Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Continuance of life or existence especially under adverse conditions; includes methods and philosophy of survival.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
Treatment that combines chemotherapy with radiotherapy.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.
The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)
A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.
The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
An organoplatinum compound that possesses antineoplastic activity.
A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Remnant of a tumor or cancer after primary, potentially curative therapy. (Dr. Daniel Masys, written communication)
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.
Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Tumors or cancer of the MEDIASTINUM.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Organic compounds which contain platinum as an integral part of the molecule.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.
The active metabolite of FOLIC ACID. Leucovorin is used principally as an antidote to FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS.
CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.
An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.
Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.
A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.
Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.
A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Radiotherapy where there is improved dose homogeneity within the tumor and reduced dosage to uninvolved structures. The precise shaping of dose distribution is achieved via the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.
Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.
Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.
Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A SMN complex protein that is essential for the function of the SMN protein complex. In humans the protein is encoded by a single gene found near the inversion telomere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5. Mutations in the gene coding for survival of motor neuron 1 protein may result in SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A mass of tissue that has been cut away from its surrounding areas to be used in TISSUE TRANSPLANTATION.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Summarizing techniques used to describe the pattern of mortality and survival in populations. These methods can be applied to the study not only of death, but also of any defined endpoint such as the onset of disease or the occurrence of disease complications.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
The span of viability of a tissue or an organ.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
PROCEDURES that use NEUROENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Neuroendoscopy, generally an integration of the neuroendoscope with a computer-assisted NEURONAVIGATION system, provides guidance in NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.

Permanent work incapacity, mortality and survival without work incapacity among occupations and social classes: a cohort study of ageing men in Geneva. (1/12094)

BACKGROUND: The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the burden of disability and death in men, from middle age to age of retirement, among occupational groups and classes in Geneva. METHODS: Men were included if they resided in the Canton of Geneva, were 45 years of age in 1970-1972, and were not receiving a disability pension at the start of the follow-up. The cohort of 5137 men was followed up for 20 years and linked to national registers of disability pension allowance and of causes of death. RESULTS: There was a steep upward trend in incidence of permanent work incapacity with lower social class for all causes as well as for the seven causes of disability studied. Compared with professional occupations (social class I), the relative risk (RR) of permanent work incapacity was 11.4 for partly skilled and unskilled occupations (class IV+V) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.2-28.0). The social class gradient in mortality was in the same direction as that in work incapacity although much less steep (RR class IV+V to class I = 1.6, 95% CI : 1.1-2.2). Survival without work incapacity at the time of the 65th birthday ranged from only 57% in construction workers and labourers to 89% in science and related professionals. Unemployment in Geneva was below 1.5% during almost all the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Medically-ascertained permanent work incapacity and survival without work incapacity have shown considerably greater socioeconomic differentials than the mortality differentials.  (+info)

Reirradiation combined with hyperthermia in recurrent breast cancer results in a worthwhile local palliation. (2/12094)

Both experimental and clinical research have shown that hyperthermia (HT) gives valuable additional effects when applied in combination with radiotherapy (RT). The purpose of this study was evaluation of results in patients with recurrent breast cancer, treated at the Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center (DHCC) with reirradiation (re-RT; eight fractions of 4 Gy twice weekly) combined with HT. All 134 patients for whom such treatment was planned were included in the analysis. The complete response rate in 119 patients with macroscopic tumour was 71%. Including the 15 patients with microscopic disease, the local control rate was 73%. The median duration of local control was 32 months, and toxicity was acceptable. The complete response (CR) rate was higher, and the toxicity was less with the later developed 433-MHz HT technique compared with the 2450-MHz technique used initially. With this relatively well-tolerated treatment, palliation by local tumour control of a worthwhile duration is achieved in the majority of patients. The technique used for hyperthermia appeared to influence the achieved results. The value of HT in addition to this re-RT schedule has been confirmed by a prospective randomized trial in a similar patient group. In The Netherlands, this combined treatment is offered as standard to patients with breast cancer recurring in previously irradiated areas.  (+info)

Immunologic proliferation marker Ki-S2 as prognostic indicator for lymph node-negative breast cancer. (3/12094)

BACKGROUND: Proper treatment of lymph node-negative breast cancer depends on an accurate prognosis. To improve prognostic models for this disease, we evaluated whether an immunohistochemical marker for proliferating cells, Ki-S2 (a monoclonal antibody that binds to a 100-kd nuclear protein expressed in S, G2, and M phases of the cell cycle), is an accurate indicator of prognosis. METHODS: We studied 371 Swedish women with lymph node-negative breast cancer; the median follow-up time was 95 months. The fraction of tumor cells in S phase was assessed by flow cytometry, and tumor cell proliferation was measured immunohistochemically with the monoclonal antibodies Ki-S2 and Ki-S5 (directed against the nuclear antigen Ki-67). A combined prognostic index was calculated on the basis of the S-phase fraction, progesterone receptor content, and tumor size. RESULTS: In multivariate analyses that did or did not (263 and 332 observations, respectively) include the S-phase fraction and the combined prognostic index, the Ki-S2 labeling index (percentage of antibody-stained tumor cell nuclei) emerged as the most statistically significant predictor of overall survival, disease-specific survival, and disease-free survival (all two-sided P<.0001). In the risk group defined by a Ki-S2 labeling index of 10% or less, life expectancy was not statistically significantly different from that of age-matched women without breast cancer, whereas the group with a high Ki-S2 labeling index had an increased risk of mortality of up to 20-fold. CONCLUSIONS: Cellular proliferation is a major determinant of the biologic behavior of breast cancer. Prognosis is apparently best indicated by the percentage of cells in S through M phases of the cell cycle. Measurement of the Ki-S2 labeling index of a tumor sample may improve a clinician's ability to make an accurate prognosis and to identify patients with a low risk of recurrence who may not need adjuvant therapy.  (+info)

T helper cell type 1-associated and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated tumor immunity is impaired in interleukin 4-deficient mice. (4/12094)

It is widely accepted that cellular immune responses are induced by CD4(+) T helper 1 (Th1) cells secreting interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-gamma. Tumor immunity is often mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) whose activation is supported by Th1 cytokines. Since IL-4 directs Th2 development and has been shown to inhibit Th1-dominated responses, we assumed that IL-4-deficient (IL-4(-/-)) mice would develop vigorous CTL-mediated tumor immunity compared with IL-4-competent (IL-4(+/+)) mice. Surprisingly, IL-4(-/-) mice were severely impaired to develop tumor immunity to both a mammary adenocarcinoma line and a colon carcinoma line. The lack of tumor immunity in IL-4(-/-) mice was associated with reduced IFN-gamma production, diminished levels of tumor-reactive serum IgG2a, and undetectable CTL activity, indicating a defective Th1 response in the absence of endogenous IL-4. Anti-IL-4 monoclonal antibody blocked tumor immunity in IL-4(+/+) mice when administered at the time of immunization but not at the time of challenge. Additionally, tumor immunity could be induced in IL-4(-/-) mice, if IL-4 was provided by gene-modified cells together with immunizing tumor cells. These results demonstrate that tumor immunity requires IL-4 in the priming phase for the generation of effector cells rather than for their maintenance and exclude secondary, developmental defects in the "knockout" strain. Together, our results demonstrate a novel and previously unanticipated role of IL-4 for the generation of Th1-associated, CTL-mediated tumor immunity.  (+info)

Microvascular loops and networks as prognostic indicators in choroidal and ciliary body melanomas. (5/12094)

BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma of the ciliary body and choroid of the eye is a tumor that disseminates frequently, and 50% of the diagnosed patients die within 10 years. We investigated the hypothesis that, by histopathologic analysis of the arrangement of microvessels (i.e., small blood vessels) in loops and networks, we might be able to differentiate better those patients with a favorable prognosis from those with a poor prognosis. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, retrospective cohort study of melanoma-specific and all-cause mortality for 167 consecutive patients who had an eye surgically removed because of malignant choroidal or ciliary body melanoma during the period from 1972 through 1981. Microvascular loops and networks were evaluated independently by two pathologists who were unaware of patient outcome. RESULTS: Microvascular patterns could be assessed in 134 (80%) of 167 melanoma specimens. The 10-year probability of melanoma-specific survival was worse if microvascular loops (0.45 versus 0.83; two-sided P<.0001) and networks (0.41 versus 0.72, two-sided P<.0001) were present. In multivariate Cox regression analysis of melanoma-specific survival, the hazard ratios were 1.66 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19-2.30) for the presence of loops and networks as a combined three-category variable, 2.36 (95% CI = 1.37-4.05) for the presence of epithelioid cells, 1.11 (95% CI = 1.03-1.19) for the largest basal tumor diameter (evaluated as a continuous variable), and 2.14 (95% CI = 1.25-3.67) for ciliary body involvement. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with malignant uveal melanoma who have a favorable prognosis can be distinguished from those with a poor prognosis by histopathologic analysis of microvascular patterns in uveal melanoma tumor specimens.  (+info)

Trimodality therapy in stage III non-small cell lung cancer: prediction of recurrence by assessment of p185neu. (6/12094)

In a trimodality treatment approach for stage III non-small cell lung cancer the prognostic impact of pretherapeutic p185neu assessment was evaluated. Fifty-four patients were admitted to chemotherapy followed by twice-daily radiation with concomittant low-dose chemotherapy and subsequent surgery. Immunohistochemical assessment of p185neu expression was performed in paraffin-embedded mediastinal lymph node metastases, by mediastinoscopy biopsy prior to therapy. Paraffin-embedded biopsies of mediastinal lymph node metastases were available in 33 cases. Seven out of eight patients with positive p185neu staining developed distant metastases, in contrast to seven out of 25 negative cases. Expression of p185neu in mediastinal lymph node metastases was a significant predictor for progression-free survival (p=0.047) and resulted mainly from significant differences in metastases-free survival (p185neu-positive versus p185neu-negative: median, 11 versus 19 months; 2- and 3-yr rates, 13% and 0% versus 40% and 32%; p=0.04). On the basis of these preliminary results it was concluded that further evaluation of p185neu expression in trials on neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy is warranted. When the prognostic impact of p185neu in such trials with larger patient numbers is confirmed, this may contribute to the identification of stratification variables for future treatment approaches of non-small cell lung cancer.  (+info)

Multimodality therapy for locally advanced and limited stage IV breast cancer: the impact of effective non-cross-resistance late-consolidation chemotherapy. (7/12094)

To determine the effectiveness of non-cross-resistant late-consolidation chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) and stage IV breast cancer, we review our experience with two regimens. Between 1985 and 1991, we enrolled 56 patients with LABC, who were treated with a doxorubicin-based adjuvant regimen, followed by a late-consolidation non-cross-resistant regimen containing methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and cyclophosphamide. Between 1985 and 1996, a total of 45 patients with limited stage IV breast cancer underwent surgical excision of all evaluable disease, making them metastatic (stage IV) with no evaluable disease. Surgery was followed by a doxorubicin-containing regimen and then a late-consolidation non-cross-resistant regimen, which was either methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, cisplatinum, and cyclophosphamide or 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin. Twenty-four patients with limited bone metastases that were unresectable were treated with a doxorubicin-containing regimen, radiation therapy to all sites of disease, and then one of the two late non-cross-resistant regimens. With a median follow-up of 84 months, 78% of patients with LABC are alive, and 68% are free of disease. After a median follow-up of 44 months, 53% of patients with stage IV with no evaluable disease are alive and free of disease. The use of non-cross-resistant late-consolidation chemotherapy is an effective strategy in the treatment of patients with LABC and selected patients with limited stage IV breast cancer.  (+info)

Combined modality therapy of lung cancer. (8/12094)

Combined modality therapy for lung cancer was first demonstrated to be successful in limited-stage small cell lung cancer. Concurrent administration of chemotherapy with chest and elective brain irradiation appears to produce the best results, with cisplatin/etoposide as the core chemotherapy. Using such programs, 2-year survival in the 40% range and 5-year survivals in excess of 20% may be expected, based on the results of multiple studies. Attempts to improve on these results through the use of altered schemes of chest irradiation or the delivery of high-dose consolidation chemotherapy are ongoing but to date have not been shown to affect survival significantly. We remain at a plateau in the effectiveness of combined modality therapy for small cell lung cancer, with little evidence that it impacts survival at all in extensive-stage disease. The incorporation of new agents in combination chemotherapy regimens, more "specific" immunotherapy directed at tumor-associated antigens, and the potential adjunctive use of broad-spectrum neuropeptide antagonists offer promise for the future. In non-small cell lung cancer, the sequential use of platinum-based chemotherapy and chest irradiation appears superior in survival to standard, daily fractionated radiation therapy used alone, with long-term survival increased from 5-10% to 15-20%. Concurrent administration of chemotherapy with cisplatin/etoposide and chest irradiation produces 2-year survival in the range of 30%, about twice that would be expected for radiation therapy alone, but has not been compared to it in the setting of a randomized trial. Low-dose cisplatin on a daily basis has been combined as a "sensitizer" with chest irradiation, producing initial results that appeared encouraging. However, these have not been reproduced in subsequent, randomized trials. Another approach to combined modalities has been to give chemotherapy or chemotherapy/radiation therapy as induction, followed by surgical resection, with or without subsequent additional treatment. Most patients (80-85%) can be resected, with encouraging survival at 2 and 3 years in the Southwest Oncology Group experience (37 and 26%, respectively). However, toxicity is greater, and such an approach is associated with an overall mortality risk in the range of 10%. A current intergroup study attempts to define the role of surgery in this setting. The major recent development that is likely to influence the future of combined modality therapy for this disease is the advent of multiple new chemotherapeutic agents, such as the taxanes, gemcitabine, vinorelbine, and the topoisomerase-I inhibitors, which have activity in stage IV disease. The immediate challenge is how to combine these agents with platinum analogues, radiation, and surgery. Aiding this process may be the use of molecular biological "markers" that may predict the chance of success or failure with a given systemic agent. The next decade is likely to see substantial improvements in the outcome of treatment for patients with stages I-III non-small cell lung cancer, based on the systemic exploration of combined modalities.  (+info)

In this phase III trial, 243 high risk patients were randomised to receive adjuvant pelvic radiation therapy (RT) (n = 116) alone vs RT and concurrent chemoradiation therapy (n = 127).r High risk patients were defined as stage 1A2, 1B or 2A cervical malignancy with any of the following: positive pelvic lymph node, positive parametrium or positive surgical margin. Patients receiving RT were prescribed a dose 49.3Gy in 29 fractions, and chemotherapy consisted of 4 cycles of cisplatin (70 mg/m2, day 1) and infusional 5FU (1000 mg/m2/day, days 1-4), with the first two cycles given concurrent with RT. The primary end point was overall survival, and secondary end points included progression-free survival, recurrence rates and toxicity. Data was analysed after a median follow-up of 42 months.. Patients receiving the CRT regimen vs RT alone had a statistically significant improvement in 4 year estimated progression-free survival (80% vs 63% respectively) and 4 year estimated overall survival 81% vs 71% ...
Overall survival (OAS) and disease-free survival (DFS) for TNBC patients who received 100% guideline-adherent adjuvant treatment, as stratified by age (|50 n
Disease-free survival curve (A) and overall survival curve (B) according to CD44s protein expression. CD44s expression correlates with a negative prognosis (A),
Bone Metastasis-Free Survival. The median follow-up was 67.2 months in the denosumab group and 67.3 months in the placebo group. Median bone metastasis-free survival was not reached in either group (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.82-1.14, P = .70). Bone metastasis-free survival events occurred in 13% of the denosumab group vs 14% of the placebo group, including bone events in 7% vs 8%. Median disease-free survival was not reached in either group (HR = 1.04, P = .57). Disease-free survival events occurred in 20% vs 19% of patients.. Adverse Events. The most common grade ≥ 3 adverse events were neutropenia (15% vs 15%), febrile neutropenia (5% vs 6%), and leukopenia (3% vs 3%). Positively adjudicated osteonecrosis of the jaw occurred in 5% vs , 1% of patients. Atypical femur fracture occurred in nine patients (, 1%) vs no patients. Hypocalcemia of any grade occurred in 7% vs 4%.. The investigators concluded, Despite preclinical evidence suggesting RANKL inhibition ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-term efficiency and toxicity of adjuvant dose-dense sequential adriamycin-paclitaxel-cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in high-risk breast cancer. AU - Kelemen, Gyöngyi. AU - Uhercsák, Gabriella. AU - Ormándi, Katalin. AU - Eller, József. AU - Thurzó, László. AU - Kahán, Zsuzsanna. PY - 2010/6/1. Y1 - 2010/6/1. N2 - Objectives: To perform a protocol-specified analysis of the dose-dense adriamycin-paclitaxel-cyclophosphamide (ddATC) study. Methods: Survival and late toxicity were analyzed in 55 patients enrolled to receive 4 × adriamycin 60 mg/m2, 4 × paclitaxel 200 mg/m2, 4 × cyclophosphamide 800 mg/m2, every 2 weeks, with cardioxane and filgrastim support. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to analyze relapse-free survival (RFS), distant disease-free survival (DDFS), and overall survival (OS). Survival analyses were performed according to the presence of casting-type calcifications on the mammogram. Results: After a median follow-up time of 78.5 (64.3-100.0) months, 29 ...
Find the Median Progression-Free Survival in patients with HER2+ unresectable or mBC. See Full Safety and Prescribing Information, Including BOXED WARNING.
response rate, stable disease rate evaluated by RECIST criteria, median overall and disease-free survival time, 1-year overall and disease-free survival rate, toxicity and time to disease ...
The major efficacy outcome was progression-free survival assessed by independent review committee. The median progression-free survival was not reached in either group. After median follow-up of 28 months, progression-free survival events occurred in 13% of the venetoclax group vs 37% of the control group, demonstrating a significant improvement in the venetoclax group (hazard ratio = 0.33, P , .0001). Overall response rates were 85% in the venetoclax group vs 71% in the control group (P = .0007). The venetoclax group also had improvements in the rates of minimal residual disease negativity (less than 1 CLL cell/104 leukocytes) in bone marrow (57% vs 17%) and peripheral blood (76% vs 35%). Overall survival data were not mature.. How It Works. Venetoclax is a selective small-molecule inhibitor of the antiapoptotic protein BCL2. BCL2 has been found to be overexpressed in CLL and acute myeloid leukemia cells, where it mediates tumor cell survival and has been associated with resistance to ...
Initially, patients in the trials were given a series of up to six inoculations of NeuVax dosed once a month. As the trials progressed, the physicians noticed that E75-specific immunity waned after this initial monthly Primary Vaccine Series (PVS) and translated to late recurrences of cancer in some patients. This declining immunity was identified by monitoring the level of CD8 T-cells in each of the patients. Through this evaluation, it became clear that immunological boosters would keep the level of circulating E75-specific CD8+ T cells elevated during the conduct of the trial. As a result of this finding, a voluntary booster program was added to the trials to maintain long-term immunity following the initial monthly PVS ...
SAN ANTONIO, Dec. 07, 2017 -- Cascadian Therapeutics, Inc. (NASDAQ:CASC), a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company, today announced that tucatinib in combination with standard of care agents demonstrated prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) in a subgroup of patients participating in two ongoing Phase 1b studies. Results from a subgroup analysis from these tucatinib combination studies showed 22 percent…
Drs. H. Jack West, Matthew Gubens, and Jyoti Patel, gathered post ASCO 2017 to discuss new information regarding lung cancer. In this video, the doctors discuss Improved Progression-Free Survival with Iressa as Adjuvant Therapy for EGFR Mutation Positive Patients.
All analyses were performed based on the intention-to-treat principle, irrespective of process compliance, but five individuals in the intermediate-dosage group and four in the high-dosage group were excluded as ineligible . Cox regression analysis was used to investigate the effects of treatment group and covariates on event-free survival and general survival. These analyses were performed […]. ...
KEYTRUDA (pembrolizumab) in Combination w/Chemo Significantly Improved Progression-Free Survival Compared to Chemo Alone for Extensive Stage SCLC
Antigenics has announced top-line results from its Phase III study of Oncophage (vitespen) in kidney cancer patients who are at high risk of recurrence after surgery. The analysis was triggered based on the number of events (defined as recurrence of disease or death of a patient prior to recurrence) reported by study investigators. However, an independent review by the trials clinical events committee (CEC) revealed that a substantially smaller number of events had actually occurred. The analysis showed a trend in favor of Oncophage for recurrence-free survival (the studys primary endpoint), and a trend against Oncophage for overall survival (secondary endpoint); both findings were not statistically significant. The results of the CEC review revealed that the required number of events to conduct analysis of the recurrence-free survival endpoint was not met. The analysis of the overall survival endpoint is considered an interim assessment. At this time, it is unclear as to why opposing trends ...
The size, stage, rate of growth, and other characteristics of the tumor determine the kinds of treatment. Treatment may include surgery, drugs (hormonal therapy and chemotherapy), radiation and/or immunotherapy. Surgical removal of the tumor provides the single largest benefit, with surgery alone being capable of producing a cure in many cases. To somewhat increase the likelihood of long-term disease-free survival, several chemotherapy regimens are commonly given in addition to surgery. Most forms of chemotherapy kill cells that are dividing rapidly anywhere in the body, and as a result cause temporary hair loss and digestive disturbances. Radiation is indicated especially after breast conserving surgery and substantially improves local relapse rates and in many circumstances also overall survival. Some breast cancers are sensitive to hormones such as estrogen and/or progesterone, which makes it possible to treat them by blocking the effects of these hormones ...
An independent review of the Dalmatian Backcross Project conducted by Irvin B. Kruckenkamp MD, Dalmatian Club of America Foundation
566 pts were contemporaneously randomised: 189 SOC+DocP (the last of 592 SOC+DocP pts) & 377 SOC+AAP (the first of 960 SOC+AAP pts). Groups were well balanced with 342 (60%) M1; 429 (76%) Gleason 8-10; 449 (79%) WHO PS 0; median age 66yr & PSA 56ng/ml. At median follow up 4 yr, there were 149 deaths (45 SOC+Doc, 111 SOC+AAP): survival HR 1.16 (0.82-1.65); failure free survival HR = 0.51 (0.39-0.67); progression free survival HR 0.65 (0.48-0.88); metastases free survival HR 0.77 (0.57-1.03); & SRE HR 0.83 (0.55-1.25). There was no heterogeneity by baseline M0/M1. Grade 3, 4, 5 toxicity was 36%, 13%, 1% SOC+DocP, & 40%, 7%, 1% SOC+AAP. Subsequent treatments varied by arm, with much crossing after progression.. ...
New Data Evaluating the Safety and Preliminary Relapse-Free Survival of Adjuvant Yervoy (ipilimumab) 3 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg in Resected High-Risk Melano
Reviews of the best places to buy PhenQ. Make sure youre getting quality product. Does GNC, Amazon or Walmart sell it? Are there coupons and price savings?
Disease-free survival and infection assessed monthly for 6 months, every 3 months for 2 years, every 6 months for 1 year, and then yearly for 5 years post ...
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ਓਸਮੀਅਮ (ਯੂਨਾਨੀ ਓਸਮੇ (ὀσμή) ਭਾਵ ਗੰਧ ਤੋਂ) ਇੱਕ ਰਸਾਇਣਕ ਤੱਤ ਹੈ ਜਿਹਦਾ ਨਿਸ਼ਾਨ Os ਅਤੇ ਐਟਮੀ ਸੰਖਿਆ 76 ਹੈ। ਇਹ ਪਲੈਟੀਨਮ ਪਰਵਾਰ ਦੀ ਇੱਕ ਸਖ਼ਤ, ਕੁੜਕਵੀਂ, ਨੀਲੀ-ਚਿੱਟੀ ਪਰਿਵਰਤਨ ਧਾਤ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਸਭ ਤੋਂ ਘਣਾ ਕੁਦਰਤੀ ਤੱਤ ਹੈ। ਇਹ ਕੁਦਰਤੀ ਤੌਰ ਉੱਤੇ ਜ਼ਿਆਦਾਤਰ ਧਾਤ-ਮਿਸ਼ਰਨ ਵਜੋਂ ਪਾਇਆ ਜਾਂ ਦਾ ਹੈ, ਖ਼ਾਸ ਕਰ ਕੇ ਪਲੈਟੀਨਮ ਦੀਆਂ ਕੱਚੀਆਂ ਧਾਤਾਂ ਵਿੱਚ। ...
ಜನವರಿ 2005ರಲ್ಲಿ, Lasco.A ಎಂದು ಹೆಸರಾದ ಸಂಚಾರಿ ದೂರವಾಣಿ ಜಾಹಿರಾತುರೂಪಿ ವರ್ಮ್‌ವೊಂದು Symbian OS (ಸೀರೀಸ್‌ 60 ವೇದಿಕೆ) ಬಳಸುವ ಸಂಚಾರಿ ದೂರವಾಣಿಗಳನ್ನು ಗುರಿಯಾಗಿಟ್ಟುಕೊಂಡು Bluetooth-ಸಶಕ್ತ ಸಾಧನಗಳನ್ನು ಬಳಸಿಕೊಂಡು ವೃದ್ಧಿಯಾಗತೊಡಗಿದುದಲ್ಲದೇ ಮತ್ತು ಇತರ ಸಾಧನಗಳಿಗೆ ಹರಡತೊಡಗಿತು. ಇದೊಂದು ಸ್ವಯಂ-ಸ್ಥಾಪಕ ವರ್ಮ್‌ ಆಗಿದ್ದು ಇನ್ನೊಂದು ಸಂಚಾರಿ ದೂರವಾಣಿ ಬಳಕೆದಾರರು ಇನ್ನೊಂದು ಸಾಧನದಿಂದ (ವೆಲಾಸ್ಕೊ.ಸಿಸ್‌) ಕಡತ ವರ್ಗಾವಣೆಗೆ ಒಪ್ಪಿಗೆ ಸೂಚಿಸಿದೊಡನೆ ...
In this prospectively identified cohort of parous women with IBC, we found that a positive breastfeeding history decreases the risks of LRR and DM and, accordingly, that women with a positive breastfeeding history have significantly improved DFS, even after well-defined predictive and prognostic variables are accounted for.. To date, there are no defined molecular alterations or signatures with adequate sensitivity and specificity to discriminate IBC from non-IBC. A potential explanation is that IBC is not a unique molecular entity but rather a manifestation of non-IBC that arises in a microenvironment primed to promote the IBC phenotype [8]. Thus, studies aimed at understanding the IBC microenvironment, and even properties of the normal breast parenchyma that exist before a tumor-initiating event, may illuminate the pathobiology of IBC.. The mammary epithelium undergoes massive expansion during pregnancy, and studies in mice have demonstrated that the abundance of mammary stem cells also ...
In the first study, the primary endpoint was response rate, and secondary endpoints were time to disease progression, progression-free survival, overall survival and safety. This was met with patients receiving amrubicin demonstrating an overall response rate of 34 percent, compared to 3.8 percent of patients receiving topotecan and the median progression-free survival time for amrubicin patients is 138 days compared to 106 days for topotecan. In the second multi-center international study, patients with SCLC who were refractory to first-line platinum based chemotherapy were treated with IV amrubicin . The primary endpoint was response rate, and secondary endpoints were time to disease progression, progression-free survival, overall survival and safety. The overall response rate for the study was 17.4 percent with one complete response, which compares favorably with those seen historically with topotecan. Additionally, median progression-free survival is 97 days. Amrubicin is generally well ...
The treatment of Ph-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) has entranced tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) era. Currently both imatinib and dasatinib are registered as the front-line treatment for Ph+ ALL, and the other 2nd-generation TKIs are suggested as an alternative for those who failed the first-line treatment. However, it remains unclear who could benefit from the 2nd-generation TKIs as the first-line treatment for Ph+ ALL. In this study we compared the efficacy and safety of the 1st and 2nd-generation TKIs in the front-line treatment of Ph+ ALL and found a trend toward better disease-free survival (DFS) in the 2nd-generation TKIs group, though no significant difference in early response and long-term survival between the two groups ...
Several imaging studies have demonstrated strong correlations between infarct size and adverse outcomes in patients with acute MI.29-32 Wu et al31 reported significant associations of the extent of MI and microvascular obstruction by CMR to subsequent cardiac events. Hombach et al32 described similar findings and also reported an association with adverse LV remodeling. Patients without a history of MI who present with cardiac symptoms represent a challenging population that can benefit from accurate risk assessment. Although we observed strong prognostic associations of the presence of LGE with MACE and cardiac mortality, the observed threshold effect, in which patients in the lowest LGE% tertile (,2% of the LV mass involved) experienced a ,7-fold hazard increase to MACE, has important clinical implications. This low threshold effect of LGE% on outcome is the anatomic representation of similar prior observations involving biomarkers of MI and risk of future cardiac events. Large-scale clinical ...
The team found that the transplantation rate was comparable between the Milan and down-staging groups, at 68% versus 67%, respectively. The researchers noted that the 1 and 3 years disease-free survival rates were comparable.. The 1 and 3 years disease-free survival rates were 80% and 71% in the Milan group versus 78% and 71% in the down-staging group. The actuarial intention-to-treat survival was 56% in the down-staging and 63% in the Milan group. Dr Ravaioli s team concluded, The proposed down-staging criteria provide a comparable outcome to the conventional criteria. ...
Results: There was no NEK2 expression in the normal pancreatic tissue, while in the 108 samples of pancreatic cancer tissue, high and low NEK2 expressions were found in 63 cases (58.3%) and 45 cases (41.7%), respectively. The NEK2 expression was significantly associated with CA19-9 level (P=0.015), TNM stage (P=0.002), tumor differentiation (P=0.034), and lymph node metastasis (P=0.043), but irrelevant to sex, age, smoking, CEA level, tumor size and tumor location (all P>0.05). The 1-, 3- and 5-year disease-free survival rates were 60.5%, 20.7% and 5.2% in patients with high NEK2 expression, and 75.4%, 50.6% and 24.9% in patients with low NEK2 expression, and the 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival rates were 75.6%, 42.2% and 15.3% in patients with NEK2 expression, and 85.7%, 60.6% and 30.1% in patients with low NEK2 expression, respectively. Both disease-free survival and overall survival rates in patients with high NEK2 expression were significantly lower than those in patients with low NEK2 ...
Roches blockbuster oncology drug Tecentriq (atezolizumab) met its primary endpoint of disease-free survival in its phase 3 lung cancer study evaluating the drug as an adjuvant therapy, according to an interim analysis. The company said its 1,005-participant phase 3 study, which is evaluating the drug in patients with resectable early stage lung cancer compared to best supportive care, is the first to show a cancer immunotherapy helped such patients live longer without seeing a return of their cancer. Specifically, the monoclonal antibody demonstrated a statistically . . .
The researchers examined the relationships between the inflammation biomarkers and both overall survival and disease-free survival. Overall survival was defined as the amount of time from the follow-up appointment until the patient died (from any cause) or the study period ended. Disease-free survival was defined as the amount of time from the follow-up appointment until the patients breast cancer returned, another, new cancer was diagnosed, the patient died, or the study period ended. The researchers found that elevated levels of both SAA and CRP were associated (statistically significant) with reduced overall survival. Women with high levels of SAA were three times as likely to die sooner, and women with high levels of CRP were two times as likely to die sooner. They found similar, but weaker, associations with disease-free survival, in that women with high levels of SAA were two times as likely to die of have their cancer return, and women with high levels of CRP were more than 1.5 times as ...
Purpose: The G1-S checkpoint of the cell cycle is frequently dysregulated in breast cancer. Palbociclib (PD0332991) is an oral inhibitor of CDK4/6. Based upon preclinical/phase I activity, we performed a phase II, single-arm trial of palbociclib in advanced breast cancer.. Experimental Design: Eligible patients had histologically confirmed, metastatic breast cancer positive for retinoblastoma (Rb) protein and measureable disease. Palbociclib was given at 125 mg orally on days 1 to 21 of a 28-day cycle. Primary objectives were tumor response and tolerability. Secondary objectives included progression-free survival (PFS) and assessment of Rb expression/localization, KI-67, p16 loss, and CCND1 amplification.. Results: Thirty-seven patients were enrolled; 84% hormone-receptor (HR)+/Her2−, 5% HR+/Her2+, and 11% HR−/Her2−, with a median of 2 prior cytotoxic regimens. Two patients had partial response (PR) and 5 had stable disease ≥ 6 months for a clinical benefit rate (CBR = PR + 6moSD) of 19% ...
Two agents blocking HER2 led to an additional six months of progression-free survival. Side effects were minimal with the addition of pertuzumab. Results published in the New England Journal of Medicine. SAN ANTONIO - Adding pertuzumab to a combination of trastuzumab and docetaxel chemotherapy extended progression-free survival by a median of 6.1 months in patients…
There was no statistical difference in the 8 year local recurrence free survival in patients with VNPI scores of 3 or 4, regardless of whether or not radiation therapy was used (100% vs. 97%; P = not significant). Patients with VNPI scores of 5, 6, or 7 received a statistically significant 17% local recurrence free survival benefit when treated with radiation therapy (85% vs. 68%; P = 0.017). Patients with scores of 8 or 9, although showing the greatest relative benefit from radiation therapy, experienced local recurrence rates in excess of 60% at 8 years. Conclusions: ...
Provide an updated and comprehensive evaluation of the prognostic value of the albumin-fibrinogen ratio (AFR) and the fibrinogen-prealbumin ratio (FPR) for patients with cancer. Four databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and WanFang) were searched. The primary endpoints were overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and progression-free survival (PFS). Pooled data were synthesized using StataMP 14 and expressed as hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). This update examined 19 studies (7282 cases) that assessed the correlation of AFR with cancer prognosis. Pooled univariate and multivariate analyses indicated significant correlations of low AFR with poor OS (HR 2.18, 95%CI 1.87-2.55 and HR 1.75, 95%CI 1.54-2.00, respectively), poor DFS (HR 1.89, 95%CI 1.54-2.32 and HR 1.51, 95%CI 1.29-1.76, respectively), and poor PFS (HR 1.68, 95%CI 1.42-1.99 and HR 1.48, 95%CI 1.16-1.88, respectively). Pooled univariate and multivariate analyses of 6 studies (2232 cases)
After matching at a 1:2 ratio, 150 patients were treated with CCRT and 75 with CCRT plus C were selected. The 3-year PFS rates (83.7% vs 72.0%, P = 0.036) and 3-year LRFS rates (98.6% vs 90.2%, P = 0.034) were higher for patients in the CCRT plus C arm than with CCRT alone. Furthermore, a marginal trend of increasing risk of 3-year DMFS rates (83.9% vs 78.4%, P = 0.301) and 3-year OS rates (91.2% vs 85.8%, P = 0.123) was found. The results indicated that CCRT plus C treatment was a significant and independent protective predictor for 3-year PFS (P = 0.015) and LRFS rates(P = 0.047). When focusing on stage T4 and/or N3 in the subgroup, the CCRT plus C arm achieved significantly prolonged 3-year PFS (79.9% vs 62.6%, P = 0.022) and a marginally increased OS (88.0% vs 77.9%, P = 0.086) compared with that of CCRT alone. Additionally, the 3-year LRFS (97.0% vs 90.9%, P = 0.246) and DMFS (79.9% vs 67.8%, P = 0.161) were enhanced in patients with CCRT plus C compared to CCRT alone. When concentrating on ...
TORONTO, June 2, 2014- Ibrutinib RESONATE(TM) Data Show Significant Improvements in Progression-Free Survival and Overall Survival in Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma.
Early markers have the greatest potential benefit but are also the most difficult to validate because they are furthest away from when the true OS outcome occurs.. An ideal marker for a future clinical trial must be reliable, consistent, unbiased and clinically relevant. So is PFS/DFS an ideal marker? A study published several years ago (JCO 2009, 27:5965) looked at all the definitions used for different outcomes in clinical trials. Depending on the particular trial, DFS was defined in many different ways statistically, but the way the same definitions were used was not consistent from trial to trial.. Another issue that comes up when using PFS is when the timing of the evaluation of an event is not consistent between different treatment arms. This can make it seem as if progression is happening earlier in one arm than another, when in reality it is simply being recorded earlier.. A third issue is differential censoring. Patients do not necessarily leave a clinical trial just because of ...
/CNW/ - New study results show that superior progression-free survival occurred in previously untreated patients with advanced melanoma when treated with a new...
Prolonging Progression-Free Survival With Obinutuzumab-Based Induction in Patients With Previously Untreated Follicular Lymphoma - ASH Annual Meeting, On Location - ASH Clinical News
Background: In HCC, hypoxia and MET can promote tumor progression and induce resistance to radiation, chemo or targeted therapies. The aim of this study was to correlate MET and hypoxia marker carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) expression levels by immunohistochemistry with clinicopathological characteristics and disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with HCC.. Material and methods: One-hundred HCC resection specimens were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for MET (clone sp44, Ventana) and CA9 (rabbit polyclonal) expression. For automated evaluation, we elaborated our own macro using ImageJ software, and compared it with H- and MetMab validated scores. METhigh and CA9high expression were defined as moderate to strong staining. Staining results were correlated with clinicopathological characteristics. Univariate analyses were performed using Fishers exact or chi square tests, and multivariate analyses using Cox regression model. Median DFS (mDFS) were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. MET ...
Novartis says late-stage clinical data show that its cancer drug Afinitor extended progression-free survival in patients with advanced nonfunctional neuroendocrine tumours (NET) of gastrointestinal or lung origin. - News - PharmaTimes
CNS Objective Response Rate. CNS Objective Response Rate. CNS Objective Response Rate. ORR in non-CNS. Progression Free Survival Rate. Clinical benefit rate. First Progression Rate (CNS versus non-CNS). Overall Survival (OS) Rate. Participants will be grouped as to whether or not their tumor has amplified Met. To evaluate the incidence of c-Met amplified circulating tumor cells at baseline. To evaluate potential plasma biomarkers of cabozantinib when given in combination with trastuzumab. To assess vascularity of CNS tumors, through descriptive analysis as a composite of tumor vessel size, cerebral blood volume, cerebral blood flow, perfusion, and diffusion before and after exposure to cabozantinib by research MRIs. To assess the number of participants with Adverse Events. ...
An important problem in oncology is comparing chemotherapy (chemo) agents in terms of their effects on survival or progression-free survival time. When the goal is to evaluate individual agents, a difficulty commonly encountered with observational data is that many patients receive a chemo combination including two or more agents. Because agents given in combination may interact, quantifying the contribution of each individual agent to the combinations overall effect is problematic. Still, if on average combinations including a particular agent confer longer survival, then that agent may be considered superior to agents whose combinations confer shorter survival. Motivated by this idea, we propose a definition of individual agent effects based on observational survival data from patients treated with many different chemo combinations. We define an individual agent effect as the average of the effects of the chemo combinations that include the agent. Similarly, we define the effect of each pair ...
In the control group patients experienced inhibition of myelopoiesis, toxic damage to the kidneys, myocardium, and liver, and signs of immunodeficiency. Under the influence of EIFT there was marked decrease in the degree of endotoxic syndrome. In the control group the most common grade 3-4 toxicity was neutropenia (32.6%) and the metabolic disorders (27.3%). After the EIFT grade 3-4 toxicities are no longer met, with the exception of alopecia. Median progression-free survival (PFS) in the group with EIFT was 7.2 months (95% CI 6.5-7.9), in the group with EIFT and plasmapheresis - 7.7 months (95% CI 7.2-8.2), and in the control group - 5.7 months, (95% CI 4.8-6.6), (p = 0.0031). Median overall survival (OS) in the group with EIFT was 13.5 months (95% CI 11.3-15.7), in the group with EIFT and plasmapheresis - 14.2 months (95% CI 12.1-16.3), and in the control group - 12.4 months (95% CI 10.8-13.9; p = 0.0027). Observable risk ratio (hazard ratio, HR) of progression in the group with EIFT (HR ...
The size, stage, rate of growth, and other characteristics of the tumor determine the kinds of treatment. Treatment may include surgery, drugs (hormonal therapy and chemotherapy), radiation and/or immunotherapy. Surgical removal of the tumor provides the single largest benefit, with surgery alone being capable of producing a cure in many cases. To somewhat increase the likelihood of long-term disease-free survival, several chemotherapy regimens are commonly given in addition to surgery. Most forms of chemotherapy kill cells that are dividing rapidly anywhere in the body, and as a result cause temporary hair loss and digestive disturbances. Radiation may be added to kill any cancer cells in the breast that were missed by the surgery, which usually extends survival somewhat, although radiation exposure to the heart may cause heart failure in the future. Some breast cancers are sensitive to hormones such as estrogen and/or progesterone, which makes it possible to treat them by blocking the effects ...
Purpose Adjuvant therapy for intermediate-risk and high-risk localized prostate cancer decreases the number of deaths from this disease. Surrogates for overall survival (OS) could expedite the evaluation of new adjuvant therapies. Methods By June 2013, 102 completed or ongoing randomized trials were …
Researchers reviewed the results of 18 studies that included 1638 patients with HPV-tested vulvar cancers, of which 541 were HPV-positive.
Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals and Onyx Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ ONXX) today announced the full results from their first collaborative group-sponsored ra
Results. Significant skin and lung function improvement of the mRSS was achieved in 78.3% of patients at Month 6. The overall response rate was 91%, as some patients improved even after Month 6. Three patients died between mobilization and conditioning treatment, 2 due to severe disease progression and 1 whose death was considered treatment-related (i.e., GCSF or CYC toxicity). Depending on definitions, transplant-related mortality was 4% and treatment-related mortality 11%. Seven patients experienced a relapse during the 4.4 years of followup. The progression-free survival was 74%. Four patients died during followup and the most frequent causes of death were pulmonary and cardiac complications of SSc. ...
Breast, Breast Cancer, Cancer, Cyclooxygenase, Cyclooxygenase-2, Developed Countries, Disease, Disease-free Survival, Estrogen, Human, Matrix Metalloproteinase-2, Membrane, Metastasis, Mt1-mmp, Multivariate Analysis, Neoplasm, Patients, Progesterone, Progesterone Receptor, Prognosis
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No significant difference in progression-free survival between patients who received maintenance therapy after bendamustine-rituximab induction.
Read independent reviews on Harvest Plate, White 96-Well Microplate with 1.2 µm poresize GF/C filter from PerkinElmer, Inc. on SelectScience
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which has been published with significant disease free survival rates. One of the largest studies in 1400 patients. has proven ... Randomized controlled studies in different cancers with significant increase in survival and disease free period have been ... May 1995). "Prolonged disease-free period in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer after adoptive transfer of tumor- ... Auto-Immune diseases like the Auto-Immune Hemolytic Anemia (AIHA) have been known to be associated with malignancies. In ...
The prognosis is comparatively good with a median survival of more than 8 years. The disease was named by Siegfried Oberndorfer ... Radionuclide therapy with 177-Lutetium-DOTA-Octreotate increases progression-free survival. Traditionally, the primary tumor ... has been surgically removed even in the case of metastatic disease, although this was in 2017 shown not to improve survival in ... Relatives of patients have an increased risk of developing the disease. The tumors often harbour loss of chromosome 18q. ...
... progression-free survival. The 10-year disease-free survival is 40-50%. Younger ages showed lower 5 and 10-year survival rates ... The 5-year disease-free survival for age >5 years is 50-60%. Another report found a similar 5-year survival at about 65% with ... progression-free and overall survival. Some evidence suggests chromosome 6q25.3 deletion may provide additional survival ... The protein nucleolin and expression of MMP2 and MMP14 have been found to inversely correlate with progression free survival in ...
The disease can tolerate warm or freezing temperature,[2] but favorable conditions for the disease include wet and humid ... Because the pathogen may still live in the soil, the use of clean seed is only effective if both the soil and seed are free of ... its survival rate is much greater when crop debris is present. However, the bacteria cannot survive on decomposing matter alone ... Bacterial leaf streak (BLS), also known as black chaff, is a common bacterial disease of wheat. The disease is caused by the ...
The disease cycle "starts" in the early spring as the oospores begin to germinate. Oospores are thick walled survival ... This spread can be limited by using proper sanitation before moving from an infected field to a disease free field. All of ... A cool environment also favors disease transmission. An integrated disease management program incorporating host resistance ... it requires free water to infect another plant. This disease is most prevalent in newly seeded fields that experience flooding ...
... a combination of docetaxel and prednisone improves survival rates and lengthens the disease-free period. Mitoxantrone is also ... It improves the survival rate of children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia relapse. The combination of mitoxantrone ... used to treat multiple sclerosis (MS), most notably the subset of the disease known as secondary-progressive MS. In the absence ...
When combined with low p27 and high p53, DFS (Disease-Free Survival) decreases.[34] ... "Journal of Thoracic Disease. 8 (9): 2580-2591. doi:10.21037/jtd.2016.08.82. PMC 5059354. PMID 27747012.. ... Marone M, Bonanno G, Rutella S, Leone G, Scambia G, Pierelli L (2002). "Survival and cell cycle control in early hematopoiesis ... news from an old disease". Vet. Pathol. 48 (1): 98-116. doi:10.1177/0300985810390826. PMID 21149845.. ...
Moalem, Sharon (2007). Survival of the sickest: a medical maverick discovers why we need disease (1st ed.). New York: William ... "Hypotrichosis-Lymphedema-Telangiectasia-Renal Defect Syndrome". Ramachandran, P.P. (May 17, 2015). "Inheritance". Free Press. " ... "Ripped Genes: Let's Talk Orphan Diseases". Medium. Human Disease Database. " ... Moalem's first book Survival of the Sickest was published in 2007 by William Morrow (HarperCollins). The book, co-written by ...
Radiation and/or chemotherapy had no significant effect in improving patients' disease-free survival. With developments in our ... In 1998 the largest study on the disease was a retrospective review with fifty-one patients. Of these fifty-one patients, no ... Using a chemotherapy regimen designed for another cancer is an archaic "guess-and-check" way of treating a disease. In 2008 the ... An important hallmark of cancer, Akt is part of the cell survival pathways by inhibiting apoptosis. There is also evidence that ...
In 1995 a multicenter study reported improved long-term and disease-free survival in melanoma patients using interferon alpha ... His results, published in 1985, indicated increased disease-free survival for the former group. Despite the initial pushback ... It has been known for at least 30 years that adjuvant chemotherapy increases the relapse-free survival rate for patients with ... The aim of adjuvant treatment is to improve disease-specific symptoms and overall survival. Because the treatment is ...
More severe skin toxicities were associated with improved progression free survival and overall survival. Pulmonary fibrosis ... Panitumumab was initially approved on September 27, 2006 for EGFR-expressing, metastatic CRC with disease progression on or ... "the treatment of EGFR-expressing metastatic colorectal cancer with disease progression" despite prior treatment. Panitumumab ... and interstitial lung disease were observed in clinical trials. Panitumumab does not work in patients who have KRAS or NRAS ...
However, radiotherapy for localized disease has given 5-year disease-free and overall survival rates of 76% and 96%, ... Disease-free rates found 5 and 10 years after these treatments are 57% and 43%, respectively. In disseminated disease, watchful ... Disease that moves past a localized stage to become disseminated, rapidly progressive disease, and symptomatic disease have ... and an estimated 5 year disease-free survival of 95%. Surgery plus radiotherapy does not appear to give better results that ...
Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and response rate (RR) were secondary endpoints. Eligible people were ... Demographics and baseline disease characteristics were similar between the two groups. The trial was stopped following a pre- ... as well as bortezomib plus melphalan and prednisone may result in a large increase in the progression-free survival. Gastro- ... and 1-year survival 80% vs 66%). New studies show that bortezomib may potentially help recover from vincristine treatment in ...
When there is free water in the soil, conditions are met for sporangia to be produced. As the disease cycle mentioned, ... Oospores are the survival structure of P. cactorum. Chlamydospores produce mycelium that continues to infect the plant. Pythium ... The disease is primarily a root rot that causes symptoms of foliar blight. Sporangia are produced on the mycelium and can ... Potting media should also be sterilized as spores and hyphae can survive in dust or free water. Being careful not to over water ...
This applies to both incidence and event-free survival. Likewise, SPINA-GT is elevated in a significant subgroup of patients ... In chronic NTIS as well as in certain non-critical chronic diseases, e.g. chronic fatigue syndrome or asthma SPINA-GT is ... free T4 or free T3. GT's specificity is also high in thyroid disorders of secondary or tertiary origin. Correlation of SPINA-GT ... In vivo, GT can also be estimated from equilibrium levels of TSH and T4 or free T4. In this case it is calculated with G ^ T = ...
Patients with non-localized (i.e. systemic Ann Arbor stage III and IV) disease who are free of symptoms have been treated with ... progression-free survival rate at 5 years. Frail stage III/IV patients have been successfully treated with rituximab or the ... celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and esophageal cancer ... Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, coronary artery disease, periodontitis, Parkinson's disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome, ...
It does not tell the individual patient's chance of survival. The main purpose of this calculation is to provide a value that ... SAPS II was designed to measure the severity of disease for patients admitted to Intensive care units aged 18 or more. 24 hours ... A free web-based SAPS II calculator is available at Clincalc.com. SAPS III Le Gall, JR; Lemeshow, S; Saulnier, F (1993). "A new ... SAPS II is a severity of disease classification system. Its name stands for "Simplified Acute Physiology Score", and is one of ...
"Profile of Immune Cells in Axillary Lymph Nodes Predicts Disease-Free Survival in Breast Cancer". PLOS Medicine. 2 (9): e284. ...
Numerous studies show a decreased overall survival and disease-free survival in those tumors overexpressing VEGF. The ... although the cause of disease and the typical source of neovascularization differs between the two diseases. VEGF-D serum ... VEGF-A plays a role in the disease pathology of the wet form age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which is the leading cause ... Overexpression of VEGF can cause vascular disease in the retina of the eye and other parts of the body. Drugs such as ...
PELP1 expression is an independent prognostic predictor of shorter breast cancer-specific survival and disease free interval. ... PELP1 is a proto-oncogene that provides cancer cells with a distinct growth and survival advantage. PELP1 interacts with ... PELP1 is a proto-oncogene that provides cancer cells with a distinct growth and survival advantage. PELP1 overexpression has ... activation of the AKT pathway and cytoplasmic PELP1 induces signaling pathways that converge on ERRγ to promote cell survival ...
ACC, generally, carries a poor prognosis, with an overall 5-year survival rate of about 50%. Five-year disease-free survival ... The FIRM-ACT trial demonstrated higher rates of response and longer progression-free survival with EDP + mitotane than with ... The 5-year survival rate after successful surgery is 50-60%, but unfortunately, many patients are not surgical candidates. ... "Diseases of the Adrenal Cortex: Adrenal Cancer". EndocrineWeb. Updated on: 04/14/16 Albano, Domenico; Agnello, Francesco; ...
The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 1.6 months and the stable disease rate was 48%. Patients with an ECOG score of 0 ... n=57) had a median PFS of 2.9 months and a stable disease rate of 59%. The median overall survival of all patients was 22 weeks ... BIBW 2992 inhibits survival of cancer cell lines and induces tumour regression in xenograft and transgenic lung cancer models, ... A placebo-controlled phase III study, examining overall survival in patients with advanced NSCLC treated with AMG 706 in ...
The addition of radiation to the entire neuraxis and chemotherapy may increase the disease-free survival. Some evidence ... The 20-year survival rate is 51% in children. Children and adults have different survival profiles, with adults faring worse ... The 5-year survival rate of patients with carboplatin was 82%, those without 68%. The European SIOP PNET 5 study is currently ... Decerebrate attacks appear late in the disease. Extraneural metastasis to the rest of the body is rare, and when it occurs, it ...
The trial measured the time patients lived without the cancer growing (progression-free survival or PFS). It was approved for ... and have demonstrated disease progression on the last therapy. It was granted orphan drug designation for multiple myeloma by ... The addition of isatuximab to pomalidomide and dexamethasone improved progression free survival to 11.5 months compared to 6.5 ... Treatment was administered in both groups in 28-day cycles until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Both subjects ...
It can survive without free water almost indefinitely, because it gets moisture from its food and dew that condenses on plants ... 1993). "Species survival plan contributions to research and reintroduction of the addax Addax nasomaculatus". International Zoo ... Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 29 (3): 516-7. doi:10.7589/0090-3558-29.3.516. PMID 8355363. S2CID 22059990. Spevak, E.M.; et al ... Craig, T.M. (1993). "Longistrongylus curvispiculum (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea) in free-ranging exotic antelope in Texas". ...
... trastuzumab-containing regimens improved overall survival (HR = 0.66) and disease-free survival (HR = 0.60).[medical citation ... The overall hazard ratios for overall survival and progression free survival were 0.82 and 0.61, respectively.[clarification ... "HER2 Disease in the Metastatic and Adjuvant Settings". Medscape Education. Archived from the original on 10 April 2011. ... Other severe side effects include heart failure, allergic reactions, and lung disease. Use during pregnancy may harm the baby. ...
... the median Progression-Free Survival was 9.4 months and the Duration of Response was 9.6 months. An overall response rate of 41 ... In a Phase 1/2 trial, in solid tumor patients refractory to standard therapy, response evaluation showed disease stabilization ... with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who have received at least four prior lines of therapy and whose disease is ... 15 and 22 of each 28-day cycle until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Efficacy was evaluated in a subpopulation of ...
January 2017). "Tumour-derived alkaline phosphatase regulates tumour growth, epithelial plasticity and disease-free survival in ... How these treatments compare with regards to overall survival or recurrence-free survival is unknown. Transurethral resection ... radical prostatectomy probably has similar outcomes for disease-specific survival and probably reduces risk of disease ... Older men (age 70-75) with low-grade disease had a roughly 20% overall survival at 15 years due to deaths from competing causes ...
... epithelial plasticity and disease-free survival in metastatic prostate cancer". British Journal of Cancer. 116 (2): 227-236. ... Thus, altered IAP expression has been implicated in chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It ... Concomitant increases of ALP with GGT should raise the suspicion of hepatobiliary disease. Some diseases do not affect the ... High levels of ALP in prostate cancer patients is associated with a significant decrease in survival. Levels are also elevated ...
The trial's primary endpoint was invasive disease-free survival (IDFS), defined as the time from the date of randomization to ... Interim results for TH3RESA suggest a doubling of progression-free survival from three months to six months. During clinical ... The study was designed to measure progression-free survival, the length of time patients lived without the cancer progressing, ... Results showed that patients treated with ado-trastuzumab emtansine had a median progression-free survival of 9.6 months ...
"The Survival of Cambodia's Ethnic Minorities". Cultural Survival. Retrieved 15 February 2018.. ... there he was diagnosed with Hodgkin's disease.[376] In mid-1984, Office 131 was moved to a new base further into Cambodia, near ... he believed in the ideal of an entirely self-sufficient and agrarian socialist society that would be entirely free from all ... in that it was seen as helping to build a socialist society free from private property, and pragmatic, in that it allowed the ...
The Burn Center and its staff were discussed in the book titled After the Fire: A True Story of Friendship and Survival by ... Free clinical education programs are prehospital care, emergency department & hospital programs, and nursing school program. ... the 3rd highest score in New Jersey for Kidney disease; and the 4th highest score in New Jersey for Cancer, Gynecology, and ... A True Story of Friendship and Survival, www.bn.com - accessed July 17, 2009 Graduate Medical Education at Saint Barnabas ...
Diseases and symptoms[edit]. Pneumonia is the most common of the S. pneumoniae diseases which include symptoms such as fever ... Engelmoer DJ, Rozen DE (December 2011). "Competence increases survival during stress in Streptococcus pneumoniae". Evolution. ... From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from S. pneumoniae). Jump to navigation Jump to search ... 16: Pneumococcal Disease". In Atkinson W; Wolfe S; Hamborsky J. Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases ( ...
"Ebola Virus Disease". SRHD. Retrieved 15 September 2020.. *^ a b c d "Q&A on Transmission, Ebola". Centers for Disease Control ... Archived from the original (Full free text) on 11 December 2010.. *. Ryabchikova, Elena I.; Price, Barbara B. (2004). Ebola and ... Early supportive care with rehydration and symptomatic treatment improves survival.[1] Rehydration may be via the oral or ... "About Ebola Virus Disease". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. ...
The prolonged survival made Minnie's case unique at the time. The reason behind this survival remains a mystery, since an ... Another diagnostic test used is the urinary free cortisol (UFC) test, which measures the excess cortisol excreted by the ... The disease is often diagnosed 3-6 years after the onset of illness.[19] Several studies have shown that Cushing's disease is ... Cases of Cushing's disease are rare, and little epidemiological data is available on the disease. An 18-year study conducted on ...
... through the End Stage Renal Disease Program) people of all ages with end-stage renal disease. The Medicare Program provides a ... "Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) Offer Free Or Low-Cost Health Coverage To Children And Families" ( ... indicating that Medicaid accessibility led to early detection of breast cancer and higher survival rates.[111] ... A 2019 National Bureau of Economic Research paper found that when Hawaii stopped allowing Compact of Free Association (COFA) ...
... coronary heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease, because they ate mostly lean meats and plants and frequently engaged in ... Each member of the group was skilled at all tasks essential to survival, regardless of individual abilities. Theories to ... From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search Paleo-Indians hunting a Glyptodon. Glyptodons were ... caused by other factors such as disease and overhunting by humans.[16][17] New research suggests that the extinction of the ...
Bassi, J. (2013). Pilot in the Wild: Flights of Conservation and Survival. South Africa: Jacana Media. pp. 116-8. ISBN 978-1- ... Diseases and parasitesEdit. The black wildebeest is particularly susceptible to anthrax, and rare and widely scattered ... The earliest known fossil remains are in sedimentary rock in Cornelia in the Orange Free State and date back about 800,000 ... Malignant catarrhal fever is a fatal disease of domestic cattle caused by a gammaherpesvirus. Like the blue wildebeest, the ...
Ischaemic Heart Disease (9.2%) 3. Lower respiratory infection (7%) 4. Diarrhoeal disease (3.3%) 5. Self harm (3%) 6. ... Immunization services can be obtained at free of cost from EPI clinics in hospitals, other health centers, mobile and outreach ... Malnutrition remains a serious obstacle to child survival, growth and development in Nepal. The most common form of ... Disease prevalence is higher in Nepal than it is in other South Asian countries, especially in rural areas. Moreover, the ...
As survival following the procedure has increased, its use has expanded beyond cancer to autoimmune diseases[4][5] and ... be intentionally selected by preimplantation genetic diagnosis in order to match a child both regarding HLA type and being free ... Graft-versus-host disease[edit]. Main article: Graft-versus-host disease. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is an inflammatory ... Veno-occlusive disease[edit]. Severe liver injury can result from hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD). Elevated levels of ...
"Afatinib (BIBW 2992*) Triples Progression Free Survival in Phase III Study in Lung Cancer Patients". BusinessWire. 11 October ... Interstitial lung disease. Mechanism of action[edit]. Like lapatinib and neratinib, afatinib is a protein kinase inhibitor that ... Fall 2010 interim results suggested the drug extended progression-free survival threefold compared to placebo, but did not ... analysis of overall survival data from two randomised, phase 3 trials". The Lancet. Oncology. 16 (2): 141-51. doi:10.1016/s1470 ...
Disease has to be very virulent to kill off all the individuals in a genus or species, and even such a virulent disease as West ... The report says some 25% of the earth's ice-free land is used for cattle grazing.[183] A 2020 study published in Nature ... "more than 1,200 species globally face threats to their survival in more than 90% of their habitat and will almost certainly ... DiseaseEdit. The hyperdisease hypothesis, proposed by Ross MacPhee in 1997, states that the megafaunal die-off was due to an ...
Breathing allows oxygen (which humans and a lot of other species need for survival) to enter the lungs, from where it can be ... As such, it happens automatically (though there are exceptions in some disease states) and does not need conscious control or ... Look up inhalation or sniffing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.. *Exhalation. *Inhalant - psychoactive drugs consumed ...
Sistrunk procedure results in a 95% cure rate and 95-100% long-term survival.[17] ... Thyroid disease. *Persistent thyroglossal duct. *Thyroglossal cyst. *Congenital hypothyroidism *Thyroid dysgenesis. *Thyroid ... From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search Thyroglossal cyst. ...
Addison's disease. Addison's disease is (as of 20 August 2007) the illness most commonly reported to the Poodle Health Registry ... The dog's survival usually depends on whether the owner can get to a veterinarian in time.[citation needed] GDV risk is ... though not completely allergen free).[53][54] The poodle does shed, but instead of the fur coming off the dog, it becomes ... The number of reported cases is nearly twice as high as the next most common problem (GDV). Addison's disease is characterized ...
Survival rates in primary brain tumors depend on the type of tumor, age, functional status of the patient, the extent of ... Hourigan CS (2006). "The molecular basis of coeliac disease". Clin Exp Med (Review). 6 (2): 53-59. doi:10.1007/s10238-006-0095- ... More generally a neoplasm may cause release of metabolic end products (e.g., free radicals, altered electrolytes, ... The central nervous system cancer survival rate in children is approximately 60%. The rate varies with the type of cancer and ...
Hurtado, Albert L. (1988). Indian Survival on the California Frontier. Yale Western Americana series. New Haven: Yale ... mostly due to disease.[10] Epidemics swept through California Indian Country, such as the 1833 malaria epidemic.[16] ... From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from Californian tribes). Jump to: navigation, search ... Their introduction of European invasive plant species and non-native diseases resulted in unintended havoc and high fatalities ...
Symptoms of disease are more severe in males, who are generally diagnosed in early childhood. Children afflicted by CLS display ... and the survival of nerve cells. The protein RSK2 which is encoded by the RPS6KA3 gene is a kinase which phosphorylates some ... The prevalence of CLS is uncertain due to the rarity of the disease, but CLS is estimated to affect between 1 in 50,000 and 1 ... In 20-30% of cases, however, there is a family history of disease. In these cases, the disorder is typically inherited from the ...
"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 6 (9): e1839. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001839. PMC 3459880 . PMID 23029594.. ... The fetus has only a one in ten chance of survival no matter what course of action is taken; hence, the focus is always on ... Descriptions of the disease date from the 1950s.[1] The virus was first described in 1969 from a case in the town of Lassa, in ... The disease is usually initially spread to people via contact with the urine or feces of an infected multimammate rat.[1] ...
... disease had become the most common cause of death.[205] Disease-related mortality then continued to take its toll through early ... Firms were required to sell goods to the military on credit and at fixed, low prices.[88] However, firms were left free to ... Very often, these girls lived in constant fear of injury or death, but the brothels were their sole means of survival.[262] ... and provided a more hospitable environment for water-borne diseases such as cholera and malaria. Such diseases clustered around ...
Today, bone marrow transplantation still offers the only cure for sickle cell disease. Members of Kappa Alpha Psi reach out to ... Jude was established, the survival rate for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the most common type of childhood cancer, has ... "SpaceX Teams up with St Jude & Shift4 to Offer Free Trip to Space". Spaceflight Insider. ... Since that time, members across the country have joined in the fight against pediatric cancer, sickle cell disease, and other ...
Commonly, more than two visits are made, particularly if estimates of survival or movement are desired. Regardless of the total ... probability q that a passenger with the disease came from such an area, where q,0.5), or low rates (probability 1-q).[14] It ... The "capture histories" generated are analyzed mathematically to estimate population size, survival, or movement.[5] ... an animal disease) occurs in the high-risk versus the low-risk sector.[13] For example, an application of the model in the ...
... strides have been made in improving the survival of individuals affected with Alpha-1 through AlphaNet's Alpha-1 Disease ... The single cysteine residue of A1AT in position 256 (UniProtKB nomenclature) is found to be covalently linked to a free single ... The results of this program were first documented in the Effects of a Disease Management Program in Individuals with Alpha-1 ... Axelsson and Laurell first investigated the possibility of allelic variants of A1AT leading to disease in 1965. Alpha 1- ...
These pollutants can cause gastrointestinal cancers and greater vulnerability to infectious diseases.[102] They can also be ... but increases the survival probability of each one. Females, referred to as "cows", carry the responsibility of childcare as ... From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about a marine mammal. For other uses ... Subsistence hunters typically use whale products for themselves and depend on them for survival. National and international ...
A common example of pleiotropy is the human disease phenylketonuria (PKU). This disease causes mental retardation and reduced ... pleiotropy would facilitate mating and survival. However, pleiotropy can act negatively as well. A study on seed beetles found ... From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from Pleiotropic). Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about ... "Complications and Treatments , Sickle Cell Disease". CDC. Retrieved 2016-11-11.. *^ a b c d "Marfan Syndrome". National ...
Paterson, Sue (December 17, 2007). Skin Diseases of Exotic Pets. Blackwell Science, Ltd. pp. 74-79. ISBN 9780470752432. .. ... Garnett, S. T. (2009). "Metabolism and survival of fasting Estuarine crocodiles". Journal of Zoology. 4 (208): 493-502. doi: ... Brodie III, Edmund D (1993). "Differential avoidance of coral snake banded patterns by free-ranging avian predators in Costa ... Hellebuyck, Tom; Pasmans, Frank; Haesbrouck, Freddy; Martel, An (July 2012). "Dermatological Diseases in Lizards". The ...
"Immigration Museum (2010) Survival of a culture: Kurds in Australia" (PDF). Museumvictoria.com.au. Archived from the original ( ... Kurdish-inhabited Afrin Canton has been occupied by Turkish Armed Forces and Turkish-backed Free Syrian Army since the Turkish ... It is estimated that close to 20,000 Kurds succumbed to death due to exhaustion, lack of food, exposure to cold and disease. On ... Leading characteristics, such as messianism, the Golden Rule, heaven and hell, and free will influenced other religious systems ...
"Pests and Diseases". Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 1 February 2019. Retrieved 15 February 2019.. ... Duration and survival of the pupal stage depend on the temperature of the environment.[15] ... Parasites and disease[edit]. Fifty-three different parasite species have been discovered in fall armyworm larvae, spanning ten ... "Southern and Eastern African countries agree on urgent actions to tackle armyworm and other crop pests and animal diseases". ...
Alzheimer's disease[edit]. Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with an inherited form of the disease may carry mutations in the ... "Two types of human malignant melanoma cell lines revealed by expression patterns of mitochondrial and survival-apoptosis genes ... From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search ‹ The template Infobox gene is being considered for ... These mutations result in early-onset Alzheimer's Disease, which is a rare form of the disease. These rare genetic variants are ...
... with infusion of hyperthermic chemotherapy may offer significant survival and symptomatic benefit for patients in this disease ... From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to: navigation, search This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or ... Diseases treated[edit]. *Thymoma and Thymic carcinoma: These tumors which arise from the thymus gland in the upper part of the ... The goal of surgical cytoreduction is to remove all gross disease including tumors that are in resectable areas of the lung or ...
Pharmacists in the breast cancer field discuss the role for disease-free survival as an end point and the implications of the ... Pharmacists in the breast cancer field discuss the role for disease-free survival as an end point and the implications of the ... Jacob Kettle, PharmD, BCOP: What are your thoughts on invasive disease-free survival as an end point and its limitations? Its ... This is an impromptu question, but how does that end point compare with more common end points like disease-free survival, just ...
... significantly improved disease-free survival in patients with a form of early-stage breast cancer. - News - PharmaTimes ... significantly improved disease-free survival in the adjuvant setting." He added: "in the first interim analysis, this novel ... significantly improved disease-free survival in patients with a form of early-stage breast cancer. ... AZ says its COVID-19 vaccine protects against severe disease caused by variants NHS England unveils new Innovative Medicine ...
22 %, p , 0.001). Five-year disease-free survival was 89.6 % for BRAFV600E positive and 96.3 % for negative tumours, p , 0.001 ... The primary outcome measure was disease-free survival. Secondary outcome measures were tumour size, nodal positivity and ... BRAFV600E Mutation is Associated with Decreased Disease-Free Survival in Papillary Thyroid Cancer. ... extra-thyroidal extension and reduced disease-free survival. It is an additional useful prognostic biomarker. ...
Adding denosumab to adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy improved disease-free survival for postmenopausal patients with early- ... Denosumab improves disease-free survival for postmenopausal patients w HR+ breast cancer Previous results from ABCSG-18 showed ... Denosumab improves disease-free survival for postmenopausal patients w HR+ breast cancer. American Association for Cancer ... Title: The Impact of Adjuvant Denosumab on Disease-Free Survival: Results from 3,425 Postmenopausal Patients of the ABCSG-18 ...
Vaccine Increases Disease-Free Survival for Follicular Lymphoma Patients. MD Anderson News Release 05/31/2011 ... A lymphoma vaccine uniquely tailored for each patient extends disease-free survival by 14 months, with signs of an even better ... extending disease-free survival time from 28.7 months to 52.9 months. While those results need to be confirmed in randomized ... "Survival of follicular lymphoma patients has improved with newer types of chemotherapy, but advanced-stage disease still is ...
... progression-free survival was 2.2 months versus 6 percent and 1.6 months. ... All of the patients in the melanoma vaccine trial had advanced disease that had spread to other organs. ... Secondary endpoints included toxic effects of the treatment and survival without progression of melanoma. ...
... drug zoledronic acid plus hormonal therapy with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole significantly increases disease-free survival ... Zoledronic acid increases disease-free survival in premenopausal women with HR+ early breast cancer. *Download PDF Copy ... Disease-free survival was significantly improved in patients randomized to zoledronic acid plus letrozole compared to those ... giving a 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) probability of 0.93. There were 58 events in patients treated with tamoxifen and 44 ...
Adding denosumab to adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy improved disease-free survival for postmenopausal patients with early- ... Adjuvant denosumab improves disease-free survival for postmenopausal women with early-stage, HR+ breast cancer. *Download PDF ... Adding denosumab to adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy improved disease-free survival for postmenopausal patients with early- ... and was based on only 370 disease-free survival events. Therefore, it does not provide perfectly undisputable statistical ...
BiovaxID prolonged median disease-free survival by more than a year in a subset of patients who maintained complete remission ... BiovaxID prolonged median disease-free survival by more than a year in a subset of patients who maintained complete remission ... BiovaxID prolonged median disease-free survival by more than a year in a subset of patients who maintained complete remission ... Patients treated with the patient-specific vaccine had a median of 14 months longer disease-free survival than with those who ...
The researchers examined overall survival, disease-free survival, disease-specific survival and progression-free survival.. The ... In addition, disease-free, disease-specific and progression-free survival pointed toward more favorable outcomes among women ... HPV Status Linked to Overall and Disease-Free Survival in Vulvar Cancer. Women with vulvar cancer who test positive for human ... publications/cure/2018/womens-cancers-2018/hpv-status-linked-to-overall-and-diseasefree-survival-in-vulvar-cancer ...
From each of the three groups, 80% of the cases (342, 283 and 238 cases of 1-, 3- and 5-year disease-free survival, ... Data for 427, 354 and 297 HCC patients with histories of 1-, 3- and 5-year disease-free survival after hepatic resection, ... This study demonstrated the feasibility of using ANNs in medical decision support systems for predicting disease-free survival ... and 5-year disease-free survival based on a set of clinical parameters for this patient group. Methods The three prediction ...
... statin use may be beneficial for preventing physical disability and CVD but not beneficial for prolonging disability-free ... survival or avoiding death or dementia. Future clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings. ... dementia-free and disability-free survival, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) among healthy older adults using data from the ... Association of Statin Use With Disability-Free Survival and Cardiovascular Disease Among Healthy Older Adults J Am Coll Cardiol ...
... may have improved survival compared with HPV-negative patients, according to the results of a new study. ... The researchers examined overall survival, disease-free survival, disease-specific survival and progression-free survival. ... In addition, disease-free, disease-specific and progression-free survival pointed toward more favorable outcomes among women ... HPV Status Linked to Overall and Disease-Free Survival in Vulvar Cancer. @media screen and (max-width: 468px) { .video-detail . ...
Samson, Kurt The tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib appears to offer a small improvement in progression-free survival in ... SCLC: Evidence that Maintenance Sunitinib Can Extend Progression-Free Survival in Patients with Extensive Disease ...
Personalized Vaccine for Lymphoma Patients Extends Disease-Free Survival by Nearly Two Years. February 12, 2017. by Gady ... The 76 patients treated with the vaccine had a median disease-free survival of 44.2 months, compared to 30.6 months for the 41 ... Home » Cancers » Personalized Vaccine for Lymphoma Patients Extends Disease-Free Survival by Nearly Two Years ... disease-free survival is improved by nearly two years, compared with patients who receive a placebo. Based on the new analysis ...
Disease-Free Survival Dose Fractionation Female Hodgkin Disease - radiotherapy Humans Incidence Kaplan-Meier Estimate ... Acute Disease Adolescent Adult Disease-Free Survival Estonia - epidemiology Female Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation ... Disease-Free Survival Female Finland Graft Rejection Graft Survival Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation - adverse effects ... Acute Disease Age Distribution Child Child, Preschool Disease-Free Survival Down Syndrome - complications - epidemiology - ...
A Phase II Randomized Trial Evaluating the Effect of Trastuzumab on Disease Free Survival in Early Stage HER2-Negative Breast ... Effect of Trastuzumab on Disease Free Survival in Early Stage HER2-Negative Breast Cancer Patients With ERBB2 Expressing ... to these patients may result in the elimination of HER2 expressing disseminated tumor cells and improved disease free survival. ... Breast Diseases. Skin Diseases. Paclitaxel. Docetaxel. Liposomal doxorubicin. Albumin-Bound Paclitaxel. Cyclophosphamide. ...
S. G. Holtan, T. E. DeFor, A. Lazaryan et al., "Composite end point of graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival ... Prognostic Factors on the Graft-versus-Host Disease-Free and Relapse-Free Survival after Adult Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem ... A. Jalali, K. Alimoghaddam, M. Mahmoudi et al., "The EBMT risk score in the presence of graft versus host disease in allogeneic ... P. Ljungman, M. Hakki, and M. Boeckh, "Cytomegalovirus in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients," Infectious Disease ...
The 1- and 2-year GRFS were 40.8% and 36.5%, respectively, significantly worse than overall survival and disease-free survival ... Prognostic Factors on the Graft-versus-Host Disease-Free and Relapse-Free Survival after Adult Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem ... including graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), relapse, and death. A novel composite endpoint of GVHD-free/relapse-free survival ( ... or death is censored to completely characterize the survival without mortality or ongoing morbidity. In this regard, studies ...
... as well as to disease-free survival, 5-year rates of local failure and distant disease after preoperative radiochemotherapy and ... High survivin expression is associated with reduced apoptosis in rectal cancer and may predict disease-free survival after ... Survivin expression may provide a novel predictive indicator for disease-free survival after preoperative radiochemotherapy and ... Low survivin expression was significantly related to an increased disease-free survival rate (77% vs 18% at 5 years in tumors ...
OS and disease-free survival according to breast density. The figure shows OS (A) and disease-free survival (B) of women with ... Survival and Disease-Free Survival by Breast Density and Phenotype in Interval Breast Cancers. Maria Sala, Laia Domingo, Javier ... Survival curves were generated by using the Kaplan-Meier method and were compared by the log-rank test. Disease-free survival ... Background: We aimed to evaluate survival and disease-free survival in different subtypes of interval cancers by breast density ...
Survival and disease-free survival by breast density and phenotype in interval breast cancers. Maria Sala, Laia Domingo, Javier ... Survival and disease-free survival by breast density and phenotype in interval breast cancers ... Background:We aimed to evaluate survival and disease-free survival in different subtypes of interval cancers by breast density ... Survival and disease-free survival by breast density and phenotype in interval breast cancers ...
We evaluated whether circulating angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) is a predictor for the probability of disease-free survival ( … ... Angiopoietin-2 predicts disease-free survival after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with high-risk myeloid ... We evaluated whether circulating angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) is a predictor for the probability of disease-free survival (DFS) in ...
Disease-free, Overall Survival Inferior for Black Women with HR-positive Breast Cancer. ... SAN ANTONIO - Black women with hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer had worse disease-free and overall survival, ... "Black women had a higher risk for disease recurrence and inferior survival compared with women of other races," said Joseph A. ... likely explained by their higher incidence of more advanced-stage disease, more aggressive triple-negative disease, disparities ...
Does lung cancer screening with low-dose computerised tomography (LDCT) improve disease-free survival?. * Report By: Ian Hunt, ... improving disease-free survival]. ...
Progression-Free,Survival,and,Disease,Control,in,Metastatic,Colorectal,Cancer,Patients,medicine,advanced medical technology, ... The improvement in progression-free survival and response rateexpand...As previously reported the studys primary endpoint of ... Randomized Phase III Trial Showed Erbitux Significantly Improved,Secondary Endpoints of Progression-Free Survival and Disease, ... Patients who received irinotecan alone experienced median overall survival of 9.99 months and median progression-free survival ...
Colorectal cancer is common and survival is strongly related to the stage of the disease at diagnosis.(Early detection of ... Chicago style: The Free Library. S.v. Colorectal cancer is common and survival is strongly related to the stage of the disease ... MLA style: "Colorectal cancer is common and survival is strongly related to the stage of the disease at diagnosis.." The Free ... 2) Survival is strongly related to the stage of the disease at diagnosis. Where the cancer is locally confined, survival of ...
DNA copy number alterations, gene expression changes and disease-free survival in patients with colorectal cancer: a 10 year ... Colorectal cancer DNA copy number alterations Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) Gene expression alterations Disease-free ... histopathological parameters were assessed with the aim to identify molecular signatures associated with disease-free survival ... Association of survival and disease progression with chromosomal instability: a genomic exploration of colorectal cancer. Proc ...
A five-year disease-free survival after combined hepatectomy and radiofrequency ablation of large hepatocellular carcinoma ... "A five-year disease-free survival after combined hepatectomy and radiofrequency ablation of large hepatocellular carcinoma ... "A five-year disease-free survival after combined hepatectomy and radiofrequency ablation of large hepatocellular carcinoma ... Article A five-year disease-free survival after combined hepatectomy and radiofrequency ablation of large hepatocellular ...
... met its primary endpoint of disease-free survival in its phase 3 lung cancer study evaluating the drug as an adjuvant therapy, ... Roches Tecentriq Improves Disease-Free Survival of Lung Cancer Patients in Phase 3 Trial. March 23, 2021 ... Roches blockbuster oncology drug Tecentriq (atezolizumab) met its primary endpoint of disease-free survival in its phase 3 ... Home » Roches Tecentriq Improves Disease-Free Survival of Lung Cancer Patients in Phase 3 Trial ...

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