Animal Use Alternatives: Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Mice, Inbred C57BLHuntington Disease: A familial disorder inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by the onset of progressive CHOREA and DEMENTIA in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Common initial manifestations include paranoia; poor impulse control; DEPRESSION; HALLUCINATIONS; and DELUSIONS. Eventually intellectual impairment; loss of fine motor control; ATHETOSIS; and diffuse chorea involving axial and limb musculature develops, leading to a vegetative state within 10-15 years of disease onset. The juvenile variant has a more fulminant course including SEIZURES; ATAXIA; dementia; and chorea. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1060-4)Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Viola: A plant genus of the family VIOLACEAE. Some species in this genus are called bouncing bet which is a common name more often used with SAPONARIA OFFICINALIS. Members contain macrocyclic peptides.Bombyx: A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Mallory-Weiss Syndrome: A condition characterized by mucosal tears at the ESOPHAGOGASTRIC JUNCTION, sometimes with HEMATEMESIS. Typically it is caused by forceful bouts of retching or VOMITING.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Nobel PrizeKuwaitAnimal DiseasesInternet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Biological Ontologies: Structured vocabularies describing concepts from the fields of biology and relationships between concepts.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Infectious Disease Medicine: A branch of internal medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of INFECTIOUS DISEASES.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Neurofibrillary Tangles: Abnormal structures located in various parts of the brain and composed of dense arrays of paired helical filaments (neurofilaments and microtubules). These double helical stacks of transverse subunits are twisted into left-handed ribbon-like filaments that likely incorporate the following proteins: (1) the intermediate filaments: medium- and high-molecular-weight neurofilaments; (2) the microtubule-associated proteins map-2 and tau; (3) actin; and (4) UBIQUITINS. As one of the hallmarks of ALZHEIMER DISEASE, the neurofibrillary tangles eventually occupy the whole of the cytoplasm in certain classes of cell in the neocortex, hippocampus, brain stem, and diencephalon. The number of these tangles, as seen in post mortem histology, correlates with the degree of dementia during life. Some studies suggest that tangle antigens leak into the systemic circulation both in the course of normal aging and in cases of Alzheimer disease.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Plaque, Amyloid: Accumulations of extracellularly deposited AMYLOID FIBRILS within tissues.tau Proteins: Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Epithelial Sodium Channels: Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports research program related to diseases of the heart, blood vessels, lung, and blood; blood resources; and SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS. From 1948 until October 10, 1969, it was known as the National Heart Institute. From June 25, 1976, it was the National Heart and Lung Institute. Since October 1997, the NHLBI has also had administrative responsibility for the NIH Woman's Health Initiative.MarylandLung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.MassachusettsHospitals, General: Large hospitals with a resident medical staff which provides continuous care to maternity, surgical and medical patients.BostonLupus Vasculitis, Central Nervous System: Central nervous system vasculitis that is associated with SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Clinical manifestations may include DEMENTIA; SEIZURES; CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; HEMIPARESIS; BLINDNESS; DYSPHASIA; and other neurological disorders.Nerve Tissue Proteins

New perspectives on biliary atresia. (1/64177)

An investigation into the aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of biliary atresia was carried out because the prognosis remains so poor.In an electron microscopical study no viral particles or viral inclusion bodies were seen, nor were any specific ultrastructural features observed. An animal experiment suggested that obstruction within the biliary tract of newborn rabbits could be produced by maternal intravenous injection of the bile acid lithocholic acid.A simple and atraumatic method of diagnosis was developed using(99) (m)Tc-labelled compounds which are excreted into bile. Two compounds, (99m)Tc-pyridoxylidene glutamate ((99m)Tc-PG) and (99m)Tc-dihydrothioctic acid ((99m)Tc-DHT) were first assessed in normal piglets and piglets with complete biliary obstruction. Intestinal imaging correlated with biliary tract patency, and the same correlation was found in jaundiced human adults, in whom the (99m)Tc-PG scan correctly determined biliary patency in 21 out of 24 cases. The (99m)Tc-PG scan compared well with liver biopsy and (131)I-Rose Bengal in the diagnosis of 11 infants with prolonged jaundice.A model of extrahepatic biliary atresia was developed in the newborn piglet so that different methods of bile drainage could be assessed. Priorities in biliary atresia lie in a better understanding of the aetiology and early diagnosis rather than in devising new bile drainage procedures.  (+info)

The evolution of early fibromuscular lesions hemodynamically induced in the dog renal artery. I. Light and transmission electron microscopy. (2/64177)

In view of the important roles of arterial intimal fibromuscular lesions as precursors of atherosclerotic plaque and occlusive lesions in arterial reconstructions, a model has been developed for the rapid hemodynamic induction of these lesions by anastomosis of the dog right renal artery to the inferior vena cava. Light and transmission electron microscopic observations were made on the arterial shunt after periods of rapid flow ranging form 10 minutes to 2 hours to identify initial factor(s) and evolutionary mechanisms in the etiology of the lesions. The sequence of events included aberrations in ruthenium red staining of the endothelial luminal membrane at 10 minutes, multilayered thickening of the subendothelial basement membrane (BM) at 15 minutes, and initial reorientation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMC) into the intima along with the appearance of areas of degeneration of the internal elastic lamina (IEL) at 30 minutes. The endothelial cells were still intact in some areas overlying the SMC migration and IEL degeneration, but they were separating from the surface in other such areas. As subendothelium became exposed, some platelet adherence was noted. By 2 hours, the entire wall reaction was fully developed. Initial observations indicate that in the evolution of this hemodynamically induced lesion visible alteration in the endothelial cells is not prerequisite to degeneration of the underlying IEL and reorientation and migration of medial SMC.  (+info)

Site of myocardial infarction. A determinant of the cardiovascular changes induced in the cat by coronary occlusion. (3/64177)

The influence of site of acute myocardial infarction on heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance (TPR), cardiac rhythm, and mortality was determined in 58 anesthetized cats by occlusion of either the left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex or right coronary artery. LAD occlusion resulted in immediate decrease in cardiac output, heart rate, and blood pressure, an increase in TPR, and cardiac rhythm changes including premature ventricular beats, ventricular tachycardia, and occasionally ventricular fibrillation. The decrease in cardiac output and increase in TPR persisted in the cats surviving a ventricular arrhythmia. In contrast, right coronary occlusion resulted in a considerably smaller decrease in cardiac output. TPR did not increase, atrioventricular condition disturbances were common, and sinus bradycardia and hypotension persisted in the cats recovering from an arrhythmia. Left circumflex ligation resulted in cardiovascular changes intermediate between those produced by occlusion of the LAD or the right coronary artery. Mortality was similar in each of the three groups. We studied the coronary artery anatomy in 12 cats. In 10, the blood supply to the sinus node was from the right coronary artery and in 2, from the left circumflex coronary artery. The atrioventricular node artery arose from the right in 9 cats, and from the left circumflex in 3. The right coronary artery was dominant in 9 cats and the left in 3. In conclusion, the site of experimental coronary occlusion in cats is a major determinant of the hemodynamic and cardiac rhythm changes occurring after acute myocardial infarction. The cardiovascular responses evoked by ligation are related in part to the anatomical distribution of the occluded artery.  (+info)

Hierarchy of ventricular pacemakers. (4/64177)

To characterize the pattern of pacemaker dominance in the ventricular specialized conduction system (VSCS), escape ventricular pacemakers were localized and quantified in vivo and in virto, in normal hearts and in hearts 24 hours after myocardial infarction. Excape pacemaker foci were localized in vivo during vagally induced atrial arrest by means of electrograms recorded from the His bundle and proximal bundle branches and standard electrocardiographic limb leads. The VSCS was isolated using a modified Elizari preparation or preparations of each bundle branch. Peacemakers were located by extra- and intracellular recordings. Escape pacemaker foci in vivo were always in the proximal conduction system, usually the left bundle branch. The rate was 43+/-11 (mean+/-SD) beats/min. After beta-adrenergic blockade, the mean rate fell to 31+/-10 beats/min, but there were no shifts in pacemaker location. In the infarcted hearts, pacemakers were located in the peripheral left bundle branch. The mean rate was 146+/-20 beats/min. In isolated normal preparations, the dominant pacemakers usually were in the His bundle, firing at a mean rate of 43+/-10 beats/min. The rates of pacemakers diminished with distal progression. In infarcted hearts, the pacemakers invariably were in the infarct zone. The mean firing rates were not influenced by beta-adrenergic blockade. The results indicate that the dominant pacemakers are normally in the very proximal VSCS, but after myocardial infarction pacemaker dominance is shifted into the infarct. Distribution of pacemaker dominance is independent of sympathetic influence.  (+info)

A genetic model of substrate deprivation therapy for a glycosphingolipid storage disorder. (5/64177)

Inherited defects in the degradation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) cause a group of severe diseases known as GSL storage disorders. There are currently no effective treatments for the majority of these disorders. We have explored a new treatment paradigm, substrate deprivation therapy, by constructing a genetic model in mice. Sandhoff's disease mice, which abnormally accumulate GSLs, were bred with mice that were blocked in their synthesis of GSLs. The mice with simultaneous defects in GSL synthesis and degradation no longer accumulated GSLs, had improved neurologic function, and had a much longer life span. However, these mice eventually developed a late-onset neurologic disease because of accumulation of another class of substrate, oligosaccharides. The results support the validity of the substrate deprivation therapy and also highlight some limitations.  (+info)

DMPK dosage alterations result in atrioventricular conduction abnormalities in a mouse myotonic dystrophy model. (6/64177)

Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy and is caused by expansion of a CTG trinucleotide repeat on human chromosome 19. Patients with DM develop atrioventricular conduction disturbances, the principal cardiac manifestation of this disease. The etiology of the pathophysiological changes observed in DM has yet to be resolved. Haploinsufficiency of myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK), DM locus-associated homeodomain protein (DMAHP) and/or titration of RNA-binding proteins by expanded CUG sequences have been hypothesized to underlie the multi-system defects observed in DM. Using an in vivo murine electrophysiology study, we show that cardiac conduction is exquisitely sensitive to DMPK gene dosage. DMPK-/- mice develop cardiac conduction defects which include first-, second-, and third-degree atrioventricular (A-V) block. Our results demonstrate that the A-V node and the His-Purkinje regions of the conduction system are specifically compromised by DMPK loss. Importantly, DMPK+/- mice develop first-degree heart block, a conduction defect strikingly similar to that observed in DM patients. These results demonstrate that DMPK dosage is a critical element modulating cardiac conduction integrity and conclusively link haploinsufficiency of DMPK with cardiac disease in myotonic dystrophy.  (+info)

Alternative sulfonylurea receptor expression defines metabolic sensitivity of K-ATP channels in dopaminergic midbrain neurons. (7/64177)

ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channels couple the metabolic state to cellular excitability in various tissues. Several isoforms of the K-ATP channel subunits, the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) and inwardly rectifying K channel (Kir6.X), have been cloned, but the molecular composition and functional diversity of native neuronal K-ATP channels remain unresolved. We combined functional analysis of K-ATP channels with expression profiling of K-ATP subunits at the level of single substantia nigra (SN) neurons in mouse brain slices using an RT-multiplex PCR protocol. In contrast to GABAergic neurons, single dopaminergic SN neurons displayed alternative co-expression of either SUR1, SUR2B or both SUR isoforms with Kir6.2. Dopaminergic SN neurons expressed alternative K-ATP channel species distinguished by significant differences in sulfonylurea affinity and metabolic sensitivity. In single dopaminergic SN neurons, co-expression of SUR1 + Kir6.2, but not of SUR2B + Kir6.2, correlated with functional K-ATP channels highly sensitive to metabolic inhibition. In contrast to wild-type, surviving dopaminergic SN neurons of homozygous weaver mouse exclusively expressed SUR1 + Kir6.2 during the active period of dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Therefore, alternative expression of K-ATP channel subunits defines the differential response to metabolic stress and constitutes a novel candidate mechanism for the differential vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons in response to respiratory chain dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.  (+info)

DEF-1, a novel Src SH3 binding protein that promotes adipogenesis in fibroblastic cell lines. (8/64177)

The Src homology 3 (SH3) motif is found in numerous signal transduction proteins involved in cellular growth and differentiation. We have purified and cloned a novel protein, DEF-1 (differentiation-enhancing factor), from bovine brain by using a Src SH3 affinity column. Ectopic expression of DEF-1 in fibroblasts resulted in the differentiation of a significant fraction of the culture into adipocytes. This phenotype appears to be related to the induction of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), since DEF-1 NIH 3T3 cells demonstrated augmented levels of PPARgamma mRNA and, when treated with activating PPARgamma ligands, efficient induction of differentiation. Further evidence for a role for DEF-1 in adipogenesis was provided by heightened expression of DEF-1 mRNA in adipose tissue isolated from obese and diabetes mice compared to that in tissue isolated from wild-type mice. However, DEF-1 mRNA was detected in multiple tissues, suggesting that the signal transduction pathway(s) in which DEF-1 is involved is not limited to adipogenesis. These results suggest that DEF-1 is an important component of a signal transduction process that is involved in the differentiation of fibroblasts and possibly of other types of cells.  (+info)

The Animal Models module of SFARI Gene examines data from animal models used in laboratory research to elucidate the underlying causes of ASD.
World Health Organization. (‎1988)‎. ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME (‎AIDS)‎ : WHO meeting on animal models for HIV infection and AIDS = SYNDROME DIMMUNODÉFICIENCE ACQUISE (‎SIDA)‎ : Réunion de lOMS sur les modèles animaux pour linfection à VIH et le SIDA. Weekly Epidemiological Record = Relevé épidémiologique hebdomadaire, 63 (‎19)‎, 137 - 138. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/226713 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - On animal models for studying bone adaptation. AU - Turner, C. H.. AU - Forwood, M. R.. AU - Raab-Cullen, D. M.. AU - Akhter, Mohammed P.. AU - Kimmel, D. B.. AU - Recker, Robert R.. AU - Torrance, A. G.. AU - Lanyon, L. E.. PY - 1994/10. Y1 - 1994/10. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0028021440&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0028021440&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1007/BF00310412. DO - 10.1007/BF00310412. M3 - Letter. C2 - 7820784. AN - SCOPUS:0028021440. VL - 55. SP - 316. EP - 318. JO - Calcified Tissue International. JF - Calcified Tissue International. SN - 0171-967X. IS - 4. ER - ...
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Animal models are an important means of studying diseases as well as normal functions. The animal model must closely mimic the situation we wish to study in humans. Humans are used as subjects in about 30 percent of all biomedical research, but they are not the best research subject when certain problems are studied.. Animal models can be categorized as natural or induced. Natural models are those in which a condition occurs spontaneously, such as atherosclerosis in the squirrel monkey. Atherosclerosis is a prevalent human disease in which fatty deposits occur along the inner walls of the arteries. By studying the natural disease in these monkeys, it is possible to learn facts about the disease that are also true in humans. Other examples of natural animal models are epilepsy in Mongolian gerbils and diabetes in some strains of mice.. Induced animal models are those in which a disease or condition must be artificially produced. Tumor cells, for example, can be injected into animals as a means of ...
Animal models can be used to study the effects that a TBI, or a TBI like brain injury have on memory and cognition. In humans cognitive impairment, and memory deficit have been observed following a TBI. The duration of symptoms may last a few days, or be permanent depending on severity. Animal models have demonstrated the same effects. Using tests like the Morris Water Maze, spatial memory and learning can be tracked following TBI. Remarkably one of the effects that experimenters have seen with the administration of EPO to mice and rats following injury is a decrease in the cognitive impairment, and memory loss, when compared to control animals. It should be noted that different animal models may have used different protocols for inducing TBI. In addition there are differences in the type of EPO isoforms used, the dosing of EPO, as well as the timing of EPO administration. Due to space constraints these differences, and their impact, will not be mentioned in the animal model section, however ...
Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial highly-complex disease with numerous etiologies that work synergistically to promote lesion development. The ability to develop preventive and ameliorative treatments will depend on animal models that mimic the human subject metabolically and pathophysiologically and will develop lesions comparable to those in humans. The mouse is the most useful, economic, and valid model for studying atherosclerosis and exploring effective therapeutic approaches. Among the most widely used mouse models for atherosclerosis are apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE) and LDL receptor-deficient (LDLr) mice. An up-and-coming model is the ApoE*3Leiden (E3L) transgenic mouse. Here, we review studies that have explored how and to what extent these mice respond to compounds directed at treatment of the risk factors hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, and inflammation. An important outcome of this survey is that the different models used may differ markedly from one ...
Patient derived xenografts (PDX) are in vivo animal tumor models established directly from patient tumor samples without any in vitro manipulation. It has been shown that these tumor xenografts maintain essential histopathological features and genetic profiles of the original tumors, and thus are the most clinically relevant animal models for cancer drug discovery. Comparing to the traditional cell line derived xenograft (CDX) tumor models, however, one challenge encountered by the PDX in vivo studies is the lack of corresponding in vitro cell culture system for cost-effective and high throughput drug screening and model selection. Here we set out to establish such an in vitro platform, so-called PrimePanelTM, by deriving homogeneous primary cancer cell cultures from the PDX tumors in several major tumor types. These cells are early passage cultures (usually p,10), which maintain similar cellular characteristics as the corresponding tumor xenografts, including the genomic mutational status, ...
Acute brain lesions induce profound alterations of the peripheral immune response comprising the opposing phenomena of early immune activation and subsequent immunosuppression. The mechanisms underlying this brain-immune signaling are largely unknown. We used animal models for experimental brain ischemia as a paradigm of acute brain lesions and additionally investigated a large cohort of stroke patients. We analyzed release of HMGB1 isoforms by mass spectrometry and investigated its inflammatory potency and signaling pathways by immunological in vivo and in vitro techniques. Features of the complex behavioral sickness behavior syndrome were characterized by homecage behavior analysis. HMGB1 downstream signaling, particularly with RAGE, was studied in various transgenic animal models and by pharmacological blockade. Our results indicate that the cytokine-inducing, fully reduced isoform of HMGB1 was released from the ischemic brain in the hyperacute phase of stroke in mice and patients. Cytokines secreted
Kulkarni RN, Holzenberger M, Shih DQ, et al.: Beta-cellspecific deletion of the Igf1 receptor leads to hyperinsulinemia and glucose intolerance but does not alter beta-cell mass. Nat Genet 2002, 31:111-115. In these studies, mice with â-cell-specific disruption of the IGF-1 receptor develop a normal complement of â-cells, suggesting that the IGF-1 receptor is not crucial for the early growth of the â-cells. These KOs manifest defects in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion secondary to reduced expression of glucokinase and the glucose transporter glut2. These findings have implications for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Acute and chronic inflammatory diseases of the intestine impart a significant and negative impact on the health and well-being of human and non-human mammalian animals. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of inflammatory disease is mandatory to develop effective treatment and prevention strategies. As inflammatory disease etiologies are multifactorial, the use of appropriate animal models and associated metrics of disease are essential. In this regard, animal models used alone or in combination to study acute and chronic inflammatory disease of the mammalian intestine paired with commonly used inflammation-inducing agents are reviewed. This includes both chemical and biological incitants of inflammation, and both non-mammalian (i.e. nematodes, insects, and fish) and mammalian (i.e. rodents, rabbits, pigs, ruminants, dogs, and non-human primates) models of intestinal inflammation including germ-free, gnotobiotic, as well as surgical, and genetically modified animals. Importantly, chemical and ...
TRC210258, a novel TGR5 agonist, reduces glycemic and dyslipidemic cardiovascular risk in animal models of diabesity Shitalkumar Zambad, Davinder Tuli, Anoop Mathur, Sameer A Ghalsasi, Anita RÂ Chaudhary, Shailesh Deshpande, Ramesh C Gupta, Vijay Chauthaiwale, Chaitanya DuttTorrent Research Centre, Torrent Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Gujarat, IndiaBackground: Patients with diabesity have a significantly increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Therefore, therapy addressing the multiple metabolic abnormalities linked with diabesity and leading to further reduction of cardiovascular risk is highly desirable. Activation of the TGR5 receptor holds therapeutic potential for diabesity. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of TRC210258, a novel TGR5 agonist, in clinically relevant animal models of diabesity.Methods: A novel small molecule, TRC210258 (N-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-fluoro phenoxy)-N-methylimidazo (1, 2-a) pyrimidine-3-carboxamide), was synthesized. The in vitro TGR5 receptor
The centre examines the molecular changes in disease states in humans and relevant animal models, particularly using "gene chip" (microarray) technology. We relate these changes to the current clinical methods use to study these diseases, such as histopathology and diagnostic imaging. Biopsies from patients with organ disease are the principal focus for establishing what the molecular changes mean, and their relationship to the current tests as well as the outcomes in the patients ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Hepatic preconditioning for transplanted cell engraftment and proliferation. AU - Wu, Yao Ming. AU - Gupta, Sanjeev. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Hepatocyte transplantation has therapeutic potential for multiple hepatic and extrahepatic disorders with genetic or acquired basis. To demonstrate whether cell populations of interest will be effective for clinical applications, it is first necessary to characterize their properties in animal systems. Demonstrating the potential of cells to engraft and proliferate is a critical part of this characterization. Similarly, for stem/progenitor cells, demonstrating the capacity to differentiate along appropriate lineages and generate mature cells that can engraft and proliferate is essential. In various animal models, preconditioning of recipients prior to cell transplantation has been necessary to improve engraftment of cells, to stimulate proliferation of engrafted cells, and to induce extensive repopulation of the host liver by transplanted ...
Structure and function of C-terminal histone H4 peptides. The research interest of our laboratory has recently been focussed on the isolation, structural identification, synthesis and determination of the biological activity of histogranin (HN). HN is a slightly modified C-terminal histone H4 peptide present in various rat tissues including the spleen, lungs, bone marrow and brain. It was first coined for its in vivo modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced convulsions in mice. Recently, HN and related peptides were found to display non-opioid analgesic activities in various animal models of pain. The design and synthesis of small molecules (cyclic tetrapeptides and non-peptides) on the basis of the structure of HN were among our first priorities in order to determine the structure requirement and mode of action of HN for its antinociceptive effects. The mechanism by which HN and related compounds alleviate pain is still unknown, but a close correlation was made between the abilities of ...
Primary Sjögrens syndrome (pSS) is characterized by a panel of autoantbodies, while it is not clear whether B cells and autoantibodies play an essential role in pathogenesis of the disease. Here we report a novel mouse model for pSS which is induced by immunization with the Ro60_316-335 peptide containing a predominant T cell epitope. After immunization, mice developed several symptoms mimicking pSS, including a decreased secretion of tears, lymphocytic infiltration into the lacrimal glands, autoantibodies and increased levels of inflammatory cytokines. Disease susceptibility to this novel mouse model varies among strains, where C3H/HeJ (H2-k) and C3H/HeN (H2-k) are susceptible while DBA/1 (H2-q) and C57BL/6 (H2-b) are resistant. Depletion of B cells using anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies prevented C3H/HeN mice from development of the pSS-like disease. In addition, HLA-DRB1*0803, a pSS risk allele, was predicted to bind to the hRo60_308-328 which contains a predominant T cell epitope of human Ro60.
Interleukin (IL)-21 is a recently discovered cytokine in early clinical development, which has shown anti-tumor activity in various animal models. In the present study, we examine the anti-tumor activ
Vagal efferent activation can reduce inflammation and disease activity in various animal models of intestinal inflammation, likely via a mechanism involving activation of a a7nAChR subtype. The current hypothesis for this ...
Experimental mouse models are widely used for preclinical research on dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and cardiometabolic diseases
When studying a gene function, in vivo studies are essential to validate data collected from in vitro experiments. The most commonly used animal models for in vivo studies are rodents, mostly mice (Mus musculus) and rats (Rattus norvegicus), which present several advantages such as the high similarity of their genome with human genome, but also their small size and their capacity to reproduce fast.
The First Animal - Sponges by Kaley Fulk | This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool for creating beautiful newsletters for for educators, nonprofits, businesses and more
UCL is particularly strong in neuroscience with a substantial international reputation. The capacity to carry out research on NHPs is essential for developing an understanding of complex brain mechanisms at the level most relevant to man for which no other valid model exists. NHPs represent the best available animal model for human function and are particularly important for research into neurological and psychiatric diseases, diseases which now affect over 1 billion people worldwide. We recognise that research using NHPs brings with it additional responsibilities in terms of ethical issues and welfare needs. UCL supports the provision of the best possible facilities and environment for them and is committed to sustaining these facilities and the associated expertise in the long term. UCL is committed to the principle of the 3Rs with regard to all research animals including NHPs.. Last year there were no completed procedures involving NHPs, but 8 are currently involved in ongoing work at UCL ...
Energy homeostasis is accomplished through a highly integrated and redundant neurohumoral system. Recently, novel molecular mediators and regulatory pathways for feeding and body weight regulation have been identified in the brain and the periphery. Because of the multitude and complexity of disturbances in energy intake, expenditure, and partitioning that are associated with obesity, it has been difficult to determine which abnormalities are causative versus less important phenomena that are consequences of the altered neuroendocrine and metabolic milieu. Transgenic technology has provided new opportunities to modify the complex body weight-regulating system and to assess the relative importance of the individual components. Observations of mutant mice have shed new light on the understanding of energy homeostasis equation. Once created, transgenic animal models may be useful in assessing the efficacy or determining the mode of action of potential new therapeutic agents. However, the ...
Risk factors are things that can be causes. Like smoking is a risk factor and can cause heart disease. I dont think marmalade can cause CCSVI, but Id bet CCSVI, the risk factor (not the movie of the same name), ...
The company was the first to develop a novel proprietary technology to culture mouse primary endothelial cells. These cells have been extremely beneficial for many types of studies in areas such as vascular biology, vascular diseases, blood brain barrier research, cancer research and metastasis, angiogenesis, drug targeting and a verity of other areas basic and clinical/translational studies. We provide these and other cells in a cost effective manner saving investigators time, money, and laboratory costs. We also provide custom ordered cells from genetically modified mice and other animal models in a timely, cost-efficient and reproducible manner ...
Experimental animal models of muscle wasting in intensive care unit patients.: The muscle wasting and loss of muscle function associated with critical illness a
The preclinical development of cancer therapeutics, including the recent trend and focus on cancer immunotherapies, is evolving from the traditional use of mouse models to the use of other animal models including canine, rat, and minipig. Each of these non-mouse models carries its own advantages and abilities to increase the clinical relevance of the model as compared to mouse models. Yet, the wid .... ...
Researchers at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine have developed the first animal model that duplicates the human response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an important step that...
Research Topics: Adjuvants, Animal model studies, B cell immunology and antibodies, Clinical trial site challenges, HIV persistence and latency, HIV transmission and acute infection, Human genomics, Immune escape, Innate immunity, Mucosal immunity, Novel immunogens, inserts and vectors, Pediatric/adolescent infections and trials, Preclinical and clinical vaccine trials, Prevention strategies, Social, ethical, access and regulatory issues, T cell immunity, Vaccine concepts and design, Viral Diversity, ...
Lack of association between blood pressure, target organ damage and retinopathy in the L-NAME rat hypertension model: Are new animal models of hypertension required? , Ausencia de correlación entre las cifras tensionales, el daño de órgano blanco y la presencia de retinopatía en el modelo animal de hipertentión con L-NAME: ¿Son necesarios nuevos modelos animales en hipertensión arterial ...
A rat with some human genes could provide a better way to test Alzheimer's drugs. The genetically modified rat is the first rodent model to exhibit
Animal models are organisms, often mice or rats, that have been engineered to reproduce the physical or molecular changes that occur during the course of a disease in humans. These models are used to study the biology of the disease, including the genetics and the cellular or molecular pathways involved in the disease. Animal models also have a critical role in developing and testing new therapies before they are tested in humans.. ...
The leading causes of U.S. deaths in 2007 were heart disease, cancer, stroke, lower respiratory diseases, accidents, Alzheimers, diabetes and influenza.
Several different factors and conditions may cause scarring of kidney tissue. The most common ones are the chronic renal failure conditions that develop over…
This Gene Set Enrichment-type test designed for analysis of microarray and RNASeq data is designed to provide a faster, more accurate, and easier to understand test for gene expression studies. QuSAGE extends previous methods with a complete probability density function (PDF).. ...
The Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Units (VTEUs), supported by the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (DMID) since the 1960s, comprise a consortium of contracts with academic centers and organizations that provides a ready resource for the conduct of clinical trials to evaluate pr. ...
The main objective of this work is to develop an economically viable process for producing papermaking fibres of adequate quality and generating energy from wheat straw. Wheat straw was selected as the raw material since wheat is cultivated and available worldwide (Curtis 2002) and only a minor part of the straw is used for energy production or animal feed. One of the primary aims in this work is to find ways to store the raw material chemically between the harvesting periods and examine the effects on pulping and pulp properties (Paper IV). In addition, the aim of this work is... ...
In Non-clinical Cancer Studies Senescos Therapeutic Candidate, SNS01-T, Works Synergistically in Combination with the Active Components of Revlimid® and Velcade®
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Aging is associated with an increased morbidity to virus infections as well as a delay in clearance of symptoms after infection. Studies of sublethal virus infections of aged mice closely mirror the human situation: there is a delay in clearance of virus. The delay in virus clearance is accompanied …
Mouse models are a valuable tool for studying acute injury and chronic remodeling of the myocardium in vivo. With the advent of genetic modifications to the whole organism or the myocardium and an array of biological and/or ...
When you need your medication buy valtrex for the low price Valtrex generic. However, they offer protection for at least web sites before such as balancing their Crestor The online
Animal Models of Human Pathology 2012. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
said Green, whose team analyzed DNA samples of 1,000 dogs representing 80 breeds.. Until the study, little was known about the genes responsible for the length, growth pattern and texture of dog coats. The findings could help target multiple genes involved in human conditions, including cancer, heart disease, diabetes and obesity, the researchers said.. Deciphering the genetic basis for a complex trait such as a dogs coat lays the groundwork for deciphering complex human diseases, the researchers said.. ...
The aim of the humpath.com project is to constuct an ontology in human pathology, the study of anomalies and diseases in humans. For more (...)
humpath.com is dedicated to human pathology, the study of anomalies and diseases in humans. http://www.humpath.com/spip.php?article1
The Mouse Models Core (Core B) will be responsible for providing the investigators of this Program Project with the tissues and cells necessary to achieve their...
Pathophysiology = Патофізіологія - підручник / Н.К. Сімеонова; за ред. В.А. Міхньова. - 3-є вид. (анг. мовою) ➦ купити книгу у Видавництві «Медицина» ✔ Якісні медичні книги ₴ Низькі видавничі ціни ✈ БЕЗКОШТОВНА ДОСТАВКА
Women, make your husbands try this before you head for the hospital How bad is the pain of childbirth? Behavioral economist Dan Ariely offers a way to get a handle on the question in his new Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions (HarperCollins, 280 pp., $25.95) www.predictablyirrational.com. Ariely says that before the…
SABOGAL, Angélica María; ARANGO, César Augusto; CARDONA, Gloria Patricia e CESPEDES, Ángel Enrique. Atorvastatin protects GABAergic and dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal system in an experimental rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. Biomédica [online]. 2014, vol.34, n.2, pp.207-217. ISSN 0120-4157. http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v34i2.1851.. Introduction: Cerebral ischemia is the third leading cause of death and the primary cause of permanent disability worldwide. Atorvastatin is a promising drug with neuroprotective effects that may be useful for the treatment of stroke. However, the effects of atorvastatin on specific neuronal populations within the nigrostriatal system following cerebral ischemia are unknown. Objective: To evaluate the effects of atorvastatin on dopaminergic and GABAergic neuronal populations in exofocal brain regions in a model of transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight male eight-week-old Wistar ...
The first animal model of the chikungunya virus (CHIKV), linked with large-scale epidemics that spread to Italy and India in 2007 has been developed by Researchers.
Suitable animal models of IPF are lacking (Roman et al. 2013) and have been identified as a research priority for the IPF field (White et al. 2016). In our attempt to elucidate the efficacy of GBT1118 drug effects were explored in the most commonly used animal model of lung fibrosis: the bleomycin‐induced model. The results from this in vivo therapeutic study provide support for the potential use in IPF of a molecule that increases Hb-O2 affinity. GBT1118 treatment not only restored arterial O2 to normal levels, but also significantly inhibited the increase in numbers of inflammatory cell infiltrates, reduced collagen in BALF, and resulted in an approximately 50% reduction in fibrosis (histopathological changes in lung tissue). Additionally, GBT1118 administration ameliorated the loss of body weight associated with bleomycin exposure.. Exertional dyspnea and worsening hypoxia associated with hypoxemia are prominent clinical features of IPF progression as fibrosis increases and ...
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In this current study, we tested the efficacy of "sorbent strategy"-based HA on a porcine ARDS model and found that HA reduced circulating and alveolar levels of proinflammatory cytokines, improved oxygenation and attenuated lung injuries in the exudative phase. This provides some clue that HA330 cartridge may be a novel potential weapon fighting against the "cytokine storm" on the alveolar-capillary membrane barrier.. The most commonly used large-animal models of ARDS include endotoxin infusion, repeated lavage, oleic acid and smoke/burn injury [17]. To reproduce the most known risk factor and etiology for ARDS, which is sepsis [18], we systemically administrated endotoxin (LPS) to mimic the clinically relevant sepsis-induced ARDS. The susceptibility to LPS is highly variable and differs among different animals. Pigs, sheep, calves, and cats are more sensitive to LPS challenge. Low dosage of LPS (μg/kg range) can induce significant ARDS-like features in these animals. In contrast, animals such ...
Engel M, Snikeris P, Jenner A, Karl T, Huang XF, Frank E.. BACKGROUND: Substantial evidence from human post-mortem and genetic studies has linked the neurotrophic factor neuregulin 1 (NRG1) to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Genetic animal models and in vitro experiments have suggested that altered NRG1 signaling, rather than protein changes, contributes to the symptomatology of schizophrenia. However, little is known about the effect of NRG1 on schizophrenia-relevant behavior and neurotransmission (particularly GABAergic and glutamatergic) in adult animals.. METHOD: To address this question, we treated adult mice with the extracellular signaling domain of NRG1 and assessed spontaneous locomotor activity and acoustic startle response, as well as extracellular GABA, glutamate, and glycine levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus via microdialysis. Furthermore, we asked whether the effect of NRG1 would differ under schizophrenia-relevant impairments in mice and therefore co-treated ...
In 2008, European clinical trials began on twelve children suffering from Progeria. The treatment is based on a combination of two existing molecules: statins (prescribed in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risks) and aminobisphosphonates (prescribed in to treat osteoporosis and to prevent complications in some forms of cancer). The use of both these molecules aims to chemically alter progerin to reduce its toxicity. However, although this treatment aimed to slow down the development of the disease, it did not reduce the quantities of progerin. To study this aspect, researchers needed to obtain a relevant animal model. An "authentic" Progeria model… To generate a model of this kind, Spanish and French researchers decided to introduce a gene mutation (G609G), equivalent to that identified in humans (G608G), in mice to reproduce the exact pathological mechanism found in the children, with a view to then blocking it. The mice models were created under the ...
In this study, we identified, using genetic animal models, that the function of p110δ, both in leukemia B cells and in the nonleukemic microenvironment, is critical for CLL pathogenesis. Global inactivation of p110δ in the Eμ-TCL1 murine CLL model blocks leukemia progression in blood and major lymphoid organs. B cells from p110δD910A/D910ATCL1 mice still exhibit partially impaired BCR signaling and migratory function. Inactivation of p110δ in the nonleukemic microenvironment also protects against leukemia through a T cell-dependent mechanism. Despite dampened antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses, p110δ-inactivated T cells remain cytotoxic to leukemia cells. It is possible that p110δ inactivation impairs Treg expansion followed by enhanced host antitumor immunity. Reconstituted p110δD910A/D910A mice with p110δWT/WT Tregs reversed such disease resistance. Nonetheless, p110δ inactivation introduces side effects such as colitis, suggesting autoimmunity. These murine studies further ...
The aim of this project is to establish a clinical database and a bank of biological materials which will be used to improve the pathophysiologic understanding of the mechanisms underlying various pregnancy diseases. The US-Mexico Reproductive Health Research Development Workshop, sponsored by the NIH, recommended that the setting up of tissue, blood, and placental banks from human and relevant animal models should be developed to aid in understanding how prenatal conditions relate to pathological consequences in adult life.. A large observational study in the United States of America, the National Collaborative Perinatal Project (NCPP), was conducted over 30 years ago (1959-1966) and has yielded a large amount of useful information. However standards of obstetrical and neonatal care have changed significantly over the last 30 years. Thus the setting up of a contemporary clinical perinatal database and bank of biological materials is required. In order to obtain sufficient data for statistical ...
Video articles in JoVE about tumor cells cultured include Isolation and Characterization of Neutrophils with Anti-Tumor Properties, Depletion of Mouse Cells from Human Tumor Xenografts Significantly Improves Downstream Analysis of Target Cells, Analyzing the Communication Between Monocytes and Primary Breast Cancer Cells in an Extracellular Matrix Extract (ECME)-based Three-dimensional System, A Combined 3D Tissue Engineered In Vitro/In Silico Lung Tumor Model for Predicting Drug Effectiveness in Specific Mutational Backgrounds, Optimization of High Grade Glioma Cell Culture from Surgical Specimens for Use in Clinically Relevant Animal Models and 3D Immunochemistry, A Detailed Protocol for Characterizing the Murine C1498 Cell Line and its Associated Leukemia Mouse Model, Modeling Astrocytoma Pathogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo Using Cortical Astrocytes or Neural Stem Cells from Conditional, Genetically Engineered Mice, Primary Orthotopic Glioma Xenografts Recapitulate Infiltrative Growth
The recent clinical successes of immune checkpoint inhibitors have fueled the intense interest in novel immuno-oncology (I/O) therapeutics. The lack of relevant animal models remains a major hurdle in understanding the mechanism of action and evaluating the efficacy of such therapeutics. Patient derived xenograft (PDX), considered to most closely mimic patient tumors in both histo- and molecular pathology1,2, is however rarely used in I/O studies because it grow only in immune-compromised hosts. In reality, many PDXs grow well in nude mice where certain immune functions remain intact, excluding T-cells/T-cell functions. Therefore, PDX could still potentially be of practical use for studying T-cell independent I/O therapy. This study set out to evaluate a biologics for the treatment of a patient derived xenograft disease, by activating mouse natural killer (NK). NK and CD8 T cells are two major immune effector cell types that mediate cytotoxicity to tumor cells in vivo. One of the ...
My laboratory is an integrated cardiovascular laboratory studying vascular function with a focus on understanding how reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generation alters mitochondrial and endothelial function both in vitro and in vivo. Our expertise allows us to use of state of the art mass spectroscopy techniques in conjunction with cellular techniques to elucidate how post-translational modifications alter protein structure-function relationships and to elucidate pathways how RNS signaling is regulated in endothelial cells in both physiologic and pathologic situations. Further, we also have the expertise to carry these studies into clinically relevant animal models of endothelial dysfunction both to confirm our cell culture studies and, through directed interventions, to modulate these signaling pathways to determine effects on endothelial function in the intact animal. Further, though collaboration with clinician investigators we are now expanding our studies into humans. My laboratory is ...
Alzheimers disease (AD) is one of the largest global public health crises facing us today, and is predicted to increase dramatically over the next decades as the world population ages. There are no effective therapies available to prevent, cure, or slow the progression of disease, and new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. We are developing MW151, a small molecule AD drug candidate that targets neuroinflammation, a pathological condition recently recognized as a key contributor to AD-associated neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. Dysregulated proinflammatory cytokine (PIC) production is a component of neuroinflammation that drives the progression of diverse degenerative CNS disorders. Data from epidemiological, clinical and preclinical animal model studies converge on the attenuation of PIC overproduction as a potential disease-modifying therapeutic approach to AD.. MW151 is a novel, CNS-penetrant, orally bioavailable, small molecule drug candidate that selectively attenuates ...
The peroxiredoxin (PRDX) family, a new family of proteins with a pivotal antioxidative function, is ubiquitously synthesized and abundantly identified in various organisms. In contrast to the intracellular localization of other family members (PRDX1/2/3/5/6), PRDX4 is the only known secretory form and protects against oxidative damage by scavenging reactive oxygen species in both the intracellular (especially the endoplasmic reticulum) compartments and the extracellular space. We generated unique human PRDX4 (hPRDX4) transgenic (Tg) mice on a C57BL/6J background and investigated the critical and diverse protective roles of PRDX4 against diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as well as evaluated its role in the intestinal function in various animal models ...
Charles River has proudly partnered with the EBD Group to provide the scientific program for this years BioPharm America™ Conference. This exciting two-day program aims to bridge the gap between drug discovery and clinical application. Driven by the bedside-to-bench experience, industry leaders will come together to discuss innovations and breakthroughs in translational tools and methods in drug discovery research and development. Attendees will gain insight into how clinical data can be used to successfully develop the next generation of animal models, tools and technologies that lead to the development of effective therapies.. September 26-27, ...
Adoptive cellular immunotherapy for metastatic disease has shown efficacy in diverse animal models, yet limited success in clinical settings has been demonstrated (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). Initial studies by Cheever and Greenberg (reviewed in Refs. 4 and 5) examined various principles of adoptive immunotherapy using Ag-specific T cells in combination with a potent anti-neoplastic agent, cyclophosphamide, in a murine leukemia model. However, the principles for therapy of solid tumors may be inherently different. Subsequent studies by Shu and coworkers (18) began to address the principles for therapy of both early and later visceral metastases. In those studies, the Ag specificity of the transferred cells was undefined, and later experiments made use of polyclonally activated cells derived from tumor-draining lymph nodes (19). More recent studies of adoptive immunotherapy have used animal models that do not necessarily accurately reflect the human disease condition (i.e., tumors transduced with surrogate ...
The use of physiologically regulated, reproducible animal models is crucial to the study of ischemic brain injury--both the mechanisms governing its occurrence and potential therapeutic strategies. Several laboratory rodent species (notably rats and gerbils), which are readily available at relatively low cost, are highly suitable for the investigation of cerebral ischemia and have been widely employed for this purpose. We critically examine and summarize several rodent models of transient global ischemia, resulting in selective neuronal injury within vulnerable brain regions, and focal ischemia, typically giving rise to localized brain infarction. We explore the utility of individual models and emphasize the necessity for meticulous experimental control of those variables that modulate the severity of ischemic brain injury. ...
Pre-Clinical Animal Network. Drug development is long and costly. To protect our investments, we need to be able to efficiently predict the safety and efficacy of drug candidates for PWS prior to sending them into clinical trials. The pre-clinical animal network, composed of expert model laboratories, will improve the predictive value of our PWS models and improve our ability to accurately predict drug safety and efficacy.. New Animal Models. Disease models are critical for therapeutic development in order to test the safety and efficacy of candidate drugs. Based on the input of experts, we will develop the new animal models of PWS needed to advance therapeutic development.. PWS cellular network. Modeling PWS in a cell is critical for screening drugs in a highthroughput fashion. We will develop a network of investigators to develop assays and cellular models of PWS for identifying new drugs, reposition existing drugs or discover new targets and pathways that can be used for investigating disease ...
An in vivo model to study skeletal muscle injury is described. A computer-controlled custom-designed rat dynamometer is used to control biomechanical inputs such as range of motion, velocity, acceleration, and number of repetitions to study skeletal muscle injury in rats. Anesthetized rats are placed supine in the dynamometer and the left foot placed in a load cell with the ankle axis aligned with
This study is designed to evaluate the protective affects of MP101 and MP201 in pre-clinical models of PD injected with a toxin (6 OHDA) that selectively destroys dopamine-producing neurons, the hallmark of PD. The study will look at two outcomes as follows: 1) chronic treatment (two weeks of therapy) administered one day after giving the toxin to evaluate the potential of the drugs to prevent neuronal loss and mimic disease progression; 2) chronic treatment 10 days following toxin administration (allowing for most neurons to die) to determine if the drugs can impact recovery and regrowth of new neurons. In both scenarios, we will measure behavioral effects, brain dopamine levels, neuron counts, BDNF levels and markers of mitochondrial quality.. Impact on Diagnosis/Treatment of Parkinson s disease: ...
Animal studies can, but do not always, predict whether a drug will be teratogenic in humans. The main role of animal studies is to help researchers understand the mechanisms of teratogenicity. Unfortunately, animal studies were poor predictors in the case of thalidomide; the drug was tested on rats and mice, but did not originally produce birth defects.1 On the other hand, some drugs have been found teratogenic in animals and not in humans.2,3 Today, when new drugs are screened for teratogenicity, three different animal models are required for testing. Quite frequently, when certain drugs are tested on different animal species, birth defects occur, as happened in the DM study.4 Interspecies differences regarding the teratogenicity of drugs can result from differing pharmacokinetic processes that determine the crucial concentration-time relationships in an embryo. Protein binding in the mother is also an important determinant of placental transfer because only free concentrates in maternal plasma ...
There is clear evidence that tumor patients are able to generate TAA-specific T cell immunity spontaneously. Whereas the presence of tumor-specific T cells has been shown by many groups and for various tumor types, much less is known about the function of TAA-specific T cells in vivo. Most of the TAAs including differentiation, germ-line, and shared overexpressed antigens are not tumor specific but are also expressed at low levels in certain nonmalignant tissues. This should influence the type of T cell response because deletion of functional high-avidity self-reactive T cells in the thymus as well as peripheral deletion or anergy was shown in various animal models (reviewed in Ref. 74 ). There are a few recent studies analyzing the functional avidity of TAA-specific T cells in patients. In leukemia patients, low-avidity T cells to proteinase 3, which are able to kill leukemia cells, can readily be expanded. However, high-avidity T cells can also be expanded from patients in cytogenetic ...
It is essential to trust your research data but it is even more important to validate it. The flexiWare Software is there to help you with that! It manages the entire experimental session and [...] ...
Scientists at the University of Oregon have determined the fine-scale genetic structure of the first animal to show an evolutionary response to rapid climate change.
A novel mouse model of soft-tissue infection using bioluminescence imaging allows noninvasive, real-time monitoring of bacterial growth(審査報告)A novel mouse model of soft-tissue infection using bioluminescence imaging allows noninvasive, real-time monitoring of bacterial growth(審査報告) ...
Macrophages contribute to the development of atherosclerosis through pinocytotic deposition of native LDL-derived cholesterol in macrophages in the vascular wall. Inhibiting macrophage-mediated lipid deposition may have protective effects in atheroprone vasculature, and identifying mechanisms that potentiate this process may inform potential therapeutic interventions for atherosclerosis. Here, we report that dysregulation of exon junction complex-driven (EJC-driven) mRNA splicing confers hyperpinocytosis to macrophages during atherogenesis. Mechanistically, we determined that inflammatory cytokines induce an unconventional nonproteolytic calpain, calpain-6 (CAPN6), which associates with the essential EJC-loading factor CWC22 in the cytoplasm. This association disturbs the nuclear localization of CWC22, thereby suppressing the splicing of target genes, including those related to Rac1 signaling. CAPN6 deficiency in LDL receptor-deficient mice restored CWC22/EJC/Rac1 signaling, reduced pinocytotic ...
Macrophages contribute to the development of atherosclerosis through pinocytotic deposition of native LDL-derived cholesterol in macrophages in the vascular wall. Inhibiting macrophage-mediated lipid deposition may have protective effects in atheroprone vasculature, and identifying mechanisms that potentiate this process may inform potential therapeutic interventions for atherosclerosis. Here, we report that dysregulation of exon junction complex-driven (EJC-driven) mRNA splicing confers hyperpinocytosis to macrophages during atherogenesis. Mechanistically, we determined that inflammatory cytokines induce an unconventional nonproteolytic calpain, calpain-6 (CAPN6), which associates with the essential EJC-loading factor CWC22 in the cytoplasm. This association disturbs the nuclear localization of CWC22, thereby suppressing the splicing of target genes, including those related to Rac1 signaling. CAPN6 deficiency in LDL receptor-deficient mice restored CWC22/EJC/Rac1 signaling, reduced pinocytotic ...
Luxcel Biosciences Ltd announce worlds first physiologically relevant, in vitro Ischemia-Reperfusion Model in conjunction with BMG LABTECH and Ncardia.
Principal Investigator:NATA Koji, Project Period (FY):1996 - 1997, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A), Section:展開研究, Research Field:Functional biochemistry
RHEINBREITBACH, Germany, November 14, 2012 /PRNewswire/ --. Synthetic human-milk-oligosaccharides reduce the risk of infections caused by hazardous pathogens. Human-milk-oligosaccharides, an important component of human mothers milk, play a fundamental role in the protection of infants against viral and bacterial infection. Preclinical studies carried out by Jennewein Biotechnologie GmbH have now shown for the first time that synthetically produced functional sugars protect humans from infectious diseases. The investigations were conducted in collaboration with the University Childrens Hospital Mannheim of Heidelberg University (GER).. In collaboration with the University Childrens Hospital Mannheim of Heidelberg University, Jennewein Biotechnologie GmbH carried out extensive preclinical research to demonstrate for the first time that synthetic human-milk-oligosaccharides achieve the same protective effects as natural sugars in human breast milk. The study focused on the ...
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a cornerstone of clinical studies and research of several neurodegenerative disorders including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimers, traumatic brain injury, etc. It is one of the primary tools to evaluate the effectiveness of potential treatments due to its ability to provide immediate, predictive data while being non-invasive. Rodent MRI studies on preclinical animal models of neurodegenerative diseases can increase the efficiency of these studies; thereby helping improve translation from preclinical testing to clinical testing of potential therapeutics. MRIs high resolution, image analysis tools, and statistical capabilities provide a robust platform to better understand biological processes and translational readouts to develop new treatment approaches for several CNS diseases. Renovo Neural now offers MRI-based imaging applications-acquisition, post-processing, and data analysis developed for small animal preclinical models of neurodegenerative diseases. This ...
The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecules storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters. ...
Charles River is committed to providing you with high-quality genetically standardized models such as VAF/Plus® (SPF) and VAF/Elite® (SOPF) animals which are free of select infectious agents and parasites. We understand that selecting the appropriate animal model for your studies is critical to your research success. To assist you, we offer an evaluation program that allows you to assess the quality and compatibility of our animal models before making a purchase.. ...
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The aim of the FRAME Alternatives Laboratory is to produce human-based systems that are better and more relevant to humans than current animal models. FRAME makes an annual donation to support work carried out there.. When the FRAME Alternatives Laboratory was established in 1991 at the University of Nottingham Medical School, research concentrated mainly on replacements for acute toxicology testing such as the notorious LD50 test and the Draize eye irritancy test in rabbits. Many of its findings are now accepted in mainstream research, contributing to a reduction in the number of animals used for toxicology testing.. Since Dr Andy Bennetts appointment as Director in 2006, the FRAME Alternatives Laboratory now concentrates on using samples obtained, with full ethical approval and under licence from the Human Tissue Authority, from operations at Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, to construct in vitro models of human cells and organs for biomedical research.. The FRAME Alternatives ...
The influence of DHA/EPA enrichment of dairy products on visual/ brain development in infants and children (or the appropriate animal models ...
Cachexia, recognized by progressive loss of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, contributes directly to morbidity and mortality in diseases as diverse as organ failure, AIDS, burn, trauma and cancer. Indeed, cachexia itself and not other effects of the tumor is thought to be the cause of up to 1/3 of all cancer deaths. Relatively little is understood regarding the molecular and cellular pathways leading to weight loss and dysmetabolism in cachexia and currently there are no approved, effective therapies. My group, working with a large and diverse group of collaborators, seeks to fill that knowledge gap by using novel animal models and correlative phenotypic and molecular data from patients to identify molecular, cellular and organ system mechanisms leading to cachexia. In this fashion we have:. 1. Identified a key role for IL-6/GP80/GP130/STAT3 in muscle and fat wasting in cancer and burns.. 2. Identified a causal role for Activins in burn-induced muscle wasting and shown efficacy in targeting ...
Rabbits are among the most widely used animals in experimental studies in basic and clinical medical sciences. MR images may also be coupled with the studies of rabbits and may provide important clues to the researchers.. Several coils and parameters may be implemented for experimental MR imaging of the rabbit brain, but because of the small size of this brain, the image quality may not be satisfactory. This letter briefly describes our efforts to improve the quality of MR images of the rabbit brain by using different coils and varying technical parameters.. We retrospectively evaluated the MR imaging of 87 male New Zealand white rabbits used in cranial experimental studies between 1994 and 2003 on a 1T system. Experiments had been conducted in conformity with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals1 and were approved by the local ethics committee. A circularly polarized head coil, a quadrature extremity coil, or a 3-inch (7.62-cm) circular surface coil and fast spin-echo images ...
Neuroscience research in the Department aims to improve our understanding of the central nervous system and its involvement in the pathogenesis of disease. Areas of expertise and emphasis include regulation of feeding behavior and metabolism, sleep regulation, stress, neurodevelopment, and behavioral epigenetics. The generation and use of novel animal models of disease provides valuable tools and aids in the development of new drug targets and therapies in disease prevention and treatment.. To bridge basic research with clinical areas of expertise in neurology and behavior, the SOVM Neuroscience Center interacts with other Centers and Institutes at Penn, including:. ...
Clinical Responses to Experimental Therapy.A.) Decreases in Supplemental Oxygen Requirements. Oxygen requirements decreased in only one of the historical contro
Animal Hospitals USA offers a wide assortment of useful animal health care information to help pet owners care for their animals.
Animal Hospitals USA offers a wide assortment of useful animal health care information to help pet owners care for their animals.
These results suggest that a combination of protective antibodies with either the same or different isotypes can produce either an additive or a suppressive effect in passive immunization. This phenomenon may be important in better understanding immunity in this experimental mouse model of malaria.. ...
The Japanese quail is very a valuable animal model for research in a variety of biological disciplines. The purpose of this study was to characterize and interrelate age-depen...
There is a wealth of clinical data showing the relationship between diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis and its clinical complications. To dissect this relationship, investigators have attempted, usually unsuccessfully, to create a small-animal model in which diabetes accelerates vascular lesion development. This effort has often been complicated by development of hyperlipidemia leading to difficulty in differentiating the effects of hyperglycemia from those of lipid abnormalities. A study in the current issue of the JCI provides data on a new mouse model in which atherosclerosis initiation is accelerated in diabetic mice and is reduced by insulin therapy. Moreover, these animals have greater intra-arterial hemorrhage, which might be due to less stable plaques .. ...
Researchers at the University of Copenhagen have designed, produced and patented a new chemical compound for the possible treatment of brain damage caused by stroke. The compound binds 1,000 times more effectively to the target protein in the brain than the potential drug currently being tested on stroke victims. The results of biological tests have just been published in the renowned journal PNAS.. More than 140,000 people die each year from stroke in the United States. Stroke causes the brain to release large amounts of glutamate, an activating signal compound, all at once. This overactivates the receptors in the surrounding healthy tissue, causing the level of calcium in the cells to rise dramatically. This then kick-starts a toxic chain reaction causing cell death. Scientists believe that this process is the cause of the brain damage that occurs in the wake of a stroke. Therefore they are looking for compounds that can limit cell death:. "Research on animal models shows that the new compound ...
In nature, diseases and development are highly complex, stochastic processes. In the last several decades, two major approaches have been developed for mechanistic understanding of life: (1) molecular biology approaches focusing on the roles of individual molecules/genes and (2) in vivo studies relying on animal models. However, huge gaps in length-and time-scales often make it difficult to describe cooperative, dynamic interactions in biological systems. The ground challenge for physicists is: "how to extract numbers with units from life".. In my talk, I present some of our recent challenges to overcome the gap by the combination of quantitative in vitro models, live cell imaging, and statistical analysis. I will introduce some of our recent studies that shed light on the spatio-temporal evolution in highly relevant disease models, including (a) time evolution of the adhesion strength of human erythrocytes infected by malaria parasite, and (b) dynamic regulation of the fate of mesenchymal stem ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Potential therapeutic interventions for chronic kidney disease-associated sarcopenia via indoxyl sulfate-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. AU - Enoki, Yuki. AU - Watanabe, Hiroshi. AU - Arake, Riho. AU - Fujimura, Rui. AU - Ishiodori, Kana. AU - Imafuku, Tadashi. AU - Nishida, Kento. AU - Sugimoto, Ryusei. AU - Nagao, Saori. AU - Miyamura, Shigeyuki. AU - Ishima, Yu. AU - Tanaka, Motoko. AU - Matsushita, Kazutaka. AU - Komaba, Hirotaka. AU - Fukagawa, Masafumi. AU - Otagiri, Masaki. AU - Maruyama, Toru. PY - 2017/10/1. Y1 - 2017/10/1. N2 - Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients experience skeletal muscle wasting and decreased exercise endurance. Our previous study demonstrated that indoxyl sulfate (IS), a uremic toxin, accelerates skeletal muscle atrophy. The purpose of this study was to examine the issue of whether IS causes mitochondria dysfunction and IS-targeted intervention using AST-120, which inhibits IS accumulation, or mitochondria-targeted intervention using ...
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a prevalent developmental disease that is caused by excess in utero exposure to ethanol. The importance of timing and dosage of ethanol has been elucidated by previous investigations conducted with humans, rodents, and other model organisms, but challenges associated with determining functional deficiencies have necessitated the introduction of a novel animal model for investigating the dynamics of FASD. In this thesis, we propose that the freshwater flatworm planarian species, Schmidtea mediterranea, has the capability to fulfill this need. Planaria have the ability to completely regenerate fragments into intact, functional animals, and in these studies, we exploited this property to characterize nervous system development in the presence of ethanol. Functional testing of head-regenerating planaria included planarian locomotor velocity testing to assess locomotor capabilities and light avoidance testing to assess development of innate negative phototaxic
Although muscular dystrophies are among the most common human genetic disorders, there are few treatment options available. Animal models have become increasingly important for testing new therapies prior to entering human clinical trials. The DMDmdx mouse is the most widely used animal model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), presenting the same molecular and protein defect as seen in humans with the disease. However, this mouse is not useful for clinical trials, because of its very mild phenotype. The mouse model for congenital myodystrophy type 1D, Largemyd, harbors a mutation in the glycosyltransferase Large gene and displays a severe phenotype. To help elucidate the role of the proteins dystrophin and LARGE in the organization of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex in muscle sarcolemma, we generated double-mutant mice for the dystrophin and LARGE proteins. The new DMDmdx/Largemyd mouse model is viable and shows a severe phenotype that is associated with the lack of dystrophin in muscle. ...
1. Rosamond W, Flegal K, Furie K. et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics-2008 update: a report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Circulation. 2008;117:25-146 2. Lai L, Morgan MK. Incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage: an Australian national hospital morbidity database analysis. J Clin Neurosci. 2012;19:733-739 3. Bakker AM, Dorhout Mees SM, Algra A. et al. Extent of acute hydrocephalus after aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage as a risk factor for delayed cerebral infarction. Stroke. 2007;38:2496-2499 4. Fatima A. Sehba, Jack Hou, Ryszard M. Pluta, et al. The importance of early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Prog Neurobiol. 2012;97:14-37 5. Yushu Dong, Yue Li, Dayun Feng. et al. Protective effect of HIF-1α against hippocampal apoptosis and cognitive dysfunction in an experimental rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Brain Res. 2013;1517:114-121 6. Doczi T, Joo F, Adam G. et al. Blood-brain barrier damage during the ...
Title:Goto-kakizaki Rats: Its Suitability as Non-obese Diabetic Animal Model for Spontaneous Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. VOLUME: 9 ISSUE: 5. Author(s):Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash, Kanwal Rehman and Shuqing Chen. Affiliation:Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University Hangzhou, China.. Keywords:None Obese Animal Model, GK Rats, Islet Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, Hyperglycemia, Diabetic Nephropathy, Diabetes Mellitus, Glucose Tolerance.. Abstract:β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis are recognized as a major cause of insufficient insulin secretion in response to high blood glucose and metabolic demand. As a consequence, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is known to occur. Taking into account the etiology of T2DM, to conduct investigational studies directly on human diabetic patients seems to be unsuitable; thereby, various animal models have been established to investigate the pathogenesis of T2DM. Among these models, ...
In all forms of chronic hypertension, the renal-pressure natriuresis mechanism is abnormal because sodium excretion is the same as in normotension despite the increased blood pressure. However, the importance of this resetting of pressure natriuresis as a cause of hypertension is controversial. Theoretically, a resetting of pressure natriuresis could necessitate increased blood pressure to maintain sodium balance or it could occur secondarily to hypertension. Recent studies indicate that, in several models of experimental hypertension (including angiotensin II, aldosterone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and norepinephrine hypertension), a primary shift of renal-pressure natriuresis necessitates increased arterial pressure to maintain sodium and water balance. In genetic animal models of hypertension, there also appears to be a resetting of pressure natriuresis before the development of hypertension. Likewise, essential hypertensive patients exhibit abnormal pressure natriuresis, although the ...
Background: Previous work has implicated accumulation of Zn2+ as a contributor to ischemic brain injury, however the sources of toxic Zn2+ accumulation are not fully understood. Previous data report that ICV delivery of a Zn2+ chelator limited mild focal stroke (Neuroscience 115 (2002) 871-8). We have recently demonstrated substantial synaptic Zn2+ release following spreading depolarization (JCBFM 31 (2011) 1073-84), and thus it is possible that repetitive spreading depolarization_ known to occur following stroke_ could be a major source of toxic Zn2+. In the present study, we examined whether synaptic Zn2+ release contributes to neuronal injury in a murine focal stroke model.. Methods The effect of synaptic Zn2+ was assessed using mice lacking synaptic Zn2+, due to genetic deletion of the synaptic vesicle transporter ZnT3 (ZnT3 KO). Wild type C57Bl/6 mice were age and sex matched as controls. Mice were anesthetized with isofluorane and the cortical branch of the right middle cerebral artery was ...
Conn, P. Michael (2013). Animal models for the study of human disease (First ed.). San Diego: Elsevier Science & Technology ... Other animals[edit]. Klinefelter syndrome can also occur in other animals. In cats it can result in a male tortoiseshell and ... Centerwall WR, Benirschke K (1975). "An animal model for the XXY Klinefelter's syndrome in man: Tortoiseshell and calico male ... "Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. 1: 42. doi:10.1186/1750-1172-1-42. PMC 1634840. PMID 17062147.. ...
Krinke, George J. (15 June 2000). "History, Strains and Models". The Laboratory Rat (Handbook of Experimental Animals). Gillian ... "Merck Veterinary Manual - Reproductive Diseases". Retrieved 9 January 2009.. *^ a b c d "Merck Veterinary Manual - Respiratory ... Knight, John (2005). Animals in Person: Cultural Perspectives on Human-animal Intimacy. Berg Publishers. p. 131. ISBN 1-85973- ... "Merck Veterinary Manual - Skin Diseases". Retrieved 9 January 2009.. *^ a b c "Merck Veterinary Manual - Gastrointestinal ...
Main areas of research: Functional genomics and proteomics; Molecular and cellular immunology; Animal models of human disease; ... Fleming researchers have established transgenic animal models for rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and multiple ... Fleming's Animal house (certified with ISO 9001) provides husbandry of animals and services to the biomedical research ... The Animal House has a capacity to house more than 20,000 mice and is currently the largest Mouse Unit in Greece in terms of ...
Animal models for periodontal disease. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology 2011:754857. Post, W. 1981. The influence of ... the animal has been proposed as a model for research on the disease in humans. The identity of the bacterial agent remains ... The marsh rice rat is quite susceptible to periodontitis and has been used as a model system for the study of that disease. The ... Animal model: periodontitis in the rice rat (Oryzomys palustris). American Journal of Pathology 96(2):643-646. Lodge, T.E. 2005 ...
... modeling infectious human disease in animals". Bull Hist Med. 79 (2): 261-94. doi:10.1353/bhm.2005.0092. PMID 15965289.. ... "The History of Malaria, an Ancient Disease". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 31 May 2016.. ... The study was published in Clinical Infectious Diseases. Researchers did their work at an ebola treatment unit in Monrovia, ... In August 2016, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) came out with a study that showed that people ...
Slater, L. B. (2005). "Malarial birds: modeling infectious human disease in animals". Bull Hist Med. 79 (2): 261-94. doi: ... "The History of Malaria, an Ancient Disease". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 31 May 2016.. ... Nunn, C., Altizer, S. (2006). Infectious Diseases in Primates: Behavior, Ecology and Evolution (1 ed.). Oxford University Press ... Again, some species of Plasmodium can cause severe disease in some of these hosts, while many appear not to.[25] ...
Neuromethods: Animal Models of Neurological Disease. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. pp. 153-155. ISBN 0-89603-211-6. Menkes JH, ... No animal model has all the characteristics of epileptogenesis in humans, so research efforts aim to identify one. Such a model ... Pitkänen A, McIntosh TK (2006). "Animal models of post-traumatic epilepsy". Journal of Neurotrauma. 23 (2): 241-261. doi: ... Animal experiments using rats have shown that epileptic seizures can be produced by injecting iron into the brain. Iron ...
2007). Animal Models in Toxicology (2nd ed.). CRC Press. p. 248. Grzimek, Bernhard, ed. (1972). Grzimek's Animal Life ... "Systems and Diseases". Diseases of Small Domestic Rodents. 2003. pp. 127-31. doi:10.1002/9780470690840.ch14. ISBN 978-0-470- ... The surface of the hands and feet are white to ensure the animal stays warm in colder climates in countries such as Mongolia. ... Herberg, L.; K. D. Buchanan; L. M. Herbertz; H. F. Kern; H. K. Kley (1980). "The Djungarian hamster, a laboratory animal with ...
"Diversifying animal models: the use of hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in infectious diseases". Laboratory Animals. ... "Animal Models of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 25 (6): 1363-68. doi:10.1086/516152. ... Prince is the author of over 150 scientific publications in the field of infectious diseases, the majority dealing with RSV. He ... Marie-Ève Hamelin; Gregory A. Prince; Guy Boivin (2006). "Effect of Ribavirin and Glucocorticoid Treatment in a Mouse Model of ...
The third screening stage is focused on potential animal models of neurological disease. The protocol has been used to test ... transgenic models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, and a spontaneous mutant with degeneration of the ...
... the optimal use of animal models of disease; the neurobiology of the mineralocorticoid receptor; and impact of social ... CAMARADES is currently leading the way in advancing education about systematic reviews in animal research. Prof. Macleod is on ... and co-ordinator of the Collaborrative Approach to Meta-Analysis and Review of Animal Data in Experimental Studies (CAMARADES ... Advisory Board of the charity SABRE Research UK which raises awareness of the need for systematic reviews of existing animal ...
17α-Estradiol (epiestradiol) P. Michael Conn (29 May 2013). Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease. Academic Press. pp. ...
Acta Psychiatr Scand 1996; 93(6):451-459; Sachdev P. Animal models of drug-induced akathisia. In LeDoux MS (Ed). Animal models ... Neurological Disease and Therapy Series. Macel Dekker, New York, 2005:129-164. [8] Brodaty H, Sachdev P, Rose N, Rylands K, ... and the first study that examined the effect of different frequencies of TMS on an animal model of depression [12]. Sachdev's ... Chronic repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is antidepressant but not anxiolytic in rat models of anxiety and ...
Rowan MJ, Klyubin I, Cullen WK, Anwyl R (April 2003). "Synaptic plasticity in animal models of early Alzheimer's disease". ... LTP has received much attention among those who study Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disease that causes marked ... However, alterations in LTP may contribute to a number of neurological diseases, including depression, Parkinson's disease, ... proposed one model for how LTP might be affected in AD. AD appears to result, at least in part, from misprocessing of amyloid ...
Santos, Renato L.; Shuping Zhang; Renee M. Tsolis; Robert A. Kingsley; L. Gary Adams; Adreas J. Baumler (2001). "Animal models ... Efforts to prevent the disease include proper preparation and cooking of food. Mild disease typically does not require specific ... CDC website, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Disease Listing: Salmonellosis CFIA Website: Salmonellae Protective ... Occasionally more significant disease can result in dehydration. The old, young, and others with a weak immune systems are more ...
Disease models in genetically modified animals are mainly in rodents, such as mice and rats. However, they cannot adequately ... Better animal models[edit]. Genetically modified animals represent an important instrument of modern biomedical research. In ... Research in animal models using mammals, such as even-toed ungulates (especially for animal health) and in very rare cases also ... Alternatives to animal experiments[edit]. "Animal experiments will remain necessary in biomedical research for the foreseeable ...
ISBN 0-8451-1035-7 Desnick, R.J., Patterson, D.F. and Scarpelli, D.F., eds.: Animal Models of Inherited Metabolic Diseases. ... His translational research has led to the development of enzyme replacement therapy for Fabry disease and Niemann-Pick disease ... National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Gene Therapy: Lysosomal Diseases With Mental Retardation, ... ISBN 0-443-08773-3 Desnick, R.J. and Kaback, M.M., eds.: Tay-Sachs Disease, Academic Press, pp. 1-360, 2001. ISBN 0-12-017644-0 ...
January 2008). "MUGEN mouse database; animal models of human immunological diseases". Nucleic Acids Res. 36 (Database issue): ... In the study of infectious diseases and host responses, the mathematical and computer models are a great help. These models ... Using this technology it is possible to know the model behind immune system. It has been used to model T-cell-mediated ... Models are helpful to predicts dynamics of pathogen toxicity and T-cell memory in response to different stimuli. There are also ...
Researchers are using this animal model of narcolepsy to study the disease.[18] Narcolepsy results in excessive daytime ... Dogs that lack a functional receptor for orexin have narcolepsy, while animals and people lacking the orexin neuropeptide ... circadian and sleep debt influences to determine whether an animal should be asleep or awake and active. Orexin neurons ...
... s have been linked to improved markers of heart disease. Animal models and observational studies in humans have ... Use in animal models show promising results. There is promising early stage research. One small trial of women with breast ... Sen CK, Khanna S, Roy S (2007). "Tocotrienols in health and disease: the other half of the natural vitamin E family". Molecular ... A number of health benefits have been proposed included decreased risk of heart disease and cancer. The Food and Nutrition ...
"Animal models of amyloid-beta-related pathologies in Alzheimer's disease". The FEBS Journal. 277 (6): 1389-409. doi:10.1111/j. ... Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 is involved in monocyte infiltration in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis ... "Genealogy of the CCR5 locus and chemokine system gene variants associated with altered rates of HIV-1 disease progression". ... "Contrasting genetic influence of CCR2 and CCR5 variants on HIV-1 infection and disease progression. Hemophilia Growth and ...
"Obovatol improves cognitive functions in animal models for Alzheimer's disease". Journal of Neurochemistry. 120 (6): 1048-59. ...
Vuguin PM (2007). "Animal models for small for gestational age and fetal programming of adult disease". Horm. Res. 68 (3): 113- ... Hasenfuss G (1998). "Animal models of human cardiovascular disease, heart failure and hypertrophy". Cardiovasc. Res. 39 (1): 60 ... Ovine Johne's disease is a wasting disease that affects young sheep. Bluetongue disease is an insect-borne illness causing ... Didactic model of a sheep muscular system. Didactic model of a sheep. Didactic model of a sheep muscular system. Dry Sheep ...
Mouse Models for Human Diseases by Forward and Reverse Genetics". Animal models for the study of human disease (First edition. ... However, if the specific mutation cannot be passed on, heterozygous animals should be used to breed with the original inbred ... "3. Criteria for Selecting Experimental Animals". Rodents. The National Academies Press. p. 23ff. CS1 maint: Multiple names: ... National Research Council; Institute for Laboratory Animal Research; Commission on Life Sciences; Committee on Rodents. " ...
Wagner J, Thiele F, Ganten D (May 1995). "Transgenic animals as models for human disease". Clin. Exp. Hypertens. 17 (4): 593- ... June 1999). "Transgenic models of Huntington's disease". Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 354 (1386): 963-9. doi: ... Some genetically modified mammals are used as models of human diseases and potential treatments and cures can first be tested ... Cyranoski, D (2009). "Newly created transgenic primate may become an alternative disease model to rhesus macaques". Nature. 459 ...
Animal models of 3C syndrome have not been created; however, strumpellin is a highly conserved protein, with 12 known homologs ... Disease ID 5666 at NIH's Office of Rare Diseases "3C syndrome". Orphanet. Retrieved 11 April 2014. Kniffin, Cassandra L.; ... 3C syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease, caused by a mutation on the long arm of chromosome 8 at 8q24.13, the locus for ... Many children with the disorder die as infants due to severe congenital heart disease. The proband of Ritscher and Schinzel's ...
One possible way to achieve this, which has been successful in mouse models, is to use inhibitors of Ras activation in order to ... Catenins are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells. The first two ... MacDonald BT, Tamai K, He X (July 2009). "Wnt/β-catenin signaling: components, mechanisms, and diseases". Dev. Cell. 17 (1): 9- ... may help prevent clinical recurrence of the disease after surgery, but much more work is needed before an adequate treatment ...
"Current understanding of dysbiosis in disease in human and animal models". Inflammatory bowel diseases. 22 (5): 1137-1150. doi: ... and allergic diseases in humans and other animals. Gut microbes may play a role in cancer development through a variety of ... "Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in disease". Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease. 26. doi:10.3402/mehd.v26.26191. ISSN 0891 ... An equilibrium of symbionts and pathobionts is critical to fight off outside pathogens and avoid inflammatory bowel disease. ...
... the production of murine models of human genetic diseases, gene therapy, homologous recombination and programmed genomic ... This research led to the breeding of "knock-out mice" and "knock-in mice," animals with a single gene removed or inserted. ...
Such genes coding cell death may result in severe diseases like cancer and degenerative diseases if they are disturbed in human ... Modeling of receptor-ligand interactions - G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) models Bio Balance (www.bio-balance.com) is an ... ABB also provides a complete line of Biochemical Reagents as well as non-animal Amino Acids and derivatives. ... Disease Prevention, and Disease Solution. ,and lead human beings enter new era of creating life values in 21th century. ...
All MeSH CategoriesDiseases CategoryAnimal DiseasesDisease Models, Animal. All MeSH CategoriesAnalytical, Diagnostic and ... Disease Models, Animal. Naturally-occurring or experimentally-induced animal diseases with pathological processes analogous to ... Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment CategoryInvestigative TechniquesModels, AnimalDisease Models, AnimalArthritis, ... All MeSH CategoriesAnalytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment CategoryInvestigative TechniquesModels, ...
... Krista L. Sider,1 Mark C. Blaser,1 and Craig A. Simmons1,2,3 ... we summarize and critically appraise current small and large animal models of CAVD, discuss the utility of animal models for ... Animal models are emerging as vital tools to this end, facilitated by the advent of new models and improved understanding of ... Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), once thought to be a degenerative disease, is now recognized to be an active ...
Animal models of Parkinsons disease.. Imai Y1, Venderova K, Park DS, Cai H, Schmidt E. ...
... retinal diseases are among the leading causes of irreversible visual impairment and blindness, and appropriate study models, ... In Animal Models for Retinal Diseases, recognized experts in the field highlight valuable techniques as well as animal models ... Vital and easy to use, Animal Models for Retinal Diseases serves to support the important future research of ocular ... the book continues by covering animal models for the research of specific human retinal diseases, e.g., retinal degeneration, ...
... and clinical studies in all areas of Alzheimers disease. ... International Journal of Alzheimers Disease is a peer-reviewed ... "Ocular Manifestations of Alzheimers Disease in Animal Models," International Journal of Alzheimers Disease, vol. 2012, ... Ocular Manifestations of Alzheimers Disease in Animal Models. Miles Parnell,1,2 Li Guo,1 Mohamed Abdi,3 and M. Francesca ... To receive news and publication updates for International Journal of Alzheimers Disease, enter your email address in the box ...
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... and prevent cell death in animal models of Huntington disease. As Huntington disease is an inherited condition that can be ... 2014, May 28). "Animal models reveal promising approach to slow brain degeneration in Huntingtons disease." Medical News Today ... "Animal models reveal promising approach to slow brain degeneration in Huntingtons disease." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, ... Animal models reveal promising approach to slow brain degeneration in Huntingtons disease. ...
Unknown author (‎1972)‎. Virus-associated immunopathology: animal models and implications for human disease. Bulletin of the ...
The Disease BioPortal is operated and maintained by the Center for Animal Disease Modeling and Surveillance (CADMS) at the ... Disease BioPortal: a near-real time platform for the visualization and analysis of local and global information. The Disease ... Contact us , Animal Health Inquiries , Check us out on Facebook, Twitter, & YouTube , Online Donation Form. UC Davis School of ... BioPortal is a web-based system that provides near-real time access to local, regional, and global disease information and data ...
Millions of people suffer from Parkinsons disease, a disorder of the nervous system that affects movement and worsens over ... Using a transgenic zebrafish model for Parkinsons disease, the researchers added CLR01 and used fluorescent proteins to track ... which in a living animal model blocked α-synuclein aggregates from forming, stopped the aggregates toxicity and, further, ... thus stopping the progression of the disorder in the living animal model. ...
AbstractAnimal models of autoimmune disease have been of vital importance in the advancement of ... ... Read this full essay on Animal Models Of Autoimunne Disease. ... Animal models can help make clear many aspects of a disease or ... Animal Models Of Autoimunne Disease Essay. 7146 words - 29 pages AbstractAnimal models of autoimmune disease have been of vital ... Find Another Essay On Animal Models Of Autoimunne Disease. Animal Rights Essay. 856 words - 3 pages reaction upon certain drugs ...
... collection of standardised data on animal diseases. ... It is important to highlight that the SIGMA - Animal Disease Data Model (r-ADM) focuses on data which are known to be already ... Commission is routinely asking EFSA for scientific and technical support in the epidemiological analysis of animal disease ... surveillance activities and concerned animal populations (i.e. poultry, domestic pigs, cattle and wildlife such as wild boar). ...
... enable insights into the diseases genetics and/or pathophysiology influences the scientific progress in Huntingtons disease. ... Large animal models, such as domesticated farm animals, offer some distinct advantages over rodent models, including a larger ... Promising Research Options Offered by Large Animal Models of Huntingtons Disease. by Kathy Jones on April 25, 2013 at 10:59 PM ... The availability of appropriate animal models that enable insights into the diseases genetics and/or pathophysiology ...
... and human disease models on the basis of phenotypes alone. ... Genetics of disease Is the Subject Area "Genetics of disease" ...
Emerging infections provide clues about how pathogens might evolve when farm animals are protected from infection. ... tags: animal models x disease/medicine x The Scientist. » animal models and disease/medicine ...
... even in rodent animal models. This mini-review summarizes histopathological evidence that DM induces AD pathology in animal ... is the major causative disease of dementia and is characterized pathologically by the accumulation of senile plaques (SPs) and ... models and discusses the possibility that aberrant insulin signaling is a key factor in the induction of AD pathology. ... Keywords: Alzheimers disease; animal model; diabetes mellitus; insulin resistance; pathology Alzheimers disease; animal model ...
The animal is useful in screening compounds for activity in treating lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis and chronic ... said promoter construct directs expression of the epithelial sodium channel β subunit in lung epithelial cells of said animal, ... Spontaneous inflammatory disease in transgenic rats expressing HLA-B27 and Human beta2m: an animal model of HLA-B27-associated ... Spontaneous inflammatory disease in transgenic rats expressing HLA-B27 and Human β2m: an animal model of HLA-B27-associated ...
Cardiovascular Disease in COPD: Evidences from Epidemiology, Genetics, Bio-Markers, Animal Models, Clinical Studies & ... Cardiovascular Disease in COPD: Evidences from Epidemiology, Genetics, Bio-Markers, Animal Models, Clinical Studies & ... Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) and cardiovascular disease and to recommend future research that may be needed to ... The need to look at COPD subjects as a whole in terms of the development, progression and treatment of a systemic disease was ...
Enzyme inhibition protects against Huntingtons disease damage in two animal models. Treatment with SIRT2 inhibitor reduced ... slowed the loss of motor function and extended survival in two animal models of Huntingtons disease. The study led by ... protected against neuronal damage in cellular and animal models of HD and Parkinsons disease - both of which are characterized ... Treated animals in this model, which usually die prematurely, lived 13 percent longer than untreated R6/2 mice. In the ...
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... has shown positive therapeutic effects in an animal model of... ... is a well accepted animal model of inflammatory bowel disease, ... "Compugen Announces Positive Therapeutic Effects Of Novel Peptide In Animal Model Of Inflammatory Bowel Disease." Medical News ... Compugen Announces Positive Therapeutic Effects Of Novel Peptide In Animal Model Of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. ... The excellent results seen in this well accepted disease model for inflammatory bowel disease further support the therapeutic ...
... and therefore targets of interest in preclinical cardiovascular disease drug discovery. ... Apolipoproteins in Animal Models of Cardiovas.... Apolipoproteins in Animal Models of Cardiovascular Disease. Caroline Horizny ... Animal Models of Cardiovascular Disease. Many research needs can be addressed by animal models that either over- or under- ... Mouse Model. Taconic Model #. Roles in Cardiovascular Disease. Apoe mouse. APOE. Lacks the ApoE protein, results in five times ...
  • After more than a decade of research on the pre-symptomatic phase of Huntington disease, markers are being developed to facilitate assessment of interventional therapy in individuals carrying the genetic mutation for Huntington disease, before they become ill. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Cystic fibrosis (CF) is among the most prevalent, lethal diseases of genetic origin. (google.com)
  • I believe that the drug efficacy demonstrated in two distinct genetic HD mouse models is quite unique and highly encouraging," says Aleksey Kazantsev, PhD, of the MassGeneral Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders , senior author of the study. (massgeneral.org)
  • Such models are usually the result of genetic and/or nutritional modifications, considering metabolic and histological changes commonly seen in humans. (intechopen.com)
  • Obesity induced in rodents occur mainly through HFD, HCD, FFD or genetic alterations like in Lep, Acox, KKy models. (intechopen.com)
  • By injecting a therapeutic gene directly into the brain, researchers have treated a naturally occurring genetic disease in cats. (innovations-report.com)
  • The animals involved in the study are born with a genetic disorder directly analogous to alpha-mannosidosis or AMD, an inherited disease in humans that causes severe mental retardation and skeletal abnormalities. (innovations-report.com)
  • In recent years, genetic studies have found thousands of links between genes and various diseases. (phys.org)
  • Previously, scientists working with animal models have had to knock out one gene at a time, or cross animal models to produce one with the needed genetic modifications, processes that are challenging and time consuming. (phys.org)
  • Animal models are defined in regard to genetic, phenotypic and health-related characteristics. (sbir.gov)
  • Today we have amassed a multitude of animal models, developed through genetic, chemical, and/or lesions in multiple species with the goal of faithfully mimicking these diseases and uncover the complex nature of disease-associated mechanisms. (iospress.nl)
  • Animals within Resources are characterized in regard to genetic, phenotypic and health-related characteristics. (nih.gov)
  • It s a scalable model that can be engineered to carry the genetic variants that give rise to all these diseases and it gives us incredible access to things we never have done before, Dr. Anand told The Washington Post. (all-creatures.org)
  • Pompe disease or Glycogen Storage Disease is a rare genetic disease caused by the buildup of a sugar called glycogen in the body s cells. (medindia.net)
  • Differences between studies are most likely due to differences in the populations studied - in terms of type of allergy, evolutionary stage of the disease, environment, genetic background - but also to the various probiotic used in terms of strain, dose, duration and time of administration in relation to the development of allergy, and finally the follow-up period [ 13 , 19 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • These results are the culmination of four years of research and show how gene therapy is effective for this genetic muscle disease," said Buj-Bello. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Benefits of this model system include: a short three-day life cycle, 14-day natural lifespan, highly developed genetic tools, fully characterised cell lineage, and an open research community. (edu.au)
  • Despite its simplicity, conservation of genetic and disease pathways between C. elegans and higher eukaryotes make it an effective in vivo model for study ageing and disease pathogenesis and the preeminent model system for genetic manipulation of ageing. (edu.au)
  • Despite an understanding of both pathophysiologic and correlative molecular genetic processes, effective and safe treatments for PKD are not currently available, and recent interventional trials for the disease have been disappointing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recently, this pathway was implicated in fundamental cellular processes of PKD: active TNF-α interferes with processing and membrane presentation of PKD2, effectively phenocopying genetic ablation of the disease locus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, we sought to translate the promising activity of etanercept in additional rodent genetic models where cysts are present at the onset of intervention. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Different gene editing techniques are also being explored that may one day be able to correct the exact mutations observed in genetic lung diseases in infants," Morrisey said. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Such models have yielded few new drugs, whereas modeling causal genetic variants in animals offers the possibility of identifying disease pathology at multiple levels and developmental timepoints, and the hope of new targets of direct relevance for therapeutic intervention in humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In a separate article [ 2 ], Aiden Corvin, a psychiatrist and member of the Psychiatric Genetics Consortium responsible for recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on psychiatric disease, considers the implications of recent genetic findings for schizophrenia patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Corvin looks to a future in which diagnosis will be guided by molecular etiology, and patients may be treated with drugs known to be effective for the particular genetic subtype of disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The strong association of different disorders with the same mutation suggests they can be distinct phenotypic endpoints that can arise from a common genetic origin, rather than a polygenic effect, a possibility that can be explored using the modeling approach outlined by Mitchell and colleagues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These two different outlooks reflect a lively and ongoing debate on the genetic architecture of neuropsychiatric disease, the value of proceeding to yet bigger GWAS studies in an effort to identify more common risk loci, and to what extent common risk variants may actually be tagging linked rare mutation responsible for the association with disease [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • During the past decade, researchers have also made remarkable progress in identifying genes responsible for inherited forms of Parkinson s disease, with the expectation that understanding the function of these genes will elucidate mechanisms behind sporadic Parkinson s disease. (innovations-report.com)
  • The researchers successfully used the new "Cas9 mouse" model to edit multiple genes in a variety of cell types, and to model lung adenocarcinoma, one of the most lethal human cancers. (phys.org)
  • This ability to perturb multiple genes at the same time may be particularly useful in studying complex diseases, such as cancer, where mutations in more than one gene may be driving the disease. (phys.org)
  • The goal in developing the mouse was to empower researchers so that they can more rapidly screen through the long list of genes that have been implicated in disease and normal biological processes. (phys.org)
  • Various animal models of HSCR have been important in the understanding of the anatomy and pathophysiology of the disease and in the discovery of genes involved in HSCR. (medworm.com)
  • In this review we describe viral animal models for PD, i.e. models that are based on PD-associated mutations, and have been generated by viral delivery of the respective disease genes to the substantia nigra of rodents and non-human primates. (epfl.ch)
  • The human stem cell-derived brain model is the most complete model of the human brain to date, analogous to the maturity of a 5-week old fetus, containing 99 percent of the genes present in the human fetal brain. (all-creatures.org)
  • Typically they are induced by artificially inserting or removing genes in animals to create symptoms that only approximate the real disease in humans. (all-creatures.org)
  • These plasticity associated genes and associated pathways have long been targets for drug developers, but Revalesio's approach through its charge-stabilized nanostructure technology provides a new paradigm for treating Alzheimer's disease. (nanowerk.com)
  • Particularly, zebrafish models of PD have contributed to a better understanding of the role of several genes implicated in the disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • Work using this model first demonstrated that single genes and compounds could dramatically modulate life span and the rate of ageing. (edu.au)
  • SCID pig models depict numerous types of immune cell profiles due to defects in different signaling pathways and mutations in different genes. (bmbreports.org)
  • The expectation is that answers will come with the increasing number of patient genomes or exomes being sequenced, alongside those of family members - though this is not without difficulties, as a typical person is estimated to carry about 150 rare coding variants affecting about 1% of his or her genes, making it a challenge to identify those with a causal role in disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Large animal models, such as domesticated farm animals, offer some distinct advantages over rodent models, including a larger brain that is amenable to imaging and intracerebral therapy, longer lifespan, and a more human-like neuro-architecture. (medindia.net)
  • Translating preclinical results for gene-based therapies from rodent models to larger-brained models of HD is an important step along the path toward clinical testing. (medindia.net)
  • While numerous studies have now demonstrated that advanced liver fibrosis in patients and in experimental rodent models is reversible, there is currently no effective therapy for patients," said principal investigator David A. Brenner, MD, vice chancellor for Health Sciences and dean of the School of Medicine at the University of California, San Diego. (ucsd.edu)
  • Research on AD is currently being carried out in rodent models. (semanticscholar.org)
  • One of the more common rodent models is the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Another goal of the use of rodent models to study autism is to identify the mechanism by which autism develops in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • As Huntington disease is an inherited condition that can be detected decades before any clinical symptoms are seen in humans, a better understanding of the earliest changes in brain cell (neuronal) function, and the molecular pathways underlying those changes, could lead to preventive treatments that delay the onset of symptoms and neurodegeneration. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These results demonstrate for the first time in a model of chronic neurodegeneration that morphological activation of microglia and astroglia does not predict glial function, and that the presence of CD4+ T cells provides supportive neuroprotection by modulating the trophic/cytotoxic balance of glia. (pnas.org)
  • The first part of the book presents an overview of animal models of various species and includes a review of new invertebrate animal models to study neurodegeneration. (iospress.nl)
  • Last but not least, this first section includes the review of newer invertebrate animal models, such as Drosophila to study neurodegeneration. (iospress.nl)
  • Murine GVHD experiments have been utilized to model the clinical disorders of acute and chronic GVHD (AGVHD and CGVHD) that occur after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, and also to study T cell regulation, induction of tolerance, and autoimmune diseases. (currentprotocols.com)
  • Vital and easy to use, Animal Models for Retinal Diseases serves to support the important future research of ocular investigators, ophthalmologists, and neuroscientists currently delving into this fascinating field of study. (springer.com)
  • This meeting is unique in that our program is not limited to a sin-gle disease, discipline, or species, and thereby will provide a breadth and diversity of topics not seen in more narrowly focused conferences. (xenbase.org)
  • Some animal species show typical intranuclear inclusion bodies (Joest-Degen inclusions) , which are composed of specific antigen and are located in ganglion cells of the Ammon`s hom, the piriform lobe and the retina. (scialert.net)
  • The great adaptability of the virus to different animal species and its affinity for neurons allow to investigate clinical alterations involving the CNS and to quantitate the virological and immunological interactions of the agent with nerve cells in the brain and the eye. (scialert.net)
  • We have developed new transgenic C. elegans strains expressing specific disease relevant amino-truncated Aß-species. (edu.au)
  • Increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a significant pathological feature in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). (uzh.ch)
  • Pathologic changes comparable to the lesions of AD are described in several other animal species, although their clinical significance and effect on cognitive function are poorly documented. (uu.nl)
  • When administered to an AD fly model, CEppt rectified their reduced longevity, fully recovered their locomotion defects and totally abolished tetrameric species of Aβ in their brain. (pubfacts.com)
  • More recent research has used the house mouse (Mus musculus) to model autism because it is a social species. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2012, a researcher from the University of Nebraska at Kearney published a study reviewing research that had been done using the songbird as a model for autism spectrum disorders, noting that the neurobiology of vocalization is similar between humans and songbirds, and that, in both species, social learning plays a central role in the development of the ability to vocalize. (wikipedia.org)
  • The drug we used, memantine, is currently being used to treat moderate-stage Alzheimer disease patients. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Extra-synaptic NMDARs have also been shown to be involved in other neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease, and in damage caused by traumatic brain injury and some forms of stroke . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Dr. Anand and his research associate Susan McKay have begun to use the platform to create organoid models of Alzheimer s, Parkinson s and autism in a dish. (all-creatures.org)
  • Amyloid precursor protein (APP) proteolysis is essential for production of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides that form β-amyloid plaques in brains of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. (pubfacts.com)
  • The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a meeting of investigators on September 21-22, 2006, in Bethesda, Maryland, to evaluate evidence for a pathogenetic link between COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) and cardiovascular disease and to recommend future research that may be needed to clarify this relationship and to translate this understanding into better approaches for the prevention and treatment of cardiopulmonary disease. (nih.gov)
  • Experts in cardiovascular disease and COPD were brought together for this working group. (nih.gov)
  • It was acknowledged that cardiovascular disease plays a major role in COPD, being responsible for the death of more than 30% of these patients. (nih.gov)
  • Analyses of existing data and new population-based epidemiological data are needed to clarify the relationship between cardiovascular disease and COPD, including the cardiovascular association with pulmonary function measures (e.g. (nih.gov)
  • Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a term that encompasses multiple heart and blood-vessel-related maladies. (taconic.com)
  • Obesity is associated with a number of health problems that are often summarized together as metabolic syndrome and involve the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and fatty liver disease [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • A cholesterol drug commonly prescribed to reduce cardiovascular disease risk restores blood vessel function in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, according to a study in the April 4 issue of The Journal of Neuroscience. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Can radiation increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases? (nii.ac.jp)
  • Morrisey collaborated on a recent study led by Peranteau and Kiran Musunuru, MD, PhD, an associate professor of Cardiovascular Medicine at Penn, demonstrating the feasibility of in utero gene editing to rescue a lethal metabolic liver disease in a mouse model - the first time in utero CRISPR-mediated gene editing prevented a lethal metabolic disorder in animals. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Moreover, growing evidence suggests that there are several connections between the neuropathology that underlies AD and DM, and there is evidence that the experimental induction of DM can cause cognitive dysfunction, even in rodent animal models. (mdpi.com)
  • A first-ever tissue implant to safely treat a common jaw defect, temporomandibular joint dysfunction, has been successfully tested in animals by researchers from UC Irvine and UC Davis. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Eur J Pediatr Surg DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1694745Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is caused by incomplete colonization of enteric neural crest-derived cell (ENCC) in the bowel, the failure of ENCCs to proliferate, differentiate, and migrate leads to an absence of enteric neurons in the distal colon, resulting in colonic motility dysfunction. (medworm.com)
  • Dysfunction or death of specific neuronal populations most at risk for dominantly inherited neurodegenerative diseases is not mediated solely by the expression of the mutant protein within target neurons ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • We are now building on these findings and working to identify the precise mechanism by which this drug reduces brain-network dysfunction and improves memory in our mouse models," said Dr. Sanchez. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The Mitochondrial Research Society estimates that more than 50 million adults in the U.S. suffer from diseases in which mitochondrial dysfunction is involved and that mitochondrial dysfunction is found in a broad spectrum of diseases - from diabetes and infertility to cancer and age-related neurodegenerative disorders (see http://www.mitoresearch.org). (taylorfrancis.com)
  • This review describes the commonly reported age-associated neurologic lesions in domestic and laboratory animals and the relationship of these lesions to cognitive dysfunction. (uu.nl)
  • Our results suggest that clinical studies of memantine and similarly-acting drugs in Huntington disease, particularly in the pre-symptomatic stage, are warranted,"says Dr. Raymond. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • As we move toward the clinical use of this therapy in humans, we must develop and utilize non-invasive methods to monitor the regression of the disease following treatment," Vite said. (innovations-report.com)
  • World expert clinicians discuss each model based on their clinical experience, and the text is supported by numerous photos and diagrams. (springer.com)
  • This review aims to provide an update on the most recent evidence of therapeutically-relevant neuro-immuneinteractions following NPC transplants in animal models of multiple sclerosis, cerebral stroke and traumas of the spinal cord, and consideration of the forthcoming challenges related to the early translation of some of these exciting experimental outcomes into clinical medicines. (wingsforlife.com)
  • The diagnosis of Boma disease is established intra vitam on the basis of the clinical symptoms and the presence of antibodies in serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as well as by new ELISA methods measuring specific antigen and immune complexes. (scialert.net)
  • But because most animal models in this area do not reproduce the full phenotypical disease spectrum and the etiology and clinical presentation of neurodegenerative diseases differ from one patient to the next, the testing of these diseases in animal models often translates poorly to indices of efficacy when applied to the clinical population. (iospress.nl)
  • Second, for a given neurodegenerative disease, the etiology and the clinical presentation differ from one patient to the next. (iospress.nl)
  • These results demonstrate the efficacy of gene replacement therapy for myotubular myopathy in animal models and pave the way to a clinical trial in patients. (medindia.net)
  • Despite discrepancies between clinical studies, the likely relationship between the intestinal microbiota and allergy assess the usefulness of modulation of the gut microbiota that may help prevent and manage allergic diseases. (intechopen.com)
  • The results, appearing in the Jan. 22 issue of Science Translational Medicine , also demonstrate the feasibility of future clinical trials of gene therapy for this devastating disease. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Although there are many vaccines being tested in animals, few reach clinical trials. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, as a future perspective, we suggest that clinical studies should be conducted with vaccines that have been promising in animal models (e.g. (nih.gov)
  • Given the large medical burden of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) and recent clinical trial failures, there is a need for novel, safe and effective treatments for the disorder. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In interpreting the experimental results, the limitations of those animal models should be considered. (wiley.com)
  • It will highlight the various strengths and weaknesses of experimental approaches that have been used, and discuss potential directions for the development of such models for the future. (biologists.org)
  • Of interest here is a broad spectrum of tools and techniques for molecular, chemical, and biological measurements and procedures which are relevant to the care of and to experimental protocols involving research animal models. (sbir.gov)
  • References of experimental use of animals to model diseases, novel experimental procedures, or test novel therapeutics date all the way back to 304-258 BCE. (iospress.nl)
  • Furthermore, once a decision to proceed with research is made, it is the researcher's responsibility to ensure that the animals' w- fare is of prime concern in terms of appropriate housing, feeding, and maximum reduction of any uncomfortable or distressing effects of the experimental conditions, and that these conditions undergo frequent formalized monitoring. (foyles.co.uk)
  • The zebrafish is a popular animal for research because it is easily manipulated genetically, develops rapidly and is transparent, making the measurement of biological processes easier. (scienceblog.com)
  • This model system aided in establishing pathways essential for biological effects of IR1072, demonstrating the importance of HSF1 driven pathways, in particular those requiring HSP70. (bl.uk)
  • In each of the eight chapters, they deal with a specific modeling approach or set of techniques designed to capture a particular biological factor. (dymocks.com.au)
  • ORIP-funded resources support the development, characterization, preservation and distribution of high quality animal models and biological materials that are used by investigators in all disciplines of biomedical research. (sbir.gov)
  • The animal models and biological materials to be developed must address the research interests of two or more of the categorical NIH Institutes and Centers. (sbir.gov)
  • The Division of Comparative Medicine (DCM), Office of Research Infrastructure Programs (ORIP), supports Resources that create, develop, preserve and supply a variety of high-quality animal models and related biological materials to the biomedical community. (nih.gov)
  • DCM-supported Resources and the research community will benefit from development and commercialization of technologies that support the husbandry, characterization, improvement and use of animal models and related biological materials. (nih.gov)
  • This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) encourages small business concerns to submit Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant applications that propose innovative approaches to further develop, improve and facilitate the use of animal models and related biological materials to meet new biomedical challenges related to improvements in the health of humans and animals. (nih.gov)
  • The Office of Research Infrastructure Programs (ORIP) supports research-related resources that create, develop, preserve and supply a variety of high-quality animal models, and related biological materials. (nih.gov)
  • The vast number of murine models available encompasses a wide variety of immune disorders - from rheumatoid arthritis to multiple sclerosis. (brightkite.com)
  • How Do We Best Employ Animal Models for Type 1 Diabetes and Multiple Sclerosis? (libring.ru)
  • Dr. Raymond and her team were able, by using a drug that selectively blocks extra-synaptic NMDARs early, before the appearance of any symptoms, to delay the onset of Huntington-like symptoms in a mouse model of the disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Despite continuing debate over the ethics of using animal models in research, progress in the field has been phenomenal in recent times, and a whole host of models, particularly mouse models, have been developed. (brightkite.com)
  • A timeline of the generation of mouse models of GD. (biologists.org)
  • They assessed the effectiveness of treatment with GKT137831 - a NOX1/4 inhibitor developed by Genkyotex SA of Geneva, Switzerland - in mouse models, and found that treatment with this NOX inhibitor suppressed ROS production, as well as NOX and fibrotic gene expression. (ucsd.edu)
  • To demonstrate a potential application for cancer research, the authors used the "Cas9 mouse" to model lung adenocarcinoma . (phys.org)
  • So we screened seven FDA -approved anti-epileptic medications including levetiracetam in our Alzheimer's mouse model to see if minimizing these network disruptions could improve memory. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Based on seminal work on local and systemic administration in a mouse model of the disease performed by Anna Buj-Bello at Généthon since 2009, Martin K. Childers, a professor of rehabilitation medicine and a regenerative medicine researcher at the University of Washington, worked with the Buj-Bello and Beggs groups. (medicalxpress.com)
  • You will perform double patch- clamp recordings in the hippocampus and neocortex of novel mouse disease models. (dsfn.dk)
  • In the work presented here we combine the comparison of patient phenotypes to known disease as well as mouse and zebrafish phenotypes for each candidate variant in the exome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In PCK rat and PKD2 (ws25/w183) mouse models, entanercept was administered once every three days at 5 or 10 mg/kg, once daily. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The most common transgenic mouse model mimics familial AD, which accounts for a small percentage of cases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Effect of the oral administration of nanoencapsulated quercetin on a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Companies can help to develop innovative approaches and tools to modify and maintain models to meet new biomedical challenges and needs. (sbir.gov)
  • The present review offers a snapshot of how proteomic techniques have been applied to farm animals to improve their use as biomedical models. (spectroscopynow.com)
  • Additionally, owners constructed a 'hierarchy of purity' for their pets, and it is on this structure of disease and risk that owners base their behaviour, not conventional biomedical models of disease. (animalsandsociety.org)
  • Further understanding of the pathogenicity of autoreactive CD4 + T cells may lead to disease-specific treatments. (wiley.com)
  • Adenosine A 2A receptor antagonists, being developed as novel PD treatments, indirectly modulate dopamine signaling in the basal ganglia and may have an improved psychosis profile which could be detected using the PPI model. (springer.com)
  • Disease-modifying treatments remain beyond reach, and the etiology of the disease is uncertain. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The in vivo experiments employ animal models including vertebrates (zebrafish, rodents, rabbits, and primates) and invertebrates (fruit flies and nematodes) for drug screening. (springer.com)
  • We think it self-e- dent, however, that humans can only be experimented upon in severely proscribed circumstances and alternative pro- dures using cell or tissue culture are inadequate in any models requiring assessments of behavioral change or of complex in vivo processes. (foyles.co.uk)
  • This indicates a strong need for highly predictive in vitro and in vivo models. (libring.ru)
  • Overlap in susceptibility is also seen in the GWAS that have to date identified 10 common variants with small effects on disease risk, though here the major overlap is seen with bipolar disorder. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While this Insight will be discussing the role of ApoE in CVD, this protein also plays an important role in Alzheimer's disease as it is the principal transporter of cholesterol in the brain. (taconic.com)
  • PPI deficits induced by dopamine agonists can model symptoms of psychosis. (springer.com)
  • The present review is aimed to report the new developments of the efficacy and safety of DNA vaccines for AD in animal models. (nih.gov)
  • These approaches are being used by a number of folks (including us in collaboration with others) in the vision sciences to work with retinal degenerative diseases and this review is a rather nice, concise summary of the approaches and tools used for optogenetics. (utah.edu)
  • Find out more about the degenerative disease- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (medindia.net)
  • UCLA professor of neurology Jeff Bronstein and UCLA associate professor of neurology Gal Bitan, along with their colleagues, report the development of a novel compound known as a "molecular tweezer," which in a living animal model blocked α-synuclein aggregates from forming, stopped the aggregates' toxicity and, further, reversed aggregates in the brain that had already formed. (scienceblog.com)
  • In both models, the mutated huntingtin gene contains extended repeats of the nucleotide triplet CAG, leading to development of HD-like motor symptoms and the same type of brain damage seen in the devastating neurological disorder. (massgeneral.org)
  • ApoE4 - Allelic frequency of 15 - 20% 3 - has been implicated in atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, and contributes to increased serum cholesterol levels and the development of CVD 5 , 6 . (taconic.com)
  • Particular attention is given throughout the book to the development of practical models, useful both as predictive tools and as a means to understand fundamental epidemiological processes. (dymocks.com.au)
  • Obesity is one of the major risk factors for the Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) development, as the leading cause of chronic liver disease. (intechopen.com)
  • These models are analogous to NAFLD development, since the increasing visceral fat is highly associated with the accumulation of fat in the form of triglycerides in the liver. (intechopen.com)
  • Recent animal studies with physiologically relevant dosages have begun to dissect adverse effects of caffeine during pregnancy with respect to oviduct contractility, embryo development, uterine receptivity, and placentation that jointly contribute to pregnancy complications. (medworm.com)
  • Several unique features of NEC pose challenges to the development of adequate animal models. (biologists.org)
  • Therefore, animal models are under continuous development and improvement to meet emerging challenges and scientific needs. (sbir.gov)
  • This increase and the dichotomy in the rate of allergic disease between industrialized and developing countries are two lines of evidence suggesting that environmental changes are a major factor in the development of allergies. (intechopen.com)
  • Taken together, TNF-α is necessary for the development of coronary artery lesions in an animal model of Kawasaki disease. (jimmunol.org)
  • The following animal models of viral infections have either been established or are under development at the BRL. (gmu.edu)
  • These opossums developed elevated cholesterol and fatty liver disease when fed a high cholesterol and high fat diet, just like people with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. (understandinganimalresearch.org.uk)
  • Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of chronic liver disease affecting 20-30% of the world's adult population, and is characterized by a buildup of fat, mainly in the form of triglycerides, in the hepatocyte cytoplasm, exceeding 5-10% of the cell weight, verified histologically or by imaging techniques. (intechopen.com)
  • In that model, 14 weeks of treatment reduced mutant huntingtin aggregates in the most affected area of the brain by more than 50 percent, compared with untreated animals from the same strain. (massgeneral.org)
  • Lyme disease, if not diagnosed early, can result in post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). (health.mil)
  • These data indicate that TRPC5 activity drives disease and that TRPC5 inhibitors may be valuable for the treatment of progressive kidney diseases. (broadinstitute.org)
  • In the last two decades the transplantation approach, by means of stem cells of different origin, has been suggested for the treatment of neurological diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • The information should not be used for either diagnosis or treatment or both for any health related problem or disease. (medindia.net)
  • Effects of topical preventive treatment with GATA3-specific DNAzyme (hgd40) were investigated in the oxazolone model. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Using the OVA/CFA model, effects of the Tbet-specific DNAzyme td32 treatment were evaluated. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Is the Subject Area "Genetics of disease" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • Invertebrate models provide high-throughput potential, with highly manipulable genetics and functional output that places these models in promising standing within the field. (iospress.nl)
  • however, they have been shown to modulate microglial activation and provide neuroprotection in acute models of neuronal injury ( 10 - 16 ). (pnas.org)