Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
A familial disorder inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by the onset of progressive CHOREA and DEMENTIA in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Common initial manifestations include paranoia; poor impulse control; DEPRESSION; HALLUCINATIONS; and DELUSIONS. Eventually intellectual impairment; loss of fine motor control; ATHETOSIS; and diffuse chorea involving axial and limb musculature develops, leading to a vegetative state within 10-15 years of disease onset. The juvenile variant has a more fulminant course including SEIZURES; ATAXIA; dementia; and chorea. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1060-4)
Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A plant genus of the family VIOLACEAE. Some species in this genus are called bouncing bet which is a common name more often used with SAPONARIA OFFICINALIS. Members contain macrocyclic peptides.
A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)
A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.
A condition characterized by mucosal tears at the ESOPHAGOGASTRIC JUNCTION, sometimes with HEMATEMESIS. Typically it is caused by forceful bouts of retching or VOMITING.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Structured vocabularies describing concepts from the fields of biology and relationships between concepts.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
Social welfare organizations with programs designed to assist individuals in need.
Discontinuance of care received by patient(s) due to reasons other than full recovery from the disease.
The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.
A branch of internal medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of INFECTIOUS DISEASES.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Abnormal structures located in various parts of the brain and composed of dense arrays of paired helical filaments (neurofilaments and microtubules). These double helical stacks of transverse subunits are twisted into left-handed ribbon-like filaments that likely incorporate the following proteins: (1) the intermediate filaments: medium- and high-molecular-weight neurofilaments; (2) the microtubule-associated proteins map-2 and tau; (3) actin; and (4) UBIQUITINS. As one of the hallmarks of ALZHEIMER DISEASE, the neurofibrillary tangles eventually occupy the whole of the cytoplasm in certain classes of cell in the neocortex, hippocampus, brain stem, and diencephalon. The number of these tangles, as seen in post mortem histology, correlates with the degree of dementia during life. Some studies suggest that tangle antigens leak into the systemic circulation both in the course of normal aging and in cases of Alzheimer disease.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Accumulations of extracellularly deposited AMYLOID FIBRILS within tissues.
Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.
An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports research program related to diseases of the heart, blood vessels, lung, and blood; blood resources; and SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS. From 1948 until October 10, 1969, it was known as the National Heart Institute. From June 25, 1976, it was the National Heart and Lung Institute. Since October 1997, the NHLBI has also had administrative responsibility for the NIH Woman's Health Initiative.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.

New perspectives on biliary atresia. (1/64177)

An investigation into the aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of biliary atresia was carried out because the prognosis remains so poor.In an electron microscopical study no viral particles or viral inclusion bodies were seen, nor were any specific ultrastructural features observed. An animal experiment suggested that obstruction within the biliary tract of newborn rabbits could be produced by maternal intravenous injection of the bile acid lithocholic acid.A simple and atraumatic method of diagnosis was developed using(99) (m)Tc-labelled compounds which are excreted into bile. Two compounds, (99m)Tc-pyridoxylidene glutamate ((99m)Tc-PG) and (99m)Tc-dihydrothioctic acid ((99m)Tc-DHT) were first assessed in normal piglets and piglets with complete biliary obstruction. Intestinal imaging correlated with biliary tract patency, and the same correlation was found in jaundiced human adults, in whom the (99m)Tc-PG scan correctly determined biliary patency in 21 out of 24 cases. The (99m)Tc-PG scan compared well with liver biopsy and (131)I-Rose Bengal in the diagnosis of 11 infants with prolonged jaundice.A model of extrahepatic biliary atresia was developed in the newborn piglet so that different methods of bile drainage could be assessed. Priorities in biliary atresia lie in a better understanding of the aetiology and early diagnosis rather than in devising new bile drainage procedures.  (+info)

The evolution of early fibromuscular lesions hemodynamically induced in the dog renal artery. I. Light and transmission electron microscopy. (2/64177)

In view of the important roles of arterial intimal fibromuscular lesions as precursors of atherosclerotic plaque and occlusive lesions in arterial reconstructions, a model has been developed for the rapid hemodynamic induction of these lesions by anastomosis of the dog right renal artery to the inferior vena cava. Light and transmission electron microscopic observations were made on the arterial shunt after periods of rapid flow ranging form 10 minutes to 2 hours to identify initial factor(s) and evolutionary mechanisms in the etiology of the lesions. The sequence of events included aberrations in ruthenium red staining of the endothelial luminal membrane at 10 minutes, multilayered thickening of the subendothelial basement membrane (BM) at 15 minutes, and initial reorientation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMC) into the intima along with the appearance of areas of degeneration of the internal elastic lamina (IEL) at 30 minutes. The endothelial cells were still intact in some areas overlying the SMC migration and IEL degeneration, but they were separating from the surface in other such areas. As subendothelium became exposed, some platelet adherence was noted. By 2 hours, the entire wall reaction was fully developed. Initial observations indicate that in the evolution of this hemodynamically induced lesion visible alteration in the endothelial cells is not prerequisite to degeneration of the underlying IEL and reorientation and migration of medial SMC.  (+info)

Site of myocardial infarction. A determinant of the cardiovascular changes induced in the cat by coronary occlusion. (3/64177)

The influence of site of acute myocardial infarction on heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance (TPR), cardiac rhythm, and mortality was determined in 58 anesthetized cats by occlusion of either the left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex or right coronary artery. LAD occlusion resulted in immediate decrease in cardiac output, heart rate, and blood pressure, an increase in TPR, and cardiac rhythm changes including premature ventricular beats, ventricular tachycardia, and occasionally ventricular fibrillation. The decrease in cardiac output and increase in TPR persisted in the cats surviving a ventricular arrhythmia. In contrast, right coronary occlusion resulted in a considerably smaller decrease in cardiac output. TPR did not increase, atrioventricular condition disturbances were common, and sinus bradycardia and hypotension persisted in the cats recovering from an arrhythmia. Left circumflex ligation resulted in cardiovascular changes intermediate between those produced by occlusion of the LAD or the right coronary artery. Mortality was similar in each of the three groups. We studied the coronary artery anatomy in 12 cats. In 10, the blood supply to the sinus node was from the right coronary artery and in 2, from the left circumflex coronary artery. The atrioventricular node artery arose from the right in 9 cats, and from the left circumflex in 3. The right coronary artery was dominant in 9 cats and the left in 3. In conclusion, the site of experimental coronary occlusion in cats is a major determinant of the hemodynamic and cardiac rhythm changes occurring after acute myocardial infarction. The cardiovascular responses evoked by ligation are related in part to the anatomical distribution of the occluded artery.  (+info)

Hierarchy of ventricular pacemakers. (4/64177)

To characterize the pattern of pacemaker dominance in the ventricular specialized conduction system (VSCS), escape ventricular pacemakers were localized and quantified in vivo and in virto, in normal hearts and in hearts 24 hours after myocardial infarction. Excape pacemaker foci were localized in vivo during vagally induced atrial arrest by means of electrograms recorded from the His bundle and proximal bundle branches and standard electrocardiographic limb leads. The VSCS was isolated using a modified Elizari preparation or preparations of each bundle branch. Peacemakers were located by extra- and intracellular recordings. Escape pacemaker foci in vivo were always in the proximal conduction system, usually the left bundle branch. The rate was 43+/-11 (mean+/-SD) beats/min. After beta-adrenergic blockade, the mean rate fell to 31+/-10 beats/min, but there were no shifts in pacemaker location. In the infarcted hearts, pacemakers were located in the peripheral left bundle branch. The mean rate was 146+/-20 beats/min. In isolated normal preparations, the dominant pacemakers usually were in the His bundle, firing at a mean rate of 43+/-10 beats/min. The rates of pacemakers diminished with distal progression. In infarcted hearts, the pacemakers invariably were in the infarct zone. The mean firing rates were not influenced by beta-adrenergic blockade. The results indicate that the dominant pacemakers are normally in the very proximal VSCS, but after myocardial infarction pacemaker dominance is shifted into the infarct. Distribution of pacemaker dominance is independent of sympathetic influence.  (+info)

A genetic model of substrate deprivation therapy for a glycosphingolipid storage disorder. (5/64177)

Inherited defects in the degradation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) cause a group of severe diseases known as GSL storage disorders. There are currently no effective treatments for the majority of these disorders. We have explored a new treatment paradigm, substrate deprivation therapy, by constructing a genetic model in mice. Sandhoff's disease mice, which abnormally accumulate GSLs, were bred with mice that were blocked in their synthesis of GSLs. The mice with simultaneous defects in GSL synthesis and degradation no longer accumulated GSLs, had improved neurologic function, and had a much longer life span. However, these mice eventually developed a late-onset neurologic disease because of accumulation of another class of substrate, oligosaccharides. The results support the validity of the substrate deprivation therapy and also highlight some limitations.  (+info)

DMPK dosage alterations result in atrioventricular conduction abnormalities in a mouse myotonic dystrophy model. (6/64177)

Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy and is caused by expansion of a CTG trinucleotide repeat on human chromosome 19. Patients with DM develop atrioventricular conduction disturbances, the principal cardiac manifestation of this disease. The etiology of the pathophysiological changes observed in DM has yet to be resolved. Haploinsufficiency of myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK), DM locus-associated homeodomain protein (DMAHP) and/or titration of RNA-binding proteins by expanded CUG sequences have been hypothesized to underlie the multi-system defects observed in DM. Using an in vivo murine electrophysiology study, we show that cardiac conduction is exquisitely sensitive to DMPK gene dosage. DMPK-/- mice develop cardiac conduction defects which include first-, second-, and third-degree atrioventricular (A-V) block. Our results demonstrate that the A-V node and the His-Purkinje regions of the conduction system are specifically compromised by DMPK loss. Importantly, DMPK+/- mice develop first-degree heart block, a conduction defect strikingly similar to that observed in DM patients. These results demonstrate that DMPK dosage is a critical element modulating cardiac conduction integrity and conclusively link haploinsufficiency of DMPK with cardiac disease in myotonic dystrophy.  (+info)

Alternative sulfonylurea receptor expression defines metabolic sensitivity of K-ATP channels in dopaminergic midbrain neurons. (7/64177)

ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channels couple the metabolic state to cellular excitability in various tissues. Several isoforms of the K-ATP channel subunits, the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) and inwardly rectifying K channel (Kir6.X), have been cloned, but the molecular composition and functional diversity of native neuronal K-ATP channels remain unresolved. We combined functional analysis of K-ATP channels with expression profiling of K-ATP subunits at the level of single substantia nigra (SN) neurons in mouse brain slices using an RT-multiplex PCR protocol. In contrast to GABAergic neurons, single dopaminergic SN neurons displayed alternative co-expression of either SUR1, SUR2B or both SUR isoforms with Kir6.2. Dopaminergic SN neurons expressed alternative K-ATP channel species distinguished by significant differences in sulfonylurea affinity and metabolic sensitivity. In single dopaminergic SN neurons, co-expression of SUR1 + Kir6.2, but not of SUR2B + Kir6.2, correlated with functional K-ATP channels highly sensitive to metabolic inhibition. In contrast to wild-type, surviving dopaminergic SN neurons of homozygous weaver mouse exclusively expressed SUR1 + Kir6.2 during the active period of dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Therefore, alternative expression of K-ATP channel subunits defines the differential response to metabolic stress and constitutes a novel candidate mechanism for the differential vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons in response to respiratory chain dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.  (+info)

DEF-1, a novel Src SH3 binding protein that promotes adipogenesis in fibroblastic cell lines. (8/64177)

The Src homology 3 (SH3) motif is found in numerous signal transduction proteins involved in cellular growth and differentiation. We have purified and cloned a novel protein, DEF-1 (differentiation-enhancing factor), from bovine brain by using a Src SH3 affinity column. Ectopic expression of DEF-1 in fibroblasts resulted in the differentiation of a significant fraction of the culture into adipocytes. This phenotype appears to be related to the induction of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), since DEF-1 NIH 3T3 cells demonstrated augmented levels of PPARgamma mRNA and, when treated with activating PPARgamma ligands, efficient induction of differentiation. Further evidence for a role for DEF-1 in adipogenesis was provided by heightened expression of DEF-1 mRNA in adipose tissue isolated from obese and diabetes mice compared to that in tissue isolated from wild-type mice. However, DEF-1 mRNA was detected in multiple tissues, suggesting that the signal transduction pathway(s) in which DEF-1 is involved is not limited to adipogenesis. These results suggest that DEF-1 is an important component of a signal transduction process that is involved in the differentiation of fibroblasts and possibly of other types of cells.  (+info)

The ROP [Ra/+ (ragged), Os/+ (oligosyndactyly), and Pt/+ (pintail)] mouse possessing the gene for oligosyndactylism (Os) was evaluated as a potential genetic animal model of reduced renal mass. Young male ROP mice that were heterozygotes with respect to the Os gene (Os/+) and their normal homozygote …
The Animal Models module of SFARI Gene examines data from animal models used in laboratory research to elucidate the underlying causes of ASD.
World Health Organization. (‎1988)‎. ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME (‎AIDS)‎ : WHO meeting on animal models for HIV infection and AIDS = SYNDROME DIMMUNODÉFICIENCE ACQUISE (‎SIDA)‎ : Réunion de lOMS sur les modèles animaux pour linfection à VIH et le SIDA. Weekly Epidemiological Record = Relevé épidémiologique hebdomadaire, 63 (‎19)‎, 137 - 138. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - On animal models for studying bone adaptation. AU - Turner, C. H.. AU - Forwood, M. R.. AU - Raab-Cullen, D. M.. AU - Akhter, Mohammed P.. AU - Kimmel, D. B.. AU - Recker, Robert R.. AU - Torrance, A. G.. AU - Lanyon, L. E.. PY - 1994/10. Y1 - 1994/10. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1007/BF00310412. DO - 10.1007/BF00310412. M3 - Letter. C2 - 7820784. AN - SCOPUS:0028021440. VL - 55. SP - 316. EP - 318. JO - Calcified Tissue International. JF - Calcified Tissue International. SN - 0171-967X. IS - 4. ER - ...
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PubMed journal article: A review of animal model studies of tomato carotenoids, lycopene, and cancer chemoprevention. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Animal models are an important means of studying diseases as well as normal functions. The animal model must closely mimic the situation we wish to study in humans. Humans are used as subjects in about 30 percent of all biomedical research, but they are not the best research subject when certain problems are studied.. Animal models can be categorized as natural or induced. Natural models are those in which a condition occurs spontaneously, such as atherosclerosis in the squirrel monkey. Atherosclerosis is a prevalent human disease in which fatty deposits occur along the inner walls of the arteries. By studying the natural disease in these monkeys, it is possible to learn facts about the disease that are also true in humans. Other examples of natural animal models are epilepsy in Mongolian gerbils and diabetes in some strains of mice.. Induced animal models are those in which a disease or condition must be artificially produced. Tumor cells, for example, can be injected into animals as a means of ...
Animal models can be used to study the effects that a TBI, or a TBI like brain injury have on memory and cognition. In humans cognitive impairment, and memory deficit have been observed following a TBI. The duration of symptoms may last a few days, or be permanent depending on severity. Animal models have demonstrated the same effects. Using tests like the Morris Water Maze, spatial memory and learning can be tracked following TBI. Remarkably one of the effects that experimenters have seen with the administration of EPO to mice and rats following injury is a decrease in the cognitive impairment, and memory loss, when compared to control animals. It should be noted that different animal models may have used different protocols for inducing TBI. In addition there are differences in the type of EPO isoforms used, the dosing of EPO, as well as the timing of EPO administration. Due to space constraints these differences, and their impact, will not be mentioned in the animal model section, however ...
Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial highly-complex disease with numerous etiologies that work synergistically to promote lesion development. The ability to develop preventive and ameliorative treatments will depend on animal models that mimic the human subject metabolically and pathophysiologically and will develop lesions comparable to those in humans. The mouse is the most useful, economic, and valid model for studying atherosclerosis and exploring effective therapeutic approaches. Among the most widely used mouse models for atherosclerosis are apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE) and LDL receptor-deficient (LDLr) mice. An up-and-coming model is the ApoE*3Leiden (E3L) transgenic mouse. Here, we review studies that have explored how and to what extent these mice respond to compounds directed at treatment of the risk factors hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, and inflammation. An important outcome of this survey is that the different models used may differ markedly from one ...
Patient derived xenografts (PDX) are in vivo animal tumor models established directly from patient tumor samples without any in vitro manipulation. It has been shown that these tumor xenografts maintain essential histopathological features and genetic profiles of the original tumors, and thus are the most clinically relevant animal models for cancer drug discovery. Comparing to the traditional cell line derived xenograft (CDX) tumor models, however, one challenge encountered by the PDX in vivo studies is the lack of corresponding in vitro cell culture system for cost-effective and high throughput drug screening and model selection. Here we set out to establish such an in vitro platform, so-called PrimePanelTM, by deriving homogeneous primary cancer cell cultures from the PDX tumors in several major tumor types. These cells are early passage cultures (usually p,10), which maintain similar cellular characteristics as the corresponding tumor xenografts, including the genomic mutational status, ...
Acute brain lesions induce profound alterations of the peripheral immune response comprising the opposing phenomena of early immune activation and subsequent immunosuppression. The mechanisms underlying this brain-immune signaling are largely unknown. We used animal models for experimental brain ischemia as a paradigm of acute brain lesions and additionally investigated a large cohort of stroke patients. We analyzed release of HMGB1 isoforms by mass spectrometry and investigated its inflammatory potency and signaling pathways by immunological in vivo and in vitro techniques. Features of the complex behavioral sickness behavior syndrome were characterized by homecage behavior analysis. HMGB1 downstream signaling, particularly with RAGE, was studied in various transgenic animal models and by pharmacological blockade. Our results indicate that the cytokine-inducing, fully reduced isoform of HMGB1 was released from the ischemic brain in the hyperacute phase of stroke in mice and patients. Cytokines secreted
Kulkarni RN, Holzenberger M, Shih DQ, et al.: Beta-cellspecific deletion of the Igf1 receptor leads to hyperinsulinemia and glucose intolerance but does not alter beta-cell mass. Nat Genet 2002, 31:111-115. In these studies, mice with â-cell-specific disruption of the IGF-1 receptor develop a normal complement of â-cells, suggesting that the IGF-1 receptor is not crucial for the early growth of the â-cells. These KOs manifest defects in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion secondary to reduced expression of glucokinase and the glucose transporter glut2. These findings have implications for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
The aim of this research line is to develop more appropriate animal models and novel human in vitro CNS/PNS models, including human fetal and adult organotypic sensory ganglion and brain slice cultures, to elucidate the pathological attributes of both virus and host in viral CNS disease. Upon validation of the novel models by comparison with affected nervous tissues of patients with virus-induced CNS disease, they will be used as pre-clinical models to test the efficacy and safety of promising novel antiviral and neuroprotective therapies.. ...
Acute and chronic inflammatory diseases of the intestine impart a significant and negative impact on the health and well-being of human and non-human mammalian animals. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of inflammatory disease is mandatory to develop effective treatment and prevention strategies. As inflammatory disease etiologies are multifactorial, the use of appropriate animal models and associated metrics of disease are essential. In this regard, animal models used alone or in combination to study acute and chronic inflammatory disease of the mammalian intestine paired with commonly used inflammation-inducing agents are reviewed. This includes both chemical and biological incitants of inflammation, and both non-mammalian (i.e. nematodes, insects, and fish) and mammalian (i.e. rodents, rabbits, pigs, ruminants, dogs, and non-human primates) models of intestinal inflammation including germ-free, gnotobiotic, as well as surgical, and genetically modified animals. Importantly, chemical and ...
TRC210258, a novel TGR5 agonist, reduces glycemic and dyslipidemic cardiovascular risk in animal models of diabesity Shitalkumar Zambad, Davinder Tuli, Anoop Mathur, Sameer A Ghalsasi, Anita RÂ Chaudhary, Shailesh Deshpande, Ramesh C Gupta, Vijay Chauthaiwale, Chaitanya DuttTorrent Research Centre, Torrent Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Gujarat, IndiaBackground: Patients with diabesity have a significantly increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Therefore, therapy addressing the multiple metabolic abnormalities linked with diabesity and leading to further reduction of cardiovascular risk is highly desirable. Activation of the TGR5 receptor holds therapeutic potential for diabesity. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of TRC210258, a novel TGR5 agonist, in clinically relevant animal models of diabesity.Methods: A novel small molecule, TRC210258 (N-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-fluoro phenoxy)-N-methylimidazo (1, 2-a) pyrimidine-3-carboxamide), was synthesized. The in vitro TGR5 receptor
The centre examines the molecular changes in disease states in humans and relevant animal models, particularly using gene chip (microarray) technology. We relate these changes to the current clinical methods use to study these diseases, such as histopathology and diagnostic imaging. Biopsies from patients with organ disease are the principal focus for establishing what the molecular changes mean, and their relationship to the current tests as well as the outcomes in the patients ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Hepatic preconditioning for transplanted cell engraftment and proliferation. AU - Wu, Yao Ming. AU - Gupta, Sanjeev. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Hepatocyte transplantation has therapeutic potential for multiple hepatic and extrahepatic disorders with genetic or acquired basis. To demonstrate whether cell populations of interest will be effective for clinical applications, it is first necessary to characterize their properties in animal systems. Demonstrating the potential of cells to engraft and proliferate is a critical part of this characterization. Similarly, for stem/progenitor cells, demonstrating the capacity to differentiate along appropriate lineages and generate mature cells that can engraft and proliferate is essential. In various animal models, preconditioning of recipients prior to cell transplantation has been necessary to improve engraftment of cells, to stimulate proliferation of engrafted cells, and to induce extensive repopulation of the host liver by transplanted ...
Structure and function of C-terminal histone H4 peptides. The research interest of our laboratory has recently been focussed on the isolation, structural identification, synthesis and determination of the biological activity of histogranin (HN). HN is a slightly modified C-terminal histone H4 peptide present in various rat tissues including the spleen, lungs, bone marrow and brain. It was first coined for its in vivo modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced convulsions in mice. Recently, HN and related peptides were found to display non-opioid analgesic activities in various animal models of pain. The design and synthesis of small molecules (cyclic tetrapeptides and non-peptides) on the basis of the structure of HN were among our first priorities in order to determine the structure requirement and mode of action of HN for its antinociceptive effects. The mechanism by which HN and related compounds alleviate pain is still unknown, but a close correlation was made between the abilities of ...
Primary Sjögrens syndrome (pSS) is characterized by a panel of autoantbodies, while it is not clear whether B cells and autoantibodies play an essential role in pathogenesis of the disease. Here we report a novel mouse model for pSS which is induced by immunization with the Ro60_316-335 peptide containing a predominant T cell epitope. After immunization, mice developed several symptoms mimicking pSS, including a decreased secretion of tears, lymphocytic infiltration into the lacrimal glands, autoantibodies and increased levels of inflammatory cytokines. Disease susceptibility to this novel mouse model varies among strains, where C3H/HeJ (H2-k) and C3H/HeN (H2-k) are susceptible while DBA/1 (H2-q) and C57BL/6 (H2-b) are resistant. Depletion of B cells using anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies prevented C3H/HeN mice from development of the pSS-like disease. In addition, HLA-DRB1*0803, a pSS risk allele, was predicted to bind to the hRo60_308-328 which contains a predominant T cell epitope of human Ro60.
Interleukin (IL)-21 is a recently discovered cytokine in early clinical development, which has shown anti-tumor activity in various animal models. In the present study, we examine the anti-tumor activ
Vagal efferent activation can reduce inflammation and disease activity in various animal models of intestinal inflammation, likely via a mechanism involving activation of a a7nAChR subtype. The current hypothesis for this ...
Experimental mouse models are widely used for preclinical research on dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and cardiometabolic diseases
About 70,000 Women are diagnosed with breast cancer every year in Germany alone. Despite significant progress in the treatment of common types of breast cancer, some aggressive subtypes are poorly understood and remain incurable. A new experimental model opens new avenues for mammary gland biology and basic breast cancer research. Researchers at the Helmholtz Center in Munich are now able to create three-dimensional organoid-structures that recapitulate normal breast development and function from single patient-derived cells.
When studying a gene function, in vivo studies are essential to validate data collected from in vitro experiments. The most commonly used animal models for in vivo studies are rodents, mostly mice (Mus musculus) and rats (Rattus norvegicus), which present several advantages such as the high similarity of their genome with human genome, but also their small size and their capacity to reproduce fast.
The First Animal - Sponges by Kaley Fulk | This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool for creating beautiful newsletters for for educators, nonprofits, businesses and more
UCL is particularly strong in neuroscience with a substantial international reputation. The capacity to carry out research on NHPs is essential for developing an understanding of complex brain mechanisms at the level most relevant to man for which no other valid model exists. NHPs represent the best available animal model for human function and are particularly important for research into neurological and psychiatric diseases, diseases which now affect over 1 billion people worldwide. We recognise that research using NHPs brings with it additional responsibilities in terms of ethical issues and welfare needs. UCL supports the provision of the best possible facilities and environment for them and is committed to sustaining these facilities and the associated expertise in the long term. UCL is committed to the principle of the 3Rs with regard to all research animals including NHPs.. Last year there were no completed procedures involving NHPs, but 8 are currently involved in ongoing work at UCL ...
Energy homeostasis is accomplished through a highly integrated and redundant neurohumoral system. Recently, novel molecular mediators and regulatory pathways for feeding and body weight regulation have been identified in the brain and the periphery. Because of the multitude and complexity of disturbances in energy intake, expenditure, and partitioning that are associated with obesity, it has been difficult to determine which abnormalities are causative versus less important phenomena that are consequences of the altered neuroendocrine and metabolic milieu. Transgenic technology has provided new opportunities to modify the complex body weight-regulating system and to assess the relative importance of the individual components. Observations of mutant mice have shed new light on the understanding of energy homeostasis equation. Once created, transgenic animal models may be useful in assessing the efficacy or determining the mode of action of potential new therapeutic agents. However, the ...
Recent advances in techniques for manipulating genomes have allowed the generation of transgenic animals other than mice. These new models enable cross-mammalian comparison of neurological disease from core cellular pathophysiology to circuit and behavioural endophenotypes. Moreover they will enable …
Risk factors are things that can be causes. Like smoking is a risk factor and can cause heart disease. I dont think marmalade can cause CCSVI, but Id bet CCSVI, the risk factor (not the movie of the same name), ...
The plasma membrane (PM)1 is an organized system serving as a structural and communication interface with the extracellular environment for exchanges of information and substances. In animal cells, PM proteins represent a point for potential therapeutic intervention, making the PM a source of drug targets, for instance in cancer research (1). In plant cells too, as signaling processes controlling responses to biotic and abiotic factors occur in PM, a better knowledge of the PM proteome would help developing defense strategies. Indeed, in plant cells as well as in animal cells, the PM is controlling many primary cellular functions, such as metabolite and ion transport, endocytosis, cell differentiation and proliferation, etc. All these processes involve a large array of proteins with highly diverse structure and function. In addition, the strength of their association to the membrane varies, some being well embedded in the membrane lipid core while others are more peripheral proteins, sometimes ...
The company was the first to develop a novel proprietary technology to culture mouse primary endothelial cells. These cells have been extremely beneficial for many types of studies in areas such as vascular biology, vascular diseases, blood brain barrier research, cancer research and metastasis, angiogenesis, drug targeting and a verity of other areas basic and clinical/translational studies. We provide these and other cells in a cost effective manner saving investigators time, money, and laboratory costs. We also provide custom ordered cells from genetically modified mice and other animal models in a timely, cost-efficient and reproducible manner ...
Experimental animal models of muscle wasting in intensive care unit patients.: The muscle wasting and loss of muscle function associated with critical illness a
The preclinical development of cancer therapeutics, including the recent trend and focus on cancer immunotherapies, is evolving from the traditional use of mouse models to the use of other animal models including canine, rat, and minipig. Each of these non-mouse models carries its own advantages and abilities to increase the clinical relevance of the model as compared to mouse models. Yet, the wid .... ...
Researchers at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine have developed the first animal model that duplicates the human response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an important step that...
Research Topics: Adjuvants, Animal model studies, B cell immunology and antibodies, Clinical trial site challenges, HIV persistence and latency, HIV transmission and acute infection, Human genomics, Immune escape, Innate immunity, Mucosal immunity, Novel immunogens, inserts and vectors, Pediatric/adolescent infections and trials, Preclinical and clinical vaccine trials, Prevention strategies, Social, ethical, access and regulatory issues, T cell immunity, Vaccine concepts and design, Viral Diversity, ...
Adenosine A3 receptors are involved in a variety of intracellular signaling pathways and physiological functions. They are expressed in a wide range of human tissues, but most predominantly in the lung and liver. Recent animal model studies have shown that A3 receptors play important roles in brain ischemia, immunosuppresion, and bronchospasm. A3 receptor agonists and/or agonists ...
Lack of association between blood pressure, target organ damage and retinopathy in the L-NAME rat hypertension model: Are new animal models of hypertension required? , Ausencia de correlación entre las cifras tensionales, el daño de órgano blanco y la presencia de retinopatía en el modelo animal de hipertentión con L-NAME: ¿Son necesarios nuevos modelos animales en hipertensión arterial ...
A rat with some human genes could provide a better way to test Alzheimer's drugs. The genetically modified rat is the first rodent model to exhibit
Animal models are organisms, often mice or rats, that have been engineered to reproduce the physical or molecular changes that occur during the course of a disease in humans. These models are used to study the biology of the disease, including the genetics and the cellular or molecular pathways involved in the disease. Animal models also have a critical role in developing and testing new therapies before they are tested in humans.. ...
T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK) is a MAPKK-like kinase which plays a role in cell cycle regulation and mitotic progression. As a consequence, TOPK expression is minimal in differentiated cells, although its overexpression is a pathophysiological feature of many tumours. Hence, TOPK has garnered interest as a cancer-specific biomarker and biochemical target with the potential to enhance cancer therapy whilst causing minimal harm to normal tissues ...
The leading causes of U.S. deaths in 2007 were heart disease, cancer, stroke, lower respiratory diseases, accidents, Alzheimers, diabetes and influenza.
The researches that continue to happen have revealed that Agnihotra fire and smoke remove biological, chemical, and physical pollutants in the air.
Several different factors and conditions may cause scarring of kidney tissue. The most common ones are the chronic renal failure conditions that develop over…
This Gene Set Enrichment-type test designed for analysis of microarray and RNASeq data is designed to provide a faster, more accurate, and easier to understand test for gene expression studies. QuSAGE extends previous methods with a complete probability density function (PDF).. ...
The Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Units (VTEUs), supported by the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (DMID) since the 1960s, comprise a consortium of contracts with academic centers and organizations that provides a ready resource for the conduct of clinical trials to evaluate pr. ...
Greek & Greek1 claim that because animals and humans are different, Animal models are inaccurate, superfluous, and create risk to humans.
SABOGAL, Angélica María; ARANGO, César Augusto; CARDONA, Gloria Patricia e CESPEDES, Ángel Enrique. Atorvastatin protects GABAergic and dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal system in an experimental rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. Biomédica [online]. 2014, vol.34, n.2, pp.207-217. ISSN 0120-4157. Introduction: Cerebral ischemia is the third leading cause of death and the primary cause of permanent disability worldwide. Atorvastatin is a promising drug with neuroprotective effects that may be useful for the treatment of stroke. However, the effects of atorvastatin on specific neuronal populations within the nigrostriatal system following cerebral ischemia are unknown. Objective: To evaluate the effects of atorvastatin on dopaminergic and GABAergic neuronal populations in exofocal brain regions in a model of transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight male eight-week-old Wistar ...
The first animal model of the chikungunya virus (CHIKV), linked with large-scale epidemics that spread to Italy and India in 2007 has been developed by Researchers.
Molecular, metabolic and functional characterization of adult skeletal muscle in Down syndrome mouse model : insights into the muscle weakness seen in human ...
BACKGROUND: Depression is a common complication of stroke and increases the risk of mortality and disability. Pre-stroke depression is a possible risk factor for stroke and has also been linked to adverse outcomes. The underlying mechanisms linking depression and stroke remain unclear. Preclinical models may provide novel insights, but models reflecting both conditions are lacking.. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the effects of a 45-min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) on infarct size in male adult Flinders Sensitive Line rats, a genetic animal model of depression, and their control strains Flinders Resistant Line and Sprague-Dawley rats. Infarct size was assessed by tetrazolium chloride (TTC) and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) staining after 48 h of reperfusion. Angiograms of the vascular structure of naïve animals were produced with a µ-CT scanner.. RESULTS: Both Flinders strains had significantly smaller infarcts following MCAo compared to Sprague-Dawley ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessing disease onset and progression in the SOD1 mouse model of ALS. AU - Weydt, Patrick. AU - Hong, So Yon. AU - Kliot, Michel. AU - Möller, Thomas. PY - 2003/5/1. Y1 - 2003/5/1. N2 - SOD1 transgenic mice are the most widely used animal model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In addition to providing valuable insights into the pathogenesis of ALS, these animals are used intensively in many laboratories as an in vivo model for investigating novel therapeutic interventions towards this devastating motor-neuron disease. Such pre-clinical studies require objective and reliable quantification of the clinical phenotype of individual mice, most importantly of the neuromuscular abnormalities. Here we compare four parameters of the clinical phenotype: motor signs, body weight, rotarod performance and paw grip endurance for their usefulness in monitoring the SOD1 mouse model. We found that paw grip endurance is a sensitive and inexpensive alternative to the widely used rotarod ...
Suitable animal models of IPF are lacking (Roman et al. 2013) and have been identified as a research priority for the IPF field (White et al. 2016). In our attempt to elucidate the efficacy of GBT1118 drug effects were explored in the most commonly used animal model of lung fibrosis: the bleomycin‐induced model. The results from this in vivo therapeutic study provide support for the potential use in IPF of a molecule that increases Hb-O2 affinity. GBT1118 treatment not only restored arterial O2 to normal levels, but also significantly inhibited the increase in numbers of inflammatory cell infiltrates, reduced collagen in BALF, and resulted in an approximately 50% reduction in fibrosis (histopathological changes in lung tissue). Additionally, GBT1118 administration ameliorated the loss of body weight associated with bleomycin exposure.. Exertional dyspnea and worsening hypoxia associated with hypoxemia are prominent clinical features of IPF progression as fibrosis increases and ...
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In this current study, we tested the efficacy of sorbent strategy-based HA on a porcine ARDS model and found that HA reduced circulating and alveolar levels of proinflammatory cytokines, improved oxygenation and attenuated lung injuries in the exudative phase. This provides some clue that HA330 cartridge may be a novel potential weapon fighting against the cytokine storm on the alveolar-capillary membrane barrier.. The most commonly used large-animal models of ARDS include endotoxin infusion, repeated lavage, oleic acid and smoke/burn injury [17]. To reproduce the most known risk factor and etiology for ARDS, which is sepsis [18], we systemically administrated endotoxin (LPS) to mimic the clinically relevant sepsis-induced ARDS. The susceptibility to LPS is highly variable and differs among different animals. Pigs, sheep, calves, and cats are more sensitive to LPS challenge. Low dosage of LPS (μg/kg range) can induce significant ARDS-like features in these animals. In contrast, animals such ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Potassium (K+) channels serve diverse and critical roles in neuronal signaling and mutations in K+ channel genes have been linked to human neurological diseases such as epilepsy. Nevertheless, significant gaps still exist in our understanding of how K+ channels control neuronal excitability. For example, the Kv12 gene family is among the oldest and most highly conserved K+ channel families, yet the physiological function of these channels has not previously been examined in vivo due to a lack of genetic and pharmacologic tools. To address this knowledge gap, we have generated a mouse knockout of the voltage-gated K+ channel Kv12.2. The knockout mice have spontaneous epilepsy and a pronounced sensitivity to the chemoconvulsant pentylenetetrazol, suggesting a key role for Kv12.2 in the regulation of neuronal excitability. We find that hippocampal pyramidal neurons cultured from Kv12.2 knockout mice have significantly depolarized resting potentials, high input ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Development of a novel murine model of aortic aneurysms using peri-adventitial elastase. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Engel M, Snikeris P, Jenner A, Karl T, Huang XF, Frank E.. BACKGROUND: Substantial evidence from human post-mortem and genetic studies has linked the neurotrophic factor neuregulin 1 (NRG1) to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Genetic animal models and in vitro experiments have suggested that altered NRG1 signaling, rather than protein changes, contributes to the symptomatology of schizophrenia. However, little is known about the effect of NRG1 on schizophrenia-relevant behavior and neurotransmission (particularly GABAergic and glutamatergic) in adult animals.. METHOD: To address this question, we treated adult mice with the extracellular signaling domain of NRG1 and assessed spontaneous locomotor activity and acoustic startle response, as well as extracellular GABA, glutamate, and glycine levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus via microdialysis. Furthermore, we asked whether the effect of NRG1 would differ under schizophrenia-relevant impairments in mice and therefore co-treated ...
In 2008, European clinical trials began on twelve children suffering from Progeria. The treatment is based on a combination of two existing molecules: statins (prescribed in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risks) and aminobisphosphonates (prescribed in to treat osteoporosis and to prevent complications in some forms of cancer). The use of both these molecules aims to chemically alter progerin to reduce its toxicity. However, although this treatment aimed to slow down the development of the disease, it did not reduce the quantities of progerin. To study this aspect, researchers needed to obtain a relevant animal model. An authentic Progeria model… To generate a model of this kind, Spanish and French researchers decided to introduce a gene mutation (G609G), equivalent to that identified in humans (G608G), in mice to reproduce the exact pathological mechanism found in the children, with a view to then blocking it. The mice models were created under the ...
With increasing attention on the developmental causes of neuropsychiatric disorders, appropriate animal models are crucial to identifying causes and assessing potential interventions. The common marmoset is an ideal model as it has sophisticated social/emotional behaviour, reaching adulthood within 2 years of birth. Magnetic resonance imaging was used in an accelerated longitudinal cohort (n=41; aged 3-27 months; scanned 2-7 times over 2 years). Splines were used to model non-linear trajectories of grey matter volume development in 53 cortical areas and 16 subcortical nuclei. Generally, volumes increased before puberty, peaked, and declined into adulthood. We identified three milestones of grey matter development: (i) age at peak volume; (ii) age at onset of volume decline; and (iii) age at maximum rate of volume decline. These milestones differentiated growth trajectories of primary sensory/motor cortical areas from those of association cortex but also revealed distinct trajectories between ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of the fibrin-derived peptide Bbeta(15-42) in acute and chronic rodent models of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. AU - Zacharowski, KD. AU - Zacharowski, PA. AU - Friedl, P. AU - Mastan, P. AU - Koch, A. AU - Boehm, O. AU - Rother, RP. AU - Reingruber, S. AU - Henning, R. AU - Emeis, J. AU - Petzelbauer, P. N1 - Publisher: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. PY - 2007/6. Y1 - 2007/6. N2 - Many compounds have been shown to prevent reperfusion injury in various animal models, although to date, translation into clinic has revealed several obstacles. Therefore, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a working group to discuss reasons for such failure. As a result, the concept of adequately powered, blinded, randomized studies for preclinical development of a compound has been urged. We investigated the effects of a fibrin-derived peptide Bbeta(15-42) in acute and chronic rodent models of ischemia-reperfusion at three different study centers (Universities of ...
In this study, we identified, using genetic animal models, that the function of p110δ, both in leukemia B cells and in the nonleukemic microenvironment, is critical for CLL pathogenesis. Global inactivation of p110δ in the Eμ-TCL1 murine CLL model blocks leukemia progression in blood and major lymphoid organs. B cells from p110δD910A/D910ATCL1 mice still exhibit partially impaired BCR signaling and migratory function. Inactivation of p110δ in the nonleukemic microenvironment also protects against leukemia through a T cell-dependent mechanism. Despite dampened antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses, p110δ-inactivated T cells remain cytotoxic to leukemia cells. It is possible that p110δ inactivation impairs Treg expansion followed by enhanced host antitumor immunity. Reconstituted p110δD910A/D910A mice with p110δWT/WT Tregs reversed such disease resistance. Nonetheless, p110δ inactivation introduces side effects such as colitis, suggesting autoimmunity. These murine studies further ...
OPH 773. PBL: Animal Models, Regulatory issues, and Research Methods. 2 Credit Hours.. Part I: The aim of this Problem-Based learning course is to provide students the basic understanding and expertise pertaining to generation and implementation of preclinical research IACUC protocol. This course consists of a problem based learning module with a focus on developing students understanding of various animal models in preclinical research and how to refine animal research models that meet the requirement of IACUC regulation. Part II: The purpose of this course is to provide clinical research regulatory expertise with an aim to create future leaders in the drug development industry. This regulatory science course uses a multidisciplinary approach and encompasses course work in regulatory writing techniques, quality systems, and medical device and pharmaceutical regulation. The concentration is designed to develop the students understanding of how to meet regulatory oversight requirements as they ...
The aim of this project is to establish a clinical database and a bank of biological materials which will be used to improve the pathophysiologic understanding of the mechanisms underlying various pregnancy diseases. The US-Mexico Reproductive Health Research Development Workshop, sponsored by the NIH, recommended that the setting up of tissue, blood, and placental banks from human and relevant animal models should be developed to aid in understanding how prenatal conditions relate to pathological consequences in adult life.. A large observational study in the United States of America, the National Collaborative Perinatal Project (NCPP), was conducted over 30 years ago (1959-1966) and has yielded a large amount of useful information. However standards of obstetrical and neonatal care have changed significantly over the last 30 years. Thus the setting up of a contemporary clinical perinatal database and bank of biological materials is required. In order to obtain sufficient data for statistical ...
Video articles in JoVE about tumor cells cultured include Isolation and Characterization of Neutrophils with Anti-Tumor Properties, Depletion of Mouse Cells from Human Tumor Xenografts Significantly Improves Downstream Analysis of Target Cells, Analyzing the Communication Between Monocytes and Primary Breast Cancer Cells in an Extracellular Matrix Extract (ECME)-based Three-dimensional System, A Combined 3D Tissue Engineered In Vitro/In Silico Lung Tumor Model for Predicting Drug Effectiveness in Specific Mutational Backgrounds, Optimization of High Grade Glioma Cell Culture from Surgical Specimens for Use in Clinically Relevant Animal Models and 3D Immunochemistry, A Detailed Protocol for Characterizing the Murine C1498 Cell Line and its Associated Leukemia Mouse Model, Modeling Astrocytoma Pathogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo Using Cortical Astrocytes or Neural Stem Cells from Conditional, Genetically Engineered Mice, Primary Orthotopic Glioma Xenografts Recapitulate Infiltrative Growth
The recent clinical successes of immune checkpoint inhibitors have fueled the intense interest in novel immuno-oncology (I/O) therapeutics. The lack of relevant animal models remains a major hurdle in understanding the mechanism of action and evaluating the efficacy of such therapeutics. Patient derived xenograft (PDX), considered to most closely mimic patient tumors in both histo- and molecular pathology1,2, is however rarely used in I/O studies because it grow only in immune-compromised hosts. In reality, many PDXs grow well in nude mice where certain immune functions remain intact, excluding T-cells/T-cell functions. Therefore, PDX could still potentially be of practical use for studying T-cell independent I/O therapy. This study set out to evaluate a biologics for the treatment of a patient derived xenograft disease, by activating mouse natural killer (NK). NK and CD8 T cells are two major immune effector cell types that mediate cytotoxicity to tumor cells in vivo. One of the ...
Authors: Woodruff-Pak, Diana S. Article Type: Research Article Abstract: This Special Issue of the Journal of Alzheimers Disease (JAD) provides an overview of animal models of Alzheimers disease (AD). Very few species spontaneously develop the cognitive, behavioral, and neuropathological symptoms of AD, yet AD research must progress at a more rapid pace than the rate of human aging. In recent years, a variety of models have been created - from tiny invertebrates with life spans measurable in months to huge mammals that live several decades. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a powerful genetic tool that has recently emerged as a model of AD with neural features and assessable …learning and memory. Transgenic mice are the most widely used animal models of AD and have yielded significant research breakthroughs. Accelerated aging seen in the SAMP8 mouse is a non-transgenic model with great utility. Rat models provided early evidence about the deleterious impact of amyloid-β (Aβ) on ...
My laboratory is an integrated cardiovascular laboratory studying vascular function with a focus on understanding how reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generation alters mitochondrial and endothelial function both in vitro and in vivo. Our expertise allows us to use of state of the art mass spectroscopy techniques in conjunction with cellular techniques to elucidate how post-translational modifications alter protein structure-function relationships and to elucidate pathways how RNS signaling is regulated in endothelial cells in both physiologic and pathologic situations. Further, we also have the expertise to carry these studies into clinically relevant animal models of endothelial dysfunction both to confirm our cell culture studies and, through directed interventions, to modulate these signaling pathways to determine effects on endothelial function in the intact animal. Further, though collaboration with clinician investigators we are now expanding our studies into humans. My laboratory is ...
Alzheimers disease (AD) is one of the largest global public health crises facing us today, and is predicted to increase dramatically over the next decades as the world population ages. There are no effective therapies available to prevent, cure, or slow the progression of disease, and new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. We are developing MW151, a small molecule AD drug candidate that targets neuroinflammation, a pathological condition recently recognized as a key contributor to AD-associated neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. Dysregulated proinflammatory cytokine (PIC) production is a component of neuroinflammation that drives the progression of diverse degenerative CNS disorders. Data from epidemiological, clinical and preclinical animal model studies converge on the attenuation of PIC overproduction as a potential disease-modifying therapeutic approach to AD.. MW151 is a novel, CNS-penetrant, orally bioavailable, small molecule drug candidate that selectively attenuates ...
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis(NASH)Model. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition in which excess fat accumulates in the liver of patients without a history of alcoholism. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a more serious form of NAFLD, which is not only manifested as fatty lesions of the liver, but also accompanied by intralobule inflammation, hepatocellular ballooning and fibrosis. The incidence of NAFLD is increasing year by year, and the incidence in China has reached around 15%. In recent years, the increase in the incidence of metabolic syndrome such as obesity and type 2 diabetes has further exacerbated the prevalence of NAFLD. NAFLD / NASH has become one of the top three causes of liver transplantation, which greatly threatens public health.. Preclinical animal model study is indispensable for the development of novel anti-NASH drugs. Gempharmatech provides drug developers with a variety of diet induced NASH mouse models for the drug efficacy study.. (1)Diet ...
The peroxiredoxin (PRDX) family, a new family of proteins with a pivotal antioxidative function, is ubiquitously synthesized and abundantly identified in various organisms. In contrast to the intracellular localization of other family members (PRDX1/2/3/5/6), PRDX4 is the only known secretory form and protects against oxidative damage by scavenging reactive oxygen species in both the intracellular (especially the endoplasmic reticulum) compartments and the extracellular space. We generated unique human PRDX4 (hPRDX4) transgenic (Tg) mice on a C57BL/6J background and investigated the critical and diverse protective roles of PRDX4 against diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as well as evaluated its role in the intestinal function in various animal models ...
Charles River has proudly partnered with the EBD Group to provide the scientific program for this years BioPharm America™ Conference. This exciting two-day program aims to bridge the gap between drug discovery and clinical application. Driven by the bedside-to-bench experience, industry leaders will come together to discuss innovations and breakthroughs in translational tools and methods in drug discovery research and development. Attendees will gain insight into how clinical data can be used to successfully develop the next generation of animal models, tools and technologies that lead to the development of effective therapies.. September 26-27, ...
Down syndrome (DS): or trisomy 21: is the most common autosomal aneuploidy and the leading genetic cause of intellectual disability
Currently existing psoriasis models implicate the importance of circulating T cells being recruited to the site of lesion (7, 8). However, they do not address the role of resident T cells during development of lesions, mainly due to the lack of an appropriate model system. The present psoriasis model allowed us to address this issue. Immunohistochemical analyses of PN skin before transplantation (Fig. 3, A and B, pre), compared with 6-8 wk after transplantation onto AGR129 mice (Fig. 3, A and B, post), revealed a more than twofold increase in total T cell numbers (P , 0.002), which corresponds to an almost fivefold increase in the tissue. We demonstrated a preference of CD4-positive cells for the dermis, whereas CD8-positive cells were located predominantly in the epidermis or the dermo-epidermal junction zone (Fig. 3 A). This finding corresponds to observations in human psoriasis samples (18). Proliferation of lesional CD3-positive cells paralleled disease formation (Fig. 3 B). T cell ...
Genetic mouse models relevant to schizophrenia complement, and have to a large extent supplanted, pharmacological and lesion-based rat models. The main attraction is that they potentially have greater construct validity; however, they share the fundamental limitations of all animal models of psychiatric disorder, and must also be viewed in the context of the uncertain and complex genetic architecture of psychosis. Some of the key issues, including the choice of gene to target, the manner of its manipulation, gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, and phenotypic characterization, are briefly considered in this commentary, illustrated by the relevant papers reported in this special issue.
Adoptive cellular immunotherapy for metastatic disease has shown efficacy in diverse animal models, yet limited success in clinical settings has been demonstrated (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). Initial studies by Cheever and Greenberg (reviewed in Refs. 4 and 5) examined various principles of adoptive immunotherapy using Ag-specific T cells in combination with a potent anti-neoplastic agent, cyclophosphamide, in a murine leukemia model. However, the principles for therapy of solid tumors may be inherently different. Subsequent studies by Shu and coworkers (18) began to address the principles for therapy of both early and later visceral metastases. In those studies, the Ag specificity of the transferred cells was undefined, and later experiments made use of polyclonally activated cells derived from tumor-draining lymph nodes (19). More recent studies of adoptive immunotherapy have used animal models that do not necessarily accurately reflect the human disease condition (i.e., tumors transduced with surrogate ...
The use of physiologically regulated, reproducible animal models is crucial to the study of ischemic brain injury--both the mechanisms governing its occurrence and potential therapeutic strategies. Several laboratory rodent species (notably rats and gerbils), which are readily available at relatively low cost, are highly suitable for the investigation of cerebral ischemia and have been widely employed for this purpose. We critically examine and summarize several rodent models of transient global ischemia, resulting in selective neuronal injury within vulnerable brain regions, and focal ischemia, typically giving rise to localized brain infarction. We explore the utility of individual models and emphasize the necessity for meticulous experimental control of those variables that modulate the severity of ischemic brain injury. ...
Pre-Clinical Animal Network. Drug development is long and costly. To protect our investments, we need to be able to efficiently predict the safety and efficacy of drug candidates for PWS prior to sending them into clinical trials. The pre-clinical animal network, composed of expert model laboratories, will improve the predictive value of our PWS models and improve our ability to accurately predict drug safety and efficacy.. New Animal Models. Disease models are critical for therapeutic development in order to test the safety and efficacy of candidate drugs. Based on the input of experts, we will develop the new animal models of PWS needed to advance therapeutic development.. PWS cellular network. Modeling PWS in a cell is critical for screening drugs in a highthroughput fashion. We will develop a network of investigators to develop assays and cellular models of PWS for identifying new drugs, reposition existing drugs or discover new targets and pathways that can be used for investigating disease ...
An in vivo model to study skeletal muscle injury is described. A computer-controlled custom-designed rat dynamometer is used to control biomechanical inputs such as range of motion, velocity, acceleration, and number of repetitions to study skeletal muscle injury in rats. Anesthetized rats are placed supine in the dynamometer and the left foot placed in a load cell with the ankle axis aligned with
This study is designed to evaluate the protective affects of MP101 and MP201 in pre-clinical models of PD injected with a toxin (6 OHDA) that selectively destroys dopamine-producing neurons, the hallmark of PD. The study will look at two outcomes as follows: 1) chronic treatment (two weeks of therapy) administered one day after giving the toxin to evaluate the potential of the drugs to prevent neuronal loss and mimic disease progression; 2) chronic treatment 10 days following toxin administration (allowing for most neurons to die) to determine if the drugs can impact recovery and regrowth of new neurons. In both scenarios, we will measure behavioral effects, brain dopamine levels, neuron counts, BDNF levels and markers of mitochondrial quality.. Impact on Diagnosis/Treatment of Parkinson s disease: ...
Animal studies can, but do not always, predict whether a drug will be teratogenic in humans. The main role of animal studies is to help researchers understand the mechanisms of teratogenicity. Unfortunately, animal studies were poor predictors in the case of thalidomide; the drug was tested on rats and mice, but did not originally produce birth defects.1 On the other hand, some drugs have been found teratogenic in animals and not in humans.2,3 Today, when new drugs are screened for teratogenicity, three different animal models are required for testing. Quite frequently, when certain drugs are tested on different animal species, birth defects occur, as happened in the DM study.4 Interspecies differences regarding the teratogenicity of drugs can result from differing pharmacokinetic processes that determine the crucial concentration-time relationships in an embryo. Protein binding in the mother is also an important determinant of placental transfer because only free concentrates in maternal plasma ...
There is clear evidence that tumor patients are able to generate TAA-specific T cell immunity spontaneously. Whereas the presence of tumor-specific T cells has been shown by many groups and for various tumor types, much less is known about the function of TAA-specific T cells in vivo. Most of the TAAs including differentiation, germ-line, and shared overexpressed antigens are not tumor specific but are also expressed at low levels in certain nonmalignant tissues. This should influence the type of T cell response because deletion of functional high-avidity self-reactive T cells in the thymus as well as peripheral deletion or anergy was shown in various animal models (reviewed in Ref. 74 ). There are a few recent studies analyzing the functional avidity of TAA-specific T cells in patients. In leukemia patients, low-avidity T cells to proteinase 3, which are able to kill leukemia cells, can readily be expanded. However, high-avidity T cells can also be expanded from patients in cytogenetic ...
It is essential to trust your research data but it is even more important to validate it. The flexiWare Software is there to help you with that! It manages the entire experimental session and [...] ...
This page serves as an index of all our scientific posts describing research which has used animal models. We have categorised them by species. Use the links below to jump to the section you want. Also check out our Research Indexed by Disease. Amphibians and Reptiles Birds Cats Cattle Chimpanzees Dogs Ferrets Fish Fruit Flies Gerbils…
Scientists at the University of Oregon have determined the fine-scale genetic structure of the first animal to show an evolutionary response to rapid climate change.
A novel mouse model of soft-tissue infection using bioluminescence imaging allows noninvasive, real-time monitoring of bacterial growth(審査報告)A novel mouse model of soft-tissue infection using bioluminescence imaging allows noninvasive, real-time monitoring of bacterial growth(審査報告) ...
Macrophages contribute to the development of atherosclerosis through pinocytotic deposition of native LDL-derived cholesterol in macrophages in the vascular wall. Inhibiting macrophage-mediated lipid deposition may have protective effects in atheroprone vasculature, and identifying mechanisms that potentiate this process may inform potential therapeutic interventions for atherosclerosis. Here, we report that dysregulation of exon junction complex-driven (EJC-driven) mRNA splicing confers hyperpinocytosis to macrophages during atherogenesis. Mechanistically, we determined that inflammatory cytokines induce an unconventional nonproteolytic calpain, calpain-6 (CAPN6), which associates with the essential EJC-loading factor CWC22 in the cytoplasm. This association disturbs the nuclear localization of CWC22, thereby suppressing the splicing of target genes, including those related to Rac1 signaling. CAPN6 deficiency in LDL receptor-deficient mice restored CWC22/EJC/Rac1 signaling, reduced pinocytotic ...
Macrophages contribute to the development of atherosclerosis through pinocytotic deposition of native LDL-derived cholesterol in macrophages in the vascular wall. Inhibiting macrophage-mediated lipid deposition may have protective effects in atheroprone vasculature, and identifying mechanisms that potentiate this process may inform potential therapeutic interventions for atherosclerosis. Here, we report that dysregulation of exon junction complex-driven (EJC-driven) mRNA splicing confers hyperpinocytosis to macrophages during atherogenesis. Mechanistically, we determined that inflammatory cytokines induce an unconventional nonproteolytic calpain, calpain-6 (CAPN6), which associates with the essential EJC-loading factor CWC22 in the cytoplasm. This association disturbs the nuclear localization of CWC22, thereby suppressing the splicing of target genes, including those related to Rac1 signaling. CAPN6 deficiency in LDL receptor-deficient mice restored CWC22/EJC/Rac1 signaling, reduced pinocytotic ...
Luxcel Biosciences Ltd announce worlds first physiologically relevant, in vitro Ischemia-Reperfusion Model in conjunction with BMG LABTECH and Ncardia.
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Research has shown that penetrating soft tissue injuries can cause muscle loss resulting in functional disability and cosmetic deformity.
Principal Investigator:NATA Koji, Project Period (FY):1996 - 1997, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A), Section:展開研究, Research Field:Functional biochemistry
RHEINBREITBACH, Germany, November 14, 2012 /PRNewswire/ --. Synthetic human-milk-oligosaccharides reduce the risk of infections caused by hazardous pathogens. Human-milk-oligosaccharides, an important component of human mothers milk, play a fundamental role in the protection of infants against viral and bacterial infection. Preclinical studies carried out by Jennewein Biotechnologie GmbH have now shown for the first time that synthetically produced functional sugars protect humans from infectious diseases. The investigations were conducted in collaboration with the University Childrens Hospital Mannheim of Heidelberg University (GER).. In collaboration with the University Childrens Hospital Mannheim of Heidelberg University, Jennewein Biotechnologie GmbH carried out extensive preclinical research to demonstrate for the first time that synthetic human-milk-oligosaccharides achieve the same protective effects as natural sugars in human breast milk. The study focused on the ...
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a cornerstone of clinical studies and research of several neurodegenerative disorders including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimers, traumatic brain injury, etc. It is one of the primary tools to evaluate the effectiveness of potential treatments due to its ability to provide immediate, predictive data while being non-invasive. Rodent MRI studies on preclinical animal models of neurodegenerative diseases can increase the efficiency of these studies; thereby helping improve translation from preclinical testing to clinical testing of potential therapeutics. MRIs high resolution, image analysis tools, and statistical capabilities provide a robust platform to better understand biological processes and translational readouts to develop new treatment approaches for several CNS diseases. Renovo Neural now offers MRI-based imaging applications-acquisition, post-processing, and data analysis developed for small animal preclinical models of neurodegenerative diseases. This ...
Krinke, George J. (15 June 2000). "History, Strains and Models". The Laboratory Rat (Handbook of Experimental Animals). Gillian ... "Merck Veterinary Manual - Skin Diseases". Retrieved 9 January 2009. "Merck Veterinary Manual - Gastrointestinal Diseases". ... The name fancy rat derives from the idea of animal fancy (the promotion of domesticated animals) or the phrase "to fancy" ( ... "Merck Veterinary Manual - Reproductive Diseases". Retrieved 9 January 2009. "Merck Veterinary Manual - Respiratory Diseases". ...
Animal models for periodontal disease. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology 2011:754857. ... the animal has been proposed as a model for research on the disease in humans.[155] The identity of the bacterial agent remains ... Animal model: periodontitis in the rice rat (Oryzomys palustris). American Journal of Pathology 96(2):643-646. ... The marsh rice rat is quite susceptible to periodontitis and has been used as a model system for the study of that disease.[185 ...
ISBN 978-0-471-49560-4. Reed, Emily; Lutsenko, Svetlana; Bandmann, Oliver (2018). "Animal models of Wilson disease". Journal of ... In animal models having colorectal tumors with and without induced hypoxia, Cu-ATSM was preferentially taken up by hypoxic ... Wilson's disease is a rare condition in which copper is retained excessively in the body. Toxic levels of copper can lead to ... 64Cu has been used experimentally to study whole body retention of copper in subjects with this disease. The technique can also ...
Main areas of research: Functional genomics and proteomics; Molecular and cellular immunology; Animal models of human disease; ... Fleming researchers have established transgenic animal models for rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and multiple ... Fleming's Animal house (certified with ISO 9001) provides husbandry of animals and services to the biomedical research ... The Animal House has a capacity to house more than 20,000 mice and is currently the largest Mouse Unit in Greece in terms of ...
ISBN 0-8451-1035-7 Desnick, R. J., Patterson, D. F. and Scarpelli, D. F., eds.: Animal Models of Inherited Metabolic Diseases. ... His translational research has led to the development of enzyme replacement therapy for Fabry disease, Niemann-Pick disease ... National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Gene Therapy: Lysosomal Diseases With Mental Retardation, ... Achievement Award of the Lysosomal Disease Network, NIH, 2013 Genetic Disease Foundation Scientific Honoree for Contributions ...
2007). Animal Models in Toxicology (2nd ed.). CRC Press. p. 248. Grzimek, Bernhard, ed. (1972). Grzimek's Animal Life ... Richardson, V. G. C. (2003). "Systems and Diseases". Diseases of Small Domestic Rodents. pp. 127-31. doi:10.1002/9780470690840. ... The surface of the hands and feet are white to ensure the animal stays warm in colder climates in countries such as Mongolia. ... Herberg, L.; K. D. Buchanan; L. M. Herbertz; H. F. Kern; H. K. Kley (1980). "The Djungarian hamster, a laboratory animal with ...
eds.). Neuromethods: Animal Models of Neurological Disease. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. pp. 153-155. ISBN 0-89603-211-6. Menkes ... No animal model has all the characteristics of epileptogenesis in humans, so research efforts aim to identify one. Such a model ... Glushakov, Alexander V.; Glushakova, Olena Y.; Doré, Sylvain; Carney, Paul R.; Hayes, Ronald L. (2016). "Animal Models of ... Pitkänen A, McIntosh TK (2006). "Animal models of post-traumatic epilepsy". Journal of Neurotrauma. 23 (2): 241-261. doi: ...
Spontaneous Animal Models of Human Disease. New York: Academic Press. pp. 11-16.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) ... Animals with this pattern may include birds, cats, cattle, dogs, foxes, horses, cetaceans, deer, pigs, and snakes. Some animals ... The animal's skin under the white background is not pigmented. Location of the unpigmented spots is dependent on the migration ... Many other animal species may also be "pied" or piebald including, but not limited to, birds and squirrels. Snakes, especially ...
January 2008). "MUGEN mouse database; animal models of human immunological diseases". Nucleic Acids Res. 36 (Database issue): ... These models were very useful in characterizing the behavior and spread of infectious disease, by understanding the dynamics of ... Using this technology it is possible to know the model behind immune system. It has been used to model T-cell-mediated ... Models are helpful to predicts dynamics of pathogen toxicity and T-cell memory in response to different stimuli. There are also ...
Schmidt J, Schmidt T (2018). "Animal Models of Machado-Joseph Disease". Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 1049: ... Perleberg C, Kind A, Schnieke A (January 2018). "Genetically engineered pigs as models for human disease". Disease Models & ... disease resistance and survival. Animals have been engineered to grow faster, be healthier and resist diseases. Modifications ... Lu JW, Ho YJ, Ciou SC, Gong Z (September 2017). "Innovative Disease Model: Zebrafish as an in Vivo Platform for Intestinal ...
20 animal models. Following are descriptions of selected animal studies. All stated results are relative to those of placebo ... "Peripheral Transgene Expression of Plasma Gelsolin Reduces Amyloid in Transgenic Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease". ... Substantial decreases in plasma levels are observed in acute and chronic infection and injury in both animal models and in ... Supplementation therapies with recombinant human pGSN have been shown effective in more than 20 animal models. pGSN has a ...
"Diversifying animal models: the use of hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in infectious diseases". Laboratory Animals. ... "Animal Models of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 25 (6): 1363-68. doi:10.1086/516152. PMC ... Prince is the author of over 150 scientific publications in the field of infectious diseases, the majority dealing with RSV. He ... Marie-Ève Hamelin; Gregory A. Prince; Guy Boivin (2006). "Effect of Ribavirin and Glucocorticoid Treatment in a Mouse Model of ...
New Animal Models of Human Neurological Diseases. Biovalley Monographs. pp. 66-80. doi:10.1159/000117724. ISBN 978-3-8055-8405- ... It is also not known if inhalation of vitamin B6 while, for example, working with animal feed containing vitamin B6 is safe. ... In experimental tests using animal subjects, neurotrophic factors, specifically neurotrophin-3, were shown to potentially ... Chawla, Jasvinder; Kvarnberg, David (2014). "Hydrosoluble vitamins". Neurologic Aspects of Systemic Disease Part II. Handbook ...
In laboratories several species of animals have been infected with M. ulcerans in an attempt to model the course of Buruli ... Buruli ulcer (/bəˈruːli/) is an infectious disease characterized by the development of painless open wounds. The disease is ... Bolz M, Ruf MT (April 2019). "Buruli ulcer in animals and experimental infection models". In Pluschke G, Röltgen K (eds.). ... Working to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical diseases: First WHO report on neglected tropical diseases. World ...
... the optimal use of animal models of disease; the neurobiology of the mineralocorticoid receptor; and impact of social ... and co-ordinator of the Collaborative Approach to Meta-Analysis and Review of Animal Data in Experimental Studies (CAMARADES). ... CAMARADES is currently leading the way in advancing education about systematic reviews in animal research. Macleod is on the ... Advisory Board of the charity SABRE Research UK which raises awareness of the need for systematic reviews of existing animal ...
"Ovarian autoimmune disease: clinical concepts and animal models". Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 11 (6): 510-521. doi:10.1038 ... Since autoimmune oophoritis is listed as a "rare disease" by the Office of Rare Diseases (ORD) of the National Institutes of ... Women with this disease need a lot of emotional support and should maintain a management of other autoimmune conditions. The ... This disease is caused by primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), where reproduction and hormonal function of the ovaries stops ...
17α-Estradiol (epiestradiol) P. Michael Conn (29 May 2013). Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease. Academic Press. pp. ...
The disease spreads from sandflies. Animals such as dogs can be a vector for having the parasite, spreading it to sandflies, ... Attempts to create a peptide, DNA, or protein vaccine have shown efficacy in animal vaccine models but not effective in humans ... Another in Brazil was vaccination of dogs to prevent those animals from spreading the disease. The dog vaccines are successful ... There is a challenge in interpreting the data in animal models to apply to humans. Another challenge is effectively ...
... investigators employ animal models of disease to test potential therapeutic agents. Model organisms provide an inexpensive and ... Marsh JL, Lukacsovich T, Thompson LM (March 2009). "Animal models of polyglutamine diseases and therapeutic approaches". The ... Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and prion diseases-occur as a result of neurodegenerative ... In Alzheimer's disease, these are amyloid-beta and tau. In Parkinson's disease, it is alpha-synuclein. In Huntington's disease ...
"Synaptic plasticity in animal models of early Alzheimer's disease". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. ... Alzheimer's disease. Misprocessing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in Alzheimer's disease disrupts LTP and is thought to ... LTP has received much attention among those who study Alzheimer's disease (AD),[4] a neurodegenerative disease that causes ... However, alterations in LTP may contribute to a number of neurological diseases, including depression, Parkinson's disease, ...
... animal models are difficult to create and therefore flawed. However animal models can be pharmacologically validated by usually ... Lab personnel must be trained to avoid injury or disease to the animals. Animal housing has well known effects on stress. The ... Different animal models can show different anxiety results. Animals can show high levels of anxiety in one test and low levels ... Then the animal is placed back in its cage. Any animal that is unable to eat 15 or more food pellets is either removed from the ...
Rowan MJ, Klyubin I, Cullen WK, Anwyl R (April 2003). "Synaptic plasticity in animal models of early Alzheimer's disease". ... LTP has received much attention among those who study Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disease that causes marked ... However, alterations in LTP may contribute to a number of neurological diseases, including depression, Parkinson's disease, ... proposed one model for how LTP might be affected in AD. AD appears to result, at least in part, from misprocessing of amyloid ...
Animal models of 3C syndrome have not been created; however, strumpellin is a highly conserved protein, with 12 known homologs ... Disease ID 5666 at NIH's Office of Rare Diseases "3C syndrome". Orphanet. Retrieved 11 April 2014. Kniffin, Cassandra L.; ... 3C syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease, caused by a mutation on the long arm of chromosome 8 at 8q24.13, the locus for ... Many children with the disorder die as infants due to severe congenital heart disease. The proband of Ritscher and Schinzel's ...
Acta Psychiatr Scand 1996; 93(6):451-459 Sachdev P. Animal models of drug-induced akathisia. In LeDoux MS (Ed). Animal models ... Neurological Disease and Therapy Series. Macel Dekker, New York, 2005:129-164. Brodaty H, Sachdev P, Rose N, Rylands K, Prenter ... and the first study that examined the effect of different frequencies of TMS on an animal model of depression. Sachdev's early ... Chronic repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is antidepressant but not anxiolytic in rat models of anxiety and ...
He is author of Human Polygenic Diseases: Animal Models. Renato Talamini Cancer Res. 1993;53:209-11 Nat Genet. 1993;3:132-6 Nat ... in animal models. His population-based studies resulted in the identification of genetic polymorphisms associated with the risk ...
Santos, Renato L.; Shuping Zhang; Renee M. Tsolis; Robert A. Kingsley; L. Gary Adams; Andreas J. Baumler (2001). "Animal models ... Efforts to prevent the disease include the proper washing, preparation, and cooking of food. Mild disease typically does not ... CDC website, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Disease Listing: Salmonellosis. ... Occasionally more significant disease can result in dehydration. The old, young, and others with a weakened immune system are ...
Conn, P. Michael (2013). Animal models for the study of human disease (First ed.). San Diego: Elsevier Science & Technology ... Other animals[edit]. Klinefelter syndrome can also occur in other animals. In cats it can result in a male tortoiseshell and ... Centerwall WR, Benirschke K (1975). "An animal model for the XXY Klinefelter's syndrome in man: Tortoiseshell and calico male ... "Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. 1: 42. doi:10.1186/1750-1172-1-42. PMC 1634840. PMID 17062147.. ...
Krinke, George J. (15 June 2000). "History, Strains and Models". The Laboratory Rat (Handbook of Experimental Animals). Gillian ... "Merck Veterinary Manual - Reproductive Diseases". Retrieved 9 January 2009.. *^ a b c d "Merck Veterinary Manual - Respiratory ... Knight, John (2005). Animals in Person: Cultural Perspectives on Human-animal Intimacy. Berg Publishers. p. 131. ISBN 1-85973- ... "Merck Veterinary Manual - Skin Diseases". Retrieved 9 January 2009.. *^ a b c "Merck Veterinary Manual - Gastrointestinal ...
Suitable animal models are lacking for many important human diseases. Additionally, many pathogens cannot be manipulated ... Testing a candidate virulence gene requires a relevant animal model of the disease being examined and the ability to ... reintroduction of the gene into the microbe should restore virulence in the animal model. For many pathogenic microorganisms, ... microorganism with the inactivated gene must be less than that of the unaltered microorganism in an appropriate animal model. " ...
It is commonly found when the ileum is abnormal or has been surgically removed, as in Crohn's disease, or cause a condition ... O'Keefe SJ, Kidd M, Espitalier-Noel G, Owira P (May 1999). "Rarity of colon cancer in Africans is associated with low animal ... "Novel diet-related mouse model of colon cancer parallels human colon cancer". World J Gastrointest Oncol. 6 (7): 225-43. doi ... particularly in primary sclerosing cholangitis and inflammatory bowel disease, with varying results partly related to dosage.[ ...
Diseases of the endocrine system (ICD-10 Chapter IV: Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases - Endocrine diseases, E00- ... but do not offer advantages compared with diets which allow moderate amounts of animal products.[100] There is not enough ... "Projections of type 1 and type 2 diabetes burden in the U.S. population aged ,20 years through 2050: dynamic modeling of ... Diabetes was one of the first diseases described.[21] The importance of insulin in the disease was determined in the 1920s.[22] ...
They started to test L-735,524 on animals a couple months later and found that it was safe for animals. Consequently, the ... Impairs endothelial function in healthy HIV-negative men and may accelerate atherosclerotic disease.[10] ... 3D model (JSmol). *Interactive image. SMILES. *. CC(C)(C)NC(=O)[[email protected]@H]1CN(CCN1C[[email protected]](C[[email protected]@H](Cc2ccccc2)C(=O)N[[email protected]]3c4ccccc4C[[email protected] ... It significantly increased life expectancies and decreased noticeable symptoms from infectious diseases that were the result of ...
... while imbalance results in disease. Such disease-inducing imbalances can be adjusted and balanced using traditional herbs, ... Ayurveda stresses the use of plant-based medicines and treatments, with some animal products, and added minerals, including ... and an incorrect model of the anatomy and physiology of internal organs.[8][59][60][61][62][63] ... A belief that a substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people cures similar symptoms in sick people.[n 8] ...
One possible way to achieve this, which has been successful in mouse models, is to use inhibitors of Ras activation in order to ... Catenins are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells. The first two ... MacDonald BT, Tamai K, He X (July 2009). "Wnt/β-catenin signaling: components, mechanisms, and diseases". Dev. Cell. 17 (1): 9- ... may help prevent clinical recurrence of the disease after surgery, but much more work is needed before an adequate treatment ...
The marsh environment meant that certain diseases, such as schistosomiasis and malaria, were endemic;[12] Maʻdānī agriculture ... was used to shelter animals in bad weather. A raba was a higher-status dwelling, distinguished by a north-facing entrance, ... any of the boatmen would have made an excellent model for an Hercules; and one in particular, with uncombed hair and shaggy ...
Inter-Agency Task Force for the Management of Emerging Infectious Diseases (Philippines) ...
Small animal imagingEdit. PET technology for small animal imaging: A miniature PE tomograph has been constructed that is small ... since more sophisticated models of the scanner Physics can be incorporated into the likelihood model than those used by ... Infectious diseasesEdit. Imaging infections with molecular imaging technologies can improve diagnosis and treatment follow-up. ... animal diagnosis. Because of cost as well as the marginal utility of detecting cancer metastases in companion animals (the ...
Volkow ND, Koob GF, McLellan AT (January 2016). "Neurobiologic Advances from the Brain Disease Model of Addiction". N. Engl. J ... Research from animals has consistently shown that when a trial is repeatedly exposed to a painful stimulus, the animal's pain ... In animals, cross-sensitization has been established between the consumption of many different types of drugs of abuse - in ... Thus, kindling has been suggested as a model for temporal lobe epilepsy in humans, where stimulation of a repetitive type ( ...
In studies of rats, animals fed a diet of 50% sweet pea seeds developed enlarged adrenals relative to control animals fed on ... Pests and diseases[edit]. The sweet pea plant does suffer from some pests, the most common being aphids. These insects suck the ... The sweet pea is thus a model organism being used in early experimentations in genetics, particularly by the pioneer geneticist ...
Disease models. Animal models and in particular non-human primates are being used to study different aspects of Ebola virus ... "Ebola Virus Disease". SRHD. Retrieved 15 September 2020.. *^ a b c d "Q&A on Transmission, Ebola". Centers for Disease Control ... Other animals. Wild animals. Ebola has a high mortality rate among primates.[241] Frequent outbreaks of Ebola may have resulted ... Animals may become infected when they eat fruit partially eaten by bats carrying the virus.[82] Fruit production, animal ...
Miniature Votive Images or Toy Models from Harappa, ca. 2500. Hand-modeled terra-cotta figurines with polychromy. ... and a number of animals, including the humped bull, were domesticated,"[11] as well as "fowl for fighting".[12] Wheel-made ... with the highest prevalence of both disease and trauma present in the skeletons from Area G (an ossuary located south-east of ... seals engraved with human or animal motifs. A large number of seals have been found at such sites as Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. ...
The third chimpanzee: the evolution and future of the human animal.. *^ a b Sharman Apt Russell (2006). Hunger an unnatural ... coronary heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease, because they ate mostly lean meats and plants and frequently engaged in ... According to current archaeological and genetic models, there were at least two notable expansion events subsequent to peopling ... and women may have procured small game animals for consumption and assisted men in driving herds of large game animals (such as ...
In recognition of the basic concepts he has contributed to the study of animal ecology which, with his foundation of the Bureau ... developing models for the evolution of genetic systems, including sex and recombination, inbreeding and outbreeding, separate ... the theory of kin selection to account for altruistic behaviour and the theoretical demonstration of a link between disease ... for his outstanding work on the diversity of animal societies and demonstration of their effects on the evolution of ...
Abortion may also be induced in animals, in the context of animal husbandry. For example, abortion may be induced in mares that ... Those with certain diseases, and those over the age 35 also run a greater risk. Other causes for abortions can be the infection ... but the parallelism between the DMBA-induced rat mammary carcinoma model and the human situation is striking. …Abortion would ... Certain diseases or an accidental trauma can also cause a spontaneous abortion. Putting the woman under trauma or stress to ...
World Animal Foundation. Retrieved 12 April 2017.. *^ Simon, Matt (16 January 2015). "Absurd Creature of the Week: The ... Coccidians in the genus Aggregata living in the gut cause severe disease to the host. Octopuses have an innate immune system, ... Yekutieli, Y.; Sagiv-Zohar, R.; Aharonov, R.; Engel, Y.; Hochner, B.; Flash, T. (2005). "Dynamic model of the octopus arm. I. ... Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 7 (2): 95-106. doi:10.1207/s15327604jaws0702_2. PMID ...
A model attribution edit summary (using German): Content in this edit is translated from the existing German Wikipedia article ... The number and ratio of rods to cones varies among species, dependent on whether an animal is primarily diurnal or nocturnal. ... The workers had tracked down patients with rare diseases wiping out classic rod and cone photoreceptor function but preserving ... Human Physiology and Mechanisms of Disease by Arthur C. Guyton (1992) ISBN 0-7216-3299-8 p. 373 ...
listen)) is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.[4][5] The word "medicine" is ... Nosokinetics is the science/subject of measuring and modelling the process of care in health and social care systems. ... Throughout history and in Europe right until the late 18th century, not only animal and plant products were used as medicine, ... Preventive medicine is the branch of medicine concerned with preventing disease. *Community health or public health is an ...
Tomato as a model system: I. Genetic and physical mapping of jointless". MGG Molecular & General Genetics. 242 (6). doi:10.1007 ... Korean scientists are looking at using the tomato to express a vaccine against Alzheimer's disease.[42] Hilary Koprowski, who ... Tomatoes have been used as a model in map-based cloning, where transgenic plants must be created to prove that a gene has been ... Tomatoes have been used as a model organism to study the fruit ripening of climacteric fruit. To understand the mechanisms ...
... a fluctuating course of disease severity, the eyes being closed during a seizure, and side to side head movements. Features ... "A review of functional neurological symptom disorder etiology and the integrated etiological summary model". Journal of ... the DSM-5 was updated to add emphasis to the positive physical signs inconsistent with recognized diseases. The requirement of ... they are considered a subtype of a larger category of psychiatric disease. ...
George Orwell (1903-1950), British author of Nineteen Eighty-Four, Animal Farm and Homage to Catalonia, first suffered TB in ... Manuel Bandeira, Brazilian poet, had TB in 1904 and expressed the effects of the disease in his life in many of his poems. ... Elizabeth Siddal (1829-1862), English artists' model, poet and artist. *Peter Purves Smith (1912-1949), Australian modernist ... He was rumored to have discovered his disease when he coughed blood and fainted during the Ikedaya Affair. ...
"Borrelia bissettii isolates induce pathology in a murine model of disease". Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 8 (5): 623-33. ... Host animals[edit]. Lyme and other deer tick-borne diseases can sometimes be reduced by greatly reducing the deer population on ... "Lyme disease rashes and look-alikes". Lyme Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 21 December 2018. Archived from ... "Lyme Disease Data and surveillance". Lyme Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 5 February 2019. Archived from ...
... subluxation is the sole cause of disease and manipulation is the cure for all diseases of the human race.[4][41] A 2003 ... doctor/model-centered ←. → patient/situation-centered Professional integration: separate and distinct ←. → integrated into ... A related field, veterinary chiropractic, applies manual therapies to animals and is recognized in 40 US states,[66] but is not ... Palmer, a magnetic healer, hypothesized that manual manipulation of the spine could cure disease.[214] The first chiropractic ...
... cure or prevention of diseases in humans or other animals; intended to affect the structure or functions of the body of man or ... These days, with the aid of CAD or modelling platforms, the work is now much faster, and this can act also as a tool for ... or prevention of disease, in man or other animals, or ... For example, initial models of the artificial cardiac pacemaker ... which does not achieve its primary intended purposes through chemical action within or on the body of man or other animals and ...
Potassium is the major cation (positive ion) inside animal cells,[223] while sodium is the major cation outside animal cells.[ ... Unit cell ball-and-stick model of lithium nitride.[118] On the basis of size a tetrahedral structure would be expected, but ... "Global burden of blood-pressure-related disease, 2001" (PDF). Lancet. 371 (9623): 1513-1518. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60655-8 ... which was known partly for its high abundance in animal blood. He named the metal inside the material "lithium".[20][15][18] ...
The traditional biogeographic regions were first modeled by Alfred Wallace in The Geographical Distribution of Animals (1876). ... Biotic factors, such as predation, disease, and competition for resources such as food, water, and mates, can also affect how a ... Models can integrate the dispersal/migration model, the disturbance model, and abundance model. Species distribution models ( ... Species distribution models include: presence/absence models, the dispersal/migration models, disturbance models, and abundance ...
... to in vivo models of cancer and in 2005 reported a long-term survival benefit in an experimental brain tumor animal model.[62][ ... Hourigan CS (2006). "The molecular basis of coeliac disease". Clin Exp Med (Review). 6 (2): 53-59. doi:10.1007/s10238-006-0095- ... GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence, Collaborators. (8 October 2016). "Global, regional, and national ... Hodgson TS, Nielsen SM, Lesniak MS, Lukas RV (2016). "Neurological Management of Von Hippel-Lindau Disease". Neurologist ( ...
World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World ... In livestock production it is used as a pesticide, animal feed additive, processing aid, nonagricultural ingredient and ... Niigata Minamata disease. *Poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko. *Seveso disaster. *Consumption of Tide Pods ...
... an animal disease) occurs in the high-risk versus the low-risk sector.[13] For example, an application of the model in the ... N = Number of animals in the population. n = Number of animals marked on the first visit. K = Number of animals captured on the ... The model also assumes that no marks fall off animals between visits to the field site by the researcher, and that the ... There are very elaborate statistical models available for the analysis of these experiments.[15] A simple model which easily ...
What are Some Common Microscopic Animals?, september 2012 *↑ C. elegans as a Model System Genes, Genomes, and ... Biography: LouisPasteur: A controversial figure in a debate on scientific ethics Seminars in Pediatric Infectious Diseases ... Pasteur-Koch: Distinctive Ways of Thinking about Infectious Diseases American Society for Microbiology, ingliskeeles, august ...
All MeSH CategoriesDiseases CategoryAnimal DiseasesDisease Models, Animal. All MeSH CategoriesAnalytical, Diagnostic and ... Disease Models, Animal. Naturally-occurring or experimentally-induced animal diseases with pathological processes analogous to ... Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment CategoryInvestigative TechniquesModels, AnimalDisease Models, AnimalArthritis, ... All MeSH CategoriesAnalytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment CategoryInvestigative TechniquesModels, ...
Here we review the current state of rodent models for Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease, frontotemporal dementia, and ... Limitations and utility of current models, issues regarding translatability, and future directions for developing animal models ... benefit from more rigorous use of the models and from generation of animals that more faithfully recapitulate human disease. ... and future directions for developing animal models of these human disorders. The authors review the current state of rodent ...
... Krista L. Sider,1 Mark C. Blaser,1 and Craig A. Simmons1,2,3 ... we summarize and critically appraise current small and large animal models of CAVD, discuss the utility of animal models for ... Animal models are emerging as vital tools to this end, facilitated by the advent of new models and improved understanding of ... Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), once thought to be a degenerative disease, is now recognized to be an active ...
Animal models of Parkinsons disease.. Imai Y1, Venderova K, Park DS, Cai H, Schmidt E. ...
... retinal diseases are among the leading causes of irreversible visual impairment and blindness, and appropriate study models, ... In Animal Models for Retinal Diseases, recognized experts in the field highlight valuable techniques as well as animal models ... Vital and easy to use, Animal Models for Retinal Diseases serves to support the important future research of ocular ... the book continues by covering animal models for the research of specific human retinal diseases, e.g., retinal degeneration, ...
... and clinical studies in all areas of Alzheimers disease. ... International Journal of Alzheimers Disease is a peer-reviewed ... "Ocular Manifestations of Alzheimers Disease in Animal Models," International Journal of Alzheimers Disease, vol. 2012, ... Ocular Manifestations of Alzheimers Disease in Animal Models. Miles Parnell,1,2 Li Guo,1 Mohamed Abdi,3 and M. Francesca ... To receive news and publication updates for International Journal of Alzheimers Disease, enter your email address in the box ...
Our mission is to build healthier lives, free of cardiovascular diseases and stroke. That single purpose drives all we do. The ...
... Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011 Jan;8(1):35-44. doi: 10.1038/nrgastro. ... In this context, research has been undertaken using animals to model human steatosis and NAFLD to NASH disease progression. ... This Review discusses the prevalent dietary and inflammation-based genetic animal models described in recent years. ... NASH is a subset of a larger spectrum of diseases termed fatty liver disease (including alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver ...
... and prevent cell death in animal models of Huntington disease. As Huntington disease is an inherited condition that can be ... 2014, May 28). "Animal models reveal promising approach to slow brain degeneration in Huntingtons disease." Medical News Today ... "Animal models reveal promising approach to slow brain degeneration in Huntingtons disease." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, ... Animal models reveal promising approach to slow brain degeneration in Huntingtons disease. ...
Unknown author (‎1972)‎. Virus-associated immunopathology: animal models and implications for human disease. Bulletin of the ...
... and human population to predict outbreaks of zoonotic diseases. ... Scientists have developed a model that uses anticipated changes ... "This model is a major improvement in our understanding of the spread of diseases from animals to people. We hope it can be used ... The model brings together how often people are likely to come into contact with animals carrying the disease, with the risk of ... Scientists have developed a computer model that predicts outbreaks of zoonotic diseases - those that spread from animals to ...
The Disease BioPortal is operated and maintained by the Center for Animal Disease Modeling and Surveillance (CADMS) at the ... Disease BioPortal: a near-real time platform for the visualization and analysis of local and global information. The Disease ... Contact us , Animal Health Inquiries , Check us out on Facebook, Twitter, & YouTube , Online Donation Form. UC Davis School of ... BioPortal is a web-based system that provides near-real time access to local, regional, and global disease information and data ...
... Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2013 Aug;49(2):167-79. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2013-0094TR. ... multiple animal models have been developed. This review summarizes the common and emerging models of lung fibrosis to highlight ... Each of the models reviewed in this report offers a powerful tool for studying some aspect of fibrotic lung disease. ... Repetitive dosing in some models has more closely mimicked the pathology of human fibrotic lung disease. We also have a much ...
Classical and novel animal models are being used to investigate exposure determinants, epitope identity, and the role played by ... Occupational asthma is the most frequently reported occupational respiratory disease in industrialized nations, and numerous ... Animals; Animal-studies; Models; Occupational-diseases; Diseases; Bronchial-asthma; Pathogenesis; Pathogenicity; Respiratory- ... The data generated through the use of animal models is instrumental for risk assessment used to refine workplace exposure ...
Millions of people suffer from Parkinsons disease, a disorder of the nervous system that affects movement and worsens over ... Using a transgenic zebrafish model for Parkinsons disease, the researchers added CLR01 and used fluorescent proteins to track ... which in a living animal model blocked α-synuclein aggregates from forming, stopped the aggregates toxicity and, further, ... thus stopping the progression of the disorder in the living animal model. ...
AbstractAnimal models of autoimmune disease have been of vital importance in the advancement of ... ... Read this full essay on Animal Models Of Autoimunne Disease. ... Animal models can help make clear many aspects of a disease or ... Animal Models Of Autoimunne Disease Essay. 7146 words - 29 pages AbstractAnimal models of autoimmune disease have been of vital ... Find Another Essay On Animal Models Of Autoimunne Disease. Animal Rights Essay. 856 words - 3 pages reaction upon certain drugs ...
"Animal Models of T Cell-Mediated Skin Diseases". Such animal models should have impact not only on inflammatory dermatoses but ... Animal Models of Skin Diseases Asthma Atopic Dermatitits Contact dermatitis Gene-modified mice Psoriasis genes ... Modelling Gene-Environment Interactions in Th1- and Th2-Dominated Diseases of Laboratory Animals ... Transgenic Mice Expressing IFN-γ in the Epidermis Are a Model of Inflammatory Skin Disease and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus ...
Parkinsons disease animal models are divided into two categories: neurotoxin models and genetic models. Neurotoxin models ... "Animal Model of Parkinson Disease: Neuroinflammation and Apoptosis in the 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Model", Experimental Animal ... Animal models of Parkinsons disease are essential in the research field and widely used to study Parkinsons disease. ... "Animal Models of Parkinsons Disease", Parkinsons Disease: Pathogenesis and Clinical Aspects, Brisbane (AU): Codon ...
... collection of standardised data on animal diseases. ... It is important to highlight that the SIGMA - Animal Disease Data Model (r-ADM) focuses on data which are known to be already ... Commission is routinely asking EFSA for scientific and technical support in the epidemiological analysis of animal disease ... surveillance activities and concerned animal populations (i.e. poultry, domestic pigs, cattle and wildlife such as wild boar). ...
... enable insights into the diseases genetics and/or pathophysiology influences the scientific progress in Huntingtons disease. ... Large animal models, such as domesticated farm animals, offer some distinct advantages over rodent models, including a larger ... Promising Research Options Offered by Large Animal Models of Huntingtons Disease. by Kathy Jones on April 25, 2013 at 10:59 PM ... The availability of appropriate animal models that enable insights into the diseases genetics and/or pathophysiology ...
... and human disease models on the basis of phenotypes alone. ... Genetics of disease Is the Subject Area "Genetics of disease" ...
An animal model (short for animal disease model) is a living, non-human, often genetic-engineered animal used during the ... organs and even animal species which express human diseases, providing a more robust model of human diseases in an animal model ... These test conditions are often termed as animal models of disease. The use of animal models allows researchers to investigate ... rat Mouse models of colorectal and intestinal cancer Animal models of schizophrenia Animal models of autism History of model ...
Emerging infections provide clues about how pathogens might evolve when farm animals are protected from infection. ... tags: animal models x disease/medicine x The Scientist. » animal models and disease/medicine ...
Mechanisms of Action in Animal Models and Human Disease. Editors: Kocsis, J.J., Jollow, D.J., Witmer, C.M., Nelson, J.O., ... Mechanisms of Action in Animal Models and Human Disease. Editors. * James J. Kocsis ... Reactive Oxygen Species Formed in Vitro and in Cells: Role of Thiols(GSH). Model Studies with Xanthine Oxidase and Horseradish ... Studies on the Mechanism of S-Cysteine Conjugate Metabolism and Toxicity in Rat Liver, Kidney, and a Cell Culture Model ...
... even in rodent animal models. This mini-review summarizes histopathological evidence that DM induces AD pathology in animal ... is the major causative disease of dementia and is characterized pathologically by the accumulation of senile plaques (SPs) and ... models and discusses the possibility that aberrant insulin signaling is a key factor in the induction of AD pathology. ... Keywords: Alzheimers disease; animal model; diabetes mellitus; insulin resistance; pathology Alzheimers disease; animal model ...
... could lead to new understanding of how genetic and environmental factors converge to cause the disease, and the development of ... Gene therapy to reduce production of a brain protein prevented development of Parkinsons disease in an animal study, said ... Gene therapy prevents Parkinsons disease in animal model, says Pitt study University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health ... Gene therapy prevents Parkinsons disease in animal model, says Pitt study. University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health ...
The animal is useful in screening compounds for activity in treating lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis and chronic ... said promoter construct directs expression of the epithelial sodium channel β subunit in lung epithelial cells of said animal, ... Spontaneous inflammatory disease in transgenic rats expressing HLA-B27 and Human beta2m: an animal model of HLA-B27-associated ... Spontaneous inflammatory disease in transgenic rats expressing HLA-B27 and Human β2m: an animal model of HLA-B27-associated ...
Cardiovascular Disease in COPD: Evidences from Epidemiology, Genetics, Bio-Markers, Animal Models, Clinical Studies & ... Cardiovascular Disease in COPD: Evidences from Epidemiology, Genetics, Bio-Markers, Animal Models, Clinical Studies & ... Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) and cardiovascular disease and to recommend future research that may be needed to ... The need to look at COPD subjects as a whole in terms of the development, progression and treatment of a systemic disease was ...
Enzyme inhibition protects against Huntingtons disease damage in two animal models. Treatment with SIRT2 inhibitor reduced ... slowed the loss of motor function and extended survival in two animal models of Huntingtons disease. The study led by ... protected against neuronal damage in cellular and animal models of HD and Parkinsons disease - both of which are characterized ... Treated animals in this model, which usually die prematurely, lived 13 percent longer than untreated R6/2 mice. In the ...
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  • Animal models of adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases have enhanced the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, frontotemporal dementia, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (
  • Here we review the current state of rodent models for Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, frontotemporal dementia, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (
  • Animal models of Parkinson's disease. (
  • Millions of people suffer from Parkinson's disease, a disorder of the nervous system that affects movement and worsens over time. (
  • The protein, which has been found to be common to all patients with Parkinson's, is thought to be a pathway to the disease when it binds together in "clumps," or aggregates, and becomes toxic, killing the brain's neurons. (
  • There are currently more than 30 diseases with no cure that are caused by protein aggregation and the resulting toxicity to the brain or other organs, including Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Type 2 diabetes. (
  • Using a transgenic zebrafish model for Parkinson's disease, the researchers added CLR01 and used fluorescent proteins to track the tweezer's effect on the aggregations. (
  • The researchers are already studying CLR01 in a mouse model of Parkinson's and say they hope this will lead to human clinical trials. (
  • Animal models of Parkinson's disease are essential in the research field and widely used to study Parkinson's disease. (
  • Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). (
  • There are a variety of models that can be utilized to be able to address important aspects of Parkinson's disease. (
  • Parkinson's disease animal models are divided into two categories: neurotoxin models and genetic models. (
  • A limitation to using 6-OHDA is that the potency of the neurotoxin causes rapid apoptosis, which makes it difficult to study Parkinson's disease progression. (
  • 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetraydropyridine (MPTP) is a widely used neurotoxin in Parkinson's disease research (Figure 4). (
  • which are all hallmarks in Parkinson's disease. (
  • PITTSBURGH, June 15, 2015 - Gene therapy to reduce production of a brain protein successfully prevented development of Parkinson's disease in an animal study, according to researchers at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. (
  • Scientists have observed dysfunction of mitochondria, which make energy for cells, in Parkinson's disease, as well as Lewy bodies, which are characteristic clumps of the cellular protein α-synuclein within neurons, said principal investigator Edward A. Burton, M.D., D.Phil. (
  • Until now, these have been pursued largely as separate lines of research in Parkinson's disease," Dr. Burton said. (
  • The team wanted to see what would happen if they knocked out the production of α-synuclein in the brain's substantia nigra, home to the dopamine-producing cells that are lost as Parkinson's disease progresses. (
  • Our previous work established that rotenone exposure in rats reproduces many features of Parkinson's disease that we see in humans, including movement problems, Lewy bodies, loss of dopamine neurons and mitochondrial dysfunction," explained co-investigator J. Timothy Greenamyre, M.D., Ph.D., Love Family Professor of Neurology, and director of the Pittsburgh Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases at Pitt. (
  • The viral vector AAV2 has been used safely in Parkinson's disease patients in clinical trials, so the gene therapy approach might be feasible," Dr. Burton said. (
  • We think targeting α-synuclein has great potential to protect the brain from neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. (
  • Earlier studies by Kazantsev's group and others showed that inhibiting SIRT2 (sirtuin-2 deacetylase) protected against neuronal damage in cellular and animal models of HD and Parkinson's disease - both of which are characterized by the buildup of abnormal proteins in the brain - and in other neurodegenerative disorders. (
  • Sustained neuroinflammation mediated by resident microglia is recognized as a key pathophysiological contributor to many neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), but the key molecular signaling events regulating persistent microglial activation have yet to be clearly defined. (
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex multifactorial disease characterized by the progressive loss of midbrain dopamine neurons. (
  • Bertoli-Avella AM, Oostra BA, Heutink P (2004) Chasing genes in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. (
  • Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by well-defined motor symptoms, the most striking of which is bradykinesia. (
  • Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. (
  • Researchers at UCLA have developed a molecular compound that improves balance and coordination in mice with early stage Parkinson's disease. (
  • Parkinson's disease is a nervous system disorder that affects movement. (
  • CLR01 previously showed a strong therapeutic effect in a zebrafish model of Parkinson's. (
  • This work was supported by multiple funding agencies, including the National Institutes of Health, RJG Foundation, the Michael J. Fox Foundation, Team Parkinson/Parkinson Alliance, the American Parkinson's Disease Association, and gifts to the Center for the Study of Parkinson's Disease at UCLA. (
  • In many cases, neurological disease has a pharmacological treatment which, as in the case of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Epilepsy, and Multiple Sclerosis can reduce the symptoms and slow down the course of the disease but cannot reverse its effects or heal the patient. (
  • Firstly there are the disorders which involve a loss of cells in defined subsets of the brain, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA). (
  • Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder (AD is the most common) and the most common movement disorder. (
  • AIM his study evaluates the utility of (11)C-(+)-alpha -dihydrotetrabenazine ((11)C-(+)DTBZ) in the quantification of dopaminergic innervation by positron emission tomography (PET) in rat and monkey, two animal species used as animal models of Parkinson's disease. (
  • Whereas mouse PSC-derived DA neurons have shown efficacy in models of Parkinson's disease3,4, DA neurons from human PSCs generally show poorin vivoperformance5. (
  • Extensive molecular profiling, biochemical and electrophysiological data define developmental progression and confirm identity of PSC-derived midbrain DA neurons.In vivosurvival and function is demonstrated in Parkinson's disease models using three host species. (
  • Excellent DA neuron survival, function and lack of neural overgrowth in the three animal models indicate promise for the development of cell-based therapies in Parkinson's disease. (
  • Most of the hypokinetic syndromes are associated with the neurodegenerative disorder Parkinson's disease (PD). (
  • Scientists in the Neurodegeneration division interrogate how neurones live, die and can be rescued to improve brain function in degenerative conditions such as Parkinson's and Motor Neuron Diseases. (
  • Background: The etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains elusive despite identification of several genetic mutations. (
  • Here we report that inflammation can trigger degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. (
  • Methods: We examined the effects of inflammation on the progressive 6-OHDA rat model of Parkinson's disease using immunohistochemistry, multiplex ELISA, and cell counting stereology. (
  • To better understand the pathogenesis of lung fibrotic disorders, multiple animal models have been developed. (
  • Animal models of occupational asthma: tools for understanding disease pathogenesis. (
  • Classical and novel animal models are being used to investigate exposure determinants, epitope identity, and the role played by the immune system in occupational asthma in order to recapitulate disease phenotype and further current understanding of its pathogenesis. (
  • This Viewpoint Essay discusses the contribution by autoreactive T cells to the pathogenesis of bullous pemphigoid, pemphigus and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita, with an emphasis on studies using active animal mouse models for these diseases. (
  • Accumulating evidence has indicated that bacteria have a major role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) ( 3 ). (
  • The pathogenesis of the disease may be investigated and novel treatment methods may be explored by establishing specific animal models and by further studying the safety and effectiveness of different treatment schemes in animals. (
  • Although most of the models mirror featured aspects of AD pathogenesis such as β-amyloidosis, NFT formation, cognitive dysfunction, and/or synaptic loss, no perfect model matching human AD is currently available. (
  • Like other forms of medical research, ophthalmology and vision research focuses on the investigation of disease pathogenesis and the discovery of novel therapies through in vitro and in vivo methodology. (
  • Most chapters are devoted to a specific biological agent or toxin and supply interesting historical information as well as descriptions about the pathogenesis in humans and in animal models. (
  • Animal models are crucial not only for the understanding of human pathogenesis in order to identify therapeutic targets, but also to test novel drugs. (
  • The aims of this review are to describe the detailed phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the disease, conventional and novel imaging findings, current knowledge of animal models and pathogenesis, and the multiple avenues of intervention being explored. (
  • Metabolic products of lipid peroxides have been reported to involve in the pathogenesis of various diseases. (
  • Therefore, there is a growing need for a more specific therapy targeting key molecules in the pathogenesis of such diseases. (
  • Animal models are crucial for improving our understanding of human pathogenesis, enabling researchers to identify therapeutic targets and test novel drugs. (
  • Despite its simplicity, conservation of genetic and disease pathways between C. elegans and higher eukaryotes make it an effective in vivo model for study ageing and disease pathogenesis and the preeminent model system for genetic manipulation of ageing. (
  • Design Using a recently developed AD-like pathology with amyloid and neurofibrillary tangles (ADLP APT ) transgenic mouse model of AD, which shows amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and reactive gliosis in their brains along with memory deficits, we examined the impact of the gut microbiota on AD pathogenesis. (
  • Tansey, K. E., Cameron, D. & Hill, M. J. Genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease is concentrated in specific macrophage and microglial transcriptional networks. (
  • This Review discusses the prevalent dietary and inflammation-based genetic animal models described in recent years. (
  • After more than a decade of research on the pre-symptomatic phase of Huntington disease, markers are being developed to facilitate assessment of interventional therapy in individuals carrying the genetic mutation for Huntington disease, before they become ill. (
  • Recent advances have allowed for the development of models to study targeted injuries of Type II alveolar epithelial cells, fibroblastic autonomous effects, and targeted genetic defects. (
  • An animal model (short for animal disease model) is a living, non-human, often genetic-engineered animal used during the research and investigation of human disease, for the purpose of better understanding the disease process without the added risk of harming an actual human. (
  • Although scientific study of animals predates Charles Darwin by several hundred years, the primary justification for the use of animals in research is based on the evolutionary principle that all organisms share some degree of relatedness and genetic similarity due to common ancestry. (
  • whereas, genetic models include genes that are mutated and induce PD phenotypes. (
  • The findings, published online today in the Journal of Clinical Investigation , could lead to new understanding of how genetic and environmental factors converge to cause the disease, and the development of effective treatments to prevent disease progression. (
  • Cystic fibrosis (CF) is among the most prevalent, lethal diseases of genetic origin. (
  • I believe that the drug efficacy demonstrated in two distinct genetic HD mouse models is quite unique and highly encouraging," says Aleksey Kazantsev, PhD, of the MassGeneral Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders , senior author of the study. (
  • Such models are usually the result of genetic and/or nutritional modifications, considering metabolic and histological changes commonly seen in humans. (
  • Obesity induced in rodents occur mainly through HFD, HCD, FFD or genetic alterations like in Lep, Acox, KKy models. (
  • Here, we found that genetic or drug induced ablation of adult-born new neurons significantly ameliorated synaptic and cognitive impairments in APP/PS1 and hAPP-J20 mice, two commonly used mouse models of AD. (
  • CD is a complex disease, which occurs due to genetic and environmental factors ( 2 ). (
  • By injecting a therapeutic gene directly into the brain, researchers have treated a naturally occurring genetic disease in cats. (
  • This is the first genetic disease affecting the central nervous system to be successfully treated in an animal larger than mice and rats. (
  • The animals involved in the study are born with a genetic disorder directly analogous to alpha-mannosidosis or AMD, an inherited disease in humans that causes severe mental retardation and skeletal abnormalities. (
  • In recent years, genetic studies have found thousands of links between genes and various diseases. (
  • Previously, scientists working with animal models have had to knock out one gene at a time, or cross animal models to produce one with the needed genetic modifications, processes that are challenging and time consuming. (
  • To examine possible contributions of the peripheral immune system on disease progression, mSOD1 G93A /PU.1 −/− mice on a B6/SJL genetic background [ supporting information (SI) ] received BMT from CCR2 −/− mice lacking the receptor for monocyte-chemoattractant protein−1 (MCP-1/CCL2) ( 6 ). (
  • Animal models are defined in regard to genetic, phenotypic and health-related characteristics. (
  • The condition is believed to result from the aggregate effect of genetic variations conferring risk of disease and environmental factors affecting the immune system, which combined, lead to an aberrant inflammatory response. (
  • Today we have amassed a multitude of animal models, developed through genetic, chemical, and/or lesions in multiple species with the goal of faithfully mimicking these diseases and uncover the complex nature of disease-associated mechanisms. (
  • Animals within Resources are characterized in regard to genetic, phenotypic and health-related characteristics. (
  • It s a scalable model that can be engineered to carry the genetic variants that give rise to all these diseases and it gives us incredible access to things we never have done before, Dr. Anand told The Washington Post. (
  • Pompe disease or Glycogen Storage Disease is a rare genetic disease caused by the buildup of a sugar called glycogen in the body s cells. (
  • Differences between studies are most likely due to differences in the populations studied - in terms of type of allergy, evolutionary stage of the disease, environment, genetic background - but also to the various probiotic used in terms of strain, dose, duration and time of administration in relation to the development of allergy, and finally the follow-up period [ 13 , 19 ]. (
  • Animal models, mice, genetic diseases. (
  • The study of human genetic diseases can be greatly aided by animal models because of their similarity to humans in terms of genetics. (
  • Mice are widely considered to be the prime model of genetic human disease. (
  • These results are the culmination of four years of research and show how gene therapy is effective for this genetic muscle disease," said Buj-Bello. (
  • Benefits of this model system include: a short three-day life cycle, 14-day natural lifespan, highly developed genetic tools, fully characterised cell lineage, and an open research community. (
  • Meta-analysis of 74,046 individuals identifies 11 new susceptibility loci for Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Ashe, K. H. & Zahs, K. R. Probing the biology of Alzheimer's disease in mice. (
  • APP mouse models for Alzheimer's disease preclinical studies. (
  • Golde, T. E., Schneider, L. S. & Koo, E. H. Anti-aβ therapeutics in Alzheimer's disease: the need for a paradigm shift. (
  • Haass, C. & De Strooper, B. The presenilins in Alzheimer's disease-proteolysis holds the key. (
  • Single App knock-in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. (
  • To receive news and publication updates for International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, enter your email address in the box below. (
  • It is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease, following Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major causative disease of dementia and is characterized pathologically by the accumulation of senile plaques (SPs) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the brain. (
  • While this Insight will be discussing the role of ApoE in CVD, this protein also plays an important role in Alzheimer's disease as it is the principal transporter of cholesterol in the brain. (
  • ApoE4 - Allelic frequency of 15 - 20% 3 - has been implicated in atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, and contributes to increased serum cholesterol levels and the development of CVD 5 , 6 . (
  • Another aim of this study was to explore the cytoprotective potential of IR1072 in conjunction with Alzheimer's disease-related insults. (
  • Previous studies have indicated that adult neurogenesis is disturbed in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and animal models. (
  • Alzheimer's disease (AD) ranks as a leading cause of death among the progressive neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • Arnold SE, Hyman BT, Flory J, Damasio AR, Van Hoesen GW (1991) The topographical and neuroanatomical distribution of neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques in the cerebral cortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Auffret A, Gautheron V, Repici M, Kraftsik R, Mount HT, Mariani J, Rovira C (2009) Age-dependent impairment of spine morphology and synaptic plasticity in hippocampal CA1 neurons of a presenilin 1 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Ballatore C, Lee VM, Trojanowski JQ (2007) Tau-mediated neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. (
  • Billings LM, Oddo S, Green KN, McGaugh JL, LaFerla FM (2005) Intraneuronal abeta causes the onset of early Alzheimer's disease-related cognitive deficits in transgenic mice. (
  • Scientists in the laboratory of Lennart Mucke, MD, who directs neurological research at Gladstone, conducted the research on mice genetically modified to simulate key aspects of Alzheimer's disease . (
  • The relevance of this discovery to people with Alzheimer's disease is underscored by research that scientists at Johns Hopkins University published just a few months ago. (
  • Still, further research is required before the drug is prescribed for Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Scientists at the Gladstone Institutes have unraveled a process by which depletion of a specific protein in the brain contributes to the memory problems associated with Alzheimer's disease. (
  • A cholesterol drug commonly prescribed to reduce cardiovascular disease risk restores blood vessel function in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, according to a study in the April 4 issue of The Journal of Neuroscience. (
  • Reelin, a crucial protein for adult brain plasticity, recovers cognitive functions in mice with Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive cognitive deficits, synaptic loss and neuronal death. (
  • This new preclinical study proves that an increase in Reelin brain levels avoids cognitive deterioration in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Professor Eduardo Soriano, head of the Research Group Developmental Neurobiology and Neuroregeneration of UB, explains that "most studies on Alzheimer's disease search for therapeutic targets addressed to a certain process involved in the disease. (
  • On the contrary, "our study analyses the signalling pathway of Reelin-a synaptic and cognitive enhancer- that regulates the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and tau protein, which are both involved in basic processes of Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Results were reproduced in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and it was observed that Reelin also reduces amyloid plaque formation. (
  • Soriano stresses that, as a research line, "this methodological approach on signalling pathways that control different features related to brain plasticity and Alzheimer's disease is more effective. (
  • In previous studies, the research group led by Dr Eduardo Soriano observed that Reelin was altered in Alzheimer's disease and that its role in intracellular signalling pathways was associated with neuronal survival. (
  • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-related dementia, with the number of affected individuals expected to exceed 100 million worldwide by 2050. (
  • In Australia, Alzheimer's disease is the third leading cause of death behind heart disease and cancer. (
  • Despite the significance of this disease there are currently no disease modifying drugs to treat Alzheimer's disease. (
  • One of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease is the cerebral deposition of plaques composed of Amyloid-beta (Aß) peptide. (
  • Clearance of Aß is slowed in cerebrospinal fluid from Alzheimer's disease patients, which likely contributes to its pathological deposition. (
  • Objective Cerebral amyloidosis and severe tauopathy in the brain are key pathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). (
  • As Huntington disease is an inherited condition that can be detected decades before any clinical symptoms are seen in humans, a better understanding of the earliest changes in brain cell (neuronal) function, and the molecular pathways underlying those changes, could lead to preventive treatments that delay the onset of symptoms and neurodegeneration. (
  • The model could, for example, look at the effect of travel patterns, rates of contact between humans, and poverty on the spread of individual zoonotic diseases. (
  • Although biological activity in an animal model does not ensure an effect in humans, many drugs, treatments and cures for human diseases are developed in part with the guidance of animal models. (
  • Homologous animals have the same causes, symptoms and treatment options as would humans who have the same disease. (
  • The increase in knowledge of the genomes of non-human primates and other mammals that are genetically close to humans is allowing the production of genetically engineered animal tissues, organs and even animal species which express human diseases, providing a more robust model of human diseases in an animal model. (
  • For instance, behavioral analogues of anxiety or pain in laboratory animals can be used to screen and test new drugs for the treatment of these conditions in humans. (
  • Understanding the body's functions requires scientific discoveries from animal research, and because humans and animals share more than 250 common illnesses, testing on animals is extremely beneficial to humans. (
  • This book provides a timely and comprehensive introduction to the modeling of infectious diseases in humans and animals, focusing on recent developments as well as more traditional approaches. (
  • Thus, it is important to evaluate different animal models of obesity able to induce the profile of NAFLD and NASH disease in humans, assessing their mechanisms of action. (
  • Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) are a group of lethal inherited neurodegenerative disorders in humans and many animal species. (
  • Critical reflections on a range of ethical issues concerning NCL have been instigated by my research on sheep and cattle affected with NCL, the claim that these sheep and cattle are useful models for the disease in humans, and engagement with families and support groups. (
  • If this approach can be successfully applied to humans, say the researchers, it might one day treat an entire class of diseases called lysosomal storage disorders, which cause severe, sometimes fatal, disabilities in about one in 5,000 births. (
  • As we move toward the clinical use of this therapy in humans, we must develop and utilize non-invasive methods to monitor the regression of the disease following treatment," Vite said. (
  • The large animal study also demonstrated that only a limited number of injections are necessary to introduce the working LAMAN gene, one of the first steps that will prepare this particular gene therapy for practical use in humans. (
  • According to the World Health Organization, any disease or infection that is naturally transmissible from vertebrate animals to humans and vice-versa is classified as a zoonosis. (
  • Development of suitable experimental models is critical in identifying risk factors for disease, elucidating fundamental molecular mechanisms in disease progression, and providing guidance as to whether or not a particular treatment is safe and effective for humans. (
  • This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) encourages small business concerns to submit Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant applications that propose innovative approaches to further develop, improve and facilitate the use of animal models and related biological materials to meet new biomedical challenges related to improvements in the health of humans and animals. (
  • We think it self-e- dent, however, that humans can only be experimented upon in severely proscribed circumstances and alternative pro- dures using cell or tissue culture are inadequate in any models requiring assessments of behavioral change or of complex in vivo processes. (
  • Typically they are induced by artificially inserting or removing genes in animals to create symptoms that only approximate the real disease in humans. (
  • Additional tests are needed in alternative animal models to ensure translation to humans. (
  • Overall, the zebrafish models included display conserved biochemical and neurobehavioral features of the phenomenology in humans. (
  • Frank Conlon, PhD, co-led a study showing which proteins and pathways are conserved in four major animal models and humans, providing insights into which models are best for specific research of human disease. (
  • More importantly, they allow researchers to understand which animal models can be used to study heart disease and ultimately test treatments for cardiac disease seen in humans. (
  • But to their surprise, Conlon and Cristea's labs found that each species shares a unique set of proteins with humans, and that these proteins are mutated in human disease states. (
  • Treated animals in this model, which usually die prematurely, lived 13 percent longer than untreated R6/2 mice. (
  • In the experiments with the 140 CAG Htt knock-in model, treated animals maintained activity levels similar to those of normal mice for several months, while untreated mice showed a rapid decline in motor activity. (
  • Importantly, in vivo studies using MPTP, LPS, or 6-OHDA models revealed a greater attenuation of neuroinflammatory responses in Fyn −/− and PKCδ −/− mice compared with wild-type mice. (
  • He established at least 11 different models of genetically engineered mice and rats, induced enteritis models of indomethacin, guinea pigs fed carrageenan, a sulfated red seaweed extract, and cotton top tamarins a primate model of colitis ( 5 ). (
  • CRISPR-Cas9 knockin mice for genome editing and cancer modeling. (
  • Recent evidence derived from transgenic mice ubiquitously overexpressing mutant Cu 2+ /Zn 2+ superoxide dismutase (mSOD1), a chronic neurodegenerative model of inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), indicates that glia with either a lack of or reduction in mSOD1 expression enhance motoneuron protection and slow disease progression. (
  • Here we show that when mSOD1 mice were bred with mice lacking functional T cells or CD4+ T cells, motoneuron disease was accelerated, accompanied by unexpected attenuated morphological markers of gliosis, increased mRNA levels for proinflammatory cytokines and NOX2, and decreased levels of trophic factors and glial glutamate transporters. (
  • Thus, to assess the role of T cells in a chronic neurodegenerative disease such as ALS, immunodeficient mice were bred with mSOD1 G93A transgenic mice and selective reconstitution experiments with bone marrow transplants (BMT) were used to elucidate the roles of T cells. (
  • Existing animal models as alternative sources of human tissues (e.g., humanized mice and swine). (
  • In a recently completed study of TNBS-induced colitis, which is a well accepted animal model of inflammatory bowel disease, administration of CGEN-25007 protected mice from the effects of lethal colitis. (
  • Whereas mice and rats are often not susceptible to human pathogens, replicate them at low levels or require rodent-adapted pathogen strains, the cotton rat has proven susceptible to a wide variety of human pathogens and to be a model system to simulate a number of important parameters of human disease. (
  • This hypothesis has been confirmed by studies using mice models which have shown that the gut microbiota is likely to play a role in the development of oral tolerance. (
  • The specific gut microbiota observed in mice with food allergy by Noval-Rivas et al was able of transmitting disease susceptibility to naive germ-free recipients [ 9 ]. (
  • Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract (LCWE)-induced coronary arteritis in mice is a well-validated model of KD. (
  • The researchers used two animal models: mice with an engineered MTM1 mutation and dogs carrying a naturally occurring MTM1 gene mutation. (
  • In the second model, Ovalbumin was used to induce a Th1-dominated inflammation in OVA-specific T cell receptor- transgenic mice after systemic sensitization with OVA/CFA. (
  • Genesis, the Journal of Genetics and Development will sponsor a $500 travel award for the best abstract on Xenopus research submitted by a junior researcher to the 7th Aquatic Animal Models of Human Disease Conference. (
  • Authors: Hammerschlag MR, Sharma R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Azithromycin was recommended as the first-line therapeutic regimen for treatment of genital infections in men and women by the Centers for Disease Control in 1998. (
  • The ultimate goal is to test promising therapies and to manage, prevent or cure neurodegenerative disease. (
  • The second section presents the use of animal models to pinpoint disease mechanisms, and the last part of the handbook examines the various therapeutic interventions being used in models of neurodegenerative disease. (
  • Second, for a given neurodegenerative disease, the etiology and the clinical presentation differ from one patient to the next. (
  • As such, while the current models are well suited for the study of specific pathology-driven mechanisms, more notably amyloid-β, tau, or alpha-synuclein, pharmacological testing in animal models of neurodegenerative disease often translates into poorer indices of efficacy when applied to the clinical population. (
  • Conclusion: These data provide insight into the etiology of PD and support a role for inflammation as a risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative disease. (
  • The model brings together changes in the host's distribution pattern as the environment changes with the mechanisms of how the disease spreads from animals to people. (
  • Animal models of cardiovascular disease have proved critically important for the discovery of pathophysiological mechanisms and for the advancement of. (
  • However, these are useful in isolating and making predictions about mechanisms of a set of disease features. (
  • As our closest relatives, chimpanzees have a lot of potential to tell us about mechanisms of disease (and what genes may be responsible for human intelligence). (
  • In addition, well-defined genetics of animal models present unique opportunities for detailed investigations into pathogenic mechanisms through the use of transgenic models and antibody neutralization strategies. (
  • The general consensus was that the mechanisms behind the association of cardiovascular disease and COPD need to be further investigated at the epidemiological, patho-biological, and clinical levels. (
  • Studies are needed to assess the common mechanisms by which immune responses and inflammation may contribute to cardiovascular disease and COPD. (
  • Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Disease Models & Mechanisms. (
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Disease Models & Mechanisms web site. (
  • Interaction between NAFLD and obesity still needs further clarification, and it is necessary to dertemine the mechanisms of these disorders in animal models of disease. (
  • However, the mechanisms involved in the progression from NAFLD to NASH are not yet elucidated, as some models have shown unexpected outcomes such as severe malnutrition or obesity markers absence and IR after the use of Minimal-change disease (MCD) therapies and drugs, respectively. (
  • In the present study, we examined the role of Fyn, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, in microglial activation and neuroinflammatory mechanisms in cell culture and animal models of PD. (
  • During the past decade, researchers have also made remarkable progress in identifying genes responsible for inherited forms of Parkinson s disease, with the expectation that understanding the function of these genes will elucidate mechanisms behind sporadic Parkinson s disease. (
  • The significant impact in vivo of experimental NPC therapies in animal models of inflammatory CNS diseases has raised great expectations that these stem cells, or the manipulation of the mechanisms behind their therapeutic impact, could soon be translated to human studies. (
  • These viral models provide valuable insights into Parkinson disease mechanisms, help to identify therapeutic targets and may contribute to the development of therapeutic approaches. (
  • These models have been developed in many species in the attempt to undercover the complex nature of the disease mechanisms involved. (
  • With these advances and challenges in mind, this handbook, written by experts in the field of neurodegeneration, provides a rich and updated overview of a wide range of animal models that are being developed and used to study complex disease dynamics, including but also beyond pathology-associated mechanisms, with the ultimate goal to discover the neuroprotective therapeutics of the future through more accurate translation of basic to clinical outputs. (
  • The second section of this handbook presents the use of animal models to pinpoint disease mechanisms. (
  • Animal models for inflammatory arthritides such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis are widely accepted and frequently used to identify pathological mechanisms and validate novel therapeutic strategies. (
  • Now, researchers at University College London (UCL) in the United Kingdom have developed a computer model that predicts outbreaks of zoonotic diseases based on changes in climate, population growth, and land use. (
  • The researchers hope that using the model, decision-makers will be able to assess the effect that planned changes on land use - such as converting grassland to agriculture - could have on spread of zoonotic diseases. (
  • In a study published in the journal Methods in Ecology and Evolution , the researchers describe how they successfully used the model to predict current patterns of Lassa fever spread. (
  • Bringing this forecast information together, the model predicts the areas in West Africa considered high risk for Lassa fever will expand into the western-most regions around Senegal and Guinea, the coastline of Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana, and in Central Nigeria, note the researchers. (
  • The use of animal models allows researchers to investigate disease states in ways which would be inaccessible in a human patient, performing procedures on the non-human animal that imply a level of harm that would not be considered ethical to inflict on a human. (
  • The researchers next tried their tweezers in a living animal, the zebrafish, a tropical freshwater fish commonly found in aquariums. (
  • To overcome the difficulty of organising and accessing the large amounts of information on the various models, a large consortium of researchers set up a searchable database - the MUGEN Mouse Database (MMdb) (Aidinis et al. (
  • A first-ever tissue implant to safely treat a common jaw defect, temporomandibular joint dysfunction, has been successfully tested in animals by researchers from UC Irvine and UC Davis. (
  • In describing the most pertinent animal models of ophthalmic diseases, this book will be of interest to ophthalmologists, vision researchers, fellows, residents and medical students. (
  • In findings that support a relationship between agricultural chemicals and Parkinson s disease, two groups of researchers have found new evidence that loss of DJ-1, a gene known to be linked to inherited Parkinson s disease, leads to striking sensitivity to the herbicide paraquat and the insecticide rotenone. (
  • The fruit fly possesses two versions of the DJ-1 gene, and in the new work, the researchers simulated the human Parkinson s disease situation by deleting one or both forms of DJ-1 from the fly s DNA. (
  • The model developed by University College London (UCL) researchers and based on climate change, population growth and land use can be used to prepare communities and respond to disease outbreaks efficiently, Kate Jones, the lead author of the study and professor in UCL Genetics, Evolution and environment and ZSL, said. (
  • The approach has already proved successful by predicting the current disease patterns of Lassa fever, the researchers said in a statement. (
  • Researchers from the Broad Institute and Massachusetts Institute of Technology have created a new mouse model to simplify application of the CRISPR-Cas9 system for in vivo genome editing experiments. (
  • The researchers successfully used the new "Cas9 mouse" model to edit multiple genes in a variety of cell types, and to model lung adenocarcinoma, one of the most lethal human cancers. (
  • But in order to prove that a specific gene is playing a role in the development of the disease, researchers need a way to perturb it - that is, turn the gene off, turn it on, or otherwise alter it - and study the effects. (
  • The goal in developing the mouse was to empower researchers so that they can more rapidly screen through the long list of genes that have been implicated in disease and normal biological processes. (
  • This reference will equip researchers with pertinent information regarding current animal models, so that future work will not repeat experiments already performed, while at the same time minimizing the number of animals projected for future biodefense studies. (
  • We focused on aspects such as reproducibility and practicality, and discussed advantages and weaknesses of available models for researchers who are planning to perform animal studies in the near future. (
  • DCM/ORIP-funded Resources aid these efforts by developing, characterizing, preserving and distributing high quality animals and biological materials that are used by researchers in all disciplines of biomedical research. (
  • For example, optimal husbandry, including caging and other equipment, is required to maintain animals as healthy stocks that can be distributed to researchers. (
  • Altogether, our study provides a resource for cardiac proteomes in four major model systems, uncovering conserved and divergent protein pathways and providing insight into selection of appropriate model systems for either modeling cardiac development or investigating disease," the researchers said. (
  • Large animal models, such as domesticated farm animals, offer some distinct advantages over rodent models, including a larger brain that is amenable to imaging and intracerebral therapy, longer lifespan, and a more human-like neuro-architecture. (
  • Translating preclinical results for gene-based therapies from rodent models to larger-brained models of HD is an important step along the path toward clinical testing. (
  • Sartor ( 4 , 5 ) performed extensive research on CD in different rodent models. (
  • These new approaches require more sophisticated tools to investigate the impact of therapy in rodent models. (
  • Affecting over a hundred million individuals worldwide, retinal diseases are among the leading causes of irreversible visual impairment and blindness, and appropriate study models, especially animal models, are essential to furthering our understanding of the etiology, pathology, and progression of these endemic diseases. (
  • In this context, research has been undertaken using animals to model human steatosis and NAFLD to NASH disease progression. (
  • They found that, just as in cell cultures, CLR01 prevented α-synuclein aggregation and neuronal death, thus stopping the progression of the disorder in the living animal model. (
  • The need to look at COPD subjects as a whole in terms of the development, progression and treatment of a systemic disease was stressed. (
  • One model called R6/2 is characterized by robust progression and severity of neurological symptoms. (
  • These models have contributed to significant basic research and numerous therapeutic innovations to treat AD and halt disease progression. (
  • Reduced mSOD1 protein levels in astroglia have been shown to delay microglial activation and to sharply slow disease progression ( 5 ). (
  • Eliminating or reducing mSOD1 expression from microglia also slows motoneuron loss and disease progression ( 6 , 7 ). (
  • 26 There are various manifestations of the disease resulting in a spectrum of clinical presentations, rates of progression, imaging, psychophysical and electrophysiological findings, and variable prognosis. (
  • The accumulation of Aß is thought to lead to disease progression, however, the underlying mechanism of Aß toxicity remains unclear. (
  • Naturally-occurring or experimentally-induced animal diseases with pathological processes analogous to human diseases. (
  • Nevertheless, our understanding of these disorders and the development of mechanistically designed therapeutics can still benefit from more rigorous use of the models and from generation of animals that more faithfully recapitulate human disease. (
  • We discuss the limitations and utility of current models, issues regarding translatability, and future directions for developing animal models of these human disorders. (
  • Scientists estimate that 6 out every 10 infectious human diseases are zoonotic - they start in livestock or wildlife and spread to people. (
  • While the spread of a zoonotic disease is influenced by factors in the disease itself - such as how it moves from animal to human hosts - environmental factors also play an important role - for instance, by affecting opportunity for contact. (
  • The team says the model could be fine-tuned to look at various factors influencing zoonotic disease spread within human populations. (
  • They are used as study models for human diseases. (
  • Repetitive dosing in some models has more closely mimicked the pathology of human fibrotic lung disease. (
  • Predictive models are similar to a particular human disease in only a couple of aspects. (
  • The study of taxonomic human relatives, then, can provide a great deal of information about mechanism and disease within the human body that can be useful in medicine. (
  • Scientists have been able to take advantage of these similarities in generating experimental and predictive models of human disease. (
  • citation needed] Animal models serving in research may have an existing, inbred or induced disease or injury that is similar to a human condition. (
  • These refer to models of disease that resemble human conditions in phenotype or response to treatment but are induced artificially in the laboratory. (
  • Orphan models refer to diseases for which there is no human analog and occur exclusively in the species studied. (
  • The best models of disease are similar in etiology (mechanism of cause) and phenotype (signs and symptoms) to the human equivalent. (
  • However complex human diseases can often be better understood in a simplified system in which individual parts of the disease process are isolated and examined. (
  • Roy Kupsinel, M.D. once announced that "animal experimentation produces a lot of misleading and confusing data which poses hazards to human health. (
  • highlight the development of a transgenic minipig HD model that expresses a human mutant huntingtin (HTT) fragment through the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral tissues and manifests neurochemical and reproductive changes with age. (
  • Not only does a rodent's small brain often preclude the use of advanced neuroimaging techniques, it is also not clear how intracerebral application of trophic factors, transplant therapies, and gene therapies in small animals might translate to the much larger human brain. (
  • Importantly, the brains of large animals can be studied using sensitive measures that should be highly translatable to the human condition, including MRI and PET imaging, EEG, and electrophysiology, as well as behavioral tests looking at motor and cognitive function," says Professor Jenny Morton, PhD, of the Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience at the University of Cambridge. (
  • The relevance to human biology of NHP models in Huntington's disease hold great potential value for preclinical research and development, but we need to fully consider the substantial issues of cost, long-term housing of affected animals, access of the models to HD investigators, and ethical concerns with modeling in these species," says Dr Howland. (
  • The present invention concerns non-human transgenic animals that are useful as models of lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis. (
  • The other, called 140 CAG Htt knock-in, is genetically closer to the human disease. (
  • The golden rule in the HD field for identifying compounds that could work in patients is showing efficacy in a robust HD model like R6/2 and in the more genetically accurate to human disease 140 CAG Htt knock-in model," says Kazantsev, an associate professor of Neurology at Harvard Medical School. (
  • Animal models are used by scientists to replicate human diseases in another living animal, allowing them to study the biology of the disease and test potential treatments. (
  • They illustrate the methodology used with examples from recent research literature on human and infectious disease modeling, showing how such techniques can be used in practice. (
  • In conjunction, these models reflect the diversity and utility of tools used to study human disease. (
  • The two studies were performed with the fruit fly Drosophila, a widely used model organism for studies of human disease, and shed new light on biological connections between inherited and sporadic forms of Parkinson s disease. (
  • The model predicts the number of people with the disease will double from 195,125 to 406,725 by 2070 due to climate change and growing human population. (
  • They said the model could be refined to consider zoonotic disease transmission within human populations by including the impact of travel infrastructure, human-to-human contact rates and poverty-factors that would have been of use in the Ebola and Zika outbreaks. (
  • The mission of the 7th Aquatic Animal Mod-els of Human Disease Conference is to provide scientists using aquatic animal models a unique opportunity to exchange scientific information, identify research tools and opportunities, address environmental health issues, and encourage the utility of aquatic models for the study of human disease. (
  • This venue will encourage development of an appreciation of aquatic animal models and their contributions to understanding human disease. (
  • We hope to see you at the 7th Aquatic Animal Models of Human Disease Conference as it returns to Texas. (
  • Neuro-immune interactions of neural stem cell transplants: from animal disease models to human trials. (
  • Stem cell technology is a promising branch of regenerative medicine that is aimed at developing new approaches for the treatment of severely debilitating human diseases, including those affecting the central nervous system (CNS). (
  • The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (
  • In this review we describe viral animal models for PD, i.e. models that are based on PD-associated mutations, and have been generated by viral delivery of the respective disease genes to the substantia nigra of rodents and non-human primates. (
  • The NIH supports animal models and related materials that are central to understanding basic biological processes and improving human health. (
  • Neurological diseases afflict a growing proportion of the human population. (
  • This review seeks to discuss the reasons for these difficulties by considering the differences between human and animal cells (including isolation, handling and transplantation) and between the human disease model and the animal disease model. (
  • Additionally, current and prospect human tissue bioengineered models are summarized. (
  • The NIH supports animal models and related materials that are central to both understanding basic biological processes and for developing applications directly related to improving human health. (
  • However, when the distress, discomfort, or pain to the animals outweighs the anticipated gains for human welfare, then the research is not ethical and should not be carried out. (
  • Cotton rats are an important animal model to study infectious diseases because of their unique susceptibility towards human pathogens. (
  • Cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus): an animal model for respiratory tract infections with human pathogens. (
  • Dr. Anand was motivated to work on the human brain model after his attempts with animals to develop a drug for autism yielded disappointing results. (
  • The power of this brain model bodes very well for human health because it gives us better and more relevant options to test and develop therapeutics other than rodents, he said. (
  • The human stem cell-derived brain model is the most complete model of the human brain to date, analogous to the maturity of a 5-week old fetus, containing 99 percent of the genes present in the human fetal brain. (
  • About the size of a pencil eraser, the model was created by reprogramming adult human skin cells into stem cells that subsequently could be engineered into neural cells. (
  • They cause intense suffering and death for animals and overall have not yielded significant results for human disease. (
  • Reducing reliance on animals improves research as they're 'not as likely to predict clinical outcomes as human brain models. (
  • The need to provide in vivo complex environments to understand human diseases strongly relies on the use of animal models, which traditionally include small rodents and rabbits. (
  • There is a great need for new animal species that are naturally endowed with specific features relevant to human diseases. (
  • There is an ample scope for the application of proteomic techniques in farm animals, and the establishment of several proteomic maps of plasma and tissue has clearly demonstrated that farm animals provide a disease environment that closely resembles that of human diseases. (
  • Additionally, we summarise current and prospective models based on human tissue bioengineering. (
  • These findings in animal model of chronic GVHD are useful for analyzing some aspects of pathology on human ocular chronic GVHD. (
  • Yet little is known about the proteins and cellular pathways that lead to the formation of the human heart or the roles various proteins and pathways might play in cardiac disease. (
  • Now, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Princeton University scientists have found that unique sets of proteins and pathways present in specific animal models commonly used in research are also present and mutated in human disease. (
  • Conlon, who is a member of the UNC McAllister Heart Institute, and Ileana Cristea, PhD, at Princeton University, led experiments to define the protein composition of four model vertebrates that are used to study human heart disease: two frog species, the mouse, and the pig. (
  • The projectinvolves novel human and animal models for neurodevelopmental disorders caused by mutation of the synaptic release machinery, as well as systematic comparison to human patient and EEG data. (
  • Four weeks later, 2 animals/species received one injection/disc of human disc progenitor cells+vehicle, vehicle control, or sham (n=6/condition). (
  • Human disc progenitor cell treatment was safe and efficacious in both animal models, leading to significantly improved disc height in rabbits and pigs. (
  • These studies directly contribute to regulatory approval for a human trial of a novel human disc progenitor cell treatment for degenerative disc disease. (
  • By the conclusion of this session, participants should be able to: 1) Compare various animal models of degenerative disc disease, 2) Discuss outcome measures of the models, including findings related to treatment with human disc progenitor cells, and 3) Understand the type of preclinical data required by the FDA prior to allowing a human clinical trial of a cell therapy. (
  • In Animal Models for Retinal Diseases , recognized experts in the field highlight valuable techniques as well as animal models for the prominent retinal diseases in order to aid in the evaluation, development, and improvement of therapeutic strategies. (
  • Strategies directed against the huntingtin gene in the brain are an important part of CHDI's therapeutic portfolio", says David Howland, PhD, Director of Model Systems at CHDI. (
  • In addition, the studies also highlight DJ-1 as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of Parkinson s disease. (
  • The initial idea that stem cell transplants work in vivo via the replacement of endogenous cells lost or damaged owing to disease has been challenged by accumulating evidence of their therapeutic plasticity. (
  • These glial/T-cell interactions establish a novel target for therapeutic intervention in ALS and possibly other neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • TEL AVIV, Israel--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Compugen Ltd. (NASDAQ:CGEN) announced today that CGEN-25007, a novel peptide antagonist of gp96 with potent anti-inflammatory activity, has shown positive therapeutic effects in an animal model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a commonly used term covering ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. (
  • This platform was designed for the systematic discovery of novel peptides that block proteins of interest from achieving certain disease-associated conformations, a capability that represents immense therapeutic promise in numerous fields. (
  • These results suggest that CGEN-25007 could have a potential therapeutic utility to treat IBD and other autoimmune diseases with a strong inflammatory component, such as rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • The excellent results seen in this well accepted disease model for inflammatory bowel disease further support the therapeutic application of this molecule in a number of important medical conditions. (
  • Recent findings point to gp96 as a valid target for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of immune-related disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. (
  • The first section of this handbook presents an overview of animal models of various species, ranging from higher mammals such as primates or dogs, to knowledge gathered for more prevalent rodent genetically-based models, as well as promising models developed in the rabbit to study metabolic endpoints and therapeutic strategies for AD. (
  • These findings have important implications for potential new therapeutic interventions in children with Kawasaki disease. (
  • Cell therapy is a promising approach to treating symptomatic degenerative disc disease, which currently has limited therapeutic options. (
  • It is known that more than 60 percent of the emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic. (
  • The book is exceptionally well written and furnishes a wealth of information from world-renowned scientists who spearheaded infectious disease research at the United States Army Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. (
  • In addition to the study of infectious diseases, cotton rats have been used to study toxins in the environment and recently also as a tumor model. (
  • Diversifying animal models: the use of hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus in infectious diseases. (
  • Scientists have come up with a model that can predict the spread of zoonotic diseases such as Zika and Ebola. (
  • The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a meeting of investigators on September 21-22, 2006, in Bethesda, Maryland, to evaluate evidence for a pathogenetic link between COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) and cardiovascular disease and to recommend future research that may be needed to clarify this relationship and to translate this understanding into better approaches for the prevention and treatment of cardiopulmonary disease. (
  • Experts in cardiovascular disease and COPD were brought together for this working group. (
  • It was acknowledged that cardiovascular disease plays a major role in COPD, being responsible for the death of more than 30% of these patients. (
  • Analyses of existing data and new population-based epidemiological data are needed to clarify the relationship between cardiovascular disease and COPD, including the cardiovascular association with pulmonary function measures (e.g. (
  • Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a term that encompasses multiple heart and blood-vessel-related maladies. (
  • Obesity is associated with a number of health problems that are often summarized together as metabolic syndrome and involve the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and fatty liver disease [ 1 ]. (
  • This ability to perturb multiple genes at the same time may be particularly useful in studying complex diseases, such as cancer, where mutations in more than one gene may be driving the disease. (
  • Various animal models of HSCR have been important in the understanding of the anatomy and pathophysiology of the disease and in the discovery of genes involved in HSCR. (
  • Particularly, zebrafish models of PD have contributed to a better understanding of the role of several genes implicated in the disease. (
  • Work using this model first demonstrated that single genes and compounds could dramatically modulate life span and the rate of ageing. (
  • Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited progressive neurological disorder for which there is presently no effective treatment. (
  • Sheep live long enough that the time available for studying progressive neurological diseases such as HD is much greater than is possible in rodents. (
  • Treatment with a novel agent that inhibits the activity of SIRT2, an enzyme that regulates many important cellular functions, reduced neurological damage, slowed the loss of motor function and extended survival in two animal models of Huntington's disease. (
  • In both models, the mutated huntingtin gene contains extended repeats of the nucleotide triplet CAG, leading to development of HD-like motor symptoms and the same type of brain damage seen in the devastating neurological disorder. (
  • In the last two decades the transplantation approach, by means of stem cells of different origin, has been suggested for the treatment of neurological diseases. (
  • These and other neurological diseases do not naturally occur in animals. (
  • Other participants are: M. Rosa Andrés, Cátia M. Teixeira, Antoni Parcerisas, Ernest Giralt, Bernat Serra and Rafael Maldonado, and the institutions Research Center for Neurological Diseases Foundation (CIEN Foundation), Vall d'Hebron Research Institute (VHIR) and Pompeu Fabra University (UPF). (
  • Animal models can also be more broadly classified into four categories: 1) experimental, 2) spontaneous, 3) negative, 4) orphan. (
  • Experimental models are most common. (
  • Negative models essentially refer to control animals, which are useful for validating an experimental result. (
  • Moreover, growing evidence suggests that there are several connections between the neuropathology that underlies AD and DM, and there is evidence that the experimental induction of DM can cause cognitive dysfunction, even in rodent animal models. (
  • In interpreting the experimental results, the limitations of those animal models should be considered. (
  • The aim of the present review was to summarize the different characteristics and experimental methods of commonly used animal models of CD with anal fistula. (
  • This review aims to provide an update on the most recent evidence of therapeutically-relevant neuro-immuneinteractions following NPC transplants in animal models of multiple sclerosis, cerebral stroke and traumas of the spinal cord, and consideration of the forthcoming challenges related to the early translation of some of these exciting experimental outcomes into clinical medicines. (
  • Of interest here is a broad spectrum of tools and techniques for molecular, chemical, and biological measurements and procedures which are relevant to the care of and to experimental protocols involving research animal models. (
  • In the current review, we provide a comprehensive summary of mostly used experimental models of chronic liver disease, starting from early stages of fatty liver disease (non-alcoholic and alcoholic) to steatohepatitis and alcoholic liver disease, advanced cirrhosis and end-stage primary liver cancer. (
  • References of experimental use of animals to model diseases, novel experimental procedures, or test novel therapeutics date all the way back to 304-258 BCE. (
  • Furthermore, once a decision to proceed with research is made, it is the researcher's responsibility to ensure that the animals' w- fare is of prime concern in terms of appropriate housing, feeding, and maximum reduction of any uncomfortable or distressing effects of the experimental conditions, and that these conditions undergo frequent formalized monitoring. (
  • In the US, IBD is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal disease burdens. (
  • MIM 248200) is the most prevalent inherited macular dystrophy and is associated with disease-causing sequence variants in the gene ABCA4 . (
  • The news comes at a critical time of renewed focus on this most prevalent of neurodegenerative diseases and amid a dearth of medications that prevent, halt or reverse the increasingly common condition. (
  • CHAPEL HILL, N.C. -- Heart disease remains the most common cause of death in the western world, and cardiac defects are the most prevalent form of birth defect in the United States and Europe. (
  • This mini-review summarizes histopathological evidence that DM induces AD pathology in animal models and discusses the possibility that aberrant insulin signaling is a key factor in the induction of AD pathology. (
  • Due to their complexity and plurality of pathology and symptomatology, the study of neurodegenerative diseases relies heavily on animal models. (
  • In conclusion, awareness of the different features of the arthritis pathology in animal models of inflammatory arthritis is of utmost importance for reliable research outcome, and the standardised histological processing and scoring methods in these SMASH recommendations will help increase uniformity and reproducibility in preclinical research on inflammatory arthritis. (
  • This indicates a strong need for highly predictive in vitro and in vivo models. (
  • The in vivo experiments employ animal models including vertebrates (zebrafish, rodents, rabbits, and primates) and invertebrates (fruit flies and nematodes) for drug screening. (
  • The study demonstrates for the first time that Reelin has a neuroprotective effect in neurodegenerative diseases, proved in vivo in animal models, and provides a hypothesis to explain its neuroprotective potential. (
  • This meeting is unique in that our program is not limited to a sin-gle disease, discipline, or species, and thereby will provide a breadth and diversity of topics not seen in more narrowly focused conferences. (
  • Some animal species show typical intranuclear inclusion bodies (Joest-Degen inclusions) , which are composed of specific antigen and are located in ganglion cells of the Ammon`s hom, the piriform lobe and the retina. (
  • The great adaptability of the virus to different animal species and its affinity for neurons allow to investigate clinical alterations involving the CNS and to quantitate the virological and immunological interactions of the agent with nerve cells in the brain and the eye. (
  • The first part of the book presents an overview of animal models of various species and includes a review of new invertebrate animal models to study neurodegeneration. (
  • We have developed new transgenic C. elegans strains expressing specific disease relevant amino-truncated Aß-species. (
  • Vital and easy to use, Animal Models for Retinal Diseases serves to support the important future research of ocular investigators, ophthalmologists, and neuroscientists currently delving into this fascinating field of study. (
  • Animal models representing specific taxonomic groups in the research and study of developmental processes are also referred to as model organisms. (
  • Comprehensive study of these models has yielded vital evidence for the concept that autoimmunity to joint-specific antigens can lead to arthritis.The. (
  • The current study was designed to evaluate in two mouse models of HD use of a new, brain-permeable SIRT2 inhibitor called AK-7, first identified by members of the MGH team in 2011. (
  • The development could be an important step in the study of the common liver disease. (
  • Kay M. Tye and Karl Deisseroth have published a really nice review paper in Nature Reviews on using optogenetics toolkits to study neural systems for brain disease. (
  • To identify probable areas where West Point cadets as well as active duty service members stationed at West Point and their families might contract Lyme disease, this study used Geographic Information System mapping methods and remote sensing data to replicate an established spatial model to identify the likely habitat of a key host animal-the white-tailed deer. (
  • This study used an established spatial analysis method to determine likely high-risk areas for contracting Lyme disease from ticks ( Ixodes scapularis ) near West Point, NY. (
  • In our study, we could see that gene therapy used during this particular time led to a restoration of damaged neurons, even though the lesions that represent the disease were already extensive. (
  • The study published in the journal, Methods in Ecology and Evolution, tested the new model with Lassa fever. (
  • Besides its significance for the practitioner, Boma disease virus infection remains to be unique as a disease model: it allows to study most diverse alterations in neurobiological processes. (
  • Written by experts in the field with these advances and challenges in mind, this handbook provides an updated overview of the animal models being developed and used to study complex disease dynamics. (
  • Last but not least, this first section includes the review of newer invertebrate animal models, such as Drosophila to study neurodegeneration. (
  • Murine GVHD experiments have been utilized to model the clinical disorders of acute and chronic GVHD (AGVHD and CGVHD) that occur after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, and also to study T cell regulation, induction of tolerance, and autoimmune diseases. (
  • A new study conducted on small- and large-animal models and published in the journal Science Translational Medicine suggests that gene therapy can be used in improving muscle strength among patients of a fatal congenital pediatric disease known as X-linked myotubular myopathy. (
  • The quality of PET images and the decrease of uptake in 6-OHDA and MPTP lesions show that (11)C-(+)DTBZ is an adequate radiotracer for the study of dopaminergic innervation in these animal models. (
  • The study shows a new mechanism that enables to understand better the link between both aspects of the disease," he adds. (
  • Zebrafish constitutes an alternative vertebrate model for the study of movement disorders. (
  • In this study, we report rapid production of TNF-α in the peripheral immune system after disease induction in a murine model of Kawasaki disease. (
  • The implications of the pre-clinical findings are extraordinary for inherited muscular diseases," said Childers, co-senior author on the paper, and co-principal investigator of the study. (
  • The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that pre-infusion values of several hemodynamic and perfusion parameters could help to predict fluid responsiveness in an infant animal model of hemorrhagic shock. (
  • The availability of appropriate animal models that enable insights into the disease's genetics and/or pathophysiology influences the scientific progress in Huntington's disease (HD). (
  • Three articles in the latest issue of the Journal of Huntington's Disease discuss the potential benefits of using large animal models in HD research and the implications for the development of gene therapy. (
  • Preclinical models for chemoprevention of colon cancer. (
  • The evidence suggests that a sufficiently suitable animal preclinical model requires to be established. (
  • Preclinical studies show that gene therapy can improve muscle strength in small- and large-animal models of a fatal congenital pediatric disease known as X-linked myotubular myopathy. (
  • The vast number of murine models available encompasses a wide variety of immune disorders - from rheumatoid arthritis to multiple sclerosis. (
  • The zebrafish is a popular animal for research because it is easily manipulated genetically, develops rapidly and is transparent, making the measurement of biological processes easier. (
  • This model system aided in establishing pathways essential for biological effects of IR1072, demonstrating the importance of HSF1 driven pathways, in particular those requiring HSP70. (
  • In each of the eight chapters, they deal with a specific modeling approach or set of techniques designed to capture a particular biological factor. (
  • Biodefense: Research Methodology and Animal Models, edited by James R. Swearengen, is a timely and invaluable reference for those performing animal experimentation to develop medical countermeasures and diagnostics against infectious agents and toxins identified as potential biological weapons. (
  • It clearly and concisely provides extensive details about the animal models, both past and present, that have been used to investigate a selected number of disease processes caused by exposure to plausible biological threat agents. (
  • ORIP-funded resources support the development, characterization, preservation and distribution of high quality animal models and biological materials that are used by investigators in all disciplines of biomedical research. (
  • The animal models and biological materials to be developed must address the research interests of two or more of the categorical NIH Institutes and Centers. (
  • The Division of Comparative Medicine (DCM), Office of Research Infrastructure Programs (ORIP), supports Resources that create, develop, preserve and supply a variety of high-quality animal models and related biological materials to the biomedical community. (
  • DCM-supported Resources and the research community will benefit from development and commercialization of technologies that support the husbandry, characterization, improvement and use of animal models and related biological materials. (
  • The Office of Research Infrastructure Programs (ORIP) supports research-related resources that create, develop, preserve and supply a variety of high-quality animal models, and related biological materials. (
  • Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), once thought to be a degenerative disease, is now recognized to be an active pathobiological process, with chronic inflammation emerging as a predominant, and possibly driving, factor. (
  • Over the course of the disease, chronic synovitis (inflammation of the synovial lining of joints, tendon sheaths or bursae with a infiltration of macrophages, T-cells, polymorphs, etc.) leads to erosions of normal articular tissue. (
  • Crohn's disease (CD) is an immune-mediated chronic recurrent, systemic disease characterized by gastrointestinal inflammation ( 1 ). (
  • These observations in animal models demonstrated that intestinal flora imbalance is a key factor in the development of intestinal inflammation and IBD. (
  • Histopathologically, Boma disease often goes along with a non-purulent inflammation of the brain and the spinal cord. (
  • Unfortunately, many publications reporting on these animal studies lack detailed description and appropriate assessment of the distinct histopathological features of arthritis: joint inflammation, cartilage damage and bone erosion. (
  • Inflammation and excessive fibrosis are prominent histologic features of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). (
  • T-Cell Receptor Transgenic Models of Inflammatory Disorders: Relevance for Atopic Dermatitis? (
  • Such animal models should have impact not only on inflammatory dermatoses but also on other inflammatory disorders due to their model character. (
  • to the Animal Models Volumes This and several other volumes in the Neuromethods series will describe a number of animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders. (
  • Because of increasing public concern over the ethical treatment of animals in research, we felt it incumbent upon us to include this general preface to these volumes in order to indicate why we think further - search using animals is necessary and why animal models of psychiatric disorders, in particular, are so important. (
  • The discovery of effective therapies for these disorders has been challenging and has also involved the development and characterization of accurate animal models for the screening of new drugs. (
  • Therefore, it is central to critically analyze these zebrafish lines and understand their suitability as models of movement disorders. (
  • A systematic review of the literature was conducted by including all studies reporting the characterization of zebrafish models of the movement disorders selected from five bibliographic databases. (
  • The position is part of the project "Neurodevelopmental disorders and the synapse" funded by the Lundbeckfonden call "What Causes Brain Disease? (
  • In this paper, we summarize and critically appraise current small and large animal models of CAVD, discuss the utility of animal models for priority CAVD research areas, and provide recommendations for future animal model studies of CAVD. (
  • Research presented by Dr. Lynn Raymond, from the University of British Columbia, shows that blocking a specific class of glutamate receptors, called extrasynaptic NMDA receptors, can improve motor learning and coordination, and prevent cell death in animal models of Huntington disease. (
  • Animal models of dilated cardiomyopathy for translational research. (
  • Despite continuing debate over the ethics of using animal models in research, progress in the field has been phenomenal in recent times, and a whole host of models, particularly mouse models, have been developed. (
  • The current volume summarises recent advances in animal research that are important for anti-inflammatory drug discovery. (
  • Many research needs can be addressed by animal models that either over- or under-express apolipoproteins. (
  • We cover all aspects of animal research with snapshots of biomedical advances from scientific journals, staff blogs and video links. (
  • While the real emphasis of their review is on using optogenetics for behavioral research and they only mention vision in passing with a couple of nods to two of Busskamp's papers, the article really does a good job of summarizing the general approach to using optogenetics toolboxes to deal with neurodegenerative diseases or investigate neural science. (
  • In this chapter, representative animal models for AD research and their pathological and behavioral features are described. (
  • To demonstrate a potential application for cancer research, the authors used the "Cas9 mouse" to model lung adenocarcinoma . (
  • Biodefense: Research Methodology and Animal Models will certainly benefit scientists designing aerobiology studies or those exploring the infectious agents and toxins discussed in this book. (
  • Animal research facilities require many aspects of infrastructure to serve this function. (
  • Anticipated outcomes will yield simple yet sophisticated protocols, accurate yet easy to implement methods, and modern yet cost-efficient tools to support animal research, and will be useful in general laboratory settings in many areas of biomedical research. (
  • Animals have been used to model diseases or test new treatments since around 300 BC, and undoubtedly our ability to model disease in animals - including transgenic animals - has provided major breakthroughs in all fields of biomedical research. (
  • It is undisputable that our ability to model disease in animals has provided major breakthroughs in all fields of biomedical research and has been vastly accelerated by the development of transgenic animals. (
  • It is imperative that each individual researcher examine his/her own research from a critical moral standpoint - fore engaging in it, taking into consideration the animals' welfare as well as the anticipated gains. (
  • ORIP also supports the development and implementation of tools and devices that directly benefit the welfare of research animals, improve handling of laboratory animals, and ease the management of animal facilities. (
  • Dr. Anand and his research associate Susan McKay have begun to use the platform to create organoid models of Alzheimer s, Parkinson s and autism in a dish. (
  • This new brain model has the potential to dramatically alter the course of neuroscience research. (
  • Citizens for Alternatives to Animal Research (CAARE), is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization, established to highlight and promote research without animals. (
  • CAARE s mission is to reduce animal suffering by disseminating information about the power and progress of research without animals. (
  • In addition to understand diverse aspects of basic biology, model organisms are extensively used in applied research in agriculture, industry, and also in medicine, where they are used to model and understand disease and to test new systems of treating disease. (
  • This is one of the main results of an article published on the journal Nature Communications , co-led by Eduardo Soriano, professor from the Department of Cell Biology at the University of Barcelona (UB) and member of the Centre for Networked Biomedical Research on Neurodegenerative Diseases (CIBERNED), and researcher Lluís Pujadas (UB and CIBERNED). (
  • Focus will be on specific topics of biomedical research in which farm animal models have been characterised through the application of proteomic techniques. (
  • However, given the limited success of dopamine replacement therapies in PD patients, non-dopaminergic therapeutics to treat PD symptoms and underlying disease are being developed. (
  • AbstractAnimal models of autoimmune disease have been of vital importance in the advancement of our understanding of central pathological processes that underlie disease causation. (
  • Autoimmune bullous diseases (AIBDs) are characterized by blisters and erosions on the skin and/or mucous membranes, which are caused by autoantibodies directed to structural proteins of the epidermis and the epidermal basement membrane zone. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Genetics of disease" applicable to this article? (
  • Invertebrate models provide high-throughput potential, with highly manipulable genetics and functional output that places these models in promising standing within the field. (
  • Our results suggest that clinical studies of memantine and similarly-acting drugs in Huntington disease, particularly in the pre-symptomatic stage, are warranted,"says Dr. Raymond. (
  • World expert clinicians discuss each model based on their clinical experience and the text is supported by numerous photos and diagrams. (
  • This webinar discusses the evolution of tools to analyze motor deficits in animal models, how that evolution is being informed by clinical strategies and how Charles River is working to support the discovery of future PD treatments. (
  • The diagnosis of Boma disease is established intra vitam on the basis of the clinical symptoms and the presence of antibodies in serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as well as by new ELISA methods measuring specific antigen and immune complexes. (
  • But because most animal models in this area do not reproduce the full phenotypical disease spectrum and the etiology and clinical presentation of neurodegenerative diseases differ from one patient to the next, the testing of these diseases in animal models often translates poorly to indices of efficacy when applied to the clinical population. (
  • These results demonstrate the efficacy of gene replacement therapy for myotubular myopathy in animal models and pave the way to a clinical trial in patients. (
  • Despite discrepancies between clinical studies, the likely relationship between the intestinal microbiota and allergy assess the usefulness of modulation of the gut microbiota that may help prevent and manage allergic diseases. (
  • The most striking result is that a brain plasticity promoter can rescue an Alzheimer's clinical phenotype in an animal model," says Eduardo Soriano. (
  • The results, appearing in the Jan. 22 issue of Science Translational Medicine , also demonstrate the feasibility of future clinical trials of gene therapy for this devastating disease. (
  • They delivered the gene therapy to the brains of rats and then exposed the animals to the pesticide rotenone, which inhibits mitochondrial function. (
  • Healthy control animals (n = 10) and the effect of 6-hydroxidopamine (6-OHDA) neurotoxic were studied in rats. (
  • The findings from these interviews suggest that rat owners construct their pets as different from wild rats, and by elevating the rat to the status of a pet, the powerful associations that rats have with dirt and disease are removed. (
  • Furthermore, zebrafish is a vertebrate model particularly suited for large-scale drug screenings. (
  • The majority (62%) of the studies were focused in the characterization of zebrafish models of PD. (
  • Nevertheless, in light of what is known for all animal models available, the use of zebrafish as a model for drug discovery requires further optimization. (
  • In the United Kingdom, following the emergence of Seoul hantavirus in pet rat owners in 2012, public health authorities tried to communicate the risk of this zoonotic disease, but had limited success. (
  • Neuroinflammation, marked by gliosis and infiltrating T cells, is a prominent pathological feature in diverse models of dominantly inherited neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • Find out more about the degenerative disease- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (
  • Eur J Pediatr Surg DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1694745Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is caused by incomplete colonization of enteric neural crest-derived cell (ENCC) in the bowel, the failure of ENCCs to proliferate, differentiate, and migrate leads to an absence of enteric neurons in the distal colon, resulting in colonic motility dysfunction. (
  • Dysfunction or death of specific neuronal populations most at risk for dominantly inherited neurodegenerative diseases is not mediated solely by the expression of the mutant protein within target neurons ( 1 ). (
  • We are now building on these findings and working to identify the precise mechanism by which this drug reduces brain-network dysfunction and improves memory in our mouse models," said Dr. Sanchez. (
  • Our new approach successfully predicts outbreaks of individual diseases by pairing the changes in the host's distribution as the environment changes with the mechanics of how that disease spreads from animals to people which hasn't been done before. (
  • Isomorphic animals share the same symptoms and treatments, only. (
  • Further understanding of the pathogenicity of autoreactive CD4 + T cells may lead to disease-specific treatments. (
  • A/T/N: An unbiased descriptive classification scheme for Alzheimer disease biomarkers. (
  • LaFerla, F. M. & Green, K. N. Animal models of Alzheimer disease. (
  • The drug we used, memantine, is currently being used to treat moderate-stage Alzheimer disease patients. (
  • Extra-synaptic NMDARs have also been shown to be involved in other neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease, and in damage caused by traumatic brain injury and some forms of stroke . (
  • The animal is useful in screening compounds for activity in treating lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (
  • All relevant articles up to December 31, 2020 were included by reviewing the titles and abstracts regarding animal models of CD with anal fistula. (
  • A new opossum model has been developed to mimic nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, which resembles alcoholic liver disease but occurs in people who drink little or no alcohol. (
  • To date, viral PD models comprise α-synuclein and LRRK-2-based overexpression models, as well as models that mimic parkin loss of function by overexpression of the parkin substrates Pael-R, CDCrel-1, p38/JTV or synphilin-1. (
  • Laboratory Animals 36: 357-372. (
  • This model requires injecting the 6-OHDA directly into the nigrostriatal pathway, targeting the dopamine transporter (DAT).This can be performed through stereotaxic injections (both unilateral and bilateral are experimentally permissible) and will eventually cause loss of dopamine neurons in the SNpc and loss of dopamine terminals in the striatum since the nigrostriatal pathway is being affected. (
  • In contrast, untreated animals and animals that received a control virus that does not reduce α-synuclein production, developed progressive Parkinsonism and loss of dopamine neurons. (
  • Exposure to several common environmental toxins, thought to injure neurons through oxidative damage, has been shown to be associated with sporadic forms of Parkinson s disease. (
  • The ability of Boma disease virus to cause persistent infections of neurons most probably plays the key role in pathogenetic events. (
  • Lassa fever is a zoonotic viral disease that is endemic in many countries in West Africa and common in other countries in the region. (
  • Military bases in endemic areas need to increase awareness of the local Lyme disease threat and facilitate the implementation of superior tick bite prevention measures. (
  • UCLA professor of neurology Jeff Bronstein and UCLA associate professor of neurology Gal Bitan, along with their colleagues, report the development of a novel compound known as a "molecular tweezer," which in a living animal model blocked α-synuclein aggregates from forming, stopped the aggregates' toxicity and, further, reversed aggregates in the brain that had already formed. (
  • For the millions of people suffering from Alzheimer's worldwide, we have no effective drug to prevent or reverse memory loss the hallmark symptom of this ultimately fatal disease," said Dr. Mucke, who is also a professor of neurology and neuroscience at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), with which Gladstone is affiliated. (
  • Since the first murine model of AD was reported one and a half decades ago, many other models have been generated by modification of transgenes that cause familial AD. (
  • Gene Therapy Prolongs Survival and Restores Function in Murine and Canine Models of Myotubular Myopathy," by M.K Childers et al. (
  • These opossums developed elevated cholesterol and fatty liver disease when fed a high cholesterol and high fat diet, just like people with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. (
  • Obesity is one of the major risk factors for the Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) development, as the leading cause of chronic liver disease. (
  • Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of chronic liver disease affecting 20-30% of the world's adult population, and is characterized by a buildup of fat, mainly in the form of triglycerides, in the hepatocyte cytoplasm, exceeding 5-10% of the cell weight, verified histologically or by imaging techniques. (
  • The levels of these transcription factors were found to be elevated in diseases with the respective Th phenotype, which made them interesting targets for DNAzyme-based therapy. (
  • These results demonstrate for the first time in a model of chronic neurodegeneration that morphological activation of microglia and astroglia does not predict glial function, and that the presence of CD4+ T cells provides supportive neuroprotection by modulating the trophic/cytotoxic balance of glia. (
  • Particular attention is given throughout the book to the development of practical models, useful both as predictive tools and as a means to understand fundamental epidemiological processes. (
  • it covers essential probability and statistics theory, stochastic processes and core risk modeling principles. (
  • Dominant mutations in the Cu 2+ /Zn 2+ superoxide dismutase (mSOD1) gene are the most frequent cause of inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), an inexorably progressive and fatal neuromuscular disease, and current evidence suggests that motoneuron injury is non− cell-autonomous and involves damage caused by mSOD1 proteins within glia of the central nervous system (CNS) ( 1 - 4 ). (