and implications for Chagas disease reservoirs: a review and new host records based ...
... as well as detecting the presence of the Chagas disease pathogen via Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) of a ∼400 bp sequence of ... and often fatal Chagas disease, which affects several million people mainly in Central and South America. An understanding of ... speciose group of blood-feeding insects has and will continue to aid ongoing efforts to impede the spread of Chagas disease. ... the parasite responsible for Chagas disease. Chagas disease is a chronic debilitating disease, prevalent in Latin America, and ...
The consequences of reservoir host eradication on disease epidemiology in animal communities. Emerging Microbes & Infections, 5 ... The consequences of reservoir host eradication on disease epidemiology in animal communities. ... These included: (i) pathogen prevalence in an introduced reservoir host (Pseudorasbora parva); (ii) the impact of reservoir ... In the case of introduced generalist pathogens, their disease epidemiology in the extant communities remains poorly understood ...
The Namaqua rock mouse (Micaelamys namaquensis) as a potential reservoir and host of arthropod vectors of diseases of medical ... The Namaqua rock mouse (Micaelamys namaquensis) as a potential reservoir and host of arthropod vectors of diseases of medical ... This raises concern regarding the potential of this host as an endemic reservoir for zoonotic diseases. Consequently, ... as a potential reservoir and host of arthropod vectors of diseases of medical and veterinary importance in South Africa, ...
Plant Disease, Volume 96, Issue 4, Page 506-514, April 2012.http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-02-11-0089 , Plant health ... Diseases caused by aphid-transmitted viruses such as Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) have increased ... leaf scorch disease of almond and other tree hosts, and phony peach disease. This gram-negative bacterium dwells in the xylem ... The key papers presented below, published in Phytopathology, Plant Disease, and Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, tell a ...
Disease Reservoirs and Vectors * Endemic orthopoxvirus circulating in procyonids in MexicoExternal. Gallardo-Romero NF, ... Communicable Diseases - Legionnaires Disease * *Legionellosis on the rise: A review of guidelines for prevention in the United ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People ... Communicable Diseases * Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2016External. Afonso CL, Amarasinghe GK, Banyai K, Bao Y ...
  • Disease reservoir may refer to: Natural reservoir, the long-term host of the pathogen of an infectious disease Fomite, any inanimate object or substance capable of carrying infectious organisms This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Disease reservoir. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transmission of B. burgdorferi to humans can be disrupted by targeting 2 key elements in its enzootic cycle: the reservoir host and the tick vector. (nih.gov)
  • But, particular consideration for zoonotic transmission of disease is often needed when relating to humans with immunosuppression or special susceptibility to infection. (vin.com)
  • they are the natural reservoirs of several viruses than can affect humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ebola virus disease ( EVD ), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever ( EHF ) or simply Ebola , is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses . (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] Spread of the disease through the air between primates , including humans, has not been documented in either laboratory or natural conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] Prevention includes limiting the spread of disease from infected animals to humans by handling potentially infected bushmeat only while wearing protective clothing, and by thoroughly cooking bushmeat before eating it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tracing the routes from reservoir to humans is tricky. (wired.com)
  • Humans are the only reservoir for B. pertussis . (health.gov.au)
  • An index of the contribution of chipmunks to the density of infected questing nymphs on the vegetation (i.e., the acarological risk for humans) was compared to that of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and of wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus), two known native and sympatric competent reservoir hosts. (nih.gov)
  • As T. s. barberi must be a competent reservoir, it should amplify B. burgdorferi sl infection, hence increasing the risk of Lyme borreliosis in humans. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, gorillas share many bacterial pathogens with humans suggesting that they could be a reservoir for their emergence. (nih.gov)
  • Identifying the natural reservoirs of infectious pathogens has proven useful in treating and preventing large outbreaks of disease in humans and domestic animals, especially those diseases for which no vaccine exists. (wikipedia.org)
  • it is the population of interest because it suffers from disease when infected by the pathogen (for example, humans are the target population in most medical epidemiological studies). (wikipedia.org)
  • The main source of diversity originates probably in the animal reservoir hosts that infect humans. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • What's more, these mammals-also known as flying foxes-appear to be the primary reservoir from which humans acquire the infection. (slate.com)
  • This thesis presents a mathematical modeling approach to estimate the contribution of four animal reservoirs of the food chain to the occurrence of salmonellosis cases in humans in the European Union. (dtu.dk)
  • Cases of foodborne salmonellosis in humans were attributed to travel, outbreaks and four animal reservoirs, namely pigs, broilers, turkeys and laying hens, using a Bayesian model based on microbial subtyping in 24 countries of the European Union. (dtu.dk)
  • Four Plasmodium species (Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae) give disease in humans, and humans are their only relevant reservoir. (europa.eu)
  • The ability of pathogens to infect a wide range of hosts has been demonstrated as a risk factor for disease emergence in both humans (1) and domestic animals (2). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • These free-living swine are known reservoirs for a number of viruses, bacteria and parasites that are transmissible to domestic animals and humans. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Wild boars can act as reservoirs for many important infectious diseases in domestic animals, such as classical swine fever, brucellosis and trichinellosis, and in humans, diseases such as hepatitis E, tuberculosis, leptospirosis and trichinellosis. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • For examples, wild boars are reservoirs for hepatitis E virus, and cluster cases of hepatitis E have been reported in Japan of humans who consumed wild boar meat. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Wild boars also pose a problem when countries are trying to eradicate zoonotic diseases such as hepatitis E, tuberculosis, brucellosis and trichinellosis in humans and important livestock infectious diseases such as pseudorabies and porcine circovirus-associated diseases (PCVADs) in pigs. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This is especially relevant for disease-free populations of animals and humans not exposed previously to the agents from wild boars and with no herd or population immunity, and thus highly susceptible to such infectious agents. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • T. cruzi is a parasitic protozoan that consists of a heterogeneous population composed of a pool of strains circulating in both the domestic and sylvatic cycles in humans, vectors, and animal reservoirs (Souto et al. (scielo.br)
  • Study of humans aging has presented difficulties in separating the aging process from concomitant disease and/or in defining normality and abnormality during its development. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The role of endemic murid rodents as hosts of arthropod vectors of diseases of medical and veterinary significance is well established in the northern hemisphere. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite the great ectoparasite diversity harboured by M. namaquensis , only a small number of these are known as vectors of diseases of medical and/or veterinary importance but occur at high prevalence and/or abundance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Globally, rodents, particularly members of the murid family, are important hosts for ectoparasitic arthropods, many of which are vectors of diseases of veterinary and medical importance [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, ticks of the genus Ixodes , harboured by several common murid rodents in North America and Europe, are important vectors for diseases such as Lyme borreliosis ( Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Reservoirs and vectors play important roles in the spread of infectious disease. (diseasedaily.org)
  • Some infectious diseases are transmitted through vectors, such as mosquitoes or ticks, which themselves do not cause disease. (diseasedaily.org)
  • Insects and arthropods are familiar vectors for disease, and their intent is often to bite or attack us in order to obtain a meal, or to propagate their young. (diseasedaily.org)
  • Resistance of vectors and reservoirs of disease to pesticides : tenth report of the WHO Expert Committee on Vector Biology and Control [meeting held in Geneva from 5 to 11 November 1985]. (who.int)
  • For the assistance of trainers in illustrating the information provided in the maps of distribution of arthropod-borne diseases and their principal vectors, a set of slides and another of transparencies for overhead projection are soon to be produced and made available against payment. (ciesin.org)
  • Some of the pathogens that infect honey bees and bumble bees such as Nosema cerenae , Apicystis bombi and DWV have been recently catalogued as emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) (Arbetman et al. (springer.com)
  • 5 Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, One Health Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Dhaka, Bangladesh. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, there is a constant flow of new data and information about these pathogens and newly discovered disease agents. (vin.com)
  • In an area with point prevalences of more than 40% for malaria among fever cases, even higher seroprevalence rates of leptospirosis and typhoid fever provide evidence of a major persistent reservoir of these pathogens. (ajtmh.org)
  • In the case of introduced generalist pathogens, their disease epidemiology in the extant communities remains poorly understood. (bournemouth.ac.uk)
  • A disease reservoir, however, can be thought of as a source of pathogens. (diseasedaily.org)
  • The evolution of most pathogens with their reservoirs creates a mutually sustainable relationship, in which the pathogen can exist without causing too much distress and illness to its needed host. (diseasedaily.org)
  • In particular, the introduction of a new host species can increase health threats by adding a new reservoir and/or by amplifying the circulation of either exotic or native pathogens. (nih.gov)
  • Understanding how infectious pathogens spread is critical to preventing infectious disease. (quizover.com)
  • The reservoir concept applies only for pathogens capable of infecting more than one host population and only with respect to a defined target population - the population of organisms in which the pathogen causes disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • for other pathogens, such as the ebolaviruses, the identity of the presumed natural reservoir remains obscure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The great diversity of infectious pathogens, their possible hosts, and the ways in which their hosts respond to infection has resulted in multiple definitions for "natural reservoir", many of which are conflicting or incomplete. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human reservoirs are human beings infected by pathogens that exist on or within the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal (non-human) reservoirs consist of domesticated and wild animals infected by pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Managing reservoirs of multihost pathogens often plays a crucial role in effective disease control. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Virtually all recent outbreaks of disease in endangered wildlife have been caused by pathogens that can infect other, more abundant host species 3,4. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Pathogens that infect more than one host species are by definition likely to be encountered in several host populations, some of which may constitute infection reservoirs. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Therefore, a key issue in the design of control measures for multihost pathogens is defining what is meant by reservoirs of infection and developing guidelines for their identification. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • However, bats have been implicated as reservoir hosts for viral human pathogens, such as paramyxoviruses (3) and rabies virus and related lyssaviruses (4). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • However, for many important wildlife diseases, delivery systems to vaccinate a sufficient proportion of host populations to control pathogens are unavailable, and direct (that is, individual-based) vaccination is logistically prohibitive. (nature.com)
  • Here, Sphaerothecum destruens, a generalist fungal-like fish pathogen with bi-modal transmission (direct and environmental) was used to characterise the biological drivers responsible for disease emergence in temperate fish communities. (bournemouth.ac.uk)
  • A range of biotic factors relating to both the pathogen and the surrounding host communities were used in a novel susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model to test how these factors affected disease epidemiology. (bournemouth.ac.uk)
  • These outputs reinforced the importance of rapid detection and eradication of non-native species, in particular when such species are identified as healthy reservoirs of a generalist pathogen. (bournemouth.ac.uk)
  • These bugs convey the disease-causing pathogen from one host to another. (diseasedaily.org)
  • A reservoir, also called a nidus , represents a host that has co-evolved with a pathogen. (diseasedaily.org)
  • When a reservoir species comes in contact with another animal or human, there is a risk of "spillover," or the infection of another species with the pathogen. (diseasedaily.org)
  • A human acting as a reservoir of a pathogen may or may not be capable of transmitting the pathogen, depending on the stage of infection and the pathogen. (quizover.com)
  • In infectious disease ecology and epidemiology, a natural reservoir, also known as a disease reservoir or a reservoir of infection, is the population of organisms or the specific environment in which an infectious pathogen naturally lives and reproduces, or upon which the pathogen primarily depends for its survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • A reservoir is usually a living host of a certain species, such as an animal or a plant, inside of which a pathogen survives, often (though not always) without causing disease for the reservoir itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reservoir is any population of organisms (or any environment) which harbors the pathogen and transmits it to the target population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Significantly, species considered reservoirs for a given pathogen may not experience symptoms of disease when infected by the pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a 2002 conceptual exploration published in the CDC's Emerging Infectious Diseases, the natural reservoir of a given pathogen is defined as "one or more epidemiologically connected populations or environments in which the pathogen can be permanently maintained and from which infection is transmitted to the defined target population. (wikipedia.org)
  • By these definitions, a reservoir is a host that does not experience the symptoms of disease when infected by the pathogen, whereas non-reservoirs show symptoms of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • the relationship between pathogen and reservoir is more or less commensal, whereas in susceptible hosts that do suffer disease caused by the pathogen, the pathogen is considered parasitic. (wikipedia.org)
  • What further defines a reservoir for a specific pathogen is where it can be maintained and from where it can be transmitted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, we define a reservoir as one or more epidemiologically connected populations or environments in which the pathogen can be permanently maintained and from which infection is transmitted to the defined target population. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Bats as reservoir hosts of human bacterial pathogen, Bartonella mayotimonensis. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Here, I formulate a mathematical model of cholera epidemiology that incorporates an environmental reservoir of V. cholerae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The consequences of reservoir host eradication on disease epidemiology in animal communities. (bournemouth.ac.uk)
  • Molecular data provided new insights into the epidemiology of the disease on this tropical island. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Live leptospiral organisms were used for the MAT following standard procedure.8 To link the epidemiology of animal leptospirosis to the human disease we used nine strains Fostamatinib disodium that were locally isolated from infected patients from Mayotte Fostamatinib disodium between 2007 and 20103 4 (Table 1). (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • We invite authors to submit original research and review articles that focus on or illuminate aspects of the epidemiology, clinical, diagnostics, therapeutics and prevention of Viral Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Latently infected cells form a 'reservoir' of cells that are constantly being activated to produce HIV, which then goes on to establish latent infections in other cells. (aidsmap.com)
  • The 'HIV reservoir' is a group of cells that are infected with HIV but have not produced new HIV (latent stage of infection) for many months or years. (aidsmap.com)
  • Latent HIV reservoirs are established during the earliest stage of HIV infection. (aidsmap.com)
  • Although antiretroviral therapy can reduce the level of HIV in the blood to an undetectable level, latent reservoirs of HIV continue to survive (a phenomenon called residual inflammation). (aidsmap.com)
  • The HDAC inhibitor romidepsin was able to awaken latent HIV in resting T-cells, causing it to start producing new virus, but this was not associated with a decrease in the size of the viral reservoir on T-cells, researchers reported on Tuesday at the 20th International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2014) in Melbourne. (aidsmap.com)
  • Developing a high-throughput method for measuring the size of the latent reservoir will therefore require us to identify a specific molecule (or biomarker) that distinguishes the cells in the reservoir from other infected cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • Identifying a biomarker for the latent reservoir of HIV could be used to guide future clinical trials. (elifesciences.org)
  • A ) Much of the HIV DNA harboured by infected cells is defective and cannot replicate itself, but there is a "latent reservoir" of intact HIV DNA that can support replication. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, it is difficult to measure the size of the latent reservoir because only a fraction of the cells in the reservoir can be readily induced to produce HIV in tissue cultures. (elifesciences.org)
  • Now, in eLife , John Frater at the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford and co-workers in the SPARTAC collaboration report an important advance in the search for a biomarker for the latent reservoir. (elifesciences.org)
  • This limitation is due to latent sequestered virus found in cellular and tissue reservoirs. (nih.gov)
  • HIV can remain hidden in these reservoirs, in latent form, for several decades, eluding the immune system's response and antiviral treatments, without any viral protein being expressed. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The general strategy seeks to deplete the HIV reservoir by prodding the virus out of its latent state so that an enhanced immune system or administered therapies can target and eliminate HIV-infected cells. (nih.gov)
  • Once the latent HIV begins to replicate after the "kick" stage, components of the immune system or therapeutic agents kill the HIV-infected cells to ensure a complete eradication of the latent HIV reservoir. (nih.gov)
  • Bats and other species that chronically harbor viruses, such as rats or mice, are known as disease reservoirs. (wired.com)
  • bats are also reservoirs for infectious disease. (diseasedaily.org)
  • Bats are widely recognized as reservoirs for emerging infectious diseases. (diseasedaily.org)
  • Southeast Asian and Australian fruit bats of the genus Pteropus are the natural reservoirs for the paramyxoviruses that cause Hendra and Nipah viral infections. (diseasedaily.org)
  • Viruses of the taxon Ebolavirus, which causes Ebola virus disease, are thought to have a natural reservoir in bats or other animals exposed to the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reservoirs may comprise one or more different species, may be the same or a different species as the target, and, in the broadest sense, may include vector species, which are otherwise distinct from natural reservoirs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural reservoirs can be divided into three main types: human, animal (non-human), and environmental. (wikipedia.org)
  • An understanding of these reservoirs for HIV-1 in the setting of virally suppressive HAART will be critical for the development of new approaches to induce HIV-1 remissions and for the exploration of the possibility of viral eradication in the future. (oup.com)
  • ii) the impact of reservoir host eradication and its timing and (iii) the density of potential hosts in surrounding communities and their connectedness. (bournemouth.ac.uk)
  • Subsequent eradication of the introduced host, irrespective of its timing (after one, two or three years), had limited impact on the long-term disease dynamics among local fish communities. (bournemouth.ac.uk)
  • The hypothesis is that eradication is possible only if very potent antiretroviral drugs are delivered in conjunction with an immunomodulatory agent that simultaneously attack the viral reservoirs. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Other research presented at the meeting suggests that too little is known about either the size or the cell types that constitute the HIV reservoir to be confident that early assessments will be a reliable guide to the potential for viral eradication. (aidsmap.com)
  • This reservoir of a few million cells in the body is considered as the major obstacle towards HIV eradication in treated patients. (blogspot.com)
  • For 10 years now, the "International Workshop on HIV Persistence, Reservoirs and Eradication Strategies" has attracted scientists from all around the world to work on these issues. (blogspot.com)
  • Encouragingly, theoretical models suggest that such weakly transmissible vaccines consistently outperform individual-based vaccination, increasing the potential for disease eradication 11 . (nature.com)
  • Although disease dynamics were initially driven by environmental transmission in these communities, once sufficient numbers of native hosts were infected, the disease dynamics were driven by intra-species transmission. (bournemouth.ac.uk)
  • However, if B. burgdorferi could be eliminated from its reservoir hosts or from the ticks that feed on them, the enzootic cycle would be broken, and the incidence of Lyme disease would decrease. (nih.gov)
  • Fifty seven of the 70 animal diseases considered to be of greatest international importance infect multiple hosts (2). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Although many emerging diseases of human, domestic animal, and wildlife populations are assumed to be maintained in reservoir hosts (4), these reservoirs are rarely identified. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The rapid decline in range and relative abundance of some wild North American bumble bee species, combined with the commercialization of bumble bee colonies as agricultural pollinators, and recent evidence that bumble bees can be infected by honey bee viruses, suggest the possibility that invasive and emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) may play a substantial current and future role in the decline of wild bumble bee populations. (springer.com)
  • We used this tool to identify host relationships of Triatoma species implicated in transmission of Chagas disease. (ku.edu)
  • In the United States, three Borrelia species from this complex have been isolated and characterized, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, " B. bissettii ," and " B. andersonii ," yet only one, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, is the etiologic agent of Lyme disease (LD) ( 30 , 32 , 72 ). (asm.org)
  • In a controlled laboratory study, we tested whether two species, the American robin ( Turdus migratorius (L.)) and the gray catbird ( Dumetella carolinensis (L.)), can become infected with and then transmit A. phagocytophilum to feeding ticks, and whether exposed birds develop disease. (edu.au)
  • The variation of the composition in species of host communities can modify the risk of disease transmission. (nih.gov)
  • White-footed mice, the major reservoir species for this spirochete in nature developed a systemic OspA-specific IgG response as a result of ingestion of the bait formulation. (nih.gov)
  • This species can transmit diseases such as chikungunya, dengue, and Zika. (nih.gov)
  • Malaria is an acute or subacute infectious disease caused by one of four protozoan species of the genus Plasmodium: P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale , or P. malariae , mainly transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. (europa.eu)
  • Many infectious agents, especially those that cause emerging diseases, infect more than one host species. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Zoonoses are defined by the World Health Organization as diseases and infections which are transmitted between vertebrate animals and man. (vin.com)
  • If you live with chronic nasal infections, then a 'hidden reservoir of bacteria' may be to blame. (siliconrepublic.com)
  • Medics have found a "hidden reservoir of bacteria" in the nose that can prevent antibiotics being effective in the treatment of chronic sinus infections. (siliconrepublic.com)
  • Very early antiretroviral treatment may limit the size of the HIV reservoir in adults and children, according to studies presented on 4 March at the 20th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in Atlanta. (aidsmap.com)
  • This review summarizes the potential risks posed by wild boars as sources of livestock (especially domestic swine) infections and as reservoirs for zoonoses. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Water recreation and disease : plausibility of associated infections: acute effects, sequelae and mortality / K. Pond. (who.int)
  • The objective is to explore the role of the aquatic reservoir on the persistence of endemic cholera as well as to define minimum conditions for the development of epidemic and endemic cholera. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While such an approach is currently not feasible for all HIV-infected individuals due to limited throughput and cost, in-depth study of a subset of subjects might provide new insights into reservoir dynamics as well as the effect of the host on reservoir persistence. (nature.com)
  • Over the past few years major advances have been made in understanding the nature and persistence mechanisms of these HIV reservoirs. (blogspot.com)
  • The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID) invite research grant applications to address the problem of HIV-1 persistence focused solely on the central nervous system (CNS) of HIV-infected persons treated with Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART). (nih.gov)
  • Resting memory CD4+ T cells appear to constitute the major reservoir of viral persistence. (nih.gov)
  • This discovery will make it possible to isolate and analyze reservoir cells which, by silently hosting the virus, are responsible for its persistence even among patients receiving antiviral treatment, whose viral load is undetectable. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Commentary: Thoughtful insight on the infectious disease scene. (diseasedaily.org)
  • Series: In depth looks at infectious disease topics. (diseasedaily.org)
  • Research & Policy: Intelligible summaries of current infectious disease research and health policies. (diseasedaily.org)
  • Outbreak: Daily coverage on breaking infectious disease news from all over the world. (diseasedaily.org)
  • Rabies is the most lethal human infectious disease known, with a fatality rate of nearly 100 percent. (diseasedaily.org)
  • is the bacterial agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, an emerging infectious disease. (edu.au)
  • Co-Diagnostics to showcase rapid coronavirus response at infectious disease. (proactiveinvestors.com)
  • In recent years, several emerging infectious disease threats to human and animal health have been managed through large-scale measures directed at suspected reservoirs of infection. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • These free-living swine populations pose not only ecological concerns but infectious disease concerns as well. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The occurrence of successive cholera outbreaks throughout Africa and Latin America during the 90's raised the concern that cholera had established itself in these regions as an endemic disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The disease was first identified in 1976 in two simultaneous outbreaks: one in Nzara (a town in South Sudan ) and the other in Yambuku ( Democratic Republic of the Congo ), a village near the Ebola River from which the disease takes its name. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is how zoonotic disease outbreaks can begin. (diseasedaily.org)
  • The chosen approach is recognized as data intensive, requiring numbers for Salmonella occurrence in food-producing animals, reported human cases, information on possibility of infection abroad (from here on referred to as "travel information"), human cases originating from outbreaks with and without a confirmed source and amounts of the meat or eggs of each animal reservoir originating from each country and available for consumption in each country. (dtu.dk)
  • The world has experienced over the last decades a significant increase in the number of emerging and re-emerging outbreaks and epidemics associated to viral diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • He explained: "Better understanding of intracellular bacteria and how they get there, which this study looked at, is essential in the quest for the development of novel treatments that can target this hidden bacterial reservoir. (siliconrepublic.com)
  • This partly explains why pertussis is a poorly controlled bacterial vaccine-preventable disease. (health.gov.au)
  • Two nurses standing near Mayinga N'Seka , a nurse with Ebola virus disease in the 1976 outbreak in Zaire . (wikipedia.org)
  • Rare Disease to Inform Ebola Susceptibility? (the-scientist.com)
  • Parents of children with the fatal genetic disease Niemann-Pick Type C are taking an active role in research to understand how mutations associated with the disease may protect against Ebola. (the-scientist.com)
  • for example, the reservoirs that harbor emerging viruses such as Ebola and Marburg remain unknown. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Incomplete understanding of reservoirs has hampered control of many diseases in Africa, such as Ebola virus infection, Buruli ulcer, and rabies (9-13). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This approach may help in identifying Chagas disease risk areas, planning vector-control strategies, and exploring parasite-reservoir associations for other emerging diseases. (ku.edu)
  • We studied the seroprevalence of antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi in the human population along with domiciliary infestation by triatomine bugs in an area endemic for Chagas disease in the Chaco Province of Argentina. (ajtmh.org)
  • This heterogeneity emphasizes the importance of in-depth studies of restricted areas to provide additional information for a better understanding of the present status of Chagas disease in Argentina. (ajtmh.org)
  • Seroprevalencia de la enfermedad de Chagas en 17 parajes del "monte impenetrable" de la provincia del Chaco. (ajtmh.org)
  • Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of Chagas disease affecting approximately 20 million people in Central and South America (Moncayo 1997). (scielo.br)
  • however, in central Brazil and Chile, the digestive form of Chagas disease predominates, whereas it is practically non-existent in Venezuela and Central America (Luquetti et al. (scielo.br)
  • Pets as Reservoirs for Zoonotic Disease--What Should We Advise Our Clients? (vin.com)
  • These findings suggest that the aquatic environment may be a reservoir of toxigenic V. cholerae in endemic regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • What is the role of the aquatic reservoir in promoting epidemic and endemic cholera? (biomedcentral.com)
  • This raises concern regarding the potential of this host as an endemic reservoir for zoonotic diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, as may be seen from Map 1 (page 16), the disease remains highly endemic in most countries between latitude 30\'a1N and the Tropic of Capricorn in the south with northerly extensions consisting of Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and China. (ciesin.org)
  • For these reasons, in endemic and non-endemic regions is important to keep in mind and to know about the clinical and epidemiological aspects, as well diagnostic and therapeutic implications of these viral diseases in different contexts, even more in the context of globalization and migration, that now concern not only from middle-east to Europe, but also in Latin America from Venezuela to other countries in the region. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There is a need for intensive surveillance to avoid possible outbreak of food- borne diseases resulting from consumption of contaminated vended foods. (scirp.org)
  • In the north central and northeastern United States, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease (LD), is maintained in an enzootic cycle between the vector, Ixodes scapularis , and the primary reservoir host, Peromyscus leucopus . (asm.org)
  • B. burgdorferi sensu stricto circulates in an enzootic cycle between the primary vertebrate reservoir, the white-footed mouse ( Peromyscus leucopus ), and the black-legged tick ( Ixodes scapularis ) ( 34 , 35 ). (asm.org)
  • Emerging Infectious Diseases 8:662-667. (ku.edu)
  • State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • Saving Lives, Protecting People Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (cdc.gov)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (cdc.gov)
  • A high prevalence of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi in ixodid ticks is correlated with a high incidence of Lyme disease. (nih.gov)
  • Infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) initiates a slowly progressive degenerative disease of the immune system termed the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (springer.com)
  • The primary immunologic defect in AIDS is an inexorable depletion of CD4 + T cells, a depletion invariably associated with opportunistic infection, degenerative neurologic disease, a variety of neoplastic changes, and ultimately death ( Lifson et al. (springer.com)
  • Johnston, E and Tsao, JI and Munoz, JD and Owen, J, Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in American robins and gray catbirds: an assessment of reservoir competence and disease in captive wildlife, Journal of Medical Entomology, 50, (1) Article 10.1603/ME12141. (edu.au)
  • Part of problem is there is such a reservoir of people out there carrying the infection and not knowing it," says Workowski, frustration evident in her voice. (webmd.com)
  • People with significant cardiac disease or hepatitis B or C co-infection were excluded. (aidsmap.com)
  • The advent of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) more than 15 years ago has dramatically changed the outcome of HIV infection from a deadly to a chronic disease. (blogspot.com)
  • In principle, zoonotic diseases can be controlled by isolating or destroying the pathogen's reservoirs of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • People who have not had measles disease or who have not been vaccinated are at risk of infection. (canada.ca)
  • Identifying reservoirs of infection: a conceptual and practical challenge. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Existence of a reservoir is confirmed when infection within the target population cannot be sustained after all transmission between target and nontarget populations has been eliminated. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • When disease can be controlled solely by interventions within target populations, little knowledge of potentially complex reservoir infection dynamics is necessary for effective control. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • For Mycobacterium bovis in the United Kingdom, a complex reservoir system seems most likely, and identification of the most important source of infection for cattle remains highly controversial (8). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • These surface bacteria are merely the tip of the iceberg and are simply replenished through a hidden reservoir of bacteria lurking beneath. (siliconrepublic.com)
  • We need to start shifting our attention from surface to internal bacteria in order to improve treatment outcomes for patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, as many patients require multiple lifetime operations because medical treatment alone often fails to control the disease. (siliconrepublic.com)
  • Lyme borreliosis is a multi-host vector-borne disease caused by bacteria belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. (nih.gov)
  • The nasty bacteria that proliferate in this environment can spread to vital organs and can cause dental related diseases to develop. (reservoirvet.com.au)
  • Bacteria that may provide ticks with essential nutrients they can't get from their meals of blood could be a key to controlling ticks and the diseases they carry, a new study published in the PLoS ONE shows. (news-medical.net)
  • It also indicated that vended foods are potential reservoir for the spread of emerging multiple drug resistant bacteria strains that pose threat to public health. (scirp.org)
  • Consequently, additional sampling throughout its distributional range and research addressing the role of M. namaquensis as a reservoir for zoonotic diseases in southern Africa is urgently needed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Africa, a reservoir of new virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus? (cirad.fr)
  • The main vector of A. phagocytophilum in the United States is the blacklegged tick ( Ixodes scapularis (Say)) and various small and medium-sized mammals are reservoirs. (edu.au)
  • These studies in toto suggest that a role for Langerhans cells as a principal viral reservoir or vector of transmission is highly unlikely. (elsevier.com)
  • Wild apes are considered to be the most serious reservoir and source of zoonoses. (nih.gov)
  • This study suggests that the disease is regularly introduced to jackals by rabid dogs from populations associated with human settlements. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • These results also show that mice are important for maintaining Borrelia variants, even rare variants, and that reservoir populations should therefore be considered when assessing the diversity of B. burgdorferi . (asm.org)
  • We propose that reservoirs can only be understood with reference to defined target populations. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Vaccines that autonomously transfer among individuals have been proposed as a strategy to control infectious diseases within inaccessible wildlife populations. (nature.com)
  • however, because no studies have directly investigated avian susceptibility, reservoir competence, and morbidity for A. phagocytophilum , uncertainty remains as to what role birds could play in its transmission ecology. (edu.au)
  • Avian influenza (bird flu) is an infectious respiratory disease caused by a virus. (missouri.edu)
  • Diseases caused by aphid-transmitted viruses such as Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) have increased in snap bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) in the Midwestern United States. (scoop.it)
  • Lyme disease is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. (nih.gov)
  • Is the domestic dog ( Canis familiaris ) a reservoir host of American cutaneous leishmaniasis? (cdc.gov)
  • The host reservoir for this virus throughout Eastern Europe is wild pigs, and Canada has a very significant wild pig population. (producer.com)
  • A common criterion in other definitions distinguishes reservoirs from non-reservoirs by the degree to which the infected host shows symptoms of disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • A "multi-host" organism is capable of having more than one natural reservoir. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tubifex worms that are not resistant to the disease release triactinomyxons, an intermediate host of the parasite, into the water. (utahfishinginfo.com)
  • It also offers the chance to see how the disease progresses in a susceptible host. (news-medical.net)
  • Since 1996, there has been consensus among the scientific community that a cure for HIV will involve targeting "reservoir cells" that host the virus in the organisms of patients undergoing triple therapy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The latter has important implications for what it means to have the disease. (annals.org)
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emerging viral pandemic disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • wildlife reservoir. (nih.gov)
  • acquire B. burgdorferi from infected wildlife reservoirs and transmit it to other uninfected wildlife. (nih.gov)
  • As part of testing they do every year, fish pathologists with the Division of Wildlife Resources tested 60 kokanee salmon collected by biologists at the reservoir this fall. (utahfishinginfo.com)
  • Conversely, recent studies have indicated that rodents and other small mammals are the primary reservoirs for L. ( V. ) braziliensis ( 2 ) and that, so far, no strong evidence indicates that dogs could act as reservoirs for this parasite ( 3 , 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Introduced Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus barberi) contribute more to lyme borreliosis risk than native reservoir rodents. (nih.gov)
  • Based on these findings, we suggest that a stable resident population of the reservoir is critical to the maintenance of hantaviruses at a given site, and we hypothesize that long-lived, persistently infected rodents are the principal transseasonal reservoir of hantaviruses. (bioone.org)
  • Various strains of the virus have been reported and are categorized according to their pathogenicity, or ability to produce disease. (missouri.edu)
  • Our objective was to identify local animal reservoirs of leptospirosis to explain the unusual features of strains recently described among patients around the island of Mayotte. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • and rodent reservoir ( Peromyscus peromyscus ) (RyC-R). The three strains were characterized by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, random amplified polymorphic DNA, and by pathological profiles in experimental animals (biodemes). (scielo.br)
  • In a new video, NIH scientists provide an overview of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), describe its symptoms and prevalence, and discuss how treatments for the condition have advanced. (nih.gov)
  • A team of scientists at Washington University in St. Louis has been keeping a wary eye on emerging tick-borne diseases in Missouri for the past dozen years, and they have just nailed down another part of the story. (news-medical.net)
  • Sousa and Pearson stated that "no animal reservoir other than dogs has been identified in Ceará" and that "a sylvatic reservoir has not been identified for L. ( V. ) braziliensis in Ceará and other areas," concluding that "dogs appear to be the most important reservoir in domestic and peridomestic transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • For these reasons, dogs cannot be incriminated as the most important reservoirs in the domestic and peridomestic transmission cycles of L. ( V. ) braziliensis . (cdc.gov)
  • To help prevent the spread of disease among school children, the CDC has developed guidelines based on the risk of transmission during the course of the disease. (quizover.com)
  • Researchers investigate the puzzling phenomenon of why mosquitoes prefer to bite some people over others in an effort to find new ways to prevent mosquitoes from finding and biting people, and, ultimately, reduce the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. (nih.gov)
  • The clinical presentation of malaria depends very much on the pattern and intensity of malaria transmission in the area of residence, which determines the degree of protective immunity acquired and, in turn, the clinical disease profile. (europa.eu)
  • A district-wide prevalence study assessing etiologies of fever in 659 patients recruited in rural and semi-urban areas of Bandarban district in southeastern Bangladesh revealed high proportions of seropositivity for selected infectious diseases (leptospirosis, typhoid fever) potentially being misdiagnosed as malaria because of similarities in the clinical presentation. (ajtmh.org)
  • Brain imaging studies have revealed that the prevalence of asymptomatic brain vascular lesions is substantially higher than clinically overt disease. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Describe a study of newly arrested youths where researchers found correlations between the youths' prevalence of these sexually transmitted diseases and their cocaine and marijuana use. (drugabuse.gov)
  • Measles is one of the most highly communicable infectious diseases with greater than 90% secondary attack rates among susceptible persons. (canada.ca)
  • Kokanee salmon, which are very susceptible to whirling disease, are the fish biologists are concerned about the most. (utahfishinginfo.com)
  • Reservoir targeted vaccine for lyme borreliosis induces a yearlong, neutralizing antibody response to OspA in white-footed mice. (nih.gov)
  • The objective of biosecurity practices is to prevent anything that can carry a disease-causing organism from coming in contact with the birds. (missouri.edu)
  • By some definitions a reservoir may also be an environment external to an organism, such as a volume of contaminated air or water. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also transmit such diseases as the tomato spotted wilt virus, causing millions of dollars in damage to U.S. agricultural crops each year. (scoop.it)
  • The problems involved in the continuous flow of parasites from the wild animals to domesticated animals are, however, only a small fraction of the multitude of other unsolved questions which are met by the student of the animal Kingdom as a reservoir of parasites. (molministry.com)
  • The above title was used b Karl F. Meyer, M.D., Director of the Medical Center, The George Williams Hooper Foundation, University of California San Francisco, as the title of a treatise on animal diseases published in the "Proceedings of the Institute of Medicine of Chicago," May-June 1931, pp. 234-261. (molministry.com)
  • Dr. Meyer did not write his treatise in the interest of vegetarianism, but the facts he records concerning the diseases prevalent in the animal kingdom are of intense interest to vegetarians. (molministry.com)
  • This chapter will consist almost exclusively of quotations from and citations to the writings of workers who are specializing in the field of animal diseases of whom there are no better authorities in the United States. (molministry.com)
  • A very serious objection to the practice of meat eating is found in the fact that disease is becoming more and more widespread among the animal creation. (molministry.com)
  • We developed OspA-RTV, a reservoir targeted bait vaccine (RTV) based on the immunogenic outer surface protein A (OspA) of B. burgdorferi aimed at breaking the natural cycle of this spirochete. (nih.gov)
  • [1] Other diseases such as malaria , cholera , typhoid fever , meningitis and other viral hemorrhagic fevers may resemble EVD. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Series of National Guidelines have been developed in consultation with the Communicable Diseases Network Australia and endorsed by the Australian Health Protection Principal Committee (AHPPC). (health.gov.au)
  • The membership of the Communicable Diseases Network Australia ('CDNA') and the Commonwealth of Australia ('the Commonwealth'), as represented by the Department of Health (Health), does not warrant or assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, or process disclosed at the time of viewing by interested parties. (health.gov.au)
  • Details of these recommendations are featured in Canada Communicable Disease Report Volume 44, Issue 9 . (canada.ca)
  • Measles occurs worldwide and is one of the most highly communicable diseases. (canada.ca)
  • In fact, this aspect of communicable diseases is stressed. (molministry.com)
  • If plasma viremia can remain undetectable in the majority of patients taking everyday cART, HIV remains in hidden reservoirs allowing viremia to rekindle within a few weeks each time therapy is stopped. (blogspot.com)