Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
A familial disorder inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by the onset of progressive CHOREA and DEMENTIA in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Common initial manifestations include paranoia; poor impulse control; DEPRESSION; HALLUCINATIONS; and DELUSIONS. Eventually intellectual impairment; loss of fine motor control; ATHETOSIS; and diffuse chorea involving axial and limb musculature develops, leading to a vegetative state within 10-15 years of disease onset. The juvenile variant has a more fulminant course including SEIZURES; ATAXIA; dementia; and chorea. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1060-4)
Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A plant genus of the family VIOLACEAE. Some species in this genus are called bouncing bet which is a common name more often used with SAPONARIA OFFICINALIS. Members contain macrocyclic peptides.
A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)
A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.
A condition characterized by mucosal tears at the ESOPHAGOGASTRIC JUNCTION, sometimes with HEMATEMESIS. Typically it is caused by forceful bouts of retching or VOMITING.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Structured vocabularies describing concepts from the fields of biology and relationships between concepts.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
Social welfare organizations with programs designed to assist individuals in need.
Discontinuance of care received by patient(s) due to reasons other than full recovery from the disease.
The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.
A branch of internal medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of INFECTIOUS DISEASES.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Abnormal structures located in various parts of the brain and composed of dense arrays of paired helical filaments (neurofilaments and microtubules). These double helical stacks of transverse subunits are twisted into left-handed ribbon-like filaments that likely incorporate the following proteins: (1) the intermediate filaments: medium- and high-molecular-weight neurofilaments; (2) the microtubule-associated proteins map-2 and tau; (3) actin; and (4) UBIQUITINS. As one of the hallmarks of ALZHEIMER DISEASE, the neurofibrillary tangles eventually occupy the whole of the cytoplasm in certain classes of cell in the neocortex, hippocampus, brain stem, and diencephalon. The number of these tangles, as seen in post mortem histology, correlates with the degree of dementia during life. Some studies suggest that tangle antigens leak into the systemic circulation both in the course of normal aging and in cases of Alzheimer disease.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Accumulations of extracellularly deposited AMYLOID FIBRILS within tissues.
Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.
An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports research program related to diseases of the heart, blood vessels, lung, and blood; blood resources; and SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS. From 1948 until October 10, 1969, it was known as the National Heart Institute. From June 25, 1976, it was the National Heart and Lung Institute. Since October 1997, the NHLBI has also had administrative responsibility for the NIH Woman's Health Initiative.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.

New perspectives on biliary atresia. (1/64177)

An investigation into the aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of biliary atresia was carried out because the prognosis remains so poor.In an electron microscopical study no viral particles or viral inclusion bodies were seen, nor were any specific ultrastructural features observed. An animal experiment suggested that obstruction within the biliary tract of newborn rabbits could be produced by maternal intravenous injection of the bile acid lithocholic acid.A simple and atraumatic method of diagnosis was developed using(99) (m)Tc-labelled compounds which are excreted into bile. Two compounds, (99m)Tc-pyridoxylidene glutamate ((99m)Tc-PG) and (99m)Tc-dihydrothioctic acid ((99m)Tc-DHT) were first assessed in normal piglets and piglets with complete biliary obstruction. Intestinal imaging correlated with biliary tract patency, and the same correlation was found in jaundiced human adults, in whom the (99m)Tc-PG scan correctly determined biliary patency in 21 out of 24 cases. The (99m)Tc-PG scan compared well with liver biopsy and (131)I-Rose Bengal in the diagnosis of 11 infants with prolonged jaundice.A model of extrahepatic biliary atresia was developed in the newborn piglet so that different methods of bile drainage could be assessed. Priorities in biliary atresia lie in a better understanding of the aetiology and early diagnosis rather than in devising new bile drainage procedures.  (+info)

The evolution of early fibromuscular lesions hemodynamically induced in the dog renal artery. I. Light and transmission electron microscopy. (2/64177)

In view of the important roles of arterial intimal fibromuscular lesions as precursors of atherosclerotic plaque and occlusive lesions in arterial reconstructions, a model has been developed for the rapid hemodynamic induction of these lesions by anastomosis of the dog right renal artery to the inferior vena cava. Light and transmission electron microscopic observations were made on the arterial shunt after periods of rapid flow ranging form 10 minutes to 2 hours to identify initial factor(s) and evolutionary mechanisms in the etiology of the lesions. The sequence of events included aberrations in ruthenium red staining of the endothelial luminal membrane at 10 minutes, multilayered thickening of the subendothelial basement membrane (BM) at 15 minutes, and initial reorientation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMC) into the intima along with the appearance of areas of degeneration of the internal elastic lamina (IEL) at 30 minutes. The endothelial cells were still intact in some areas overlying the SMC migration and IEL degeneration, but they were separating from the surface in other such areas. As subendothelium became exposed, some platelet adherence was noted. By 2 hours, the entire wall reaction was fully developed. Initial observations indicate that in the evolution of this hemodynamically induced lesion visible alteration in the endothelial cells is not prerequisite to degeneration of the underlying IEL and reorientation and migration of medial SMC.  (+info)

Site of myocardial infarction. A determinant of the cardiovascular changes induced in the cat by coronary occlusion. (3/64177)

The influence of site of acute myocardial infarction on heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance (TPR), cardiac rhythm, and mortality was determined in 58 anesthetized cats by occlusion of either the left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex or right coronary artery. LAD occlusion resulted in immediate decrease in cardiac output, heart rate, and blood pressure, an increase in TPR, and cardiac rhythm changes including premature ventricular beats, ventricular tachycardia, and occasionally ventricular fibrillation. The decrease in cardiac output and increase in TPR persisted in the cats surviving a ventricular arrhythmia. In contrast, right coronary occlusion resulted in a considerably smaller decrease in cardiac output. TPR did not increase, atrioventricular condition disturbances were common, and sinus bradycardia and hypotension persisted in the cats recovering from an arrhythmia. Left circumflex ligation resulted in cardiovascular changes intermediate between those produced by occlusion of the LAD or the right coronary artery. Mortality was similar in each of the three groups. We studied the coronary artery anatomy in 12 cats. In 10, the blood supply to the sinus node was from the right coronary artery and in 2, from the left circumflex coronary artery. The atrioventricular node artery arose from the right in 9 cats, and from the left circumflex in 3. The right coronary artery was dominant in 9 cats and the left in 3. In conclusion, the site of experimental coronary occlusion in cats is a major determinant of the hemodynamic and cardiac rhythm changes occurring after acute myocardial infarction. The cardiovascular responses evoked by ligation are related in part to the anatomical distribution of the occluded artery.  (+info)

Hierarchy of ventricular pacemakers. (4/64177)

To characterize the pattern of pacemaker dominance in the ventricular specialized conduction system (VSCS), escape ventricular pacemakers were localized and quantified in vivo and in virto, in normal hearts and in hearts 24 hours after myocardial infarction. Excape pacemaker foci were localized in vivo during vagally induced atrial arrest by means of electrograms recorded from the His bundle and proximal bundle branches and standard electrocardiographic limb leads. The VSCS was isolated using a modified Elizari preparation or preparations of each bundle branch. Peacemakers were located by extra- and intracellular recordings. Escape pacemaker foci in vivo were always in the proximal conduction system, usually the left bundle branch. The rate was 43+/-11 (mean+/-SD) beats/min. After beta-adrenergic blockade, the mean rate fell to 31+/-10 beats/min, but there were no shifts in pacemaker location. In the infarcted hearts, pacemakers were located in the peripheral left bundle branch. The mean rate was 146+/-20 beats/min. In isolated normal preparations, the dominant pacemakers usually were in the His bundle, firing at a mean rate of 43+/-10 beats/min. The rates of pacemakers diminished with distal progression. In infarcted hearts, the pacemakers invariably were in the infarct zone. The mean firing rates were not influenced by beta-adrenergic blockade. The results indicate that the dominant pacemakers are normally in the very proximal VSCS, but after myocardial infarction pacemaker dominance is shifted into the infarct. Distribution of pacemaker dominance is independent of sympathetic influence.  (+info)

A genetic model of substrate deprivation therapy for a glycosphingolipid storage disorder. (5/64177)

Inherited defects in the degradation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) cause a group of severe diseases known as GSL storage disorders. There are currently no effective treatments for the majority of these disorders. We have explored a new treatment paradigm, substrate deprivation therapy, by constructing a genetic model in mice. Sandhoff's disease mice, which abnormally accumulate GSLs, were bred with mice that were blocked in their synthesis of GSLs. The mice with simultaneous defects in GSL synthesis and degradation no longer accumulated GSLs, had improved neurologic function, and had a much longer life span. However, these mice eventually developed a late-onset neurologic disease because of accumulation of another class of substrate, oligosaccharides. The results support the validity of the substrate deprivation therapy and also highlight some limitations.  (+info)

DMPK dosage alterations result in atrioventricular conduction abnormalities in a mouse myotonic dystrophy model. (6/64177)

Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy and is caused by expansion of a CTG trinucleotide repeat on human chromosome 19. Patients with DM develop atrioventricular conduction disturbances, the principal cardiac manifestation of this disease. The etiology of the pathophysiological changes observed in DM has yet to be resolved. Haploinsufficiency of myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK), DM locus-associated homeodomain protein (DMAHP) and/or titration of RNA-binding proteins by expanded CUG sequences have been hypothesized to underlie the multi-system defects observed in DM. Using an in vivo murine electrophysiology study, we show that cardiac conduction is exquisitely sensitive to DMPK gene dosage. DMPK-/- mice develop cardiac conduction defects which include first-, second-, and third-degree atrioventricular (A-V) block. Our results demonstrate that the A-V node and the His-Purkinje regions of the conduction system are specifically compromised by DMPK loss. Importantly, DMPK+/- mice develop first-degree heart block, a conduction defect strikingly similar to that observed in DM patients. These results demonstrate that DMPK dosage is a critical element modulating cardiac conduction integrity and conclusively link haploinsufficiency of DMPK with cardiac disease in myotonic dystrophy.  (+info)

Alternative sulfonylurea receptor expression defines metabolic sensitivity of K-ATP channels in dopaminergic midbrain neurons. (7/64177)

ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channels couple the metabolic state to cellular excitability in various tissues. Several isoforms of the K-ATP channel subunits, the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) and inwardly rectifying K channel (Kir6.X), have been cloned, but the molecular composition and functional diversity of native neuronal K-ATP channels remain unresolved. We combined functional analysis of K-ATP channels with expression profiling of K-ATP subunits at the level of single substantia nigra (SN) neurons in mouse brain slices using an RT-multiplex PCR protocol. In contrast to GABAergic neurons, single dopaminergic SN neurons displayed alternative co-expression of either SUR1, SUR2B or both SUR isoforms with Kir6.2. Dopaminergic SN neurons expressed alternative K-ATP channel species distinguished by significant differences in sulfonylurea affinity and metabolic sensitivity. In single dopaminergic SN neurons, co-expression of SUR1 + Kir6.2, but not of SUR2B + Kir6.2, correlated with functional K-ATP channels highly sensitive to metabolic inhibition. In contrast to wild-type, surviving dopaminergic SN neurons of homozygous weaver mouse exclusively expressed SUR1 + Kir6.2 during the active period of dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Therefore, alternative expression of K-ATP channel subunits defines the differential response to metabolic stress and constitutes a novel candidate mechanism for the differential vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons in response to respiratory chain dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.  (+info)

DEF-1, a novel Src SH3 binding protein that promotes adipogenesis in fibroblastic cell lines. (8/64177)

The Src homology 3 (SH3) motif is found in numerous signal transduction proteins involved in cellular growth and differentiation. We have purified and cloned a novel protein, DEF-1 (differentiation-enhancing factor), from bovine brain by using a Src SH3 affinity column. Ectopic expression of DEF-1 in fibroblasts resulted in the differentiation of a significant fraction of the culture into adipocytes. This phenotype appears to be related to the induction of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), since DEF-1 NIH 3T3 cells demonstrated augmented levels of PPARgamma mRNA and, when treated with activating PPARgamma ligands, efficient induction of differentiation. Further evidence for a role for DEF-1 in adipogenesis was provided by heightened expression of DEF-1 mRNA in adipose tissue isolated from obese and diabetes mice compared to that in tissue isolated from wild-type mice. However, DEF-1 mRNA was detected in multiple tissues, suggesting that the signal transduction pathway(s) in which DEF-1 is involved is not limited to adipogenesis. These results suggest that DEF-1 is an important component of a signal transduction process that is involved in the differentiation of fibroblasts and possibly of other types of cells.  (+info)

The ROP [Ra/+ (ragged), Os/+ (oligosyndactyly), and Pt/+ (pintail)] mouse possessing the gene for oligosyndactylism (Os) was evaluated as a potential genetic animal model of reduced renal mass. Young male ROP mice that were heterozygotes with respect to the Os gene (Os/+) and their normal homozygote …
The Animal Models module of SFARI Gene examines data from animal models used in laboratory research to elucidate the underlying causes of ASD.
World Health Organization. (‎1988)‎. ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME (‎AIDS)‎ : WHO meeting on animal models for HIV infection and AIDS = SYNDROME DIMMUNODÉFICIENCE ACQUISE (‎SIDA)‎ : Réunion de lOMS sur les modèles animaux pour linfection à VIH et le SIDA. Weekly Epidemiological Record = Relevé épidémiologique hebdomadaire, 63 (‎19)‎, 137 - 138. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/226713 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - On animal models for studying bone adaptation. AU - Turner, C. H.. AU - Forwood, M. R.. AU - Raab-Cullen, D. M.. AU - Akhter, Mohammed P.. AU - Kimmel, D. B.. AU - Recker, Robert R.. AU - Torrance, A. G.. AU - Lanyon, L. E.. PY - 1994/10. Y1 - 1994/10. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0028021440&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0028021440&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1007/BF00310412. DO - 10.1007/BF00310412. M3 - Letter. C2 - 7820784. AN - SCOPUS:0028021440. VL - 55. SP - 316. EP - 318. JO - Calcified Tissue International. JF - Calcified Tissue International. SN - 0171-967X. IS - 4. ER - ...
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PubMed journal article: A review of animal model studies of tomato carotenoids, lycopene, and cancer chemoprevention. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Animal models are an important means of studying diseases as well as normal functions. The animal model must closely mimic the situation we wish to study in humans. Humans are used as subjects in about 30 percent of all biomedical research, but they are not the best research subject when certain problems are studied.. Animal models can be categorized as natural or induced. Natural models are those in which a condition occurs spontaneously, such as atherosclerosis in the squirrel monkey. Atherosclerosis is a prevalent human disease in which fatty deposits occur along the inner walls of the arteries. By studying the natural disease in these monkeys, it is possible to learn facts about the disease that are also true in humans. Other examples of natural animal models are epilepsy in Mongolian gerbils and diabetes in some strains of mice.. Induced animal models are those in which a disease or condition must be artificially produced. Tumor cells, for example, can be injected into animals as a means of ...
Animal models can be used to study the effects that a TBI, or a TBI like brain injury have on memory and cognition. In humans cognitive impairment, and memory deficit have been observed following a TBI. The duration of symptoms may last a few days, or be permanent depending on severity. Animal models have demonstrated the same effects. Using tests like the Morris Water Maze, spatial memory and learning can be tracked following TBI. Remarkably one of the effects that experimenters have seen with the administration of EPO to mice and rats following injury is a decrease in the cognitive impairment, and memory loss, when compared to control animals. It should be noted that different animal models may have used different protocols for inducing TBI. In addition there are differences in the type of EPO isoforms used, the dosing of EPO, as well as the timing of EPO administration. Due to space constraints these differences, and their impact, will not be mentioned in the animal model section, however ...
Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial highly-complex disease with numerous etiologies that work synergistically to promote lesion development. The ability to develop preventive and ameliorative treatments will depend on animal models that mimic the human subject metabolically and pathophysiologically and will develop lesions comparable to those in humans. The mouse is the most useful, economic, and valid model for studying atherosclerosis and exploring effective therapeutic approaches. Among the most widely used mouse models for atherosclerosis are apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE) and LDL receptor-deficient (LDLr) mice. An up-and-coming model is the ApoE*3Leiden (E3L) transgenic mouse. Here, we review studies that have explored how and to what extent these mice respond to compounds directed at treatment of the risk factors hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, and inflammation. An important outcome of this survey is that the different models used may differ markedly from one ...
Patient derived xenografts (PDX) are in vivo animal tumor models established directly from patient tumor samples without any in vitro manipulation. It has been shown that these tumor xenografts maintain essential histopathological features and genetic profiles of the original tumors, and thus are the most clinically relevant animal models for cancer drug discovery. Comparing to the traditional cell line derived xenograft (CDX) tumor models, however, one challenge encountered by the PDX in vivo studies is the lack of corresponding in vitro cell culture system for cost-effective and high throughput drug screening and model selection. Here we set out to establish such an in vitro platform, so-called PrimePanelTM, by deriving homogeneous primary cancer cell cultures from the PDX tumors in several major tumor types. These cells are early passage cultures (usually p,10), which maintain similar cellular characteristics as the corresponding tumor xenografts, including the genomic mutational status, ...
Acute brain lesions induce profound alterations of the peripheral immune response comprising the opposing phenomena of early immune activation and subsequent immunosuppression. The mechanisms underlying this brain-immune signaling are largely unknown. We used animal models for experimental brain ischemia as a paradigm of acute brain lesions and additionally investigated a large cohort of stroke patients. We analyzed release of HMGB1 isoforms by mass spectrometry and investigated its inflammatory potency and signaling pathways by immunological in vivo and in vitro techniques. Features of the complex behavioral sickness behavior syndrome were characterized by homecage behavior analysis. HMGB1 downstream signaling, particularly with RAGE, was studied in various transgenic animal models and by pharmacological blockade. Our results indicate that the cytokine-inducing, fully reduced isoform of HMGB1 was released from the ischemic brain in the hyperacute phase of stroke in mice and patients. Cytokines secreted
Kulkarni RN, Holzenberger M, Shih DQ, et al.: Beta-cellspecific deletion of the Igf1 receptor leads to hyperinsulinemia and glucose intolerance but does not alter beta-cell mass. Nat Genet 2002, 31:111-115. In these studies, mice with â-cell-specific disruption of the IGF-1 receptor develop a normal complement of â-cells, suggesting that the IGF-1 receptor is not crucial for the early growth of the â-cells. These KOs manifest defects in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion secondary to reduced expression of glucokinase and the glucose transporter glut2. These findings have implications for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
The aim of this research line is to develop more appropriate animal models and novel human in vitro CNS/PNS models, including human fetal and adult organotypic sensory ganglion and brain slice cultures, to elucidate the pathological attributes of both virus and host in viral CNS disease. Upon validation of the novel models by comparison with affected nervous tissues of patients with virus-induced CNS disease, they will be used as pre-clinical models to test the efficacy and safety of promising novel antiviral and neuroprotective therapies.. ...
Acute and chronic inflammatory diseases of the intestine impart a significant and negative impact on the health and well-being of human and non-human mammalian animals. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of inflammatory disease is mandatory to develop effective treatment and prevention strategies. As inflammatory disease etiologies are multifactorial, the use of appropriate animal models and associated metrics of disease are essential. In this regard, animal models used alone or in combination to study acute and chronic inflammatory disease of the mammalian intestine paired with commonly used inflammation-inducing agents are reviewed. This includes both chemical and biological incitants of inflammation, and both non-mammalian (i.e. nematodes, insects, and fish) and mammalian (i.e. rodents, rabbits, pigs, ruminants, dogs, and non-human primates) models of intestinal inflammation including germ-free, gnotobiotic, as well as surgical, and genetically modified animals. Importantly, chemical and ...
TRC210258, a novel TGR5 agonist, reduces glycemic and dyslipidemic cardiovascular risk in animal models of diabesity Shitalkumar Zambad, Davinder Tuli, Anoop Mathur, Sameer A Ghalsasi, Anita RÂ Chaudhary, Shailesh Deshpande, Ramesh C Gupta, Vijay Chauthaiwale, Chaitanya DuttTorrent Research Centre, Torrent Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Gujarat, IndiaBackground: Patients with diabesity have a significantly increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Therefore, therapy addressing the multiple metabolic abnormalities linked with diabesity and leading to further reduction of cardiovascular risk is highly desirable. Activation of the TGR5 receptor holds therapeutic potential for diabesity. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of TRC210258, a novel TGR5 agonist, in clinically relevant animal models of diabesity.Methods: A novel small molecule, TRC210258 (N-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-fluoro phenoxy)-N-methylimidazo (1, 2-a) pyrimidine-3-carboxamide), was synthesized. The in vitro TGR5 receptor
The centre examines the molecular changes in disease states in humans and relevant animal models, particularly using gene chip (microarray) technology. We relate these changes to the current clinical methods use to study these diseases, such as histopathology and diagnostic imaging. Biopsies from patients with organ disease are the principal focus for establishing what the molecular changes mean, and their relationship to the current tests as well as the outcomes in the patients ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Hepatic preconditioning for transplanted cell engraftment and proliferation. AU - Wu, Yao Ming. AU - Gupta, Sanjeev. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Hepatocyte transplantation has therapeutic potential for multiple hepatic and extrahepatic disorders with genetic or acquired basis. To demonstrate whether cell populations of interest will be effective for clinical applications, it is first necessary to characterize their properties in animal systems. Demonstrating the potential of cells to engraft and proliferate is a critical part of this characterization. Similarly, for stem/progenitor cells, demonstrating the capacity to differentiate along appropriate lineages and generate mature cells that can engraft and proliferate is essential. In various animal models, preconditioning of recipients prior to cell transplantation has been necessary to improve engraftment of cells, to stimulate proliferation of engrafted cells, and to induce extensive repopulation of the host liver by transplanted ...
Structure and function of C-terminal histone H4 peptides. The research interest of our laboratory has recently been focussed on the isolation, structural identification, synthesis and determination of the biological activity of histogranin (HN). HN is a slightly modified C-terminal histone H4 peptide present in various rat tissues including the spleen, lungs, bone marrow and brain. It was first coined for its in vivo modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced convulsions in mice. Recently, HN and related peptides were found to display non-opioid analgesic activities in various animal models of pain. The design and synthesis of small molecules (cyclic tetrapeptides and non-peptides) on the basis of the structure of HN were among our first priorities in order to determine the structure requirement and mode of action of HN for its antinociceptive effects. The mechanism by which HN and related compounds alleviate pain is still unknown, but a close correlation was made between the abilities of ...
Primary Sjögrens syndrome (pSS) is characterized by a panel of autoantbodies, while it is not clear whether B cells and autoantibodies play an essential role in pathogenesis of the disease. Here we report a novel mouse model for pSS which is induced by immunization with the Ro60_316-335 peptide containing a predominant T cell epitope. After immunization, mice developed several symptoms mimicking pSS, including a decreased secretion of tears, lymphocytic infiltration into the lacrimal glands, autoantibodies and increased levels of inflammatory cytokines. Disease susceptibility to this novel mouse model varies among strains, where C3H/HeJ (H2-k) and C3H/HeN (H2-k) are susceptible while DBA/1 (H2-q) and C57BL/6 (H2-b) are resistant. Depletion of B cells using anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies prevented C3H/HeN mice from development of the pSS-like disease. In addition, HLA-DRB1*0803, a pSS risk allele, was predicted to bind to the hRo60_308-328 which contains a predominant T cell epitope of human Ro60.
Interleukin (IL)-21 is a recently discovered cytokine in early clinical development, which has shown anti-tumor activity in various animal models. In the present study, we examine the anti-tumor activ
Vagal efferent activation can reduce inflammation and disease activity in various animal models of intestinal inflammation, likely via a mechanism involving activation of a a7nAChR subtype. The current hypothesis for this ...
Experimental mouse models are widely used for preclinical research on dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and cardiometabolic diseases
About 70,000 Women are diagnosed with breast cancer every year in Germany alone. Despite significant progress in the treatment of common types of breast cancer, some aggressive subtypes are poorly understood and remain incurable. A new experimental model opens new avenues for mammary gland biology and basic breast cancer research. Researchers at the Helmholtz Center in Munich are now able to create three-dimensional organoid-structures that recapitulate normal breast development and function from single patient-derived cells.
When studying a gene function, in vivo studies are essential to validate data collected from in vitro experiments. The most commonly used animal models for in vivo studies are rodents, mostly mice (Mus musculus) and rats (Rattus norvegicus), which present several advantages such as the high similarity of their genome with human genome, but also their small size and their capacity to reproduce fast.
The First Animal - Sponges by Kaley Fulk | This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool for creating beautiful newsletters for for educators, nonprofits, businesses and more
UCL is particularly strong in neuroscience with a substantial international reputation. The capacity to carry out research on NHPs is essential for developing an understanding of complex brain mechanisms at the level most relevant to man for which no other valid model exists. NHPs represent the best available animal model for human function and are particularly important for research into neurological and psychiatric diseases, diseases which now affect over 1 billion people worldwide. We recognise that research using NHPs brings with it additional responsibilities in terms of ethical issues and welfare needs. UCL supports the provision of the best possible facilities and environment for them and is committed to sustaining these facilities and the associated expertise in the long term. UCL is committed to the principle of the 3Rs with regard to all research animals including NHPs.. Last year there were no completed procedures involving NHPs, but 8 are currently involved in ongoing work at UCL ...
Energy homeostasis is accomplished through a highly integrated and redundant neurohumoral system. Recently, novel molecular mediators and regulatory pathways for feeding and body weight regulation have been identified in the brain and the periphery. Because of the multitude and complexity of disturbances in energy intake, expenditure, and partitioning that are associated with obesity, it has been difficult to determine which abnormalities are causative versus less important phenomena that are consequences of the altered neuroendocrine and metabolic milieu. Transgenic technology has provided new opportunities to modify the complex body weight-regulating system and to assess the relative importance of the individual components. Observations of mutant mice have shed new light on the understanding of energy homeostasis equation. Once created, transgenic animal models may be useful in assessing the efficacy or determining the mode of action of potential new therapeutic agents. However, the ...
Recent advances in techniques for manipulating genomes have allowed the generation of transgenic animals other than mice. These new models enable cross-mammalian comparison of neurological disease from core cellular pathophysiology to circuit and behavioural endophenotypes. Moreover they will enable …
Risk factors are things that can be causes. Like smoking is a risk factor and can cause heart disease. I dont think marmalade can cause CCSVI, but Id bet CCSVI, the risk factor (not the movie of the same name), ...
The plasma membrane (PM)1 is an organized system serving as a structural and communication interface with the extracellular environment for exchanges of information and substances. In animal cells, PM proteins represent a point for potential therapeutic intervention, making the PM a source of drug targets, for instance in cancer research (1). In plant cells too, as signaling processes controlling responses to biotic and abiotic factors occur in PM, a better knowledge of the PM proteome would help developing defense strategies. Indeed, in plant cells as well as in animal cells, the PM is controlling many primary cellular functions, such as metabolite and ion transport, endocytosis, cell differentiation and proliferation, etc. All these processes involve a large array of proteins with highly diverse structure and function. In addition, the strength of their association to the membrane varies, some being well embedded in the membrane lipid core while others are more peripheral proteins, sometimes ...
The company was the first to develop a novel proprietary technology to culture mouse primary endothelial cells. These cells have been extremely beneficial for many types of studies in areas such as vascular biology, vascular diseases, blood brain barrier research, cancer research and metastasis, angiogenesis, drug targeting and a verity of other areas basic and clinical/translational studies. We provide these and other cells in a cost effective manner saving investigators time, money, and laboratory costs. We also provide custom ordered cells from genetically modified mice and other animal models in a timely, cost-efficient and reproducible manner ...
Experimental animal models of muscle wasting in intensive care unit patients.: The muscle wasting and loss of muscle function associated with critical illness a
The preclinical development of cancer therapeutics, including the recent trend and focus on cancer immunotherapies, is evolving from the traditional use of mouse models to the use of other animal models including canine, rat, and minipig. Each of these non-mouse models carries its own advantages and abilities to increase the clinical relevance of the model as compared to mouse models. Yet, the wid .... ...
Researchers at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine have developed the first animal model that duplicates the human response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an important step that...
Research Topics: Adjuvants, Animal model studies, B cell immunology and antibodies, Clinical trial site challenges, HIV persistence and latency, HIV transmission and acute infection, Human genomics, Immune escape, Innate immunity, Mucosal immunity, Novel immunogens, inserts and vectors, Pediatric/adolescent infections and trials, Preclinical and clinical vaccine trials, Prevention strategies, Social, ethical, access and regulatory issues, T cell immunity, Vaccine concepts and design, Viral Diversity, ...
Adenosine A3 receptors are involved in a variety of intracellular signaling pathways and physiological functions. They are expressed in a wide range of human tissues, but most predominantly in the lung and liver. Recent animal model studies have shown that A3 receptors play important roles in brain ischemia, immunosuppresion, and bronchospasm. A3 receptor agonists and/or agonists ...
Lack of association between blood pressure, target organ damage and retinopathy in the L-NAME rat hypertension model: Are new animal models of hypertension required? , Ausencia de correlación entre las cifras tensionales, el daño de órgano blanco y la presencia de retinopatía en el modelo animal de hipertentión con L-NAME: ¿Son necesarios nuevos modelos animales en hipertensión arterial ...
A rat with some human genes could provide a better way to test Alzheimer's drugs. The genetically modified rat is the first rodent model to exhibit
Animal models are organisms, often mice or rats, that have been engineered to reproduce the physical or molecular changes that occur during the course of a disease in humans. These models are used to study the biology of the disease, including the genetics and the cellular or molecular pathways involved in the disease. Animal models also have a critical role in developing and testing new therapies before they are tested in humans.. ...
The leading causes of U.S. deaths in 2007 were heart disease, cancer, stroke, lower respiratory diseases, accidents, Alzheimers, diabetes and influenza.
Several different factors and conditions may cause scarring of kidney tissue. The most common ones are the chronic renal failure conditions that develop over…
This Gene Set Enrichment-type test designed for analysis of microarray and RNASeq data is designed to provide a faster, more accurate, and easier to understand test for gene expression studies. QuSAGE extends previous methods with a complete probability density function (PDF).. ...
The Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Units (VTEUs), supported by the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (DMID) since the 1960s, comprise a consortium of contracts with academic centers and organizations that provides a ready resource for the conduct of clinical trials to evaluate pr. ...
Greek & Greek1 claim that because animals and humans are different, Animal models are inaccurate, superfluous, and create risk to humans.
The main objective of this work is to develop an economically viable process for producing papermaking fibres of adequate quality and generating energy from wheat straw. Wheat straw was selected as the raw material since wheat is cultivated and available worldwide (Curtis 2002) and only a minor part of the straw is used for energy production or animal feed. One of the primary aims in this work is to find ways to store the raw material chemically between the harvesting periods and examine the effects on pulping and pulp properties (Paper IV). In addition, the aim of this work is... ...
In Non-clinical Cancer Studies Senescos Therapeutic Candidate, SNS01-T, Works Synergistically in Combination with the Active Components of Revlimid® and Velcade®
SABOGAL, Angélica María; ARANGO, César Augusto; CARDONA, Gloria Patricia e CESPEDES, Ángel Enrique. Atorvastatin protects GABAergic and dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal system in an experimental rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. Biomédica [online]. 2014, vol.34, n.2, pp.207-217. ISSN 0120-4157. http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v34i2.1851.. Introduction: Cerebral ischemia is the third leading cause of death and the primary cause of permanent disability worldwide. Atorvastatin is a promising drug with neuroprotective effects that may be useful for the treatment of stroke. However, the effects of atorvastatin on specific neuronal populations within the nigrostriatal system following cerebral ischemia are unknown. Objective: To evaluate the effects of atorvastatin on dopaminergic and GABAergic neuronal populations in exofocal brain regions in a model of transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight male eight-week-old Wistar ...
The first animal model of the chikungunya virus (CHIKV), linked with large-scale epidemics that spread to Italy and India in 2007 has been developed by Researchers.
Molecular, metabolic and functional characterization of adult skeletal muscle in Down syndrome mouse model : insights into the muscle weakness seen in human ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessing disease onset and progression in the SOD1 mouse model of ALS. AU - Weydt, Patrick. AU - Hong, So Yon. AU - Kliot, Michel. AU - Möller, Thomas. PY - 2003/5/1. Y1 - 2003/5/1. N2 - SOD1 transgenic mice are the most widely used animal model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In addition to providing valuable insights into the pathogenesis of ALS, these animals are used intensively in many laboratories as an in vivo model for investigating novel therapeutic interventions towards this devastating motor-neuron disease. Such pre-clinical studies require objective and reliable quantification of the clinical phenotype of individual mice, most importantly of the neuromuscular abnormalities. Here we compare four parameters of the clinical phenotype: motor signs, body weight, rotarod performance and paw grip endurance for their usefulness in monitoring the SOD1 mouse model. We found that paw grip endurance is a sensitive and inexpensive alternative to the widely used rotarod ...
Suitable animal models of IPF are lacking (Roman et al. 2013) and have been identified as a research priority for the IPF field (White et al. 2016). In our attempt to elucidate the efficacy of GBT1118 drug effects were explored in the most commonly used animal model of lung fibrosis: the bleomycin‐induced model. The results from this in vivo therapeutic study provide support for the potential use in IPF of a molecule that increases Hb-O2 affinity. GBT1118 treatment not only restored arterial O2 to normal levels, but also significantly inhibited the increase in numbers of inflammatory cell infiltrates, reduced collagen in BALF, and resulted in an approximately 50% reduction in fibrosis (histopathological changes in lung tissue). Additionally, GBT1118 administration ameliorated the loss of body weight associated with bleomycin exposure.. Exertional dyspnea and worsening hypoxia associated with hypoxemia are prominent clinical features of IPF progression as fibrosis increases and ...
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In this current study, we tested the efficacy of sorbent strategy-based HA on a porcine ARDS model and found that HA reduced circulating and alveolar levels of proinflammatory cytokines, improved oxygenation and attenuated lung injuries in the exudative phase. This provides some clue that HA330 cartridge may be a novel potential weapon fighting against the cytokine storm on the alveolar-capillary membrane barrier.. The most commonly used large-animal models of ARDS include endotoxin infusion, repeated lavage, oleic acid and smoke/burn injury [17]. To reproduce the most known risk factor and etiology for ARDS, which is sepsis [18], we systemically administrated endotoxin (LPS) to mimic the clinically relevant sepsis-induced ARDS. The susceptibility to LPS is highly variable and differs among different animals. Pigs, sheep, calves, and cats are more sensitive to LPS challenge. Low dosage of LPS (μg/kg range) can induce significant ARDS-like features in these animals. In contrast, animals such ...
Engel M, Snikeris P, Jenner A, Karl T, Huang XF, Frank E.. BACKGROUND: Substantial evidence from human post-mortem and genetic studies has linked the neurotrophic factor neuregulin 1 (NRG1) to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Genetic animal models and in vitro experiments have suggested that altered NRG1 signaling, rather than protein changes, contributes to the symptomatology of schizophrenia. However, little is known about the effect of NRG1 on schizophrenia-relevant behavior and neurotransmission (particularly GABAergic and glutamatergic) in adult animals.. METHOD: To address this question, we treated adult mice with the extracellular signaling domain of NRG1 and assessed spontaneous locomotor activity and acoustic startle response, as well as extracellular GABA, glutamate, and glycine levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus via microdialysis. Furthermore, we asked whether the effect of NRG1 would differ under schizophrenia-relevant impairments in mice and therefore co-treated ...
In 2008, European clinical trials began on twelve children suffering from Progeria. The treatment is based on a combination of two existing molecules: statins (prescribed in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risks) and aminobisphosphonates (prescribed in to treat osteoporosis and to prevent complications in some forms of cancer). The use of both these molecules aims to chemically alter progerin to reduce its toxicity. However, although this treatment aimed to slow down the development of the disease, it did not reduce the quantities of progerin. To study this aspect, researchers needed to obtain a relevant animal model. An authentic Progeria model… To generate a model of this kind, Spanish and French researchers decided to introduce a gene mutation (G609G), equivalent to that identified in humans (G608G), in mice to reproduce the exact pathological mechanism found in the children, with a view to then blocking it. The mice models were created under the ...
In this study, we identified, using genetic animal models, that the function of p110δ, both in leukemia B cells and in the nonleukemic microenvironment, is critical for CLL pathogenesis. Global inactivation of p110δ in the Eμ-TCL1 murine CLL model blocks leukemia progression in blood and major lymphoid organs. B cells from p110δD910A/D910ATCL1 mice still exhibit partially impaired BCR signaling and migratory function. Inactivation of p110δ in the nonleukemic microenvironment also protects against leukemia through a T cell-dependent mechanism. Despite dampened antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses, p110δ-inactivated T cells remain cytotoxic to leukemia cells. It is possible that p110δ inactivation impairs Treg expansion followed by enhanced host antitumor immunity. Reconstituted p110δD910A/D910A mice with p110δWT/WT Tregs reversed such disease resistance. Nonetheless, p110δ inactivation introduces side effects such as colitis, suggesting autoimmunity. These murine studies further ...
The aim of this project is to establish a clinical database and a bank of biological materials which will be used to improve the pathophysiologic understanding of the mechanisms underlying various pregnancy diseases. The US-Mexico Reproductive Health Research Development Workshop, sponsored by the NIH, recommended that the setting up of tissue, blood, and placental banks from human and relevant animal models should be developed to aid in understanding how prenatal conditions relate to pathological consequences in adult life.. A large observational study in the United States of America, the National Collaborative Perinatal Project (NCPP), was conducted over 30 years ago (1959-1966) and has yielded a large amount of useful information. However standards of obstetrical and neonatal care have changed significantly over the last 30 years. Thus the setting up of a contemporary clinical perinatal database and bank of biological materials is required. In order to obtain sufficient data for statistical ...
Video articles in JoVE about tumor cells cultured include Isolation and Characterization of Neutrophils with Anti-Tumor Properties, Depletion of Mouse Cells from Human Tumor Xenografts Significantly Improves Downstream Analysis of Target Cells, Analyzing the Communication Between Monocytes and Primary Breast Cancer Cells in an Extracellular Matrix Extract (ECME)-based Three-dimensional System, A Combined 3D Tissue Engineered In Vitro/In Silico Lung Tumor Model for Predicting Drug Effectiveness in Specific Mutational Backgrounds, Optimization of High Grade Glioma Cell Culture from Surgical Specimens for Use in Clinically Relevant Animal Models and 3D Immunochemistry, A Detailed Protocol for Characterizing the Murine C1498 Cell Line and its Associated Leukemia Mouse Model, Modeling Astrocytoma Pathogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo Using Cortical Astrocytes or Neural Stem Cells from Conditional, Genetically Engineered Mice, Primary Orthotopic Glioma Xenografts Recapitulate Infiltrative Growth
The recent clinical successes of immune checkpoint inhibitors have fueled the intense interest in novel immuno-oncology (I/O) therapeutics. The lack of relevant animal models remains a major hurdle in understanding the mechanism of action and evaluating the efficacy of such therapeutics. Patient derived xenograft (PDX), considered to most closely mimic patient tumors in both histo- and molecular pathology1,2, is however rarely used in I/O studies because it grow only in immune-compromised hosts. In reality, many PDXs grow well in nude mice where certain immune functions remain intact, excluding T-cells/T-cell functions. Therefore, PDX could still potentially be of practical use for studying T-cell independent I/O therapy. This study set out to evaluate a biologics for the treatment of a patient derived xenograft disease, by activating mouse natural killer (NK). NK and CD8 T cells are two major immune effector cell types that mediate cytotoxicity to tumor cells in vivo. One of the ...
Authors: Woodruff-Pak, Diana S. Article Type: Research Article Abstract: This Special Issue of the Journal of Alzheimers Disease (JAD) provides an overview of animal models of Alzheimers disease (AD). Very few species spontaneously develop the cognitive, behavioral, and neuropathological symptoms of AD, yet AD research must progress at a more rapid pace than the rate of human aging. In recent years, a variety of models have been created - from tiny invertebrates with life spans measurable in months to huge mammals that live several decades. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a powerful genetic tool that has recently emerged as a model of AD with neural features and assessable …learning and memory. Transgenic mice are the most widely used animal models of AD and have yielded significant research breakthroughs. Accelerated aging seen in the SAMP8 mouse is a non-transgenic model with great utility. Rat models provided early evidence about the deleterious impact of amyloid-β (Aβ) on ...
My laboratory is an integrated cardiovascular laboratory studying vascular function with a focus on understanding how reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generation alters mitochondrial and endothelial function both in vitro and in vivo. Our expertise allows us to use of state of the art mass spectroscopy techniques in conjunction with cellular techniques to elucidate how post-translational modifications alter protein structure-function relationships and to elucidate pathways how RNS signaling is regulated in endothelial cells in both physiologic and pathologic situations. Further, we also have the expertise to carry these studies into clinically relevant animal models of endothelial dysfunction both to confirm our cell culture studies and, through directed interventions, to modulate these signaling pathways to determine effects on endothelial function in the intact animal. Further, though collaboration with clinician investigators we are now expanding our studies into humans. My laboratory is ...
Alzheimers disease (AD) is one of the largest global public health crises facing us today, and is predicted to increase dramatically over the next decades as the world population ages. There are no effective therapies available to prevent, cure, or slow the progression of disease, and new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. We are developing MW151, a small molecule AD drug candidate that targets neuroinflammation, a pathological condition recently recognized as a key contributor to AD-associated neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. Dysregulated proinflammatory cytokine (PIC) production is a component of neuroinflammation that drives the progression of diverse degenerative CNS disorders. Data from epidemiological, clinical and preclinical animal model studies converge on the attenuation of PIC overproduction as a potential disease-modifying therapeutic approach to AD.. MW151 is a novel, CNS-penetrant, orally bioavailable, small molecule drug candidate that selectively attenuates ...
The peroxiredoxin (PRDX) family, a new family of proteins with a pivotal antioxidative function, is ubiquitously synthesized and abundantly identified in various organisms. In contrast to the intracellular localization of other family members (PRDX1/2/3/5/6), PRDX4 is the only known secretory form and protects against oxidative damage by scavenging reactive oxygen species in both the intracellular (especially the endoplasmic reticulum) compartments and the extracellular space. We generated unique human PRDX4 (hPRDX4) transgenic (Tg) mice on a C57BL/6J background and investigated the critical and diverse protective roles of PRDX4 against diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as well as evaluated its role in the intestinal function in various animal models ...
Charles River has proudly partnered with the EBD Group to provide the scientific program for this years BioPharm America™ Conference. This exciting two-day program aims to bridge the gap between drug discovery and clinical application. Driven by the bedside-to-bench experience, industry leaders will come together to discuss innovations and breakthroughs in translational tools and methods in drug discovery research and development. Attendees will gain insight into how clinical data can be used to successfully develop the next generation of animal models, tools and technologies that lead to the development of effective therapies.. September 26-27, ...
Currently existing psoriasis models implicate the importance of circulating T cells being recruited to the site of lesion (7, 8). However, they do not address the role of resident T cells during development of lesions, mainly due to the lack of an appropriate model system. The present psoriasis model allowed us to address this issue. Immunohistochemical analyses of PN skin before transplantation (Fig. 3, A and B, pre), compared with 6-8 wk after transplantation onto AGR129 mice (Fig. 3, A and B, post), revealed a more than twofold increase in total T cell numbers (P , 0.002), which corresponds to an almost fivefold increase in the tissue. We demonstrated a preference of CD4-positive cells for the dermis, whereas CD8-positive cells were located predominantly in the epidermis or the dermo-epidermal junction zone (Fig. 3 A). This finding corresponds to observations in human psoriasis samples (18). Proliferation of lesional CD3-positive cells paralleled disease formation (Fig. 3 B). T cell ...
Adoptive cellular immunotherapy for metastatic disease has shown efficacy in diverse animal models, yet limited success in clinical settings has been demonstrated (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). Initial studies by Cheever and Greenberg (reviewed in Refs. 4 and 5) examined various principles of adoptive immunotherapy using Ag-specific T cells in combination with a potent anti-neoplastic agent, cyclophosphamide, in a murine leukemia model. However, the principles for therapy of solid tumors may be inherently different. Subsequent studies by Shu and coworkers (18) began to address the principles for therapy of both early and later visceral metastases. In those studies, the Ag specificity of the transferred cells was undefined, and later experiments made use of polyclonally activated cells derived from tumor-draining lymph nodes (19). More recent studies of adoptive immunotherapy have used animal models that do not necessarily accurately reflect the human disease condition (i.e., tumors transduced with surrogate ...
The use of physiologically regulated, reproducible animal models is crucial to the study of ischemic brain injury--both the mechanisms governing its occurrence and potential therapeutic strategies. Several laboratory rodent species (notably rats and gerbils), which are readily available at relatively low cost, are highly suitable for the investigation of cerebral ischemia and have been widely employed for this purpose. We critically examine and summarize several rodent models of transient global ischemia, resulting in selective neuronal injury within vulnerable brain regions, and focal ischemia, typically giving rise to localized brain infarction. We explore the utility of individual models and emphasize the necessity for meticulous experimental control of those variables that modulate the severity of ischemic brain injury. ...
Pre-Clinical Animal Network. Drug development is long and costly. To protect our investments, we need to be able to efficiently predict the safety and efficacy of drug candidates for PWS prior to sending them into clinical trials. The pre-clinical animal network, composed of expert model laboratories, will improve the predictive value of our PWS models and improve our ability to accurately predict drug safety and efficacy.. New Animal Models. Disease models are critical for therapeutic development in order to test the safety and efficacy of candidate drugs. Based on the input of experts, we will develop the new animal models of PWS needed to advance therapeutic development.. PWS cellular network. Modeling PWS in a cell is critical for screening drugs in a highthroughput fashion. We will develop a network of investigators to develop assays and cellular models of PWS for identifying new drugs, reposition existing drugs or discover new targets and pathways that can be used for investigating disease ...
An in vivo model to study skeletal muscle injury is described. A computer-controlled custom-designed rat dynamometer is used to control biomechanical inputs such as range of motion, velocity, acceleration, and number of repetitions to study skeletal muscle injury in rats. Anesthetized rats are placed supine in the dynamometer and the left foot placed in a load cell with the ankle axis aligned with
This study is designed to evaluate the protective affects of MP101 and MP201 in pre-clinical models of PD injected with a toxin (6 OHDA) that selectively destroys dopamine-producing neurons, the hallmark of PD. The study will look at two outcomes as follows: 1) chronic treatment (two weeks of therapy) administered one day after giving the toxin to evaluate the potential of the drugs to prevent neuronal loss and mimic disease progression; 2) chronic treatment 10 days following toxin administration (allowing for most neurons to die) to determine if the drugs can impact recovery and regrowth of new neurons. In both scenarios, we will measure behavioral effects, brain dopamine levels, neuron counts, BDNF levels and markers of mitochondrial quality.. Impact on Diagnosis/Treatment of Parkinson s disease: ...
Animal studies can, but do not always, predict whether a drug will be teratogenic in humans. The main role of animal studies is to help researchers understand the mechanisms of teratogenicity. Unfortunately, animal studies were poor predictors in the case of thalidomide; the drug was tested on rats and mice, but did not originally produce birth defects.1 On the other hand, some drugs have been found teratogenic in animals and not in humans.2,3 Today, when new drugs are screened for teratogenicity, three different animal models are required for testing. Quite frequently, when certain drugs are tested on different animal species, birth defects occur, as happened in the DM study.4 Interspecies differences regarding the teratogenicity of drugs can result from differing pharmacokinetic processes that determine the crucial concentration-time relationships in an embryo. Protein binding in the mother is also an important determinant of placental transfer because only free concentrates in maternal plasma ...
There is clear evidence that tumor patients are able to generate TAA-specific T cell immunity spontaneously. Whereas the presence of tumor-specific T cells has been shown by many groups and for various tumor types, much less is known about the function of TAA-specific T cells in vivo. Most of the TAAs including differentiation, germ-line, and shared overexpressed antigens are not tumor specific but are also expressed at low levels in certain nonmalignant tissues. This should influence the type of T cell response because deletion of functional high-avidity self-reactive T cells in the thymus as well as peripheral deletion or anergy was shown in various animal models (reviewed in Ref. 74 ). There are a few recent studies analyzing the functional avidity of TAA-specific T cells in patients. In leukemia patients, low-avidity T cells to proteinase 3, which are able to kill leukemia cells, can readily be expanded. However, high-avidity T cells can also be expanded from patients in cytogenetic ...
It is essential to trust your research data but it is even more important to validate it. The flexiWare Software is there to help you with that! It manages the entire experimental session and [...] ...
Scientists at the University of Oregon have determined the fine-scale genetic structure of the first animal to show an evolutionary response to rapid climate change.
A novel mouse model of soft-tissue infection using bioluminescence imaging allows noninvasive, real-time monitoring of bacterial growth(審査報告)A novel mouse model of soft-tissue infection using bioluminescence imaging allows noninvasive, real-time monitoring of bacterial growth(審査報告) ...
Macrophages contribute to the development of atherosclerosis through pinocytotic deposition of native LDL-derived cholesterol in macrophages in the vascular wall. Inhibiting macrophage-mediated lipid deposition may have protective effects in atheroprone vasculature, and identifying mechanisms that potentiate this process may inform potential therapeutic interventions for atherosclerosis. Here, we report that dysregulation of exon junction complex-driven (EJC-driven) mRNA splicing confers hyperpinocytosis to macrophages during atherogenesis. Mechanistically, we determined that inflammatory cytokines induce an unconventional nonproteolytic calpain, calpain-6 (CAPN6), which associates with the essential EJC-loading factor CWC22 in the cytoplasm. This association disturbs the nuclear localization of CWC22, thereby suppressing the splicing of target genes, including those related to Rac1 signaling. CAPN6 deficiency in LDL receptor-deficient mice restored CWC22/EJC/Rac1 signaling, reduced pinocytotic ...
Macrophages contribute to the development of atherosclerosis through pinocytotic deposition of native LDL-derived cholesterol in macrophages in the vascular wall. Inhibiting macrophage-mediated lipid deposition may have protective effects in atheroprone vasculature, and identifying mechanisms that potentiate this process may inform potential therapeutic interventions for atherosclerosis. Here, we report that dysregulation of exon junction complex-driven (EJC-driven) mRNA splicing confers hyperpinocytosis to macrophages during atherogenesis. Mechanistically, we determined that inflammatory cytokines induce an unconventional nonproteolytic calpain, calpain-6 (CAPN6), which associates with the essential EJC-loading factor CWC22 in the cytoplasm. This association disturbs the nuclear localization of CWC22, thereby suppressing the splicing of target genes, including those related to Rac1 signaling. CAPN6 deficiency in LDL receptor-deficient mice restored CWC22/EJC/Rac1 signaling, reduced pinocytotic ...
Luxcel Biosciences Ltd announce worlds first physiologically relevant, in vitro Ischemia-Reperfusion Model in conjunction with BMG LABTECH and Ncardia.
Research has shown that penetrating soft tissue injuries can cause muscle loss resulting in functional disability and cosmetic deformity.
Principal Investigator:NATA Koji, Project Period (FY):1996 - 1997, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A), Section:展開研究, Research Field:Functional biochemistry
RHEINBREITBACH, Germany, November 14, 2012 /PRNewswire/ --. Synthetic human-milk-oligosaccharides reduce the risk of infections caused by hazardous pathogens. Human-milk-oligosaccharides, an important component of human mothers milk, play a fundamental role in the protection of infants against viral and bacterial infection. Preclinical studies carried out by Jennewein Biotechnologie GmbH have now shown for the first time that synthetically produced functional sugars protect humans from infectious diseases. The investigations were conducted in collaboration with the University Childrens Hospital Mannheim of Heidelberg University (GER).. In collaboration with the University Childrens Hospital Mannheim of Heidelberg University, Jennewein Biotechnologie GmbH carried out extensive preclinical research to demonstrate for the first time that synthetic human-milk-oligosaccharides achieve the same protective effects as natural sugars in human breast milk. The study focused on the ...
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a cornerstone of clinical studies and research of several neurodegenerative disorders including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimers, traumatic brain injury, etc. It is one of the primary tools to evaluate the effectiveness of potential treatments due to its ability to provide immediate, predictive data while being non-invasive. Rodent MRI studies on preclinical animal models of neurodegenerative diseases can increase the efficiency of these studies; thereby helping improve translation from preclinical testing to clinical testing of potential therapeutics. MRIs high resolution, image analysis tools, and statistical capabilities provide a robust platform to better understand biological processes and translational readouts to develop new treatment approaches for several CNS diseases. Renovo Neural now offers MRI-based imaging applications-acquisition, post-processing, and data analysis developed for small animal preclinical models of neurodegenerative diseases. This ...
The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecules storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters. ...
Overcoming HIV latency - induction of HIV in CD4+ T cells that lay dormant throughout the body - is a major step toward creating a cure for HIV. For the first time, scientists at UNC-Chapel Hill, Emory University, and Qura Therapeutics - a partnership between UNC and ViiV Healthcare - have shown that a new approach can expose latent HIV to attack in two different animal model systems with little or no toxicity. Researchers Reverse HIV Latency, Important Scientific Step Toward Cure - Read More… ...
Charles River is committed to providing you with high-quality genetically standardized models such as VAF/Plus® (SPF) and VAF/Elite® (SOPF) animals which are free of select infectious agents and parasites. We understand that selecting the appropriate animal model for your studies is critical to your research success. To assist you, we offer an evaluation program that allows you to assess the quality and compatibility of our animal models before making a purchase.. ...
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The aim of the FRAME Alternatives Laboratory is to produce human-based systems that are better and more relevant to humans than current animal models. FRAME makes an annual donation to support work carried out there.. When the FRAME Alternatives Laboratory was established in 1991 at the University of Nottingham Medical School, research concentrated mainly on replacements for acute toxicology testing such as the notorious LD50 test and the Draize eye irritancy test in rabbits. Many of its findings are now accepted in mainstream research, contributing to a reduction in the number of animals used for toxicology testing.. Since Dr Andy Bennetts appointment as Director in 2006, the FRAME Alternatives Laboratory now concentrates on using samples obtained, with full ethical approval and under licence from the Human Tissue Authority, from operations at Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, to construct in vitro models of human cells and organs for biomedical research.. The FRAME Alternatives ...
The influence of DHA/EPA enrichment of dairy products on visual/ brain development in infants and children (or the appropriate animal models ...
As current animal models of Parkinsons Disease (PD) fail to simulate all of the pathogenic, histological, biochemical and clinical features of the disease, their value remains limited. Therefore, it is vital that models be developed both for a be tter understanding of the pathogenesis of PD and for discovering more effective pharmacotherapeutics to treat PD.
Stress Induces the Danger-Associated Molecular Pattern HMGB-1 in the Hippocampus of Male Sprague Dawley Rats: A Priming Stimulus of Microglia and the NLRP3 Inflammasome Journal Article ...
Cachexia, recognized by progressive loss of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, contributes directly to morbidity and mortality in diseases as diverse as organ failure, AIDS, burn, trauma and cancer. Indeed, cachexia itself and not other effects of the tumor is thought to be the cause of up to 1/3 of all cancer deaths. Relatively little is understood regarding the molecular and cellular pathways leading to weight loss and dysmetabolism in cachexia and currently there are no approved, effective therapies. My group, working with a large and diverse group of collaborators, seeks to fill that knowledge gap by using novel animal models and correlative phenotypic and molecular data from patients to identify molecular, cellular and organ system mechanisms leading to cachexia. In this fashion we have:. 1. Identified a key role for IL-6/GP80/GP130/STAT3 in muscle and fat wasting in cancer and burns.. 2. Identified a causal role for Activins in burn-induced muscle wasting and shown efficacy in targeting ...
Rabbits are among the most widely used animals in experimental studies in basic and clinical medical sciences. MR images may also be coupled with the studies of rabbits and may provide important clues to the researchers.. Several coils and parameters may be implemented for experimental MR imaging of the rabbit brain, but because of the small size of this brain, the image quality may not be satisfactory. This letter briefly describes our efforts to improve the quality of MR images of the rabbit brain by using different coils and varying technical parameters.. We retrospectively evaluated the MR imaging of 87 male New Zealand white rabbits used in cranial experimental studies between 1994 and 2003 on a 1T system. Experiments had been conducted in conformity with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals1 and were approved by the local ethics committee. A circularly polarized head coil, a quadrature extremity coil, or a 3-inch (7.62-cm) circular surface coil and fast spin-echo images ...
Neuroscience research in the Department aims to improve our understanding of the central nervous system and its involvement in the pathogenesis of disease. Areas of expertise and emphasis include regulation of feeding behavior and metabolism, sleep regulation, stress, neurodevelopment, and behavioral epigenetics. The generation and use of novel animal models of disease provides valuable tools and aids in the development of new drug targets and therapies in disease prevention and treatment.. To bridge basic research with clinical areas of expertise in neurology and behavior, the SOVM Neuroscience Center interacts with other Centers and Institutes at Penn, including:. ...
Clinical Responses to Experimental Therapy.A.) Decreases in Supplemental Oxygen Requirements. Oxygen requirements decreased in only one of the historical contro
Animal Hospitals USA offers a wide assortment of useful animal health care information to help pet owners care for their animals.
Main areas of research: Functional genomics and proteomics; Molecular and cellular immunology; Animal models of human disease; ... Fleming researchers have established transgenic animal models for rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and multiple ... Fleming's Animal house (certified with ISO 9001) provides husbandry of animals and services to the biomedical research ... The Animal House has a capacity to house more than 20,000 mice and is currently the largest Mouse Unit in Greece in terms of ...
Animal models for periodontal disease. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology 2011:754857. Post, W. 1981. The influence of ... the animal has been proposed as a model for research on the disease in humans. The identity of the bacterial agent remains ... The marsh rice rat is quite susceptible to periodontitis and has been used as a model system for the study of that disease. The ... Animal model: periodontitis in the rice rat (Oryzomys palustris). American Journal of Pathology 96(2):643-646. Lodge, T.E. 2005 ...
Neuromethods: Animal Models of Neurological Disease. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. pp. 153-155. ISBN 0-89603-211-6. Menkes JH, ... No animal model has all the characteristics of epileptogenesis in humans, so research efforts aim to identify one. Such a model ... Pitkänen A, McIntosh TK (2006). "Animal models of post-traumatic epilepsy". Journal of Neurotrauma. 23 (2): 241-261. doi: ... Animal experiments using rats have shown that epileptic seizures can be produced by injecting iron into the brain. Iron ...
2007). Animal Models in Toxicology (2nd ed.). CRC Press. p. 248. Grzimek, Bernhard, ed. (1972). Grzimek's Animal Life ... "Systems and Diseases". Diseases of Small Domestic Rodents. 2003. pp. 127-31. doi:10.1002/9780470690840.ch14. ISBN 978-0-470- ... The surface of the hands and feet are white to ensure the animal stays warm in colder climates in countries such as Mongolia. ... Herberg, L.; K. D. Buchanan; L. M. Herbertz; H. F. Kern; H. K. Kley (1980). "The Djungarian hamster, a laboratory animal with ...
"Diversifying animal models: the use of hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in infectious diseases". Laboratory Animals. ... "Animal Models of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 25 (6): 1363-68. doi:10.1086/516152. ... Prince is the author of over 150 scientific publications in the field of infectious diseases, the majority dealing with RSV. He ... Marie-Ève Hamelin; Gregory A. Prince; Guy Boivin (2006). "Effect of Ribavirin and Glucocorticoid Treatment in a Mouse Model of ...
... the optimal use of animal models of disease; the neurobiology of the mineralocorticoid receptor; and impact of social ... CAMARADES is currently leading the way in advancing education about systematic reviews in animal research. Prof. Macleod is on ... and co-ordinator of the Collaborrative Approach to Meta-Analysis and Review of Animal Data in Experimental Studies (CAMARADES ... Advisory Board of the charity SABRE Research UK which raises awareness of the need for systematic reviews of existing animal ...
17α-Estradiol (epiestradiol) P. Michael Conn (29 May 2013). Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease. Academic Press. pp. ...
Acta Psychiatr Scand 1996; 93(6):451-459; Sachdev P. Animal models of drug-induced akathisia. In LeDoux MS (Ed). Animal models ... Neurological Disease and Therapy Series. Macel Dekker, New York, 2005:129-164. [8] Brodaty H, Sachdev P, Rose N, Rylands K, ... and the first study that examined the effect of different frequencies of TMS on an animal model of depression [12]. Sachdev's ... Chronic repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is antidepressant but not anxiolytic in rat models of anxiety and ...
Rowan MJ, Klyubin I, Cullen WK, Anwyl R (April 2003). "Synaptic plasticity in animal models of early Alzheimer's disease". ... LTP has received much attention among those who study Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disease that causes marked ... However, alterations in LTP may contribute to a number of neurological diseases, including depression, Parkinson's disease, ... proposed one model for how LTP might be affected in AD. AD appears to result, at least in part, from misprocessing of amyloid ...
Santos, Renato L.; Shuping Zhang; Renee M. Tsolis; Robert A. Kingsley; L. Gary Adams; Adreas J. Baumler (2001). "Animal models ... Efforts to prevent the disease include proper preparation and cooking of food. Mild disease typically does not require specific ... CDC website, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Disease Listing: Salmonellosis CFIA Website: Salmonellae Protective ... Occasionally more significant disease can result in dehydration. The old, young, and others with a weak immune systems are more ...
ISBN 0-8451-1035-7 Desnick, R.J., Patterson, D.F. and Scarpelli, D.F., eds.: Animal Models of Inherited Metabolic Diseases. ... His translational research has led to the development of enzyme replacement therapy for Fabry disease and Niemann-Pick disease ... National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Gene Therapy: Lysosomal Diseases With Mental Retardation, ... ISBN 0-443-08773-3 Desnick, R.J. and Kaback, M.M., eds.: Tay-Sachs Disease, Academic Press, pp. 1-360, 2001. ISBN 0-12-017644-0 ...
January 2008). "MUGEN mouse database; animal models of human immunological diseases". Nucleic Acids Res. 36 (Database issue): ... In the study of infectious diseases and host responses, the mathematical and computer models are a great help. These models ... Using this technology it is possible to know the model behind immune system. It has been used to model T-cell-mediated ... Models are helpful to predicts dynamics of pathogen toxicity and T-cell memory in response to different stimuli. There are also ...
... s have been linked to improved markers of heart disease. Animal models and observational studies in humans have ... Use in animal models show promising results. There is promising early stage research. One small trial of women with breast ... Sen CK, Khanna S, Roy S (2007). "Tocotrienols in health and disease: the other half of the natural vitamin E family". Molecular ... A number of health benefits have been proposed included decreased risk of heart disease and cancer. The Food and Nutrition ...
"Animal models of amyloid-beta-related pathologies in Alzheimer's disease". The FEBS Journal. 277 (6): 1389-409. doi:10.1111/j. ... Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 is involved in monocyte infiltration in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis ... "Genealogy of the CCR5 locus and chemokine system gene variants associated with altered rates of HIV-1 disease progression". ... "Contrasting genetic influence of CCR2 and CCR5 variants on HIV-1 infection and disease progression. Hemophilia Growth and ...
"Obovatol improves cognitive functions in animal models for Alzheimer's disease". Journal of Neurochemistry. 120 (6): 1048-59. ...
Vuguin PM (2007). "Animal models for small for gestational age and fetal programming of adult disease". Horm. Res. 68 (3): 113- ... Hasenfuss G (1998). "Animal models of human cardiovascular disease, heart failure and hypertrophy". Cardiovasc. Res. 39 (1): 60 ... Ovine Johne's disease is a wasting disease that affects young sheep. Bluetongue disease is an insect-borne illness causing ... Didactic model of a sheep muscular system. Didactic model of a sheep. Didactic model of a sheep muscular system. Dry Sheep ...
Conn, P. Michael (2013). Animal models for the study of human disease (First ed.). San Diego: Elsevier Science & Technology ... Centerwall WR, Benirschke K (1975). "An animal model for the XXY Klinefelter's syndrome in man: Tortoiseshell and calico male ... Mice can also have the XXY syndrome, making them a useful research model. Play media While it is possible to characterise XXY ... As such, male cats with calico or tortoiseshell markings are a model organism for Klinefelter syndrome, because a color gene ...
Mouse Models for Human Diseases by Forward and Reverse Genetics". Animal models for the study of human disease (First edition. ... However, if the specific mutation cannot be passed on, heterozygous animals should be used to breed with the original inbred ... "3. Criteria for Selecting Experimental Animals". Rodents. The National Academies Press. p. 23ff. CS1 maint: Multiple names: ... National Research Council; Institute for Laboratory Animal Research; Commission on Life Sciences; Committee on Rodents. " ...
Wagner J, Thiele F, Ganten D (May 1995). "Transgenic animals as models for human disease". Clin. Exp. Hypertens. 17 (4): 593- ... June 1999). "Transgenic models of Huntington's disease". Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 354 (1386): 963-9. doi: ... Some genetically modified mammals are used as models of human diseases and potential treatments and cures can first be tested ... Cyranoski, D (2009). "Newly created transgenic primate may become an alternative disease model to rhesus macaques". Nature. 459 ...
Animal models of 3C syndrome have not been created; however, strumpellin is a highly conserved protein, with 12 known homologs ... Disease ID 5666 at NIH's Office of Rare Diseases "3C syndrome". Orphanet. Retrieved 11 April 2014. Kniffin, Cassandra L.; ... 3C syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease, caused by a mutation on the long arm of chromosome 8 at 8q24.13, the locus for ... Many children with the disorder die as infants due to severe congenital heart disease. The proband of Ritscher and Schinzel's ...
"Current understanding of dysbiosis in disease in human and animal models". Inflammatory bowel diseases. 22 (5): 1137-1150. doi: ... and allergic diseases in humans and other animals. Gut microbes may play a role in cancer development through a variety of ... "Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in disease". Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease. 26. doi:10.3402/mehd.v26.26191. ISSN 0891 ... An equilibrium of symbionts and pathobionts is critical to fight off outside pathogens and avoid inflammatory bowel disease. ...
Slater LB (2005). "Malarial birds: modeling infectious human disease in animals". Bull Hist Med. 79 (2): 261-94. doi:10.1353/ ... U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 28 December 2015. "The History of Malaria, an Ancient Disease". U.S ... In these hosts, infection tends to not cause severe disease, but may persist for some time. P. ovale can be transmitted to ... The study was published in Clinical Infectious Diseases. Researchers did their work at an ebola treatment unit in Monrovia, ...
In 2000, another animal model for Parkinson's disease was found. It was shown that the pesticide and insecticide rotenone ... It has been used to study disease models in various animal studies. While MPTP itself has no psychoactive effects, the compound ... Parkinson's Disease. Diagnosis and Clinical Management. Demos Medical Publishing. "Parkinson's Disease Models" (PDF). Neuro ... Luo Qin; Peng Guoguang; Wang Jiacai; Wang Shaojun (2010). "The Establishment of Chronic Parkinson's Disease in Mouse Model ...
... s from different sources demonstrate reparative effects in animal disease models. The neural regeneration capability ... This phenomenon was observed by the infusion of green fluorescent protein-labeled naive human Muse cells into animal models wit ... This was shown in human Muse cells infused into animal models with fulminant hepatitis, partial hepatectomy, muscle ... A three-dimensional culture model was used to assess Muse cell-derived melanocytes. In that model, the dermis was mimicked by ...
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases. 9 (2): 174-185. doi:10.1590/S1678-91992003000200004. ... M. F. Manzoli-Palma; N. Gobbi; M. S. Palma (2003). "Insects as biological models to assay spider and scorpion venom toxicity". ... Different experimental animals have different reactions to the same venom. The dose that is lethal to half of the animals ... Manson's tropical diseases By Gordon C. Cook, Patrick Manson, Alimuddin Zumla, p. 592 CSIRO (15 May 2012). "Funnel-web spider ...
"Synaptic plasticity in animal models of early Alzheimer's disease". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. ... Alzheimer's disease. Misprocessing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in Alzheimer's disease disrupts LTP and is thought to ... LTP has received much attention among those who study Alzheimer's disease (AD),[4] a neurodegenerative disease that causes ... However, alterations in LTP may contribute to a number of neurological diseases, including depression, Parkinson's disease, ...
October 2003). "Evaluation of an estrogen receptor-beta agonist in animal models of human disease". Endocrinology. 144 (10): ... prinaberel could be useful in the clinical treatment of a variety of medical conditions including inflammatory bowel disease, ...
Chlorine gas inhalation: human clinical evidence of toxicity and experience in animal models. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2010 Jul;7(4 ... Chlorine Toxicity Medscape Drugs & Diseases, Ed. Dembek, ZF. Updated: Dec 11, 2015 CDC Basic Facts Page last reviewed April 10 ... This article incorporates public domain material from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention document "Public Health ... PMID 20525917 PMC 2951076 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry via the CDC. Medical Management Guidelines: Chlorine ...
"Evaluation of an estrogen receptor-beta agonist in animal models of human disease". Endocrinology. 144 (10): 4241-9. doi: ... The ratio of α- to β- subtype concentration has been proposed to play a role in certain diseases. The concept of selective ... Jensen EV, Jordan VC (Jun 2003). "The estrogen receptor: a model for molecular medicine" (abstract). Clinical Cancer Research. ... Deroo BJ, Korach KS (Mar 2006). "Estrogen receptors and human disease". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 116 (3): 561-70 ...
Gallium (III) ion shows anti-inflammatory activity in animal models of inflammatory disease. Orally administered gallium ... The compound is a potential therapeutic agent for cancer, infectious disease, and inflammatory disease. A cosmetic skin cream ... Parsek, M.; Singh, P. (2003). "Bacterial biofilms: an emerging link to disease pathogenesis". Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 57: 677-701 ... a common and often fatal disease of newborn horses. R. equi can also infect humans with AIDS or who are otherwise ...
Diseases of the endocrine system (ICD-10 Chapter IV: Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases - Endocrine diseases, E00- ... but do not offer advantages compared with diets which allow moderate amounts of animal products.[100] There is not enough ... "Projections of type 1 and type 2 diabetes burden in the U.S. population aged ,20 years through 2050: dynamic modeling of ... Diabetes was one of the first diseases described.[21] The importance of insulin in the disease was determined in the 1920s.[22] ...
They started to test L-735,524 on animals a couple months later and found that it was safe for animals. Consequently, the ... Impairs endothelial function in healthy HIV-negative men and may accelerate atherosclerotic disease.[10] ... 3D model (JSmol). *Interactive image. SMILES. *. CC(C)(C)NC(=O)[[email protected]@H]1CN(CCN1C[[email protected]](C[[email protected]@H](Cc2ccccc2)C(=O)N[[email protected]]3c4ccccc4C[[email protected] ... It significantly increased life expectancies and decreased noticeable symptoms from infectious diseases that were the result of ...
... while imbalance results in disease. Such disease-inducing imbalances can be adjusted and balanced using traditional herbs, ... Ayurveda stresses the use of plant-based medicines and treatments, with some animal products, and added minerals, including ... and an incorrect model of the anatomy and physiology of internal organs.[8][59][60][61][62][63] ... A belief that a substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people cures similar symptoms in sick people.[n 8] ...
One possible way to achieve this, which has been successful in mouse models, is to use inhibitors of Ras activation in order to ... Catenins are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells. The first two ... MacDonald BT, Tamai K, He X (July 2009). "Wnt/β-catenin signaling: components, mechanisms, and diseases". Dev. Cell. 17 (1): 9- ... may help prevent clinical recurrence of the disease after surgery, but much more work is needed before an adequate treatment ...
The marsh environment meant that certain diseases, such as schistosomiasis and malaria, were endemic;[12] Maʻdānī agriculture ... was used to shelter animals in bad weather. A raba was a higher-status dwelling, distinguished by a north-facing entrance, ... any of the boatmen would have made an excellent model for an Hercules; and one in particular, with uncombed hair and shaggy ...
Small animal imagingEdit. PET technology for small animal imaging: A miniature PE tomograph has been constructed that is small ... since more sophisticated models of the scanner Physics can be incorporated into the likelihood model than those used by ... Infectious diseasesEdit. Imaging infections with molecular imaging technologies can improve diagnosis and treatment follow-up. ... animal diagnosis. Because of cost as well as the marginal utility of detecting cancer metastases in companion animals (the ...
Volkow ND, Koob GF, McLellan AT (January 2016). "Neurobiologic Advances from the Brain Disease Model of Addiction". N. Engl. J ... Research from animals has consistently shown that when a trial is repeatedly exposed to a painful stimulus, the animal's pain ... In animals, cross-sensitization has been established between the consumption of many different types of drugs of abuse - in ... Thus, kindling has been suggested as a model for temporal lobe epilepsy in humans, where stimulation of a repetitive type ( ...
In studies of rats, animals fed a diet of 50% sweet pea seeds developed enlarged adrenals relative to control animals fed on ... Pests and diseases[edit]. The sweet pea plant does suffer from some pests, the most common being aphids. These insects suck the ... The sweet pea is thus a model organism being used in early experimentations in genetics, particularly by the pioneer geneticist ...
Disease models. Animal models and in particular non-human primates are being used to study different aspects of Ebola virus ... "Ebola Virus Disease". SRHD. Retrieved 15 September 2020.. *^ a b c d "Q&A on Transmission, Ebola". Centers for Disease Control ... Other animals. Wild animals. Ebola has a high mortality rate among primates.[241] Frequent outbreaks of Ebola may have resulted ... Animals may become infected when they eat fruit partially eaten by bats carrying the virus.[82] Fruit production, animal ...
Miniature Votive Images or Toy Models from Harappa, ca. 2500. Hand-modeled terra-cotta figurines with polychromy. ... and a number of animals, including the humped bull, were domesticated,"[11] as well as "fowl for fighting".[12] Wheel-made ... with the highest prevalence of both disease and trauma present in the skeletons from Area G (an ossuary located south-east of ... seals engraved with human or animal motifs. A large number of seals have been found at such sites as Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. ...
The third chimpanzee: the evolution and future of the human animal.. *^ a b Sharman Apt Russell (2006). Hunger an unnatural ... coronary heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease, because they ate mostly lean meats and plants and frequently engaged in ... According to current archaeological and genetic models, there were at least two notable expansion events subsequent to peopling ... and women may have procured small game animals for consumption and assisted men in driving herds of large game animals (such as ...
In recognition of the basic concepts he has contributed to the study of animal ecology which, with his foundation of the Bureau ... developing models for the evolution of genetic systems, including sex and recombination, inbreeding and outbreeding, separate ... the theory of kin selection to account for altruistic behaviour and the theoretical demonstration of a link between disease ... for his outstanding work on the diversity of animal societies and demonstration of their effects on the evolution of ...
Abortion may also be induced in animals, in the context of animal husbandry. For example, abortion may be induced in mares that ... Those with certain diseases, and those over the age 35 also run a greater risk. Other causes for abortions can be the infection ... but the parallelism between the DMBA-induced rat mammary carcinoma model and the human situation is striking. …Abortion would ... Certain diseases or an accidental trauma can also cause a spontaneous abortion. Putting the woman under trauma or stress to ...
World Animal Foundation. Retrieved 12 April 2017.. *^ Simon, Matt (16 January 2015). "Absurd Creature of the Week: The ... Coccidians in the genus Aggregata living in the gut cause severe disease to the host. Octopuses have an innate immune system, ... Yekutieli, Y.; Sagiv-Zohar, R.; Aharonov, R.; Engel, Y.; Hochner, B.; Flash, T. (2005). "Dynamic model of the octopus arm. I. ... Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 7 (2): 95-106. doi:10.1207/s15327604jaws0702_2. PMID ...
A model attribution edit summary (using German): Content in this edit is translated from the existing German Wikipedia article ... The number and ratio of rods to cones varies among species, dependent on whether an animal is primarily diurnal or nocturnal. ... The workers had tracked down patients with rare diseases wiping out classic rod and cone photoreceptor function but preserving ... Human Physiology and Mechanisms of Disease by Arthur C. Guyton (1992) ISBN 0-7216-3299-8 p. 373 ...
listen)) is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.[4][5] The word "medicine" is ... Nosokinetics is the science/subject of measuring and modelling the process of care in health and social care systems. ... Throughout history and in Europe right until the late 18th century, not only animal and plant products were used as medicine, ... Preventive medicine is the branch of medicine concerned with preventing disease. *Community health or public health is an ...
Tomato as a model system: I. Genetic and physical mapping of jointless". MGG Molecular & General Genetics. 242 (6). doi:10.1007 ... Korean scientists are looking at using the tomato to express a vaccine against Alzheimer's disease.[42] Hilary Koprowski, who ... Tomatoes have been used as a model in map-based cloning, where transgenic plants must be created to prove that a gene has been ... Tomatoes have been used as a model organism to study the fruit ripening of climacteric fruit. To understand the mechanisms ...
George Orwell (1903-1950), British author of Nineteen Eighty-Four, Animal Farm and Homage to Catalonia, first suffered TB in ... Manuel Bandeira, Brazilian poet, had TB in 1904 and expressed the effects of the disease in his life in many of his poems. ... Elizabeth Siddal (1829-1862), English artists' model, poet and artist. *Peter Purves Smith (1912-1949), Australian modernist ... He was rumored to have discovered his disease when he coughed blood and fainted during the Ikedaya Affair. ...
... subluxation is the sole cause of disease and manipulation is the cure for all diseases of the human race.[4][41] A 2003 ... doctor/model-centered ←. → patient/situation-centered Professional integration: separate and distinct ←. → integrated into ... A related field, veterinary chiropractic, applies manual therapies to animals and is recognized in 40 US states,[66] but is not ... Palmer, a magnetic healer, hypothesized that manual manipulation of the spine could cure disease.[214] The first chiropractic ...
... cure or prevention of diseases in humans or other animals; intended to affect the structure or functions of the body of man or ... These days, with the aid of CAD or modelling platforms, the work is now much faster, and this can act also as a tool for ... or prevention of disease, in man or other animals, or ... For example, initial models of the artificial cardiac pacemaker ... which does not achieve its primary intended purposes through chemical action within or on the body of man or other animals and ...
Potassium is the major cation (positive ion) inside animal cells,[223] while sodium is the major cation outside animal cells.[ ... Unit cell ball-and-stick model of lithium nitride.[118] On the basis of size a tetrahedral structure would be expected, but ... "Global burden of blood-pressure-related disease, 2001" (PDF). Lancet. 371 (9623): 1513-1518. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60655-8 ... which was known partly for its high abundance in animal blood. He named the metal inside the material "lithium".[20][15][18] ...
The traditional biogeographic regions were first modeled by Alfred Wallace in The Geographical Distribution of Animals (1876). ... Biotic factors, such as predation, disease, and competition for resources such as food, water, and mates, can also affect how a ... Models can integrate the dispersal/migration model, the disturbance model, and abundance model. Species distribution models ( ... Species distribution models include: presence/absence models, the dispersal/migration models, disturbance models, and abundance ...
... to in vivo models of cancer and in 2005 reported a long-term survival benefit in an experimental brain tumor animal model.[62][ ... Hourigan CS (2006). "The molecular basis of coeliac disease". Clin Exp Med (Review). 6 (2): 53-59. doi:10.1007/s10238-006-0095- ... GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence, Collaborators. (8 October 2016). "Global, regional, and national ... Hodgson TS, Nielsen SM, Lesniak MS, Lukas RV (2016). "Neurological Management of Von Hippel-Lindau Disease". Neurologist ( ...
World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World ... In livestock production it is used as a pesticide, animal feed additive, processing aid, nonagricultural ingredient and ... Niigata Minamata disease. *Poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko. *Seveso disaster. *Consumption of Tide Pods ...
... an animal disease) occurs in the high-risk versus the low-risk sector.[13] For example, an application of the model in the ... N = Number of animals in the population. n = Number of animals marked on the first visit. K = Number of animals captured on the ... The model also assumes that no marks fall off animals between visits to the field site by the researcher, and that the ... There are very elaborate statistical models available for the analysis of these experiments.[15] A simple model which easily ...
What are Some Common Microscopic Animals? wisegeek.com, september 2012 *↑ C. elegans as a Model System Genes, Genomes, and ... Biography: LouisPasteur: A controversial figure in a debate on scientific ethics Seminars in Pediatric Infectious Diseases ... Pasteur-Koch: Distinctive Ways of Thinking about Infectious Diseases American Society for Microbiology, ingliskeeles, august ...
... in the context of research on heart disease, extended the model to include social isolation. Johnson et al. labeled the ... Job demands-resources model[edit]. An alternative model, the job demands-resources (JD-R) model,[63] grew out of the DCS model ... Demand-control-support model[edit]. The most influential model in OHP research has been the original demand-control model.[1] ... Effort-reward imbalance model[edit]. After the DCS model, the, perhaps, second most influential model in OHP research has been ...
Domestic animalsEdit. Hereditary polycystic kidney disease is prevalent in the Persian cat breed, affecting almost half the ... The inbreeding guarantees a consistent and uniform animal model for experimental purposes and enables genetic studies in ... AnimalsEdit. Wild animalsEdit. Few studies have found evidence of regular incest avoidance in mammals but banded mongooses are ... "Polycystic Kidney Disease". www.vet.cornell.edu. Retrieved 2016-07-08.. *^ a b c Tave D (1999). Inbreeding and brood stock ...
Models for the origin[edit]. One basic model of pleiotropy's origin describes a single gene locus to the expression of a ... A common example of pleiotropy is the human disease phenylketonuria (PKU). This disease causes mental retardation and reduced ... Pleiotropy not only affects humans, but also animals, such as chickens and laboratory house mice, where the mice have the "mini ... Other more complex models compensate for some of the basic model's oversights, such as multiple traits or assumptions about how ...
"Animal Planet :: Ferocious Crocs". Animal.discovery.com. 2008-09-10. Retrieved March 16, 2010.. ... Alibardi, Lorenzo (2010). Morphological and cellular aspects of tail and limb regeneration in lizards a model system with ... Paterson, Sue (December 17, 2007). Skin Diseases of Exotic Pets. Blackwell Science, Ltd. pp. 74-79. ISBN 9780470752432. .. ... a b Colbert, E.H. & Morales, M. (2001): Colbert's Evolution of the Vertebrates: A History of the Backboned Animals Through Time ...
All MeSH CategoriesDiseases CategoryAnimal DiseasesDisease Models, Animal. All MeSH CategoriesAnalytical, Diagnostic and ... Disease Models, Animal. Naturally-occurring or experimentally-induced animal diseases with pathological processes analogous to ... Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment CategoryInvestigative TechniquesModels, AnimalDisease Models, AnimalArthritis, ... All MeSH CategoriesAnalytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment CategoryInvestigative TechniquesModels, ...
... Krista L. Sider,1 Mark C. Blaser,1 and Craig A. Simmons1,2,3 ... we summarize and critically appraise current small and large animal models of CAVD, discuss the utility of animal models for ... Animal models are emerging as vital tools to this end, facilitated by the advent of new models and improved understanding of ... Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), once thought to be a degenerative disease, is now recognized to be an active ...
Animal models of Parkinsons disease.. Imai Y1, Venderova K, Park DS, Cai H, Schmidt E. ...
... retinal diseases are among the leading causes of irreversible visual impairment and blindness, and appropriate study models, ... In Animal Models for Retinal Diseases, recognized experts in the field highlight valuable techniques as well as animal models ... Vital and easy to use, Animal Models for Retinal Diseases serves to support the important future research of ocular ... the book continues by covering animal models for the research of specific human retinal diseases, e.g., retinal degeneration, ...
... and clinical studies in all areas of Alzheimers disease. ... International Journal of Alzheimers Disease is a peer-reviewed ... "Ocular Manifestations of Alzheimers Disease in Animal Models," International Journal of Alzheimers Disease, vol. 2012, ... Ocular Manifestations of Alzheimers Disease in Animal Models. Miles Parnell,1,2 Li Guo,1 Mohamed Abdi,3 and M. Francesca ... To receive news and publication updates for International Journal of Alzheimers Disease, enter your email address in the box ...
Our mission is to build healthier lives, free of cardiovascular diseases and stroke. That single purpose drives all we do. The ...
... and prevent cell death in animal models of Huntington disease. As Huntington disease is an inherited condition that can be ... 2014, May 28). "Animal models reveal promising approach to slow brain degeneration in Huntingtons disease." Medical News Today ... "Animal models reveal promising approach to slow brain degeneration in Huntingtons disease." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, ... Animal models reveal promising approach to slow brain degeneration in Huntingtons disease. ...
Unknown author (‎1972)‎. Virus-associated immunopathology: animal models and implications for human disease. Bulletin of the ...
The Disease BioPortal is operated and maintained by the Center for Animal Disease Modeling and Surveillance (CADMS) at the ... Disease BioPortal: a near-real time platform for the visualization and analysis of local and global information. The Disease ... Contact us , Animal Health Inquiries , Check us out on Facebook, Twitter, & YouTube , Online Donation Form. UC Davis School of ... BioPortal is a web-based system that provides near-real time access to local, regional, and global disease information and data ...
Animal models of fibrotic lung disease Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2013 Aug;49(2):167-79. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2013-0094TR. ... multiple animal models have been developed. This review summarizes the common and emerging models of lung fibrosis to highlight ... Each of the models reviewed in this report offers a powerful tool for studying some aspect of fibrotic lung disease. ... Repetitive dosing in some models has more closely mimicked the pathology of human fibrotic lung disease. We also have a much ...
This review is intended to cover recent advances in basic IBD model applications. The use of more than 20 animal … ... experimental models have proven to be important tools for detecting potential therapeutic agents and for investigating the ... Animal models of inflammatory bowel disease J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. Sep-Oct 2004;50(2):81-92. doi: 10.1016/j.vascn.2003.12 ... This review is intended to cover recent advances in basic IBD model applications. The use of more than 20 animal models has ...
Millions of people suffer from Parkinsons disease, a disorder of the nervous system that affects movement and worsens over ... Using a transgenic zebrafish model for Parkinsons disease, the researchers added CLR01 and used fluorescent proteins to track ... which in a living animal model blocked α-synuclein aggregates from forming, stopped the aggregates toxicity and, further, ... thus stopping the progression of the disorder in the living animal model. ...
AbstractAnimal models of autoimmune disease have been of vital importance in the advancement of ... ... Read this full essay on Animal Models Of Autoimunne Disease. ... Animal models can help make clear many aspects of a disease or ... Animal Models Of Autoimunne Disease Essay. 7146 words - 29 pages AbstractAnimal models of autoimmune disease have been of vital ... Find Another Essay On Animal Models Of Autoimunne Disease. Animal Rights Essay. 856 words - 3 pages reaction upon certain drugs ...
"Animal Models of T Cell-Mediated Skin Diseases". Such animal models should have impact not only on inflammatory dermatoses but ... Animal Models of Skin Diseases Asthma Atopic Dermatitits Contact dermatitis Gene-modified mice Psoriasis genes ... Modelling Gene-Environment Interactions in Th1- and Th2-Dominated Diseases of Laboratory Animals ... Transgenic Mice Expressing IFN-γ in the Epidermis Are a Model of Inflammatory Skin Disease and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus ...
... collection of standardised data on animal diseases. ... It is important to highlight that the SIGMA - Animal Disease Data Model (r-ADM) focuses on data which are known to be already ... Commission is routinely asking EFSA for scientific and technical support in the epidemiological analysis of animal disease ... surveillance activities and concerned animal populations (i.e. poultry, domestic pigs, cattle and wildlife such as wild boar). ...
... enable insights into the diseases genetics and/or pathophysiology influences the scientific progress in Huntingtons disease. ... Large animal models, such as domesticated farm animals, offer some distinct advantages over rodent models, including a larger ... Promising Research Options Offered by Large Animal Models of Huntingtons Disease. by Kathy Jones on April 25, 2013 at 10:59 PM ... The availability of appropriate animal models that enable insights into the diseases genetics and/or pathophysiology ...
... and human disease models on the basis of phenotypes alone. ... Genetics of disease Is the Subject Area "Genetics of disease" ...
Emerging infections provide clues about how pathogens might evolve when farm animals are protected from infection. ... tags: animal models x disease/medicine x The Scientist. » animal models and disease/medicine ...
Mechanisms of Action in Animal Models and Human Disease. Editors: Kocsis, J.J., Jollow, D.J., Witmer, C.M., Nelson, J.O., ... Mechanisms of Action in Animal Models and Human Disease. Editors. * James J. Kocsis ... Reactive Oxygen Species Formed in Vitro and in Cells: Role of Thiols(GSH). Model Studies with Xanthine Oxidase and Horseradish ... Studies on the Mechanism of S-Cysteine Conjugate Metabolism and Toxicity in Rat Liver, Kidney, and a Cell Culture Model ...
... even in rodent animal models. This mini-review summarizes histopathological evidence that DM induces AD pathology in animal ... is the major causative disease of dementia and is characterized pathologically by the accumulation of senile plaques (SPs) and ... models and discusses the possibility that aberrant insulin signaling is a key factor in the induction of AD pathology. ... Keywords: Alzheimers disease; animal model; diabetes mellitus; insulin resistance; pathology Alzheimers disease; animal model ...
... could lead to new understanding of how genetic and environmental factors converge to cause the disease, and the development of ... Gene therapy to reduce production of a brain protein prevented development of Parkinsons disease in an animal study, said ... Gene therapy prevents Parkinsons disease in animal model, says Pitt study University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health ... Gene therapy prevents Parkinsons disease in animal model, says Pitt study. University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health ...
The animal is useful in screening compounds for activity in treating lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis and chronic ... said promoter construct directs expression of the epithelial sodium channel β subunit in lung epithelial cells of said animal, ... Spontaneous inflammatory disease in transgenic rats expressing HLA-B27 and Human beta2m: an animal model of HLA-B27-associated ... Spontaneous inflammatory disease in transgenic rats expressing HLA-B27 and Human β2m: an animal model of HLA-B27-associated ...
Cardiovascular Disease in COPD: Evidences from Epidemiology, Genetics, Bio-Markers, Animal Models, Clinical Studies & ... Cardiovascular Disease in COPD: Evidences from Epidemiology, Genetics, Bio-Markers, Animal Models, Clinical Studies & ... Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) and cardiovascular disease and to recommend future research that may be needed to ... The need to look at COPD subjects as a whole in terms of the development, progression and treatment of a systemic disease was ...
Enzyme inhibition protects against Huntingtons disease damage in two animal models. Treatment with SIRT2 inhibitor reduced ... slowed the loss of motor function and extended survival in two animal models of Huntingtons disease. The study led by ... protected against neuronal damage in cellular and animal models of HD and Parkinsons disease - both of which are characterized ... Treated animals in this model, which usually die prematurely, lived 13 percent longer than untreated R6/2 mice. In the ...
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... has shown positive therapeutic effects in an animal model of... ... is a well accepted animal model of inflammatory bowel disease, ... "Compugen Announces Positive Therapeutic Effects Of Novel Peptide In Animal Model Of Inflammatory Bowel Disease." Medical News ... Compugen Announces Positive Therapeutic Effects Of Novel Peptide In Animal Model Of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. ... The excellent results seen in this well accepted disease model for inflammatory bowel disease further support the therapeutic ...
... and therefore targets of interest in preclinical cardiovascular disease drug discovery. ... Apolipoproteins in Animal Models of Cardiovas.... Apolipoproteins in Animal Models of Cardiovascular Disease. Caroline Horizny ... Animal Models of Cardiovascular Disease. Many research needs can be addressed by animal models that either over- or under- ... Mouse Model. Taconic Model #. Roles in Cardiovascular Disease. Apoe mouse. APOE. Lacks the ApoE protein, results in five times ...
RASopathies: unraveling mechanisms with animal models Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Disease Models & ... RASopathies: unraveling mechanisms with animal models. Granton A. Jindal, Yogesh Goyal, Rebecca D. Burdine, Katherine A. Rauen ... RASopathies: unraveling mechanisms with animal models. Granton A. Jindal, Yogesh Goyal, Rebecca D. Burdine, Katherine A. Rauen ... RASopathies: unraveling mechanisms with animal models. Granton A. Jindal, Yogesh Goyal, Rebecca D. Burdine, Katherine A. Rauen ...
... has sent you a message from Disease Models & Mechanisms Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Disease ... Animal models for Gaucher disease research Message Subject (Your Name) ... Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Disease Models & Mechanisms. ... A timeline of the generation of mouse models of GD. For further details, see text. ...
This model system aided in establishing pathways essential for biological effects of IR1072, demonstrating the importance of ... Another aim of this study was to explore the cytoprotective potential of IR1072 in conjunction with Alzheimers disease-related ...
  • Post-mortem findings in rabies have demonstrated a profound lack of B cell activation in both humans and animals. (erasmusmc.nl)
  • HSV-1 and VZV), life-threatening encephalitis (HSV-1 and VZV) or potentially Alzheimer's disease (HSV-1) and Multiple Sclerosis (EBV). (erasmusmc.nl)
  • The aim of this research line is to develop more appropriate animal models and novel human in vitro CNS/PNS models, including human fetal and adult organotypic sensory ganglion and brain slice cultures, to elucidate the pathological attributes of both virus and host in viral CNS disease. (erasmusmc.nl)
  • The overall aim of this research line is to decrease the impact of virus-induced neurological diseases through detailed knowledge of the complex tripartite interaction between viruses, the human nervous system and the immune system. (erasmusmc.nl)
  • Upon validation of the novel models by comparison with affected nervous tissues of patients with virus-induced CNS disease, they will be used as pre-clinical models to test the efficacy and safety of promising novel antiviral and neuroprotective therapies. (erasmusmc.nl)
  • Animal models of Parkinson's disease. (nih.gov)
  • Millions of people suffer from Parkinson's disease, a disorder of the nervous system that affects movement and worsens over time. (scienceblog.com)
  • The protein, which has been found to be common to all patients with Parkinson's, is thought to be a pathway to the disease when it binds together in "clumps," or aggregates, and becomes toxic, killing the brain's neurons. (scienceblog.com)
  • There are currently more than 30 diseases with no cure that are caused by protein aggregation and the resulting toxicity to the brain or other organs, including Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Type 2 diabetes. (scienceblog.com)
  • Using a transgenic zebrafish model for Parkinson's disease, the researchers added CLR01 and used fluorescent proteins to track the tweezer's effect on the aggregations. (scienceblog.com)
  • The researchers are already studying CLR01 in a mouse model of Parkinson's and say they hope this will lead to human clinical trials. (scienceblog.com)
  • PITTSBURGH, June 15, 2015 - Gene therapy to reduce production of a brain protein successfully prevented development of Parkinson's disease in an animal study, according to researchers at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. (eurekalert.org)
  • Scientists have observed dysfunction of mitochondria, which make energy for cells, in Parkinson's disease, as well as Lewy bodies, which are characteristic clumps of the cellular protein α-synuclein within neurons, said principal investigator Edward A. Burton, M.D., D.Phil. (eurekalert.org)
  • Until now, these have been pursued largely as separate lines of research in Parkinson's disease," Dr. Burton said. (eurekalert.org)
  • The team wanted to see what would happen if they knocked out the production of α-synuclein in the brain's substantia nigra, home to the dopamine-producing cells that are lost as Parkinson's disease progresses. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our previous work established that rotenone exposure in rats reproduces many features of Parkinson's disease that we see in humans, including movement problems, Lewy bodies, loss of dopamine neurons and mitochondrial dysfunction," explained co-investigator J. Timothy Greenamyre, M.D., Ph.D., Love Family Professor of Neurology, and director of the Pittsburgh Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases at Pitt. (eurekalert.org)
  • The viral vector AAV2 has been used safely in Parkinson's disease patients in clinical trials, so the gene therapy approach might be feasible," Dr. Burton said. (eurekalert.org)
  • We think targeting α-synuclein has great potential to protect the brain from neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • Earlier studies by Kazantsev's group and others showed that inhibiting SIRT2 (sirtuin-2 deacetylase) protected against neuronal damage in cellular and animal models of HD and Parkinson's disease - both of which are characterized by the buildup of abnormal proteins in the brain - and in other neurodegenerative disorders. (massgeneral.org)
  • Sustained neuroinflammation mediated by resident microglia is recognized as a key pathophysiological contributor to many neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), but the key molecular signaling events regulating persistent microglial activation have yet to be clearly defined. (jneurosci.org)
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex multifactorial disease characterized by the progressive loss of midbrain dopamine neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Bertoli-Avella AM, Oostra BA, Heutink P (2004) Chasing genes in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. (springer.com)
  • Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by well-defined motor symptoms, the most striking of which is bradykinesia. (criver.com)
  • Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. (epfl.ch)
  • Researchers at UCLA have developed a molecular compound that improves balance and coordination in mice with early stage Parkinson's disease. (ucla.edu)
  • Parkinson's disease is a nervous system disorder that affects movement. (ucla.edu)
  • CLR01 previously showed a strong therapeutic effect in a zebrafish model of Parkinson's. (ucla.edu)
  • This work was supported by multiple funding agencies, including the National Institutes of Health, RJG Foundation, the Michael J. Fox Foundation, Team Parkinson/Parkinson Alliance, the American Parkinson's Disease Association, and gifts to the Center for the Study of Parkinson's Disease at UCLA. (ucla.edu)
  • In many cases, neurological disease has a pharmacological treatment which, as in the case of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Epilepsy, and Multiple Sclerosis can reduce the symptoms and slow down the course of the disease but cannot reverse its effects or heal the patient. (frontiersin.org)
  • Firstly there are the disorders which involve a loss of cells in defined subsets of the brain, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA). (frontiersin.org)
  • Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder (AD is the most common) and the most common movement disorder. (frontiersin.org)
  • Whereas mouse PSC-derived DA neurons have shown efficacy in models of Parkinson's disease3,4, DA neurons from human PSCs generally show poorin vivoperformance5. (ovid.com)
  • Extensive molecular profiling, biochemical and electrophysiological data define developmental progression and confirm identity of PSC-derived midbrain DA neurons.In vivosurvival and function is demonstrated in Parkinson's disease models using three host species. (ovid.com)
  • Excellent DA neuron survival, function and lack of neural overgrowth in the three animal models indicate promise for the development of cell-based therapies in Parkinson's disease. (ovid.com)
  • Most of the hypokinetic syndromes are associated with the neurodegenerative disorder Parkinson's disease (PD). (frontiersin.org)
  • Scientists in the Neurodegeneration division interrogate how neurones live, die and can be rescued to improve brain function in degenerative conditions such as Parkinson's and Motor Neuron Diseases. (edu.au)
  • Background: The etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains elusive despite identification of several genetic mutations. (harvard.edu)
  • Here we report that inflammation can trigger degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. (harvard.edu)
  • Methods: We examined the effects of inflammation on the progressive 6-OHDA rat model of Parkinson's disease using immunohistochemistry, multiplex ELISA, and cell counting stereology. (harvard.edu)
  • To receive news and publication updates for International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, enter your email address in the box below. (hindawi.com)
  • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major causative disease of dementia and is characterized pathologically by the accumulation of senile plaques (SPs) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the brain. (mdpi.com)
  • While this Insight will be discussing the role of ApoE in CVD, this protein also plays an important role in Alzheimer's disease as it is the principal transporter of cholesterol in the brain. (taconic.com)
  • ApoE4 - Allelic frequency of 15 - 20% 3 - has been implicated in atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, and contributes to increased serum cholesterol levels and the development of CVD 5 , 6 . (taconic.com)
  • Another aim of this study was to explore the cytoprotective potential of IR1072 in conjunction with Alzheimer's disease-related insults. (bl.uk)
  • Previous studies have indicated that adult neurogenesis is disturbed in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and animal models. (ssrn.com)
  • Alzheimer's disease (AD) ranks as a leading cause of death among the progressive neurodegenerative diseases. (springer.com)
  • Arnold SE, Hyman BT, Flory J, Damasio AR, Van Hoesen GW (1991) The topographical and neuroanatomical distribution of neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques in the cerebral cortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease. (springer.com)
  • Auffret A, Gautheron V, Repici M, Kraftsik R, Mount HT, Mariani J, Rovira C (2009) Age-dependent impairment of spine morphology and synaptic plasticity in hippocampal CA1 neurons of a presenilin 1 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. (springer.com)
  • Ballatore C, Lee VM, Trojanowski JQ (2007) Tau-mediated neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. (springer.com)
  • Billings LM, Oddo S, Green KN, McGaugh JL, LaFerla FM (2005) Intraneuronal abeta causes the onset of early Alzheimer's disease-related cognitive deficits in transgenic mice. (springer.com)
  • Scientists at the Gladstone Institutes have discovered that an FDA-approved anti-epileptic drug reverses memory loss and alleviates other Alzheimer's-related impairments in an animal model of the disease. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Scientists in the laboratory of Lennart Mucke, MD, who directs neurological research at Gladstone, conducted the research on mice genetically modified to simulate key aspects of Alzheimer's disease . (medicalxpress.com)
  • For the millions of people suffering from Alzheimer's worldwide, we have no effective drug to prevent or reverse memory loss the hallmark symptom of this ultimately fatal disease," said Dr. Mucke, who is also a professor of neurology and neuroscience at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), with which Gladstone is affiliated. (medicalxpress.com)
  • So we screened seven FDA -approved anti-epileptic medications including levetiracetam in our Alzheimer's mouse model to see if minimizing these network disruptions could improve memory. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The relevance of this discovery to people with Alzheimer's disease is underscored by research that scientists at Johns Hopkins University published just a few months ago. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Still, further research is required before the drug is prescribed for Alzheimer's disease. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Scientists at the Gladstone Institutes have unraveled a process by which depletion of a specific protein in the brain contributes to the memory problems associated with Alzheimer's disease. (medicalxpress.com)
  • A cholesterol drug commonly prescribed to reduce cardiovascular disease risk restores blood vessel function in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, according to a study in the April 4 issue of The Journal of Neuroscience. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-related dementia, with the number of affected individuals expected to exceed 100 million worldwide by 2050. (edu.au)
  • In Australia, Alzheimer's disease is the third leading cause of death behind heart disease and cancer. (edu.au)
  • Despite the significance of this disease there are currently no disease modifying drugs to treat Alzheimer's disease. (edu.au)
  • One of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease is the cerebral deposition of plaques composed of Amyloid-beta (Aß) peptide. (edu.au)
  • Clearance of Aß is slowed in cerebrospinal fluid from Alzheimer's disease patients, which likely contributes to its pathological deposition. (edu.au)
  • Objective Cerebral amyloidosis and severe tauopathy in the brain are key pathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). (bmj.com)
  • Recent findings demonstrated the crucial role of oxidative stress on the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). (thescipub.com)
  • Increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a significant pathological feature in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). (uzh.ch)
  • Animal models of cardiovascular disease have proved critically important for the discovery of pathophysiological mechanisms and for the advancement of. (molecularstation.com)
  • The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a meeting of investigators on September 21-22, 2006, in Bethesda, Maryland, to evaluate evidence for a pathogenetic link between COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) and cardiovascular disease and to recommend future research that may be needed to clarify this relationship and to translate this understanding into better approaches for the prevention and treatment of cardiopulmonary disease. (nih.gov)
  • Experts in cardiovascular disease and COPD were brought together for this working group. (nih.gov)
  • It was acknowledged that cardiovascular disease plays a major role in COPD, being responsible for the death of more than 30% of these patients. (nih.gov)
  • The general consensus was that the mechanisms behind the association of cardiovascular disease and COPD need to be further investigated at the epidemiological, patho-biological, and clinical levels. (nih.gov)
  • Analyses of existing data and new population-based epidemiological data are needed to clarify the relationship between cardiovascular disease and COPD, including the cardiovascular association with pulmonary function measures (e.g. (nih.gov)
  • Studies are needed to assess the common mechanisms by which immune responses and inflammation may contribute to cardiovascular disease and COPD. (nih.gov)
  • Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a term that encompasses multiple heart and blood-vessel-related maladies. (taconic.com)
  • Obesity is associated with a number of health problems that are often summarized together as metabolic syndrome and involve the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and fatty liver disease [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited progressive neurological disorder for which there is presently no effective treatment. (medindia.net)
  • Sheep live long enough that the time available for studying progressive neurological diseases such as HD is much greater than is possible in rodents. (medindia.net)
  • Treatment with a novel agent that inhibits the activity of SIRT2, an enzyme that regulates many important cellular functions, reduced neurological damage, slowed the loss of motor function and extended survival in two animal models of Huntington's disease. (massgeneral.org)
  • In both models, the mutated huntingtin gene contains extended repeats of the nucleotide triplet CAG, leading to development of HD-like motor symptoms and the same type of brain damage seen in the devastating neurological disorder. (massgeneral.org)
  • Neurological diseases afflict a growing proportion of the human population. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the last two decades the transplantation approach, by means of stem cells of different origin, has been suggested for the treatment of neurological diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • These and other neurological diseases do not naturally occur in animals. (all-creatures.org)
  • and impact of social deprivation on the incidence and management of neurological diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Disease Models & Mechanisms. (biologists.org)
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Disease Models & Mechanisms web site. (biologists.org)
  • Interaction between NAFLD and obesity still needs further clarification, and it is necessary to dertemine the mechanisms of these disorders in animal models of disease. (intechopen.com)
  • Thus, it is important to evaluate different animal models of obesity able to induce the profile of NAFLD and NASH disease in humans, assessing their mechanisms of action. (intechopen.com)
  • In the present study, we examined the role of Fyn, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, in microglial activation and neuroinflammatory mechanisms in cell culture and animal models of PD. (jneurosci.org)
  • During the past decade, researchers have also made remarkable progress in identifying genes responsible for inherited forms of Parkinson s disease, with the expectation that understanding the function of these genes will elucidate mechanisms behind sporadic Parkinson s disease. (innovations-report.com)
  • The significant impact in vivo of experimental NPC therapies in animal models of inflammatory CNS diseases has raised great expectations that these stem cells, or the manipulation of the mechanisms behind their therapeutic impact, could soon be translated to human studies. (wingsforlife.com)
  • These viral models provide valuable insights into Parkinson disease mechanisms, help to identify therapeutic targets and may contribute to the development of therapeutic approaches. (epfl.ch)
  • These models have been developed in many species in the attempt to undercover the complex nature of the disease mechanisms involved. (iospress.nl)
  • The second section presents the use of animal models to pinpoint disease mechanisms, and the last part of the handbook examines the various therapeutic interventions being used in models of neurodegenerative disease. (iospress.nl)
  • As such, while the current models are well suited for the study of specific pathology-driven mechanisms, more notably amyloid-β, tau, or alpha-synuclein, pharmacological testing in animal models of neurodegenerative disease often translates into poorer indices of efficacy when applied to the clinical population. (iospress.nl)
  • With these advances and challenges in mind, this handbook, written by experts in the field of neurodegeneration, provides a rich and updated overview of a wide range of animal models that are being developed and used to study complex disease dynamics, including but also beyond pathology-associated mechanisms, with the ultimate goal to discover the neuroprotective therapeutics of the future through more accurate translation of basic to clinical outputs. (iospress.nl)
  • The second section of this handbook presents the use of animal models to pinpoint disease mechanisms. (iospress.nl)
  • Animal models for inflammatory arthritides such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis are widely accepted and frequently used to identify pathological mechanisms and validate novel therapeutic strategies. (bmj.com)
  • In this study, we intend to assess the relationship between CDs and radiation exposure by animal model studies and to obtain information about biological mechanisms. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Moreover, growing evidence suggests that there are several connections between the neuropathology that underlies AD and DM, and there is evidence that the experimental induction of DM can cause cognitive dysfunction, even in rodent animal models. (mdpi.com)
  • In interpreting the experimental results, the limitations of those animal models should be considered. (wiley.com)
  • This review aims to provide an update on the most recent evidence of therapeutically-relevant neuro-immuneinteractions following NPC transplants in animal models of multiple sclerosis, cerebral stroke and traumas of the spinal cord, and consideration of the forthcoming challenges related to the early translation of some of these exciting experimental outcomes into clinical medicines. (wingsforlife.com)
  • Of interest here is a broad spectrum of tools and techniques for molecular, chemical, and biological measurements and procedures which are relevant to the care of and to experimental protocols involving research animal models. (sbir.gov)
  • In the current review, we provide a comprehensive summary of mostly used experimental models of chronic liver disease, starting from early stages of fatty liver disease (non-alcoholic and alcoholic) to steatohepatitis and alcoholic liver disease, advanced cirrhosis and end-stage primary liver cancer. (onmedica.com)
  • References of experimental use of animals to model diseases, novel experimental procedures, or test novel therapeutics date all the way back to 304-258 BCE. (iospress.nl)
  • Furthermore, once a decision to proceed with research is made, it is the researcher's responsibility to ensure that the animals' w- fare is of prime concern in terms of appropriate housing, feeding, and maximum reduction of any uncomfortable or distressing effects of the experimental conditions, and that these conditions undergo frequent formalized monitoring. (foyles.co.uk)
  • and co-ordinator of the Collaborative Approach to Meta-Analysis and Review of Animal Data in Experimental Studies (CAMARADES). (wikipedia.org)
  • Naturally-occurring or experimentally-induced animal diseases with pathological processes analogous to human diseases. (nih.gov)
  • They are used as study models for human diseases. (molecularstation.com)
  • Repetitive dosing in some models has more closely mimicked the pathology of human fibrotic lung disease. (nih.gov)
  • Roy Kupsinel, M.D. once announced that "animal experimentation produces a lot of misleading and confusing data which poses hazards to human health. (brightkite.com)
  • Large animal models, such as domesticated farm animals, offer some distinct advantages over rodent models, including a larger brain that is amenable to imaging and intracerebral therapy, longer lifespan, and a more human-like neuro-architecture. (medindia.net)
  • highlight the development of a transgenic minipig HD model that expresses a human mutant huntingtin (HTT) fragment through the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral tissues and manifests neurochemical and reproductive changes with age. (medindia.net)
  • Not only does a rodent's small brain often preclude the use of advanced neuroimaging techniques, it is also not clear how intracerebral application of trophic factors, transplant therapies, and gene therapies in small animals might translate to the much larger human brain. (medindia.net)
  • Importantly, the brains of large animals can be studied using sensitive measures that should be highly translatable to the human condition, including MRI and PET imaging, EEG, and electrophysiology, as well as behavioral tests looking at motor and cognitive function," says Professor Jenny Morton, PhD, of the Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience at the University of Cambridge. (medindia.net)
  • The present invention concerns non-human transgenic animals that are useful as models of lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis. (google.com)
  • The other, called 140 CAG Htt knock-in, is genetically closer to the human disease. (massgeneral.org)
  • The golden rule in the HD field for identifying compounds that could work in patients is showing efficacy in a robust HD model like R6/2 and in the more genetically accurate to human disease 140 CAG Htt knock-in model," says Kazantsev, an associate professor of Neurology at Harvard Medical School. (massgeneral.org)
  • Animal models are used by scientists to replicate human diseases in another living animal, allowing them to study the biology of the disease and test potential treatments. (understandinganimalresearch.org.uk)
  • They illustrate the methodology used with examples from recent research literature on human and infectious disease modeling, showing how such techniques can be used in practice. (dymocks.com.au)
  • In conjunction, these models reflect the diversity and utility of tools used to study human disease. (indigo.ca)
  • The two studies were performed with the fruit fly Drosophila, a widely used model organism for studies of human disease, and shed new light on biological connections between inherited and sporadic forms of Parkinson s disease. (innovations-report.com)
  • The fruit fly possesses two versions of the DJ-1 gene, and in the new work, the researchers simulated the human Parkinson s disease situation by deleting one or both forms of DJ-1 from the fly s DNA. (innovations-report.com)
  • The model predicts the number of people with the disease will double from 195,125 to 406,725 by 2070 due to climate change and growing human population. (org.in)
  • They said the model could be refined to consider zoonotic disease transmission within human populations by including the impact of travel infrastructure, human-to-human contact rates and poverty-factors that would have been of use in the Ebola and Zika outbreaks. (org.in)
  • The mission of the 7th Aquatic Animal Mod-els of Human Disease Conference is to provide scientists using aquatic animal models a unique opportunity to exchange scientific information, identify research tools and opportunities, address environmental health issues, and encourage the utility of aquatic models for the study of human disease. (xenbase.org)
  • This venue will encourage development of an appreciation of aquatic animal models and their contributions to understanding human disease. (xenbase.org)
  • We hope to see you at the 7th Aquatic Animal Models of Human Disease Conference as it returns to Texas. (xenbase.org)
  • The researchers successfully used the new "Cas9 mouse" model to edit multiple genes in a variety of cell types, and to model lung adenocarcinoma, one of the most lethal human cancers. (phys.org)
  • Neuro-immune interactions of neural stem cell transplants: from animal disease models to human trials. (wingsforlife.com)
  • Stem cell technology is a promising branch of regenerative medicine that is aimed at developing new approaches for the treatment of severely debilitating human diseases, including those affecting the central nervous system (CNS). (wingsforlife.com)
  • The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (cdc.gov)
  • In this review we describe viral animal models for PD, i.e. models that are based on PD-associated mutations, and have been generated by viral delivery of the respective disease genes to the substantia nigra of rodents and non-human primates. (epfl.ch)
  • The NIH supports animal models and related materials that are central to understanding basic biological processes and improving human health. (sbir.gov)
  • This review seeks to discuss the reasons for these difficulties by considering the differences between human and animal cells (including isolation, handling and transplantation) and between the human disease model and the animal disease model. (frontiersin.org)
  • Additionally, current and prospect human tissue bioengineered models are summarized. (onmedica.com)
  • The NIH supports animal models and related materials that are central to both understanding basic biological processes and for developing applications directly related to improving human health. (nih.gov)
  • However, when the distress, discomfort, or pain to the animals outweighs the anticipated gains for human welfare, then the research is not ethical and should not be carried out. (foyles.co.uk)
  • Cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus): an animal model for respiratory tract infections with human pathogens. (osu.edu)
  • Dr. Anand was motivated to work on the human brain model after his attempts with animals to develop a drug for autism yielded disappointing results. (all-creatures.org)
  • The power of this brain model bodes very well for human health because it gives us better and more relevant options to test and develop therapeutics other than rodents, he said. (all-creatures.org)
  • The human stem cell-derived brain model is the most complete model of the human brain to date, analogous to the maturity of a 5-week old fetus, containing 99 percent of the genes present in the human fetal brain. (all-creatures.org)
  • About the size of a pencil eraser, the model was created by reprogramming adult human skin cells into stem cells that subsequently could be engineered into neural cells. (all-creatures.org)
  • They cause intense suffering and death for animals and overall have not yielded significant results for human disease. (all-creatures.org)
  • Reducing reliance on animals improves research as they're 'not as likely to predict clinical outcomes as human brain models. (all-creatures.org)
  • The need to provide in vivo complex environments to understand human diseases strongly relies on the use of animal models, which traditionally include small rodents and rabbits. (spectroscopynow.com)
  • There is a great need for new animal species that are naturally endowed with specific features relevant to human diseases. (spectroscopynow.com)
  • There is an ample scope for the application of proteomic techniques in farm animals, and the establishment of several proteomic maps of plasma and tissue has clearly demonstrated that farm animals provide a disease environment that closely resembles that of human diseases. (spectroscopynow.com)
  • Additionally, we summarise current and prospective models based on human tissue bioengineering. (ucm.es)
  • These findings in animal model of chronic GVHD are useful for analyzing some aspects of pathology on human ocular chronic GVHD. (arvojournals.org)
  • Frank Conlon, PhD, co-led a study showing which proteins and pathways are conserved in four major animal models and humans, providing insights into which models are best for specific research of human disease. (unchealthcare.org)
  • Yet little is known about the proteins and cellular pathways that lead to the formation of the human heart or the roles various proteins and pathways might play in cardiac disease. (unchealthcare.org)
  • Now, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Princeton University scientists have found that unique sets of proteins and pathways present in specific animal models commonly used in research are also present and mutated in human disease. (unchealthcare.org)
  • Conlon, who is a member of the UNC McAllister Heart Institute, and Ileana Cristea, PhD, at Princeton University, led experiments to define the protein composition of four model vertebrates that are used to study human heart disease: two frog species, the mouse, and the pig. (unchealthcare.org)
  • But to their surprise, Conlon and Cristea's labs found that each species shares a unique set of proteins with humans, and that these proteins are mutated in human disease states. (unchealthcare.org)
  • The projectinvolves novel human and animal models for neurodevelopmental disorders caused by mutation of the synaptic release machinery, as well as systematic comparison to human patient and EEG data. (dsfn.dk)
  • While models are an important method of investigating the influences of obesity and drug testing, it is important to understand the limits of the model's overall ability to resemble the human obesogenic pathophysiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new opossum model has been developed to mimic nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, which resembles alcoholic liver disease but occurs in people who drink little or no alcohol. (understandinganimalresearch.org.uk)
  • To date, viral PD models comprise α-synuclein and LRRK-2-based overexpression models, as well as models that mimic parkin loss of function by overexpression of the parkin substrates Pael-R, CDCrel-1, p38/JTV or synphilin-1. (epfl.ch)
  • The zebrafish is a popular animal for research because it is easily manipulated genetically, develops rapidly and is transparent, making the measurement of biological processes easier. (scienceblog.com)
  • This model system aided in establishing pathways essential for biological effects of IR1072, demonstrating the importance of HSF1 driven pathways, in particular those requiring HSP70. (bl.uk)
  • In each of the eight chapters, they deal with a specific modeling approach or set of techniques designed to capture a particular biological factor. (dymocks.com.au)
  • Biodefense: Research Methodology and Animal Models, edited by James R. Swearengen, is a timely and invaluable reference for those performing animal experimentation to develop medical countermeasures and diagnostics against infectious agents and toxins identified as potential biological weapons. (cdc.gov)
  • It clearly and concisely provides extensive details about the animal models, both past and present, that have been used to investigate a selected number of disease processes caused by exposure to plausible biological threat agents. (cdc.gov)
  • ORIP-funded resources support the development, characterization, preservation and distribution of high quality animal models and biological materials that are used by investigators in all disciplines of biomedical research. (sbir.gov)
  • The animal models and biological materials to be developed must address the research interests of two or more of the categorical NIH Institutes and Centers. (sbir.gov)
  • The Division of Comparative Medicine (DCM), Office of Research Infrastructure Programs (ORIP), supports Resources that create, develop, preserve and supply a variety of high-quality animal models and related biological materials to the biomedical community. (nih.gov)
  • DCM-supported Resources and the research community will benefit from development and commercialization of technologies that support the husbandry, characterization, improvement and use of animal models and related biological materials. (nih.gov)
  • This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) encourages small business concerns to submit Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant applications that propose innovative approaches to further develop, improve and facilitate the use of animal models and related biological materials to meet new biomedical challenges related to improvements in the health of humans and animals. (nih.gov)
  • The Office of Research Infrastructure Programs (ORIP) supports research-related resources that create, develop, preserve and supply a variety of high-quality animal models, and related biological materials. (nih.gov)
  • Obesity is affected by "environmental, biological, and psychosocial pressures", therefore it is understandable that several limitations are established when translating results between the results of a diet induced obesity model in a lab and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vast number of murine models available encompasses a wide variety of immune disorders - from rheumatoid arthritis to multiple sclerosis. (brightkite.com)
  • Eur J Pediatr Surg DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1694745Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is caused by incomplete colonization of enteric neural crest-derived cell (ENCC) in the bowel, the failure of ENCCs to proliferate, differentiate, and migrate leads to an absence of enteric neurons in the distal colon, resulting in colonic motility dysfunction. (medworm.com)
  • Dysfunction or death of specific neuronal populations most at risk for dominantly inherited neurodegenerative diseases is not mediated solely by the expression of the mutant protein within target neurons ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • We are now building on these findings and working to identify the precise mechanism by which this drug reduces brain-network dysfunction and improves memory in our mouse models," said Dr. Sanchez. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The Mitochondrial Research Society estimates that more than 50 million adults in the U.S. suffer from diseases in which mitochondrial dysfunction is involved and that mitochondrial dysfunction is found in a broad spectrum of diseases - from diabetes and infertility to cancer and age-related neurodegenerative disorders (see http://www.mitoresearch.org). (taylorfrancis.com)
  • AbstractAnimal models of autoimmune disease have been of vital importance in the advancement of our understanding of central pathological processes that underlie disease causation. (brightkite.com)
  • In this chapter, representative animal models for AD research and their pathological and behavioral features are described. (springer.com)
  • Neuroinflammation, marked by gliosis and infiltrating T cells, is a prominent pathological feature in diverse models of dominantly inherited neurodegenerative diseases. (pnas.org)
  • Translating preclinical results for gene-based therapies from rodent models to larger-brained models of HD is an important step along the path toward clinical testing. (medindia.net)
  • These new approaches require more sophisticated tools to investigate the impact of therapy in rodent models. (criver.com)
  • Parkinson s disease occurs both sporadically and as a result of inheritance of single gene mutations. (innovations-report.com)
  • Betts V, Leissring MA, Dolios G, Wang R, Selkoe DJ, Walsh DM (2008) Aggregation and catabolism of disease-associated intra-Abeta mutations: reduced proteolysis of AbetaA21G by neprilysin. (springer.com)
  • Dominant mutations in the Cu 2+ /Zn 2+ superoxide dismutase (mSOD1) gene are the most frequent cause of inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), an inexorably progressive and fatal neuromuscular disease, and current evidence suggests that motoneuron injury is non− cell-autonomous and involves damage caused by mSOD1 proteins within glia of the central nervous system (CNS) ( 1 - 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • 1-7 STGD1 has an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance associated with disease-causing mutations in the ABCA4 gene. (bmj.com)
  • They delivered the gene therapy to the brains of rats and then exposed the animals to the pesticide rotenone, which inhibits mitochondrial function. (eurekalert.org)
  • The findings from these interviews suggest that rat owners construct their pets as different from wild rats, and by elevating the rat to the status of a pet, the powerful associations that rats have with dirt and disease are removed. (animalsandsociety.org)
  • This indicates a strong need for highly predictive in vitro and in vivo models. (springer.com)
  • The in vivo experiments employ animal models including vertebrates (zebrafish, rodents, rabbits, and primates) and invertebrates (fruit flies and nematodes) for drug screening. (springer.com)
  • We think it self-e- dent, however, that humans can only be experimented upon in severely proscribed circumstances and alternative pro- dures using cell or tissue culture are inadequate in any models requiring assessments of behavioral change or of complex in vivo processes. (foyles.co.uk)
  • Inflammation and excessive fibrosis are prominent histologic features of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). (arvojournals.org)
  • These results demonstrate for the first time in a model of chronic neurodegeneration that morphological activation of microglia and astroglia does not predict glial function, and that the presence of CD4+ T cells provides supportive neuroprotection by modulating the trophic/cytotoxic balance of glia. (pnas.org)
  • Crohn's disease (CD) is an autoimmune disease affecting 700,000 people in the United States. (spie.org)
  • Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), once thought to be a degenerative disease, is now recognized to be an active pathobiological process, with chronic inflammation emerging as a predominant, and possibly driving, factor. (hindawi.com)
  • Over the course of the disease, chronic synovitis (inflammation of the synovial lining of joints, tendon sheaths or bursae with a infiltration of macrophages, T-cells, polymorphs, etc.) leads to erosions of normal articular tissue. (brightkite.com)
  • Histopathologically, Boma disease often goes along with a non-purulent inflammation of the brain and the spinal cord. (scialert.net)
  • Unfortunately, many publications reporting on these animal studies lack detailed description and appropriate assessment of the distinct histopathological features of arthritis: joint inflammation, cartilage damage and bone erosion. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusion: These data provide insight into the etiology of PD and support a role for inflammation as a risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative disease. (harvard.edu)
  • Fibroblasts originated from circulating donor-derived precursors may participate in the excessive fibrosis in animal model of ocular chronic GVHD. (arvojournals.org)
  • Since the first murine model of AD was reported one and a half decades ago, many other models have been generated by modification of transgenes that cause familial AD. (springer.com)
  • Gene Therapy Prolongs Survival and Restores Function in Murine and Canine Models of Myotubular Myopathy," by M.K Childers et al. (medicalxpress.com)
  • However, while many insights into the control of obesity have come from experiments since its introduction in 1949, the use of animal models does restrict our ability to extrapolate findings to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further understanding of the pathogenicity of autoreactive CD4 + T cells may lead to disease-specific treatments. (wiley.com)
  • These approaches are being used by a number of folks (including us in collaboration with others) in the vision sciences to work with retinal degenerative diseases and this review is a rather nice, concise summary of the approaches and tools used for optogenetics. (utah.edu)
  • Find out more about the degenerative disease- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (medindia.net)
  • This mini-review summarizes histopathological evidence that DM induces AD pathology in animal models and discusses the possibility that aberrant insulin signaling is a key factor in the induction of AD pathology. (mdpi.com)
  • Companies can help to develop innovative approaches and tools to modify and maintain models to meet new biomedical challenges and needs. (sbir.gov)
  • The present review offers a snapshot of how proteomic techniques have been applied to farm animals to improve their use as biomedical models. (spectroscopynow.com)
  • Additionally, owners constructed a 'hierarchy of purity' for their pets, and it is on this structure of disease and risk that owners base their behaviour, not conventional biomedical models of disease. (animalsandsociety.org)
  • The models have been classified into five main categories based on the methods of induction: gene knockout (KO), transgenic, chemical, adoptive transfer, and spontaneous (each with subcategories). (nih.gov)
  • Four types of HSCR animal models have been developed: teratogen-induced, surgically created, naturally occurring models, and knockout models. (medworm.com)
  • According to the World Health Organization, any disease or infection that is naturally transmissible from vertebrate animals to humans and vice-versa is classified as a zoonosis. (org.in)
  • MIM 248200) is the most prevalent inherited macular dystrophy and is associated with disease-causing sequence variants in the gene ABCA4 . (bmj.com)
  • The news comes at a critical time of renewed focus on this most prevalent of neurodegenerative diseases and amid a dearth of medications that prevent, halt or reverse the increasingly common condition. (medicalxpress.com)
  • CHAPEL HILL, N.C. -- Heart disease remains the most common cause of death in the western world, and cardiac defects are the most prevalent form of birth defect in the United States and Europe. (unchealthcare.org)
  • Exposure to several common environmental toxins, thought to injure neurons through oxidative damage, has been shown to be associated with sporadic forms of Parkinson s disease. (innovations-report.com)
  • Past work had shown that one form of familial Parkinson s disease results from a loss of function of a gene called DJ-1. (innovations-report.com)
  • However, upon exposure to widely used agricultural agents, including paraquat and rotenone, previously associated with the sporadic form of Parkinson s disease, the flies show strikingly increased sensitivity and death. (innovations-report.com)
  • Preclinical models for chemoprevention of colon cancer. (molecularstation.com)
  • Preclinical studies show that gene therapy can improve muscle strength in small- and large-animal models of a fatal congenital pediatric disease known as X-linked myotubular myopathy. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Dr. Raymond and her team were able, by using a drug that selectively blocks extra-synaptic NMDARs early, before the appearance of any symptoms, to delay the onset of Huntington-like symptoms in a mouse model of the disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The Psoriasis SCID Mouse Model: A Tool for Drug Discovery? (springer.com)
  • A timeline of the generation of mouse models of GD. (biologists.org)
  • Based on seminal work on local and systemic administration in a mouse model of the disease performed by Anna Buj-Bello at Généthon since 2009, Martin K. Childers, a professor of rehabilitation medicine and a regenerative medicine researcher at the University of Washington, worked with the Buj-Bello and Beggs groups. (medicalxpress.com)
  • You will perform double patch- clamp recordings in the hippocampus and neocortex of novel mouse disease models. (dsfn.dk)
  • In the work presented here we combine the comparison of patient phenotypes to known disease as well as mouse and zebrafish phenotypes for each candidate variant in the exome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In PCK rat and PKD2 (ws25/w183) mouse models, entanercept was administered once every three days at 5 or 10 mg/kg, once daily. (biomedcentral.com)
  • however, they have been shown to modulate microglial activation and provide neuroprotection in acute models of neuronal injury ( 10 - 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • Secondly there are diseases where cells are lost following acute damage, such as Stroke, Brain Trauma or Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). (frontiersin.org)
  • TNF-α is a pleiotropic inflammatory cytokine elevated during the acute phase of Kawasaki disease. (jimmunol.org)

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