Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
A familial disorder inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by the onset of progressive CHOREA and DEMENTIA in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Common initial manifestations include paranoia; poor impulse control; DEPRESSION; HALLUCINATIONS; and DELUSIONS. Eventually intellectual impairment; loss of fine motor control; ATHETOSIS; and diffuse chorea involving axial and limb musculature develops, leading to a vegetative state within 10-15 years of disease onset. The juvenile variant has a more fulminant course including SEIZURES; ATAXIA; dementia; and chorea. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1060-4)
Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.

New perspectives on biliary atresia. (1/64177)

An investigation into the aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of biliary atresia was carried out because the prognosis remains so poor.In an electron microscopical study no viral particles or viral inclusion bodies were seen, nor were any specific ultrastructural features observed. An animal experiment suggested that obstruction within the biliary tract of newborn rabbits could be produced by maternal intravenous injection of the bile acid lithocholic acid.A simple and atraumatic method of diagnosis was developed using(99) (m)Tc-labelled compounds which are excreted into bile. Two compounds, (99m)Tc-pyridoxylidene glutamate ((99m)Tc-PG) and (99m)Tc-dihydrothioctic acid ((99m)Tc-DHT) were first assessed in normal piglets and piglets with complete biliary obstruction. Intestinal imaging correlated with biliary tract patency, and the same correlation was found in jaundiced human adults, in whom the (99m)Tc-PG scan correctly determined biliary patency in 21 out of 24 cases. The (99m)Tc-PG scan compared well with liver biopsy and (131)I-Rose Bengal in the diagnosis of 11 infants with prolonged jaundice.A model of extrahepatic biliary atresia was developed in the newborn piglet so that different methods of bile drainage could be assessed. Priorities in biliary atresia lie in a better understanding of the aetiology and early diagnosis rather than in devising new bile drainage procedures.  (+info)

The evolution of early fibromuscular lesions hemodynamically induced in the dog renal artery. I. Light and transmission electron microscopy. (2/64177)

In view of the important roles of arterial intimal fibromuscular lesions as precursors of atherosclerotic plaque and occlusive lesions in arterial reconstructions, a model has been developed for the rapid hemodynamic induction of these lesions by anastomosis of the dog right renal artery to the inferior vena cava. Light and transmission electron microscopic observations were made on the arterial shunt after periods of rapid flow ranging form 10 minutes to 2 hours to identify initial factor(s) and evolutionary mechanisms in the etiology of the lesions. The sequence of events included aberrations in ruthenium red staining of the endothelial luminal membrane at 10 minutes, multilayered thickening of the subendothelial basement membrane (BM) at 15 minutes, and initial reorientation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMC) into the intima along with the appearance of areas of degeneration of the internal elastic lamina (IEL) at 30 minutes. The endothelial cells were still intact in some areas overlying the SMC migration and IEL degeneration, but they were separating from the surface in other such areas. As subendothelium became exposed, some platelet adherence was noted. By 2 hours, the entire wall reaction was fully developed. Initial observations indicate that in the evolution of this hemodynamically induced lesion visible alteration in the endothelial cells is not prerequisite to degeneration of the underlying IEL and reorientation and migration of medial SMC.  (+info)

Site of myocardial infarction. A determinant of the cardiovascular changes induced in the cat by coronary occlusion. (3/64177)

The influence of site of acute myocardial infarction on heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance (TPR), cardiac rhythm, and mortality was determined in 58 anesthetized cats by occlusion of either the left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex or right coronary artery. LAD occlusion resulted in immediate decrease in cardiac output, heart rate, and blood pressure, an increase in TPR, and cardiac rhythm changes including premature ventricular beats, ventricular tachycardia, and occasionally ventricular fibrillation. The decrease in cardiac output and increase in TPR persisted in the cats surviving a ventricular arrhythmia. In contrast, right coronary occlusion resulted in a considerably smaller decrease in cardiac output. TPR did not increase, atrioventricular condition disturbances were common, and sinus bradycardia and hypotension persisted in the cats recovering from an arrhythmia. Left circumflex ligation resulted in cardiovascular changes intermediate between those produced by occlusion of the LAD or the right coronary artery. Mortality was similar in each of the three groups. We studied the coronary artery anatomy in 12 cats. In 10, the blood supply to the sinus node was from the right coronary artery and in 2, from the left circumflex coronary artery. The atrioventricular node artery arose from the right in 9 cats, and from the left circumflex in 3. The right coronary artery was dominant in 9 cats and the left in 3. In conclusion, the site of experimental coronary occlusion in cats is a major determinant of the hemodynamic and cardiac rhythm changes occurring after acute myocardial infarction. The cardiovascular responses evoked by ligation are related in part to the anatomical distribution of the occluded artery.  (+info)

Hierarchy of ventricular pacemakers. (4/64177)

To characterize the pattern of pacemaker dominance in the ventricular specialized conduction system (VSCS), escape ventricular pacemakers were localized and quantified in vivo and in virto, in normal hearts and in hearts 24 hours after myocardial infarction. Excape pacemaker foci were localized in vivo during vagally induced atrial arrest by means of electrograms recorded from the His bundle and proximal bundle branches and standard electrocardiographic limb leads. The VSCS was isolated using a modified Elizari preparation or preparations of each bundle branch. Peacemakers were located by extra- and intracellular recordings. Escape pacemaker foci in vivo were always in the proximal conduction system, usually the left bundle branch. The rate was 43+/-11 (mean+/-SD) beats/min. After beta-adrenergic blockade, the mean rate fell to 31+/-10 beats/min, but there were no shifts in pacemaker location. In the infarcted hearts, pacemakers were located in the peripheral left bundle branch. The mean rate was 146+/-20 beats/min. In isolated normal preparations, the dominant pacemakers usually were in the His bundle, firing at a mean rate of 43+/-10 beats/min. The rates of pacemakers diminished with distal progression. In infarcted hearts, the pacemakers invariably were in the infarct zone. The mean firing rates were not influenced by beta-adrenergic blockade. The results indicate that the dominant pacemakers are normally in the very proximal VSCS, but after myocardial infarction pacemaker dominance is shifted into the infarct. Distribution of pacemaker dominance is independent of sympathetic influence.  (+info)

A genetic model of substrate deprivation therapy for a glycosphingolipid storage disorder. (5/64177)

Inherited defects in the degradation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) cause a group of severe diseases known as GSL storage disorders. There are currently no effective treatments for the majority of these disorders. We have explored a new treatment paradigm, substrate deprivation therapy, by constructing a genetic model in mice. Sandhoff's disease mice, which abnormally accumulate GSLs, were bred with mice that were blocked in their synthesis of GSLs. The mice with simultaneous defects in GSL synthesis and degradation no longer accumulated GSLs, had improved neurologic function, and had a much longer life span. However, these mice eventually developed a late-onset neurologic disease because of accumulation of another class of substrate, oligosaccharides. The results support the validity of the substrate deprivation therapy and also highlight some limitations.  (+info)

DMPK dosage alterations result in atrioventricular conduction abnormalities in a mouse myotonic dystrophy model. (6/64177)

Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy and is caused by expansion of a CTG trinucleotide repeat on human chromosome 19. Patients with DM develop atrioventricular conduction disturbances, the principal cardiac manifestation of this disease. The etiology of the pathophysiological changes observed in DM has yet to be resolved. Haploinsufficiency of myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK), DM locus-associated homeodomain protein (DMAHP) and/or titration of RNA-binding proteins by expanded CUG sequences have been hypothesized to underlie the multi-system defects observed in DM. Using an in vivo murine electrophysiology study, we show that cardiac conduction is exquisitely sensitive to DMPK gene dosage. DMPK-/- mice develop cardiac conduction defects which include first-, second-, and third-degree atrioventricular (A-V) block. Our results demonstrate that the A-V node and the His-Purkinje regions of the conduction system are specifically compromised by DMPK loss. Importantly, DMPK+/- mice develop first-degree heart block, a conduction defect strikingly similar to that observed in DM patients. These results demonstrate that DMPK dosage is a critical element modulating cardiac conduction integrity and conclusively link haploinsufficiency of DMPK with cardiac disease in myotonic dystrophy.  (+info)

Alternative sulfonylurea receptor expression defines metabolic sensitivity of K-ATP channels in dopaminergic midbrain neurons. (7/64177)

ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channels couple the metabolic state to cellular excitability in various tissues. Several isoforms of the K-ATP channel subunits, the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) and inwardly rectifying K channel (Kir6.X), have been cloned, but the molecular composition and functional diversity of native neuronal K-ATP channels remain unresolved. We combined functional analysis of K-ATP channels with expression profiling of K-ATP subunits at the level of single substantia nigra (SN) neurons in mouse brain slices using an RT-multiplex PCR protocol. In contrast to GABAergic neurons, single dopaminergic SN neurons displayed alternative co-expression of either SUR1, SUR2B or both SUR isoforms with Kir6.2. Dopaminergic SN neurons expressed alternative K-ATP channel species distinguished by significant differences in sulfonylurea affinity and metabolic sensitivity. In single dopaminergic SN neurons, co-expression of SUR1 + Kir6.2, but not of SUR2B + Kir6.2, correlated with functional K-ATP channels highly sensitive to metabolic inhibition. In contrast to wild-type, surviving dopaminergic SN neurons of homozygous weaver mouse exclusively expressed SUR1 + Kir6.2 during the active period of dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Therefore, alternative expression of K-ATP channel subunits defines the differential response to metabolic stress and constitutes a novel candidate mechanism for the differential vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons in response to respiratory chain dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.  (+info)

DEF-1, a novel Src SH3 binding protein that promotes adipogenesis in fibroblastic cell lines. (8/64177)

The Src homology 3 (SH3) motif is found in numerous signal transduction proteins involved in cellular growth and differentiation. We have purified and cloned a novel protein, DEF-1 (differentiation-enhancing factor), from bovine brain by using a Src SH3 affinity column. Ectopic expression of DEF-1 in fibroblasts resulted in the differentiation of a significant fraction of the culture into adipocytes. This phenotype appears to be related to the induction of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), since DEF-1 NIH 3T3 cells demonstrated augmented levels of PPARgamma mRNA and, when treated with activating PPARgamma ligands, efficient induction of differentiation. Further evidence for a role for DEF-1 in adipogenesis was provided by heightened expression of DEF-1 mRNA in adipose tissue isolated from obese and diabetes mice compared to that in tissue isolated from wild-type mice. However, DEF-1 mRNA was detected in multiple tissues, suggesting that the signal transduction pathway(s) in which DEF-1 is involved is not limited to adipogenesis. These results suggest that DEF-1 is an important component of a signal transduction process that is involved in the differentiation of fibroblasts and possibly of other types of cells.  (+info)

In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.

Huntington's Disease (HD) is a genetic disorder that affects the brain and is characterized by a progressive decline in cognitive function, movement control, and emotional stability. It is caused by a mutation in the HTT gene, which leads to the production of an abnormal protein called huntingtin. This protein accumulates in brain cells, causing them to degenerate and die, particularly in the areas of the brain responsible for movement, cognition, and emotion. HD is an inherited disorder, meaning that it is passed down from parents to their children through their genes. The severity of the disease can vary widely among affected individuals, and symptoms typically begin to appear in mid-life, around the age of 40-50. As the disease progresses, individuals may experience a range of symptoms, including difficulty with movement, slurred speech, memory loss, mood swings, and personality changes. There is currently no cure for HD, but treatments are available to manage symptoms and improve quality of life for affected individuals. These may include medications to control movement disorders, therapy to improve cognitive function and emotional stability, and support services to help individuals and their families cope with the challenges of the disease.

Neurodegenerative diseases are a group of disorders characterized by the progressive loss of structure and function of neurons, the nerve cells that make up the brain and spinal cord. These diseases are typically associated with aging, although some can occur at a younger age. Neurodegenerative diseases can affect different parts of the brain and spinal cord, leading to a wide range of symptoms and complications. Some of the most common neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and multiple sclerosis (MS). The exact causes of neurodegenerative diseases are not fully understood, but they are believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Some neurodegenerative diseases are caused by mutations in specific genes, while others may be triggered by exposure to toxins, infections, or other environmental factors. Treatment for neurodegenerative diseases is often focused on managing symptoms and slowing the progression of the disease. This may involve medications, physical therapy, speech therapy, and other forms of supportive care. While there is currently no cure for most neurodegenerative diseases, ongoing research is aimed at developing new treatments and improving the quality of life for people living with these conditions.

Parkinson's disease animal models are divided into two categories: neurotoxin models and genetic models. Neurotoxin models ... "Animal Model of Parkinson Disease: Neuroinflammation and Apoptosis in the 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Model", Experimental Animal ... Animal models of Parkinson's disease are essential in the research field and widely used to study Parkinson's disease. ... "Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease", Parkinson's Disease: Pathogenesis and Clinical Aspects, Brisbane (AU): Codon ...
Animal models of autism Animal models of schizophrenia Animal testing on invertebrates Animal testing on rodents Animal testing ... An animal model (short for animal disease model) is a living, non-human, often genetic-engineered animal used during the ... organs and even animal species which express human diseases, providing a more robust model of human diseases in an animal model ... These test conditions are often termed as animal models of disease. The use of animal models allows researchers to investigate ...
Klauck, S. M.; Poustka, A. (2006). "Animal models of autism". Drug Discovery Today: Disease Models. 3 (4): 313-318. doi:10.1016 ... Panaitof, S. C. (2012). "A songbird animal model for dissecting the genetic bases of autism spectrum disorder". Disease Markers ... researchers often focus only on single features of autism when using animal models. One of the more common rodent models is the ... "Animal Models of Autism". Transgenic and Knockout Models of Neuropsychiatric Disorders. Contemporary Clinical Neuroscience. p. ...
... and animal models. Traditional two dimensional cell culture is a useful experimental model of Alzheimer's disease to conduct ... human primate models of Alzheimer's disease". Animal Models and Experimental Medicine. 2 (4): 227-238. doi:10.1002/ame2.12092. ... Rodent animal models of Alzheimer's disease are commonly used in research as rodents and humans have many of the same major ... While these models are useful in studying the process of aging, they are not always exact models of Alzheimer's disease. Common ...
Studies on induced animal models of human diseases. Here, an animal is treated so that it develops pathology and symptoms that ... Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research, and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in ... "Experimental models of Parkinson's disease: insights from many models". Laboratory Animal Science. 49 (4): 363-71. PMID ... Studies on models of naturally occurring disease and condition. Certain domestic and wild animals have a natural propensity or ...
ISBN 978-0-471-49560-4. Reed, Emily; Lutsenko, Svetlana; Bandmann, Oliver (2018). "Animal models of Wilson disease". Journal of ... In animal models having colorectal tumors with and without induced hypoxia, Cu-ATSM was preferentially taken up by hypoxic ... Wilson disease is a rare condition in which copper is retained excessively in the body. Toxic levels of copper can lead to ... 64Cu has been used experimentally to study whole body retention of copper in subjects with this disease. The technique can also ...
Main areas of research: Functional genomics and proteomics; Molecular and cellular immunology; Animal models of human disease; ... Fleming's researchers have established transgenic animal models for rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and ... Fleming's Animal house (certified with ISO 9001) provides husbandry of animals and services to the biomedical research ... The Animal House has 6 different Facilities-Units of SPF status and is currently the largest Mouse Unit in Greece in terms of ...
Animal models for periodontal disease. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology 2011:754857. Post, W. 1981. The influence of ... the animal has been proposed as a model for research on the disease in humans. The identity of the bacterial agent remains ... The marsh rice rat is quite susceptible to periodontitis and has been used as a model system for the study of that disease. The ... Animal model: periodontitis in the rice rat (Oryzomys palustris). American Journal of Pathology 96(2):643-646. Lodge, T.E. 2005 ...
An article in The Scientist notes, "The difficulties associated with using animal models for human disease result from the ... Laboratory rat Animal testing Animal testing on rodents Animal model Animal Identification Fe, Fi, Fo, Fum, and Phooey, five ... Cavanaugh SE, Pippin JJ, Barnard ND (10 April 2013). "Animal models of Alzheimer disease: historical pitfalls and a path ... In addition, the caging of laboratory animals may render them irrelevant models of human health because these animals lack day- ...
Similarly, in animal models of SBMA castration dramatically reduces disease phenotype. Toxicity is believed to occur through ... Merry, D. E. (2005). "Animal Models of Kennedy Disease". NeuroRx. 2 (3): 471-479. doi:10.1602/neurorx.2.3.471. PMC 1144490. ... Serum creatine kinase (CK) levels are much higher than would be expected for a purely neurogenic disease. In animal studies, ... Kennedy's Disease Association Kennedy's Disease UK Scholia has a topic profile for Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. ( ...
Ramaswamy, S.; McBride, J. L.; Kordower, J. H. (2007). "Animal Models of Huntington's Disease". Ilar Journal. 48 (4): 356-373. ... Huntington's animal models live much longer or shorter lives depending on how they are cared for. At the other extreme, traits ... For highly penetrant Mendelian genetic disorders such as Huntington's disease virtually all the incidence of the disease is due ... In animals where breeding and environments can be controlled experimentally, heritability can be determined relatively easily. ...
Huntington's Disease Outreach Project for Education at Stanford Animal Model of Disease from Animal Research Organization ( ... Animal testing Animal model BALB/c C57BL/6 Fe, Fi, Fo, Fum, and Phooey, five mice who orbited the Moon in 1972 Mouse models of ... An article in The Scientist notes, "The difficulties associated with using animal models for human disease result from the ... Bart van der Worp, H (30 March 2010). "Can Animal Models of Disease Reliably Inform Human Studies?". PLOS Medicine. 2 (6048): ...
eds.). Neuromethods: Animal Models of Neurological Disease. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. pp. 153-155. ISBN 0-89603-211-6. PK Sahoo ... Kindling is also referred as an animal visual model of epilepsy that can be produced by focal electrical stimulation in the ... However, in both human epilepsy and in some animal models, evidence suggests that a process like that found in kindling does ... a method by which seizure severity is quantified in animal models of epilepsy) Bertram E (2007). "The relevance of kindling for ...
... have been effective at treating symptoms in animal models of AD. While promising as a therapeutic in animal models, studies on ... Disease: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA ... "Phenylbutyrate up-regulates the DJ-1 protein and protects neurons in cell culture and in animal models of Parkinson disease". ... "Treatment with trichostatin A initiated after disease onset delays disease progression and increases survival in a mouse model ...
2007). Animal Models in Toxicology (2nd ed.). CRC Press. p. 248. Grzimek, Bernhard, ed. (1972). Grzimek's Animal Life ... Richardson, V. G. C. (2003). "Systems and Diseases". Diseases of Small Domestic Rodents. pp. 127-31. doi:10.1002/9780470690840. ... The surface of the hands and feet are white to ensure the animal stays warm in colder climates in countries such as Mongolia. ... Herberg, L.; K. D. Buchanan; L. M. Herbertz; H. F. Kern; H. K. Kley (1980). "The Djungarian hamster, a laboratory animal with ...
eds.). Neuromethods: Animal Models of Neurological Disease. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. pp. 153-155. ISBN 0-89603-211-6. Menkes ... No animal model has all the characteristics of epileptogenesis in humans, so research efforts aim to identify one. Such a model ... "Animal Models of Posttraumatic Seizures and Epilepsy". Injury Models of the Central Nervous System. Methods in Molecular ... Pitkänen A, McIntosh TK (2006). "Animal models of post-traumatic epilepsy". Journal of Neurotrauma. 23 (2): 241-261. doi: ...
Schaible, R.H. (1979). Andrews, E.J.; Ward, B.C; Alatman, N.H. (eds.). Spontaneous Animal Models of Human Disease. New York: ... Animals with this pattern may include birds, cats, cattle, dogs, foxes, horses, cetaceans, deer, pigs, and snakes. Some animals ... Many other animal species may also be "pied" or piebald including, but not limited to, birds and squirrels. A piebald Eastern ... The animal's skin under the white background is not pigmented. Location of the unpigmented spots is dependent on the migration ...
Schmidt J, Schmidt T (2018). "Animal Models of Machado-Joseph Disease". Polyglutamine Disorders. Advances in Experimental ... Perleberg C, Kind A, Schnieke A (January 2018). "Genetically engineered pigs as models for human disease". Disease Models & ... disease resistance and survival. Animals have been engineered to grow faster, be healthier and resist diseases. Modifications ... Lu JW, Ho YJ, Ciou SC, Gong Z (September 2017). "Innovative Disease Model: Zebrafish as an In Vivo Platform for Intestinal ...
Dragani, Tommaso (1998). man Polygenic Diseases - Animal Models. Harwood Academic Publishers. p. 13. ISBN 9789057023361. ... His research focused on genetic predispositions for various diseases, using mice as a model for the comparative genomics of ... Thyagarajan, T; Totey, S; Danton, MJ; Kulkarni, AB (2003). "Genetically altered mouse models: the good, the bad, and the ugly ... "Organisers". 4th INTERNATIONAL PARKINSON'S DISEASE SYMPOSIUM. 2018. Retrieved 1 October 2021. "Der neue Name der GBF: Helmholtz ...
"Animal Models of Organ-Specific Autoimmune Disease". In Rose, Noel R.; Mackay, Ian R. (eds.). The Autoimmune Diseases. Elsevier ...
Wright, J. L.; Cosio, M.; Churg, A. (2008). "Animal models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease". American Journal of ... including animal models like mice and rats, to mimic different aspects of the condition. While these animal models have ... While no in vivo models fully encompass all aspects of clinical COPD pathology, certain animal models, such as those involving ... Disease Modeling and Drug Discovery". American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. 62 (6): 681-691. doi:10.1165/ ...
"Diversifying animal models: the use of hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in infectious diseases". Laboratory Animals. ... "Animal Models of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 25 (6): 1363-68. doi:10.1086/516152. PMC ... Prince is the author of over 150 scientific publications in the field of infectious diseases, the majority dealing with RSV. He ... Marie-Ève Hamelin; Gregory A. Prince; Guy Boivin (2006). "Effect of Ribavirin and Glucocorticoid Treatment in a Mouse Model of ...
S2CID 22660338.[permanent dead link] Hornig, Mady; Lipkin, W. Ian (2013). "Immune-mediated animal models of Tourette syndrome ... Diseases may also be multifactorial, requiring multiple factors to induce disease. For example: in a murine model, Crohn's ... Lists of diseases, Infectious diseases, Infectious causes of cancer, Diseases and disorders, Inflammations). ... The history of infection and disease were observed in the 1800s and related to the one of the tick-borne diseases, Rocky ...
Animal models for COVID-19 (2020). Nature, 586:509-515. PMID 32967005. Persistence of severe acute respiratory syndrome ... the practical goals of developing new vaccines for emerging diseases as well as tools that predict viral spillover from animal ... Duprex is an expert in measles and mumps viruses and studies viral spillover from animals to humans, including the SARS-CoV-2 ... Intractable Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Prolonged Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) ...
ISBN 0-8451-1035-7 Desnick, R. J., Patterson, D. F. and Scarpelli, D. F., eds.: Animal Models of Inherited Metabolic Diseases. ... and the chaperone therapy for Fabry disease, ERT for Niemann-Pick disease type B, and the RNA Interference Therapy for the ... National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Gene Therapy: Lysosomal Diseases With Mental Retardation, ... Achievement Award of the Lysosomal Disease Network, NIH, 2013 Genetic Disease Foundation Scientific Honoree for Contributions ...
January 2008). "MUGEN mouse database; animal models of human immunological diseases". Nucleic Acids Res. 36 (Database issue): ... These models were very useful in characterizing the behavior and spread of infectious disease, by understanding the dynamics of ... Using this technology it is possible to know the model behind immune system. It has been used to model T-cell-mediated ... Models are helpful to predicts dynamics of pathogen toxicity and T-cell memory in response to different stimuli. There are also ...
20 animal models. Following are descriptions of selected animal studies. All stated results are relative to those of placebo ... "Peripheral Transgene Expression of Plasma Gelsolin Reduces Amyloid in Transgenic Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease". ... Substantial decreases in plasma levels are observed in acute and chronic infection and injury in both animal models and in ... Supplementation therapies with recombinant human pGSN have been shown effective in more than 20 animal models. pGSN has a ...
Conn, P. Michael (2013-05-29). Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease. Academic Press. ISBN 9780124159129. Harwood, H ... The diet-induced obesity model (DIO model) is an animal model used to study obesity using animals that have obesity caused by ... the use of animal models does restrict our ability to extrapolate findings to humans. The DIO model was developed in response ... These animals can then be used to study in vivo obesity, obesity's comorbidities, and other related diseases. Users of such ...
... the optimal use of animal models of disease; the neurobiology of the mineralocorticoid receptor; and impact of social ... deprivation on the incidence and management of neurological diseases. He is currently Professor of Neurology and Translational ...
Lozier JN, Nichols TC (April 2013). "Animal models of hemophilia and related bleeding disorders". Seminars in Hematology. 50 (2 ... Mice affected by VWD type 3 were produced by genetic engineering to obtain a small sized model for the human disease. In these ... "Canine von Willebrand Disease - Breed Summaries". 2019-02-08. "Canine von Willebrand Disease". ... which attracted international attention in the disease. The eponymous name was assigned to the disease between the late 1930s ...
Animal Models of Infectious Diseases Foodborne Diseases Intracellular Parasites Parasite Organelles Chemotherapeutic Targets ... Animal Models of Infectious Diseases. Streptococcal pathogens continue to evade concerted efforts to decipher clear-cut ... Melody N. Neely (Wayne State University, Detroit, MI) reported the development of a unique animal model, the zebrafish (Danio ... Information from these analyses will guide the creation of predictive models of disease risk. These surveillance systems ...
Of the eleven patients with Ebola virus disease who were managed in U.S. healthcare facilities during 2014-2015, nine survived ... No animal model data, very limited Ebola Disease patient data, unknown. Gastrointestinal tract. Rectal swab. 29 days after ... few data are available from animal models.. Survivors can experience complications after surviving acute Ebola disease. The ... For patients who fully recover from Ebola disease and subsequently seek medical care (Ebola disease survivors who recover and ...
Multiple cellular and animal models have been proposed, but most fall short of reproducing the clinical syndrome of hibernating ... Several animal models have been proposed to demonstrate the physiologic significance of coronary stenosis, in which regulation ... No available animal models can support this finding, however. Differentiating between subendocardial ischemia and hibernating ... This disease has occurred in patients with moderate to end-stage renal disease after they were given a gadolinium-based ...
Animal-studies; Animals; Models; Laboratory-animals; Inhalation-studies ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. ... Animal models have demonstrated that stainless steel welding fumes which contain significant levels of nickel and chromium ... Animal studies have indicated that the presence and combination of different metal constituents is an important determinant in ...
Neuroprotective effects of creatine and cyclocreatine in animal models of Huntingtons disease. J Neurosci 1998;18:156-63. View ... Neuroprotective effects of creatine in a transgenic animal model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nat Med 1999;5:347-50. View ... validation of an animal model to study creatine deficiency. Magn Reson.Med 2003;50:936-943. View abstract. ... Therapeutic interventions for disease progression in Huntingtons disease. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2009;:CD006455. View ...
Prevention and Health Promotion Guidelines to Prevent Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Laboratory Workers and Animal ... SIV infection is an important animal model of AIDS. SIV proteins, especially the viral core proteins (i.e., p24, capsid protein ... Animal-care personnel, investigators, technical staff, and other persons who enter animal rooms should wear coats, protective ... Animal Biosafety Levels. Animal BSL 2 practices, containment equipment, and facilities are recommended for activities involving ...
Critical periods of vulnerability for the developing nervous system: evidence from humans and animal models. Environ Health ... Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registration. Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registration. ... cancer in human epidemiological studies and neoplasms in experimental animal models. Environ Health Perspect 108 (suppl 3):573- ... In preventing occupational disease and injury. Levy BS, Wagner GR, Rest KM, and Weeks JL, editors. Washington DC: American ...
... were exposed to many substances known to cause serious progressive liver disease in other populations and in animal models; and ... Hepatotoxic Exposures, Progressive Fatty Liver Disease (NASH), and Liver Cancer Risk in the World Trade Center Health Program ... By uncovering previously unrecognized liver disease and by introducing new digital technology, this project is expected to ... develop and use innovative and enabling digital technologies to provide the first systematic investigation of liver disease in ...
... but there is one diet that can be routinely recommended to patients for promoting health and minimizing disease. ... In animal models, they have been shown to promote obesity and diabetes, which is very much paradoxical to what their advertised ... Theyve led to an associated increase in so-called "diseases of civilization," including cardiovascular disease, obesity, and a ... Recent animal model data have shown mechanistically how it contributes to colon cancer. It was also most recently associated ...
There have been many animal models looking at passive production protection from hantavirus challenge when given neutralizing ... Mertz is a board-certified Sub-specialist in Infectious Diseases and former Chief of the Division of Infectious Diseases at the ... Identification and Care of Patients with Hantavirus Disease. Alert_06. Archived: This Page Is No Longer Being Updated This ... Lyme Disease Updates and New Educational Tools for Clinicians. *What Clinicians Need to Know About Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 ...
Oral lesions can be the predominant or minor clinical manifestation of a given disease. ... Oral lesions are observed commonly in autoimmune blistering skin diseases. ... Animal models. Spontaneous animal homologues of human autoimmune blistering diseases have been identified in the last 2 decades ... So far, no truly active experimental animal models (in which healthy mice are induced to autoimmune disease de novo) are known ...
Neutrophils in animal models of autoimmune disease.. Németh, Tamás; Mócsai, Attila; Lowell, Clifford A. ... Neutrophil Extracellular Traps and Liver Disease. * The coming of age of neutrophil extracellular traps in thrombosis: Where ... Formation of neutrophil extracellular traps and their effects on autoimmune diseases]. * The role of neutrophil extracellular ...
... she has been invited to serve on several domestic and international panels on animal models and vaccines. ... He has published over 110 peer-reviewed journal articles in the area of disease surveillance and infectious diseases. ... Infectious disease epidemiologist at the University of Hong Kong with a focus on surveillance and transmission dynamics of ... infectious diseases in human and animals, and assessment of infection control measures. He utilized quantitative analytical ...
... and Center for Disease Control and Preventions (CDC) Poxvirus and Rabies Animal Studies Unit Lead, Nadia Gallardo, DVM, as ... they were discussing data from their new luminescent rabies model.. High Resolution:. Click here for hi-resolution image (27.19 ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People ...
This allowed them to develop a mathematical model to predict what may happen to hair over time and identify a point in time ... Scientific confirmation of a long-held theory, as well as new research into an association with Alzheimers disease, helped put ... A separate review of human and animal epidemiologic studies found that long-term stress, along with genetic factors, may ... Increased cortisol levels are frequently observed in patients with Alzheimers disease and "make a major contribution to the ...
Disease Models, Animal Entry term(s). Animal Disease Model Animal Disease Models Disease Model, Animal ... not a routine coordinate with experimental animal diseases: index only when the text indicates a disease model; when the model ... Disease Models, Animal - Preferred Concept UI. M0006565. Scope note. Naturally-occurring or experimentally-induced animal ... Animal Disease Model. Animal Disease Models. Disease Model, Animal. Tree number(s):. C22.232. E05.598.500. E05.599.395.080. ...
Animal models for periodontal diseases. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2011; 1- 8. 27. Lins RD, Figueiredo CR, Queiroz LM, Da Silveira EJ ... It probably makes this model ideal for the study of acute and destructive phases of periodontal disease. Some authors23,30 ... This finding indicates that in this experimental model of disease the inflammatory process installs quickly, with consequent ... Subsequently, the animals were randomly assigned into two groups of 15 animals each: ...
Ribavirin has not been effective in animal models of filovirus and flavivirus infections. The US Food and Drug Administration ( ... and chikungunya disease Chikungunya Disease Chikungunya disease is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito. Chikungunya disease ... Exceptions include dengue Dengue Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a flavivirus. Dengue fever usually results in ... Vaccines for dengue Prevention Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a flavivirus. Dengue fever usually results in ...
Nonhuman primate models for human diseases / editor, W. Richard Dukelow. by Dukelow, W. Richard. ... Guide to the care and use of experimental animals. Vol. 1, . by Canadian Council on Animal Care. ... on Animal Health, Washington, D.C., April 27-29, 1993. by Inter-American Meeting at the Ministerial Level, on Animal Health ( ... Dangerous marine animals / Bruce W. Halstead. by Halstead, Bruce Walter.. Material type: Text; Format: print Publication ...
Learn how small animal models are helping NIH-funded scientists uncover insights into eye development, lens regeneration and ... Discover how small animals like fruit flies, newts, and zebrafish are shaping breakthroughs in vision research. ... Researching rare diseases with geckos. For clinical scientists like Robert Hufnagel, M.D., Ph.D., animal models can shed light ... For centuries, scientists have used small animal models to study everything from how genes work to how diseases develop. And ...
Development of highly relevant animal models to test specific hypotheses about the role of the mucosa in rheumatic disease.. ... Mucosal autoimmunity precedes disease onset in RA and may contribute to disease pathogenesis. ... impact mucosal immunity and fit with a model of disease development at a mucosal site.. ... Table 2. Research agenda for the study of mucosal biology in relation to rheumatic diseases High-quality longitudinal natural ...
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • Stephen C. Guptill (U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA) reported that the U.S. Geological Survey is working with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to learn the current geographic extent of WNV. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (
  • It was previously noted that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention held 451 viral isolates obtained from different continents and countries when smallpox was endemic.2 The current review and the studies reported at the meeting concentrated on some 50 isolates in the Russian collection that were not present in the American collection. (
  • CDC - NCEH] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - National Center for Environmental Health - Healthy Homes - Environmental Justice. (
  • Good afternoon, I am Marcy Friedman and I'm representing the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity, COCA, with the Emergency Risk Communication branch at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • Dr. Knust has served as epidemiologist in the Viral Special Pathogens Branch at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for seven years. (
  • Prior to her arrival in Melbourne, she was a senior scientist at the US National Institutes of Health and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • The Sixth Annual Conference on New and Reemerging Infectious Diseases was hosted April 24-25, 2003, by the Center for Zoonoses Research and the College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). (
  • The new 4-year PhD programme in One Health Models of Disease: Science, Ethics and Society will provide unique training in state-of-the-art techniques in the design and application of new One Health models of neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, developmental, and infectious diseases of humans and animals. (
  • We're talking about an article that appears in the May 2011 issue of CDC's journal, Emerging Infectious Diseases. (
  • Dr. Mertz is a board-certified Sub-specialist in Infectious Diseases and former Chief of the Division of Infectious Diseases at the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center where he is now working as a retiree. (
  • From 1999 through April 2016, Dr. Mertz was the principal investigator at the National Institutes of Health International Collaborations in infectious diseases research grant U19/U01 focused on epidemiology, natural history and management of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in Chile and Panama. (
  • Members are recruited and selected as acknowledged experts from around the world in the fields of epidemiology, public health, infectious diseases, health-care administration, vaccine safety and immunology. (
  • Infectious disease epidemiologist at the University of Hong Kong with a focus on surveillance and transmission dynamics of infectious diseases in human and animals, and assessment of infection control measures. (
  • He has published over 110 peer-reviewed journal articles in the area of disease surveillance and infectious diseases. (
  • She is a virologist and a physician with specialty training in pediatrics and pediatric infectious diseases. (
  • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by amyloid deposition in the cerebral neuropil and vasculature. (
  • BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia worldwide. (
  • Journal of Alzheimer's Disease , 87 (1), 259-272. (
  • Translation of the overexpressed transgenes appears to be restricted to the central nervous system, notably in Alzheimer's disease-relevant areas including the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. (
  • This mutant mouse exhibits plaque and tangle pathology associated with synaptic dysfunction, traits similar to those observed in Alzheimer's disease patients. (
  • A laboratory study has found that the asthma drug salbutamol prevents the formation of tangles of fibrous protein that are a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. (
  • They note that the most common form of dementia is Alzheimer's disease, which accounts for 60-70% of all cases. (
  • In the United States, the National Institute on Aging estimate that more than 5.5 million people have Alzheimer's disease. (
  • While existing drug treatments help reduce the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and improve people's quality of life, they neither slow its progression nor cure it. (
  • Researchers at Lancaster University in the United Kingdom believe that tau could be a more promising drug target for Alzheimer's disease. (
  • In Alzheimer's disease, these tau molecules break away from the microtubules and begin to stick together to form threads and, eventually, tangles. (
  • The scientists from Lancaster University believe that compounds that prevent tau molecules from aggregating in this way could make promising treatments for Alzheimer's disease. (
  • The scientists ruled out dobutamine as a practical treatment for Alzheimer's disease because it requires injection, and its effects are very short-lived. (
  • This work is in the very early stages, and we are some way from knowing whether or not salbutamol will be effective at treating Alzheimer's disease in human patients," says Prof. David Middleton, one of the authors. (
  • Salbutamol has already undergone extensive human safety reviews, and if follow-up research reveals an ability to impede Alzheimer's disease progression in cellular and animal models, this drug could offer a step forward, whilst drastically reducing the cost and time associated with typical drug development. (
  • Accumlating evidence have suggested that diabetes mellitus links dementia, notably of Alzheimer's disease (AD). (
  • Autoimmune diseases tend to cluster, maybe simply because they share a number of genetic susceptibility traits. (
  • For examples, a single person will have more than one autoimmune disease, and family members share the very same or even other autoimmune diseases. (
  • The global burden has risen with the near tripling in the last half-century of multiple sclerosis (MS) ( 2 , 3 ), type 1 diabetes (T1D) ( 4 ), and other autoimmune diseases. (
  • This review highlights recent advances in vitamin D and T-lymphocyte biology in an effort to harness vitamin D's potential to reduce the impact of autoimmune diseases. (
  • Autoimmune diseases represent a failure of self-identification leading to an immune-mediated assault on host tissues. (
  • We drew mainly on MS and T1D research because intensive investigation has generated detailed insights into vitamin D mechanisms in these diseases and provided valuable guidance for research on other autoimmune diseases. (
  • Other autoimmune diseases are included where robust mechanistic data exist. (
  • A recent chapter ( 6 ) and a review ( 7 ) have summarized vitamin D mechanisms in autoimmune diseases more generally. (
  • Students will be supervised by world-leading life scientists addressing important diseases of humans and animals, and social scientists and bioethicists conducting cutting-edge research into the social and ethical dimensions of 21st century science. (
  • Despite living in an environment managed by humans, farm animals are still capable of making important. (
  • Although no reports of infection in humans have been documented, the expanding use of SIV as a model of HIV infection has raised concern about the potential risk of SIV transmission to humans. (
  • Birds are often reservoirs for arboviruses, which are transmitted by mosquitoes to horses, other domestic animals, and humans. (
  • These viruses may spread to humans from nonhuman reservoirs, but most arboviral diseases are not transmissible by humans, perhaps because the typical viremia is inadequate to infect the arthropod vector. (
  • In addition to AD, an increasing number of neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease, familial British dementia, familial amyloid polyneuropathy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and prion diseases, are associated with abnormal protein assembly processes. (
  • Neurodegeneration and neurodegenerative diseases (including the shared mechanisms of nerve cell death that contribute to many diseases), Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Dementia (VCID), NINDS tissue/cell resources, basic invertebrate neuromuscular junction (NMJ). (
  • Such models can transform our approach to understanding pathogenesis, facilitating the development of therapies or preventive measures. (
  • Evidence for CD4 + T-cell involvement in autoimmune disease pathogenesis and for paracrine calcitriol signaling to CD4 + T lymphocytes is summarized to support the thesis that calcitriol is sunlight's main protective signal transducer in autoimmune disease risk. (
  • Animal modeling and human mechanistic data are summarized to support the view that vitamin D probably influences thymic negative selection, effector Th1 and Th17 pathogenesis and responsiveness to extrinsic cell death signals, FoxP3 + CD4 + T-regulatory cell and CD4 + T-regulatory cell type 1 (Tr1) cell functions, and a Th1-Tr1 switch. (
  • Conclusions: These results indicate that the Th2 response may have a protective role during the pathogenesis of experimental periodontal disease, and that the IFN-γ R1 subunit may not be associated with periodontal disease progression. (
  • Periodontal disease is the result of microbial aggression as well as metabolic and environmental factors and life-style habits influence the pathogenesis of this disease 1 . (
  • Conclusion: The use of ERW as functional water could be helpful as a therapeutic tool in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • Infection prevention and control recommendations for U.S. healthcare providers when evaluating a patient who is a survivor of Ebola disease. (
  • A deep understanding of molecular mechanisms relevant to gene-environment interactions is needed to deliver etiology-based autoimmune disease prevention and treatment strategies. (
  • The disease is a neurological disorder in which the death of brain cells results in progressive memory loss and cognitive decline. (
  • Therefore, the development of animal models of the disease could be interesting since it allows researchers to test experimental drugs, evaluate their efficacy, and choose therapies with better results for their implementation in clinical practice. (
  • On the other hand, it was necessary to validate the model, so a corticoid commonly used in clinical practice (Prednisolone) was administered to a group of animals with IBD, and then compared to the group of animals without treatment. (
  • Although molecular imaging techniques such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) are not currently used in clinical practice to monitor IBD patients, in vivo molecular imaging of small animals is increasingly being developed for the assessment of disease-specific animal models. (
  • Miniaturized versions of clinical devices are available for small animal imaging in preclinical research. (
  • The use of animal models in Parkinson's disease research has been controversial in terms of how well they relate to the clinical condition and thus their utility for translating therapies from the lab to the clinic. (
  • However, our results justify further testing of salbutamol and similar drugs in animal models of the disease and, eventually, if successful, in clinical trials. (
  • Oral lesions can be the predominant or minor clinical manifestation of a given disease. (
  • In addition to Th1 and Th2 cells, Th17, Treg and T Fh cells have also been described 7 , Treg cells are associated with reduction of clinical scores of disease in soft and hard tissues 8 . (
  • Passive transfer experiments have demonstrated that purified autoantibodies from patients with the pemphigus group of diseases can induce blister formation when delivered to newborn mice. (
  • Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease: Are They Useful or Not? (
  • There are also some very interesting data in this area related to the progression of COVID to severe disease or long-haul COVID, or even the development of COVID. (
  • Aim: To evaluate the involvement of Th2 cells in different periods of the active phase of experimental periodontal disease and expression of the R1 subunit of the receptor for IFN-γ during the early and advanced progression of the disease. (
  • It is very beneficial to consider the evidence of an autoimmune etiology of a human disease with three degrees of stringency. (
  • This review summarizes and integrates research on vitamin D and CD4 + T-lymphocyte biology to develop new mechanistic insights into the molecular etiology of autoimmune disease. (
  • Finally, unanswered questions and potentially informative future research directions are highlighted to speed delivery of etiology-based strategies to reduce autoimmune disease. (
  • A deep understanding of disease mechanisms will be needed to deliver etiology-based strategies to reverse this vexing trend. (
  • Indeed, "functional and mechanistic work on the molecular etiology of disease remains one of the major challenges in modern biology" ( 5 ). (
  • Finally, unanswered questions relating to vitamin D mechanisms in CD4 + T cells are highlighted to promote further research that may lead to a deeper understanding of autoimmune disease molecular etiology. (
  • Autoantibodies can occur naturally and are common in all immunologically competent person and might even increase nonspecifically while in the course of disease or injury. (
  • Hence, the miniscule presence of autoantibodies does not automatically determine a cause-and-effect relationship, because the autoantibodies might be the result, not the cause, of the disease process. (
  • Autoantibodies may be present many years before the diagnosis of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) and antiphospholipid syndrome. (
  • Natural autoantibodies are common and might rise nonspecifically in the course of a disease process. (
  • Whereas the pemphigus subset of diseases is mediated by autoantibodies that target the extracellular skin components that link one epidermal cell to another, the pemphigoid subset is mediated by autoantibodies that target the extracellular skin components that link the skin basement membrane components either to the lowermost layer of epidermal cells or to the dermal components. (
  • Autoimmune disease is a pathological condition which is caused by an adaptive autoimmune response directed against an antigen within the body of the host. (
  • Naturally-occurring or experimentally-induced animal diseases with pathological processes analogous to human diseases. (
  • In previous studies, we developed an animal model where the early life exposure (from postnatal day 6 to 21) to low dose of pesticide permethrin (PERM, 34 mg/kg) induced Parkinsonlike neurodegeneration in rats characterized by decreased dopamine, Nurr1 and glutathione levels in the basal ganglia, altered immune responses and gut disbiosis. (
  • Prenatal and postnatal animal models of immune activation: Relevance to a range of neurodevelopmental disorders: Developmental Neurobiology Special Issue: Neuroimmunology in Development and Disease. (
  • Models of inflammatory bowel disease have been described in animals in which particular cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-10 have been eliminated. (
  • Critical windows of exposure for children's health: cancer in human epidemiological studies and neoplasms in experimental animal models. (
  • In rhesus monkeys and other susceptible nonhuman primate species (e.g. pig-tailed macaque, crab-eating macaque), SIV infection leads to a chronic wasting disease syndrome with depletion of CD4 (T4) lymphocytes and lymphadenopathy. (
  • SIV isolates are clearly distinct from Type D primate retrovirus (i.e., simian retrovirus 1)that also causes a form of chronic wasting immunodeficiency disease in several primate species (ll). (
  • Nonhuman primate models for human diseases / editor, W. Richard Dukelow. (
  • 4Head of Research for Chanson Water Company Taiwan Objectives: Early life environmental factors, life style and diet have a profound impact on the organism's later development and subsequent onset of age-related diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • This database, created in 2000, is updated every three months with newly published scientific articles, books, and other publications related to improving or safeguarding the welfare of animals used in research. (
  • These are interdisciplinary creative workshops to find or develop animal-free methods to answer a specific research question. (
  • The TPI Helpdesk can help you with any questions concerning the transition towards animal-free innovations in research and education. (
  • I have no idea where to start thinking about replacing my animal research. (
  • How do I get an overview of the several research methods that could replace animal research? (
  • The Committee agreed that, despite the considerable progress that had been made in investigating Variola virus, significant components of this research, most notably the refinement and use of an animal model developed in 2001 and the development of antiviral drugs, were unlikely to be completed by the end of 2002. (
  • Further, during extensive discussion about the potential availability of an animal model, additional research was identified that would necessitate access to live Variola virus stocks after the expected 2002 destruction date. (
  • I want to talk to someone about my research proposal (basic research, neural mechanisms, or disease mechanisms). (
  • Research on vitamin D regulation of thymocyte selection, Th1 and Th17 cells, T-cell programed cell death, and T-regulatory (Treg) cells is summarized and integrated into model mechanisms. (
  • Over the years, Dr. Subbarao' s research has focused on newly emerging viral diseases of global importance including seasonal and pandemic influenza, SARS, MERS and now, SARS-CoV-2. (
  • UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases. (
  • Gene-environment interactions, sunlight and vitamin D, and T lymphocytes as autoimmune disease initiators and vitamin D targets are discussed to explain the rationale for reviewing vitamin D mechanisms in T cells. (
  • They've led to an associated increase in so-called "diseases of civilization," including cardiovascular disease, obesity , and a variety of metabolic diseases and cancers. (
  • Consequently, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases or developmental disorders may arise. (
  • Finally, WNV surveillance data from CDC is being studied to determine the spatial and temporal relationships between disease outbreaks in birds and animals and human illness. (
  • Combining these data with information about avian migratory patterns, landscape characteristics, and weather conditions, over space and time, will provide the foundation for developing spatial analytical and forecasting models to assess the risk for human illness. (
  • He utilized quantitative analytical methods to characterize transmission dynamics in the community setting and at the human-animal interface. (
  • Here we show OS involvement in brain damage in a diabetic animal model that is at least partially mediated through an AD-pathology-independent mechanism apart from amyloid-β accumulation. (
  • Pathology of domestic animals / K. V. F. Jubb, Peter C. Kennedy. (
  • This reagent causes a T-cell mediated immune response that produces acute necrosis and transmural inflammation in the colon wall, which resembles the human disease. (
  • Naturally occurring disease in animals that resembles its human counterpart. (
  • The timing of onset, severity, and duration of complications among Ebola disease survivors are variable. (
  • EBOV was isolated from a semen specimen collected 82 days after acute onset of Ebola disease from a male survivor 13 . (
  • Molecular evidence suggested sexual transmission of EBOV from an asymptomatic male survivor to a female partner 179 days after the survivor's disease onset 14 . (
  • The potential for residual infectious risk from EBOV persistence is further highlighted by recovery of infectious EBOV in cerebrospinal fluid collected at 282 days after onset of Ebola disease from a survivor who experienced late onset of meningoencephalitis signs and symptoms 1 , and isolation of EBOV from an intraocular fluid specimen of an eye affected by panuveitis collected at 14 weeks after onset of Ebola disease 16 . (
  • Multiple sclerosis and T1D have distinct target organs, genetic risk factors, onset ages, and female to male ratios, but target organ-specific T cells as initiators unite these diseases. (
  • Information from these analyses will guide the creation of predictive models of disease risk. (
  • Identification of disease associations with antigens/antibodies that have positive predictive (diagnostic) value. (
  • The workshop panel consisted of 10 basic scientists and clinician-scientists with expertise in the areas of autoimmunity, immunology, otolaryngology, genetics, and infectious disease. (
  • Identify the contribution, risk, and mechanisms of systemic vs. non-systemic ASNHL, to include studies of the role of low-level autoimmunity in long-standing diseases, e.g., rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). (
  • How to determine if autoimmunity is the cause of the disease rather than an accompanying feature or an outcome? (
  • Circumstantial evidence - This is the lowest level of proof, which is the one most commonly available to connect a mysterious human disease to autoimmunity. (
  • The hazards of using this kind of evidence as the basis for concluding that a disease is caused by autoimmunity have been previously described. (
  • Some things commonly added to diets have been shown in animal models to have a significant impact in changing gut integrity. (
  • Oral lesions are observed commonly in autoimmune blistering skin diseases. (
  • Breaks and rearrangements in the genome can lead to severe diseases, even if all genes remain intact. (
  • Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are the two main types of an autoimmune disease called Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). (
  • Beneficial Effects of Inflammatory Cytokine-Targeting Aptamers in an Animal Model of Chronic Prostatitis. (
  • Non-bacterial prostatitis is an inflammatory disease that is difficult to treat. (
  • Compelling evidence indicates that factors that increase overall Abeta production or the ratio of longer to shorter forms, or which facilitate deposition or inhibit elimination of amyloid deposits, cause AD or are risk factors for the disease. (
  • Also, the number of tangles in the brain appears to be a much better indicator of the severity of the disease than the number of amyloid plaques. (
  • Survivors can experience complications after surviving acute Ebola disease. (
  • Patients who recover from acute Ebola disease and later become ill with neurologic or ocular symptoms might have persistent ebolavirus replication in the CNS or eye respectively. (
  • with cirrhosis [2], and met-enkephalin to be elevated in plasma in acute liver disease [3]. (
  • Chikungunya disease usually presents with acute fever. (
  • All these results were also checked by the histologic analysis of colon tissues obtained from the sacrificed animals. (
  • We need to see if the virus `hides out' in body fluids and tissues of animals it can infect, and if the virus can be passed between animals through copulation. (
  • Technological advances in genome editing and animal bioscience have potential for huge societal impact, and are opening up enormous opportunities for the development of novel and innovative models of disease at the cellular, tissue and whole animal scale. (
  • Appropriate infection control practices, such as those recommended for evaluating patients with suspect Ebola disease, should be adhered to until testing is negative. (
  • Therefore, SIV infection is an important animal model of AIDS. (
  • The results from the histologic analysis support those obtained in the PET studies, showing significant associations between SUV max and Nancy grades, which are validated indexes to assess disease activity in IBD patients. (
  • Of the eleven patients with Ebola disease who were managed in U.S. healthcare facilities during 2014-2015, nine survived. (
  • Diamond et al found that resting wall motion abnormalities in patients with coronary artery diseases (CADs) improve after administration of an inotropic agent (dobutamine or epinephrine) or after coronary revascularization in some vascular territories with depressed contractile function, and that such territories eventually improve after revascularization. (
  • Three representative terations in the opioid system have been re- opioid ligands were measured in plasma ported in patients with liver disease. (
  • While most patients with pemphigus vulgaris have oral lesions, which usually are the first manifestation of this disease, only a few patients with bullous pemphigoid have oral lesions. (
  • Among several commercial services who have claimed to be specialized to generate mouse models with genetic modifications, I recognize that Cyagen is one of the best. (
  • In spite of the vast progress in genetic testing, the identification of the genetic causes of such diseases remains difficult. (
  • The particular course the disease takes is tightly linked to the genetic makeup of the cancer cells, particularly the number of growth-spurring "driver" mutations they contain. (
  • Animal studies have indicated that the presence and combination of different metal constituents is an important determinant in the potential pneumotoxic responses associated with welding fumes. (
  • Indirect evidence - The second level of proof of causality is indirect evidence which requires the availability of an appropriate animal model where the necessary transfer studies can be carried out. (
  • Limited studies of wild-caught African green monkeys from Central Africa indicate a seroprevalence of approximately 30%-50%, apparently without associated immunodeficiency disease. (
  • First, this treatment strategy comes from understanding the basic science, the molecular underpinnings of the disease. (
  • Exposure to molds can cause human disease through several well-defined mechanisms. (
  • The neurodegenerative process is believed to occur sub-clinically before the disease is typically diagnosed in the third decade of life. (
  • These diseases can occur in persons of various ages. (
  • Vocalization and other behavior signals are used as tools to assess animal welfare in beef calves. (
  • The samples were evaluated by a digestive pathologist using a microscope and the disease activity was scored in five different grades using the Nancy histological index, with Grade 0 being the absence of significant histological disease and Grade 4 the ulceration of colonic mucosa with inflamed granulation tissue. (
  • This project will develop and use innovative and enabling digital technologies to provide the first systematic investigation of liver disease in a large cohort of WTC responders. (
  • By uncovering previously unrecognized liver disease and by introducing new digital technology, this project is expected to improve the health of WTC responders and rescue workers and to advance computational methods for analyzing medical data. (
  • The present study aims to test the effect of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) on this animal model developing neurodegenerative disease after exposure to PERM pesticide in neonatal age. (
  • Ebola disease survivors who have any new or recurrent ocular or neurologic symptoms should seek care for complications associated with potential virus persistence. (
  • A disease closely resembling Type 1 (autoimmune) diabetes. (
  • Evidence linking sunlight, vitamin D, and the risk of multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes is summarized to develop the thesis that vitamin D is the environmental factor that most strongly influences autoimmune disease development. (
  • This Wellcome programme combines training in experimental techniques, bioethics and social sciences for human and animal health. (
  • Brian Foy] The first step is to explore Zika virus transmission in animal models in the laboratory. (
  • We may have a real treatment alternative for a fatal disease-Duchenne muscular dystrophy-that improves both length and quality of life," says Cohn. (
  • Since the beginning of the 21st century, IBD has become a global disease with an increasing incidence in newly-industrialized countries whose societies have become Westernized. (
  • Over the last few decades, many other autoimmune blistering diseases have been delineated, and some of these newly identified diseases have oral manifestations. (
  • and several changes to gut integrity, immunity, and pathways that are derivatives toward diseases and even promoting translocation of gut bacteria. (
  • At the same time, we must realise that current animal experiments are done with great care, after a thorough ethical assessment. (
  • The cytotoxic effects of African game animal sera to T.B. rhodesiense stabilates in vitro and a preliminary attempt to identify the trypanocidal factor(s / by Ayub Fakir Mulla. (
  • Chairperson Daniela Salvatori realises that the working group faces major challenges: "We are well aware that the possibilities of drastically reducing animal use in the relatively short term are not there for the taking. (
  • Reproduction of disease in animals via immunization with the appropriate antigen. (
  • Reproduction in new world primates : new models in medical science / edited by John Hearn. (
  • Thus, the symptoms are vary correspondingly depend on which parts of the body are attacked by the immune system and on the development of the disease. (