Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.AfricaTravel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Dracunculus Nematode: A genus of nematode parasites which inhabit the body cavity, serous membranes, and connective tissues of vertebrates. The parasitic species in humans is Dracunculus medinensis.Elephantiasis, Filarial: Parasitic infestation of the human lymphatic system by WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI or BRUGIA MALAYI. It is also called lymphatic filariasis.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Plasmodium: A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Dracunculiasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus Dracunculus. One or more worms may be seen at a time, with the legs and feet being the most commonly infected areas. Symptoms include pruritus, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or asthmatic attacks.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Fluorenes: A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Dengue Virus: A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Goiter, Endemic: A form of IODINE deficiency disorders characterized by an enlargement of the THYROID GLAND in a significantly large fraction of a POPULATION GROUP. Endemic goiter is common in mountainous and iodine-deficient areas of the world where the DIET contains insufficient amount of iodine.EuropeBrazilBalkan Nephropathy: A form of chronic interstitial nephritis that is endemic to limited areas of BULGARIA, the former YUGOSLAVIA, and ROMANIA. It is characterized by a progressive shrinking of the KIDNEYS that is often associated with uroepithelial tumors.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.IndiaGeography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)South AmericaLeishmaniasis, Visceral: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.PeruEurope, EasternRural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.EcuadorSeasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.ArgentinaMalaria, Vivax: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.PakistanSocioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.BangladeshSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Poliomyelitis: An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Disease Eradication: Termination of all transmission of infection by global extermination of the infectious agent through surveillance and containment (From Porta, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed).BoliviaVenezuelaMexicoTanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Sri LankaSpain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.ColombiaAge Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Coccidioidomycosis: Infection with a fungus of the genus COCCIDIOIDES, endemic to the SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with RIFT VALLEY FEVER. Infection is caused by inhalation of airborne, fungal particles known as arthroconidia, a form of FUNGAL SPORES. A primary form is an acute, benign, self-limited respiratory infection. A secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement. It can be detected by use of COCCIDIOIDIN.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.United StatesSchistosomiasis: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.Parasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Indonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)Pacific Islands: The islands of the Pacific Ocean divided into MICRONESIA; MELANESIA; and POLYNESIA (including NEW ZEALAND). The collective name Oceania includes the aforenamed islands, adding AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; and the Malay Archipelago (INDONESIA). (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p910, 880)ScandinaviaImmunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.VietnamKenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.ChileEchinococcosis: An infection caused by the infestation of the larval form of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The liver, lungs, and kidney are the most common areas of infestation.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.BulgariaNorth AmericaPlasmodium vivax: A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.Neglected Diseases: Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).Leishmania infantum: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.NepalPregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.TurkeyAge Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.PhilippinesOnchocerciasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus ONCHOCERCA. Characteristics include the presence of firm subcutaneous nodules filled with adult worms, PRURITUS, and ocular lesions.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Papua New Guinea: A country consisting of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and adjacent islands, including New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands, and New Hanover in the Bismarck Archipelago; Bougainville and Buka in the northern Solomon Islands; the D'Entrecasteaux and Trobriand Islands; Woodlark (Murua) Island; and the Louisiade Archipelago. It became independent on September 16, 1975. Formerly, the southern part was the Australian Territory of Papua, and the northern part was the UN Trust Territory of New Guinea, administered by Australia. They were administratively merged in 1949 and named Papua and New Guinea, and renamed Papua New Guinea in 1971.JapanMeasles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Wuchereria bancrofti: A white threadlike worm which causes elephantiasis, lymphangitis, and chyluria by interfering with the lymphatic circulation. The microfilaria are found in the circulating blood and are carried by mosquitoes.Schistosomiasis mansoni: Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni. It is endemic in Africa, the Middle East, South America, and the Caribbean and affects mainly the bowel, spleen, and liver.Central AmericaYugoslavia: Created as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes in 1918. Yugoslavia became the official name in 1929. BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA; CROATIA; and SLOVENIA formed independent countries 7 April 1992. Macedonia became independent 8 February 1994 as the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (MACEDONIA REPUBLIC).Psychodidae: Small, hairy, moth-like flies which are of considerable public health importance as vectors of certain pathogenic organisms. Important disease-related genera are PHLEBOTOMUS, Lutzomyia, and Sergentomyia.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.IranMelioidosis: A disease of humans and animals that resembles GLANDERS. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA PSEUDOMALLEI and may range from a dormant infection to a condition that causes multiple abscesses, pneumonia, and bacteremia.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.ItalyMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Aristolochia: A plant genus of the family ARISTOLOCHIACEAE. Species of this genus have been used in traditional medicine but they contain aristolochic acid which is associated with nephropathy. These are sometimes called 'snakeroot' but that name is also used with a number of other plants such as POLYGALA; SANICULA; ASARUM; ARISTOLOCHIA; AGERATINA; and others.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Africa, Eastern: The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Filariasis: Infections with nematodes of the superfamily FILARIOIDEA. The presence of living worms in the body is mainly asymptomatic but the death of adult worms leads to granulomatous inflammation and permanent fibrosis. Organisms of the genus Elaeophora infect wild elk and domestic sheep causing ischemic necrosis of the brain, blindness, and dermatosis of the face.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Fluoride PoisoningNew Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Islands: Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous: An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Iodine: A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.Phlebotomus: A genus of PSYCHODIDAE which functions as the vector of a number of pathogenic organisms, including LEISHMANIA DONOVANI; LEISHMANIA TROPICA; Bartonella bacilliformis, and the Pappataci fever virus (SANDFLY FEVER NAPLES VIRUS).Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Brucellosis: Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Mali: A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.Great BritainSerologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)RussiaMyanmar: A republic of southeast Asia, northwest of Thailand, long familiar as Burma. Its capital is Yangon, formerly Rangoon. Inhabited by people of Mongolian stock and probably of Tibetan origin, by the 3d century A.D. it was settled by Hindus. The modern Burmese state was founded in the 18th century but was in conflict with the British during the 19th century. Made a crown colony of Great Britain in 1937, it was granted independence in 1947. In 1989 it became Myanmar. The name comes from myanma, meaning the strong, as applied to the Burmese people themselves. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p192 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p367)Schistosomiasis haematobia: A human disease caused by the infection of parasitic worms SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM. It is endemic in AFRICA and parts of the MIDDLE EAST. Tissue damages most often occur in the URINARY TRACT, specifically the URINARY BLADDER.GermanyCost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Burkholderia pseudomallei: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes MELIOIDOSIS. It has been isolated from soil and water in tropical regions, particularly Southeast Asia.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Emigrants and Immigrants: People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.Economics: The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Ivermectin: A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Leishmaniasis: A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Asia, Central: The geographical area of Asia comprising KAZAKHSTAN; KYRGYZSTAN; TAJIKISTAN; TURKMENISTAN; and UZBEKISTAN. The desert region of Kara Kum (Qara Qum) is largely in Turkmenistan and the desert region of Kyzyl Kum (Kizil Kum or Qizil Qum), is in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p233, 590, 636)
History of Oman
The new sultan confronted insurgency in a country plagued by endemic disease, illiteracy, and poverty. One of the new sultan's ... ISBN 0905743636 A Country Study: Oman, chapter 6 Oman - Government and Politics, section: Historical Patterns of Governance. US ... In late 1987 Oman opened an embassy in Aden, South Yemen, and appointed its first resident ambassador to the country. Since his ... Britain seized most of the overseas possessions, and by 1900 Oman had become a different country than before. When Sultan Sa'id ...
... exists as a seasonal disease in many endemic countries, occurring annually mostly during rainy seasons. Surveillance ... in countries where this disease is endemic. If people are immunized broadly, herd immunity results, with a decrease in the ... A country's government can impact its ability to prevent disease and control its spread. A speedy government response backed by ... It is available in over 60 countries. However, it is not currently[when?] recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and ...
Individuals who are exposed to the parasite in endemic countries develop acquired immunity against disease and death. Such ... "Malaria: A Complex Disease that May Require a Complex Vaccine". Missing or empty ,title= (help) Good, M.; Kemp, D. "Overview of ... November 2007). "Safety of the RTS,S/AS02D candidate malaria vaccine in infants living in a highly endemic area of Mozambique: ... SPf66 a synthetic peptide based vaccine developed by Manuel Elkin Patarroyo team in Colombia was tested extensively in endemic ...
Child mortality in Ghana
Historically, Ghana has the full range of diseases endemic to a sub-Saharan country. According to WHO, common diseases include ... Child Mortality Rate is the highest in low-income countries, especially countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Many deaths in the ... venereal diseases, and poliomyelitis. According to a 1974 report, more than 75 percent of all preventable diseases at that time ... Child Mortality in Ghana describes the child mortality in the country of Ghana. Like in other parts of the world, child ...
"Lymphatic Filariasis Endemic Countries and Territories." Lymphatic Filariasis Disease. May 2006. The Carter Center. 13 May 2006 ... Some researchers are confident that Brugia timori filariasis may be an eradicable disease. Related filarial nematodes have been ... Brugia timori is a human filarial parasitic nematode (roundworm) which causes the disease "Timor filariasis." While this ... In Hunter's Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Disease (Ninth Edition), edited by Alan J. Magill, David R Hill, Tom ...
... caused by species of Microsporum and Trichophyton is a contagious disease that is endemic in many countries. ... The disease is infectious and can be transmitted by humans, animals, or objects that harbor the fungus. The fungus can also ... This disease used to be caused primarily by Microsporum audouinii, but in Europe, M. canis is more frequently the causative ... The disease is primarily caused by dermatophytes in the Trichophyton and Microsporum genera that invade the hair shaft. The ...
Eradication of dracunculiasis
In the early 1980s, the disease was endemic in Pakistan, Yemen and 17 countries in Africa with a total of 3.5 million cases per ... Countries certified free. Endemic countries must report to the International Commission for the Certification of ... Lack of political will from the leaders of some of the countries in which the disease is endemic ... while the disease is still endemic in the country's other four regions (Gao, Kidal, Mopti, and Timbuktu). Late detection of two ...
The disease is endemic in about 75 developing countries and mainly affects people living in rural agricultural and peri-urban ... Around 700 million people, in more than 70 countries, live in areas where the disease is common. In tropical countries, ... The disease is especially common among children in developing countries as they are more likely to play in contaminated water. ... The disease is found in tropical countries in Africa, the Caribbean, eastern South America, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East ...
"Threat of dengue to blood safety in dengue-endemic countries". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 15 (1): 8-11. doi:10.3201/ ... Neglected Tropical Diseases. "The 17 neglected tropical diseases". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 22 ... "First FDA-approved vaccine for the prevention of dengue disease in endemic regions". FDA. Retrieved 4 May 2019.. ... this applies especially in endemic areas. However, early disease can be difficult to differentiate from other viral ...
Loa loa filariasis
The disease was once endemic to the western African countries of Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Ivory Coast and Mali but has ... loiasis is endemic to 11 countries, all in western or central Africa, and an estimated 12-13 million people have the disease. ... The disease can cause red itchy swellings below the skin called "Calabar swellings". The disease is treated with the drug ... Loa loa filariasis is a skin and eye disease caused by the nematode worm Loa loa. Humans contract this disease through the bite ...
Many infections and infestations that are classified as "tropical diseases" used to be endemic in countries located in the ... Many of these diseases have been controlled or even eliminated from developed countries, as a result of improvements in housing ... This includes widespread epidemics such as malaria, Ebola and hookworm infections as well as exceedingly rare diseases like ... The training in Tropical Medicine is quite different between countries. Most physicians are trained at Institutes of Tropical ...
World Rabies Day
... and educating people in rabies-endemic countries to prevent rabies. It is centralized with an online platform where World ... "Estimating the Global Burden of Endemic Canine Rabies". PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 9 (4): e0003709. doi:10.1371/journal. ... US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , accessed July 4, 2017. Balaram, D; Taylor, LH; Doyle, KAS; Davidson, E; Nel ... Rabies remains a significant health problem in many countries of the world. Over 99% of all human deaths caused by rabid dog ...
... of Anthelmintic Efficacy of Mebendazole in School Children in Six Countries Where Soil-Transmitted Helminths Are Endemic". PLOS ... "PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2 (3): e126. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000126. PMC 2274864. PMID 18365031.. ... Pills containing anthelmintics are used in mass deworming campaigns of school-aged children in many developing countries. ... Neglected Tropical Diseases. 8 (10): e3204. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003204. PMC 4191962. PMID 25299391.. ...
Echinostomiasis is not only an endemic infectious disease in Asian countries, but also can be imported by overseas travelers ... It causes the disease echinostomiasis. Echinostoma revolutum is the most widely distributed species of all 20 Echinostomatidae ... Authors reported echinostomiasis as an endemic trematode infection among schoolchildren in Pursat. Signs of infection in humans ... Small Echinostoma revolutum-endemic foci or a few cases of human infection were discovered in the People's Republic of China, ...
Possible reasons include: the distribution of the disease is often localized in certain parts of endemic countries; Buruli ... and 150.8 per 100,000 in the most disease-endemic districts. Buruli ulcer has been reported from at least 32 countries around ... Cases have occurred in more than 32 countries. The disease also occurs in a number of animals other than humans. Albert Ruskin ... In several of these countries, the disease is not considered to be a public health problem, hence the current distribution and ...
History of leprosy
As this treatment was quite expensive, it was not quickly adopted in most countries where the disease is endemic. In 1985, ... which can mean any disease causing scaly skin) in the Septuagint. While the condition may sometimes be a symptom of the disease ... The word leprosy comes from ancient Greek Λέπρα [léprā], "a disease that makes the skin scaly", in turn, a nominal derivation ... The Disease of the Soul: Leprosy in Medieval Literature (Ithaca: Cornell Press, 1974). ...
Medicines for Malaria Venture
Its mission is to reduce the burden of malaria in disease-endemic countries by discovering, developing and facilitating ... Research and Development Centres (R&D) for infectious diseases usually are staffed with scientists and physicians in the fields ... Keynote lectures are presented at scientific and medical conferences in the field of infectious diseases, worldwide. In view of ... and help to ultimately eradicate this terrible disease. MMV was launched in 1999, with initial seed finance of US$4 million ...
... it has been imported to other countries in travelers from an area not known to be endemic for the disease. A Saudi study ... It is closely related to the Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) with which it shares 89% nucleotide sequence homology. It ... 2010). "Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever in travelers returning from Egypt, 2010". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 16: 1979-1982. doi: ... "Seroprevalence of Alkhurma and other hemorrhagic fever viruses, Saudi Arabia". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 17 (12): 2316-2318 ...
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
More vaccines are under development, but the sporadic nature of the disease, even in endemic countries, suggests that large ... In the 12th century a case of a hemorrhagic disease reported from what is now Tajikistan may have been the first known case of ... A 2014 map by the CDC shows endemic areas (in red) largely unchanged in Africa and the Middle East, but different for the ... In October 2012, a British man died from the disease at the Royal Free Hospital in London. He had earlier been admitted to ...
As of 2014 over 5 billion treatments had been delivered, and 18 of 73 countries in which the disease is considered endemic had ... and invest 20 percent of profits from the least-developed countries in medical infrastructure for those countries. Médecins ... The licenses include countries in which 93 percent of adults and 99 percent of children with HIV live. Also in 2013 GSK joined ... As of 2013 GSK had offices in over 115 countries and employed over 99,000 people, 12,500 in R&D. The company's single largest ...
... and Prevention recommends polio vaccination boosters for travelers and those who live in countries where the disease is endemic ... and in February 2012 the country was taken off the WHO list of polio endemic countries. It was reported that if there are no ... Country. Wild. cases. Circulating. vaccine-. derived. cases. Transmission. status. Type Pakistan. 146. 22. endemic. WPV1. ... "Manual for the Surveillance of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (5th Edition, 2012). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ...
The disease is in endemic in 22 countries of tropical and subtropical America, where it is generally considered a zoonosis. ... Carrion's disease, also known as bartonellosis, is a disease caused by the blood-borne bacteria, Bartonella bacilliformis. The ... Carrion's disease) in the modern era". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 33: 772-779. doi:10.1086/322614. PMID 11512081. CS1 maint ... Now, a disease which previously only affected forest workers is becoming more prevalent in urbanisations. Similar increases in ...
... in some endemic countries Lack of political will from the leaders of some of the countries in which the disease is endemic The ... Endemic countries must document the absence of indigenous cases of Guinea worm disease for at least three consecutive years to ... In 2016 the disease occurred in three countries, all in Africa, down from 20 countries in the 1980s. It will likely be the ... "Activities by Country-Guinea Worm Eradication Program". The Carter Center. Retrieved 2010-03-16. "Guinea Worm Disease: Case ...
Expanded Program on Immunization
... yellow fever in countries endemic for the disease, and Haemophilus influenzae meningitis (Hib) conjugate vaccine in countries ... of all countries by 2007, and that 50% of the poorest countries have Hib vaccine by 2005. In each of the United Nations' member ... Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, Second Edition. 2006, The World Bank Group Archived January 23, 2013, at ... In each country, immunization programs are monitored using two methods: an administrative method and through community-based ...
Type 2 diabetes
Diseases of the endocrine system (ICD-10 Chapter IV: Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases - Endocrine diseases, E00- ... The five countries with the greatest number of people with diabetes as of 2000 are India having 31.7 million, China 20.8 ... Diabetes was one of the first diseases described. The importance of insulin in the disease was determined in the 1920s. ... two to four times the risk of cardiovascular disease, including ischemic heart disease and stroke; a 20-fold increase in lower ...
As part of the new Presidium, Pol Pot became the country's Prime Minister. It was at this point that he took on the public ... there he was diagnosed with Hodgkin's disease. In mid-1984, Office 131 was moved to a new base further into Cambodia, near ... Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge believed that in order to crush the individualistic attitude that they thought was endemic in ... Their food was brought to them and provided through the only shop that remained open in the country. Pol Pot saw the Khmer ...
Diseases and parasitesEdit. The black wildebeest is particularly susceptible to anthrax, and rare and widely scattered ... The natural populations of black wildebeest, endemic to the southern part of Africa, were almost completely exterminated in the ... Its historical range included South Africa, Swaziland, and Lesotho, but in the latter two countries, it was hunted to ... Malignant catarrhal fever is a fatal disease of domestic cattle caused by a gammaherpesvirus. Like the blue wildebeest, the ...
There are variations from country to country regarding which specialties certain subspecialties are in. ... listen)) is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. The word "medicine" is ... endemic and epidemic, and use terms such as, "exacerbation, relapse, resolution, crisis, paroxysm, peak, and convalescence".[35 ... Advanced industrial countries (with the exception of the United States) and many developing countries provide medical ...
... as the diseases had arisen on the Asian continent and moved west into Europe, where they had become endemic in the cities. ... Soderlund, Jean R. Lenape Country: Delaware Valley Society before William Penn. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press ... By then living mostly in the Ohio Country, the Lenape supplied the Continental Army with warriors and scouts in exchange for ... In 1847, John Meusebach was assisted by Jim Shaw (Delaware), in settling the German communities in the Texas Hill Country. For ...
In developed countries, this typically includes adult men who are shorter than 166 centimetres (5 ft 5 in) tall and adult women ... disease of a major organ system, mistreatment, treatment with certain drugs, chromosomal deletions. Human growth hormone (HGH) ... have worked to medicalize short stature by convincing the public that short stature is a disease rather than a natural ... as the widely abundant statistics from these countries clearly state) is about 177 centimetres (5 ft 10 in) for men and 164 ...
Disease has to be very virulent to kill off all the individuals in a genus or species, and even such a virulent disease as West ... country by country.. For the first time since the demise of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago, we face a global mass ... The passenger pigeon was a species of pigeon endemic to North America. It experienced a rapid decline in the late 1800s due to ... DiseaseEdit. The hyperdisease hypothesis, proposed by Ross MacPhee in 1997, states that the megafaunal die-off was due to an ...
These issues in many countries are monitored by a department of public health. In less developed countries, these types of ... Lassa fever is endemic in West Africa. *^ Yun, N. E.; Walker, D. H. (2012). "Pathogenesis of Lassa Fever". Viruses. 4 (12): ... "PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 6 (9): e1839. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001839. PMC 3459880 . PMID 23029594.. ... Descriptions of the disease date from the 1950s. The virus was first described in 1969 from a case in the town of Lassa, in ...
Worldwide, about 600 million people live in endemic areas. The WHO estimates 200,000 cases of disease and 30,000 deaths a year ... Although 32 of 44 countries where yellow fever occurs endemically do have vaccination programmes, in many of these countries, ... Mitchell misdiagnosed the disease that he observed and treated, and the disease was probably Weil's disease or hepatitis. See: ... "Infectious Diseases Related to Travel". Yellow Book. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on ...
Turkish tea is an important part of that country's cuisine, and is the most commonly consumed hot drink, despite the country's ... It has been suggested that green and black tea may protect against cancer or other diseases such as obesity or ... The British had discovered that a different variety of tea was endemic to Assam and the northeast region of India and that it ... In Eastern European countries (Russia, Poland and Hungary) and in Italy, tea is commonly served with lemon juice. In Poland, ...
Some Caribbean and Pacific islands are home to endemic species. By far the greatest number of parrot species come from ... it may originate from the disease of psittacosis, which can be passed to humans. The first occurrence of a related ... individual countries may have laws to regulate trade in certain species; for example, the EU has banned parrot trade, ... which is endemic to the Southern Alps mountain range on New Zealand's South Island. ...
DiseasesEdit. Similar to other rodents, brown rats may carry a number of pathogens, which can result in disease, including ... It is frequently called, in books and otherwise, the 'Norway rat', and it is said to have been imported into this country in a ... However, the bacterium responsible, Yersinia pestis, is commonly endemic in only a few rodent species and is usually ... Plagues & Poxes: The Impact of Human History on Epidemic Disease, Demos Medical Publishing, 2004, ISBN 978-1-888799-79-8, p. 23 ...
டெங்குக் காய்ச்சல் - தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியா
"Threat of dengue to blood safety in dengue-endemic countries". Emerg. Infect. Dis. 15 (1): 8-11. doi:10.3201/eid1501.071097. ... C. Dale, David (2003). "34 VIRAL ZOONOSES". Infectious Diseases: The Clinician's Guide to Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention. ... Center for Disease Control and Prevention. "Chapter 5 - dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)". 2010 Yellow Book ... Stramer SL, Hollinger FB, Katz LM, et al. (August 2009). "Emerging infectious disease agents and their potential threat to ...
Jamieson Township in the Victorian high country has two specimens which were planted in the early 1860s. ... and it is prone to Cercospora and Kabatina fungal diseases due to the hot, humid summer climate there. A tree at Blithewold ... Endemic flora of California. *Flora of the Sierra Nevada (U.S.). *Trees of the Southwestern United States ...
Cat-scratch disease is caused by Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana from fleas which are endemic in cats. Toxocariasis ... The West Nile virus appeared in the United States in 1999 in the New York City area, and moved through the country in the ... Infectious disease. Major modern diseases such as Ebola virus disease and salmonellosis are zoonoses. HIV was a zoonotic ... Many modern diseases, even epidemic diseases, started out as zoonotic diseases. It is hard to establish with certainty which ...
Horses in warfare
... endemic diseases such as trypanosomiasis the African horse sickness and unsuitable terrain that limited the effectiveness of ... Horses are still seen in use by organized armed fighters in Third World countries. Many nations still maintain small units of ... Many countries throughout the world maintain traditionally trained and historically uniformed cavalry units for ceremonial, ... and thus horse fodder was the single largest commodity shipped to the front by some countries. Following the war, many ...
... and in Africa for example there are species endemic to countries such as Cameroon, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda and Congo. Several ... Laurel wilt disease, caused by the virulent fungal pathogen Raffaelea lauricola, a native of southern Asia, was found in the ... The beetle and disease are believed to have arrived in the US via infected solid wood packing material, and have since spread ... Relict forests retain endemic fauna and flora in communities of great value in inferring the palaeontological succession and ...
Urinary tract infection
"Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 17 April 2015. Archived from the original on 22 February 2016. Retrieved 9 ... Trimethoprim alone is deemed to be equivalent to TMP/SMX in some countries. For simple UTIs, children often respond to a ... A 2010 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases ... Bryan, Charles S. (2002). Infectious diseases in primary care. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. p. 319. ISBN 978-0-7216-9056-8. . ...
Influenza A virus subtype H3N2
"Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy. Retrieved 30 December 2014.. *^ "WHO - Recommended composition of influenza ... Avian influenza virus H3N2 is endemic in pigs in China, and has been detected in pigs in Vietnam, contributing to the emergence ... In January 2013, influenza activity continued to increase in the United States and most of the country is now experiencing high ... "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 29 January 2018.. ...
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
In some countries, especially the United States, ALS is called "Lou Gehrig's disease". ... In 1956 the variant of ALS endemic to Guam was named "amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism dementia complex" (ALS/PDC), ... Disease Primers. 3 (17071): 17071. doi:10.1038/nrdp.2017.71. PMID 28980624.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v van ... Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neurone disease (MND) or Lou Gehrig's disease, is a specific disease ...
5 to 10-fold increase in rheumatic heart disease and hypertensive disease, 2-fold increase in other heart disease, 3-fold ... "Healthy People Healthy Country". EnviroNorth. Retrieved 16 July 2013.. *. Heath, Jeffrey G. "Australian Aboriginal languages". ... "does not appear to support the allegations of endemic child abuse in NT remote communities that was the rationale for the NTER ... Circulatory system diseases account for 24% deaths. Renal failure 2 to 3-fold 2 to 3-fold increase in listing on the ...
Regularly consuming smoked meats and fish may increase the risk of several types of cancer and cardiovascular disease.[ ... A diagram of a propane smoker, loaded with country style ribs and pork loin in foil. ... Smoked omul fish, endemic to Lake Baikal in Russia, on sale at Listyanka market. ...
Treatment of advanced diseaseEdit. The majority of cases of cholangiocarcinoma present as inoperable (unresectable) disease ... Age-standardized mortality rates from intrahepatic (IC) and extrahepatic (EC) cholangiocarcinoma for men and women, by country. ... which has been attributed to endemic chronic parasitic infestation. The incidence of cholangiocarcinoma increases with age, and ... "Infectious Diseases of Poverty. 7 (1): 44. doi:10.1186/s40249-018-0434-3. PMC 5956617. PMID 29769113.. ...
"WHO Disease and injury country estimates". World Health Organization. 2004. http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease ... in tuberculosis-endemic countries: issues in study design". Lancet Infect Dis. svezak 6 (broj 8): str. 522.-528. PMID 16870530 ... "Clinical infectious diseases: an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. svezak 45 (broj 4): str. ... Griffith D, Kerr C (1996). "Tuberculosis: disease of the past, disease of the present". J Perianesth Nurs. svezak 11 (broj 4): ...
1999). Valuing Forests A Review of Methods and Applications in Developing Countries (PDF). London: Environmental Economics ... The term was not endemic to Romance languages (e.g. native words for "forest" in the Romance languages evolved out of the Latin ... There are also many natural factors that can cause changes in forests over time including forest fires, insects, diseases, ... Margaletic, J (2003). "Small rodents in the forest ecosystem as infectious disease reservoirs". Acta Med Croatica (in Croatian ...
Fauna of Scotland
hebridensis is endemic to the Hebrides. In 2010, a colony of the beetle Meloe brevicollis was found on the island of Coll ... The country has two national parks. Cairngorms National Park includes the largest area of arctic mountain landscape in the UK. ... Order 2013 to protect the species from cross-breeding and disease as the species has suffered serious declines on the mainland. ... Rarer native species include the endemic Salvelinus killinensis and the powan, the latter found in only two locations and ...
In an assessment of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on selected countries in the Southern Hemisphere, data suggest that all countries ... Archives of Disease in Childhood. 85 (5): 351-53. doi:10.1136/adc.85.5.351. PMC 1718987. PMID 11668090. Archived (PDF) from the ... All known subtypes (HxNy) are found in birds, but many subtypes are endemic in humans, dogs, horses, and pigs; populations of ... because the symptoms can be similar to those of other respiratory diseases. The disease may have spread from Europe ...
Campbell was interested in another disease, kala azar, and was working under Napier.[ambiguous] Napier inoculated the strain ... In 1957, it was suggested by Garnham et al. that P. knowlesi could be the fifth species capable of causing endemic malaria ... This parasite is mostly found in South East Asian countries particularly in Borneo, Cambodia, Malaysia, Myanmar, ... This makes it a potentially very severe disease if it remains untreated. Life cycle: merozoite → trophozoites → schizont → ...
Dracunculiasis (Guinea Worm Disease)
Some African countries now report no local transmission of the disease for over a year. Such countries are Cameroon, Kenya, ... India, Yemen, Senegal, and Pakistan are formerly endemic nations that have been deemed transmission free. ... Dracunculiasis (Guinea Worm Disease). Also known as Guinea Worm Disease, commonly abbreviated as GWD, Dracunculiasis is an ... All other countries impacted by GWD have been cooperating with global organizations to eradicate Dracunculiasis quickly and ...
Enhancing Surveillance and Diagnostics in Anthrax-Endemic Countries - Volume 23, Supplement-December 2017 - Emerging Infectious...
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention uses a 2-phase framework when providing technical assistance to partners in ... rural communities in anthrax-endemic countries. However, many of these countries have limited anthrax prevention and control ... We describe examples of implementing this framework in anthrax-endemic countries. These activities are at varying stages of ... anthrax-endemic countries. The first phase assesses and identifies areas for improvement in existing human and animal ...
Strengthening public health pesticide management in countries endemic with malaria or other major vector-borne diseases: an...
These strategies are: regional policy development, in-depth country support and thematic support across countries. Consensus, ... Country support for situation analysis and national action planning highlighted weaknesses over the entire spectrum of ... Public health pesticides has been the mainstay control of vectors of malaria and other diseases, and public health pests, but ... on pesticide quality control contributed to structural improvements on a priority issue for malaria control across countries. ...
Access to diagnosis and treatment of Chagas disease/infection in endemic and non-endemic countries in the XXI century.
... ... Chagas disease and transfusion medicine: a perspective from non-endemic countries. * Authors: Angheben A, Boix L, Buonfrate D, ... This must be a multi-disease approach with permanent quality controls in place based on primary health care (PHC). Rapid ... Chagas disease: current epidemiological trends after the interruption of vectorial and transfusional transmission in the ...
Hepatitis B Vaccine Birthdose Practices in a Country Where Hepatitis B is Endemic - Laos, December 2011-February 2012
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta, GA 30329-4027, USA. 800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888 ... Hepatitis B Vaccine Birthdose Practices in a Country Where Hepatitis B is Endemic - Laos, December 2011-February 2012. Chronic ... First, the assessment covered only 37 health facilities in five of the 24 provinces in Laos and cannot represent the country as ... These challenges also have been reported in other countries (9).. The results of this assessment highlight multiple ...
Immunogenicity and Safety of the Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine IC51 (IXIARO®, JESPECT®) in a Pediatric Population in Non...
non-endemic countries. to assess immunogenicity of purified inactivated Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vaccine IC51. ... Brain Diseases. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System Diseases. Encephalitis, Arbovirus. Arbovirus Infections. Virus ... in a Pediatric Population in Non-endemic Countries. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of ... in a Pediatric Population in Non-endemic Countries. Uncontrolled, Open-label Phase 3 Study. ...
Neglected tropical diseases - Wikipedia
"Buruli Ulcer Endemic Countries". Retrieved 12 March 2014.. *^ a b c d e f g "Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis)". ... "Schistosomiasis-Disease". CDC, Division of Parasitic Diseases. Retrieved 2016-10-17.. *^ a b c d e f g h i "Soil-transmitted ... List of diseases. There is some debate among the WHO, CDC, and infectious disease experts over which diseases are ... This group of diseases has been overlooked because they mainly affect the poorest countries of the developing world and because ...
Pakistan | How to Help & FAQs | Doctors Without Borders
Treating endemic diseases. MSF runs four treatment centers for cutaneous leishmaniasis. This neglected parasitic tropical ... COVID-19 crisis update: Racing to respond to the pandemic in over 70 countries Apr 22, 2020. ... Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in parts of Pakistan, but treatment is either unavailable or too expensive for most people. ... We also treat infectious diseases and respond to natural disasters.. What is happening in Pakistan?. The availability of free, ...
Virulent Newcastle disease - Wikipedia
It is endemic to many countries. Exposure of humans to infected birds (for example in poultry processing plants) can cause mild ... Virulent Newcastle disease (VND), formerly exotic Newcastle disease, is a contagious viral avian disease affecting many ... "Newcastle disease: Newcastle disease outbreaks in Great Britain". DEFRA.. *^ "California modifies virulent Newcastle disease ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Newcastle disease.. *Current status of Newcastle disease worldwide at OIE. WAHID ...
Geographic Boundaries Of Endemic Malaria Getting Progressively Smaller
For the last 150 years the geographic boundaries of endemic malaria have been steadily getting smaller, what experts call The ... Up to 1945, about 178 nations had endemic malaria. Since then 79 countries have eradicated the disease, including: *UK, 1952 ... Malaria is still endemic in 99 nations. 32 of them are expected to become controlled low-endemic countries with the aim of ... Countries deciding to switch from controlled low-endemic malaria to elimination need to do so based on comprehensive ...
Training to support R&D efforts in disease-endemic countries Trained staff are needed to carry out GCP compliant trials. ... needed to maintain competitive prices and reinforce the technological and scientific capacities of disease-endemic countries. ... the transfer of technology consists of transferring the industrial development know-how to partners in disease endemic regions ... on Chagas disease redeLEISH Network on leishmaniasis Building health infrastructure, creating R&D training spaces, and setting ...
Chagas Disease in Non-Endemic Countries, Still a Neglected Public Health Issue - PEAH - Policies for Equitable Access to Health
The disease has recently emerged in many non-endemic countries such as USA, Canada, Japan, Australia and several European ... 2.Gascon J, Bern C, Pinazo M. Chagas disease in Spain, the United States, and other non-endemic countries. Acta Trop 2010 115: ... Chagas Disease in Non-Endemic Countries, Still a Neglected Public Health Issue. ... Chagas Disease in Non-Endemic Countries, Still a Neglected Public Health Issue. ...
The utility of LASSO-based models for real time forecasts of endemic infectious diseases: A cross country comparison. - PubMed...
The utility of LASSO-based models for real time forecasts of endemic infectious diseases: A cross country comparison.. Chen Y1 ... Accurate and timely prediction for endemic infectious diseases is vital for public health agencies to plan and carry out any ... Separate LASSO models were constructed for different disease/country/forecast window with different model complexity by ... For most diseases, predictions made beyond 4 weeks ahead were increasingly discrepant from the actual scenario. Prediction ...
May 1987 - Volume 6 - Issue 5 : The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Adoption of children from countries with endemic hepatitis B: transmission risks and medical issues. HERSHOW, RONALD C.; HADLER ... Selected infectious disease risks in international adoptees. LANGE, W. ROBERT; WARNOCK-ECKHART, ELLEN ... Hematologic alterations during acute infection in children with sickle cell disease. COLE, THOMAS B.; SMITH, SUSAN J. CPNP; ... EARLY LOW-DOSE HEPATITIS B VACCINE IN NEWBORN INFANTS: AN ECONOMIC OPTION FOR CONTROL IN ENDEMIC AREAS. ...
2016 Annual Report - DNDi
... to support the transfer of ownership to disease-endemic countries. Read The challenge of conducting clinical studies in remote ... Read Strengthening endemic country capacity to advance new treatments Since its inception in 2003, DNDi has worked to integrate ... since 2003More than 3,000 people trained since 2010 4 clinical research platforms and networks in disease-endemic countries ... are working in partnership with DNDi aiming to eliminate barriers to diagnosis and treatment for Chagas disease in the country ...
Connecting the Dots: Big Meat, Big Pharma, Big Vaccines and Big Pandemics
The disease remains endemic in several countries.. Moreover, bird viruses related to H5N1, such as H5N2, H5N7 and H5N8, have ... "It is not the first time and it will not be the last time that corporate farms conceal disease outbreaks and put peoples lives ... For example, Merck, a leader in both human and animal vaccines, markets over 30 vaccines for poultry diseases like fowl pox, ... Were seeing clinical disease in vaccinated pigs, says Rossow [veterinary pathologist of the University of Minnesota]. Flu is ...
Countries Compared by People | Major infectious diseases | Animal contact diseases. International Statistics at NationMaster.com
... endemic in 100, mostly tropical, .... Full definition. ... Animal contact diseases: Countries Compared *Home. *Country ... which lists major infectious diseases likely to be encountered in countries where the risk of such diseases is assessed to be ... These infectious diseases represent risks to US government personnel traveling to the specified country for a period of less ... food or waterborne diseases acquired through eating or drinking on the local economy:. Hepatitis A - viral disease that ...
TDR | WHA43.18
... diseases and to establish appropriate links among themselves and with tropical disease control programmes in endemic countries; ... URGES those Member States in which tropical diseases are endemic to intensify their efforts to control them by making full use ... greater emphasis on the provision of assistance both for research and for control of tropical diseases in endemic countries; ... Aware that in some of these countries, notwithstanding the efforts that have been made, tropical diseases and especially ...
Controlling the Spread of Diseases Among Humans, Other Animals and the Environment | NSF - National Science Foundation
Comparative Spillover Dynamics of Avian Influenza in Endemic Countries. Eileen Hofmann, Old Dominion University Research ... West Nile virus, Lyme disease and hantavirus are all infectious diseases spreading in animals and in people. Is human ... The benefits of research on the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases include development of theories of how diseases ... US-UK Collab: Vaccines as Drivers of Disease Emergence: Transmission Ecology and Virulence Evolution in Mareks Disease ...
Endemic | Definition of Endemic at Dictionary.com
... endemic folkways; countries where high unemployment is endemic. See more. ... Endemic definition, natural to or characteristic of a specific people or place; native; indigenous: ... polio is endemic in a few countries where its spread has not been contained. Other diseases, though, are considered endemic if ... endemic. endearing, endearment, endeavor, endeavour, endecott, endemic, endemic hematuria, endemic neuritis, endemic stability ...
Vaccines and Neurologic Disease
OPV: Routine childhood immunization of children in developing or polio-endemic countries; control of outbreaks; use in national ... Vaccination for other susceptible persons in endemic areas. Live-attenuated, PHKC-derived. Vaccination for travelers to endemic ... Specific use of IPV and OPV schedules for routine immunizations may differ from country to country in these areas.. Routine ... Table 1. Vaccines Against Viral, Bacterial, and Toxin Agents of Neurologic Disease. Disease. Organism/Agent. Neurologic ...
This entry is also available in Español
Emerging Diseases. Dengue is endemic in the country. Between 2011 and 2014, there were 63 cases of dengue fever reported, with ... Vector-borne Diseases. The potential burden of vector-borne diseases, particularly dengue, malaria, chikungunya, and Zika fever ... Kitts and Nevis, Ministry of Health, Noncommunicable Disease Program, 2008 STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor ... followed by cerebrovascular diseases (71.1), diabetes mellitus (62.5), ischemic heart disease (32.3), and intentional injuries ...
Prospective Cohort Study with Active Surveillance for Fever in Four Dengue Endemic Countries in Latin America | The American...
Considering the disease-free and at-risk period from study start to onset of symptoms, the overall incidence density of acute ... oa Prospective Cohort Study with Active Surveillance for Fever in Four Dengue Endemic Countries in Latin America * Gustavo ... Disease burden of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Preedy VR, Watson RR, eds. Handbook of Disease Burdens and Quality ... Live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine in children, adolescents and adults in a dengue endemic country: randomized ...
Measures Taken To Tackle Polio Helped Prevent Nigeria From Ebola Epidemic
... now it will be taken off the list of countries where the disease is endemic. ... "Disease X" Now on the Priority Disease List: WHO Outbreak of Skin Disease in Iraq Caused by the Bite of Sandflies New Effective ... Getting Nigerian Polio Survivors on the Move as Now the Country in No More Endemic. Nigerias battle against Polio has been hit ... Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria are the only countries where polio remains endemic. Surveillance programs and vaccination ...
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Disease. # of People Affected. Each Year. # of Affected Countries. Causes. Soil-Transmitted Helminths. (STH):. 1,500 million+. ... Endemic to almost 150 countries, NTDs span the globe.9 However, the majority of the NTD burden is concentrated in low- and ... diseases/diseases/en/. The 20 are: Buruli ulcer; Chagas disease; cysticercosis; dengue; dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease); ... WHO: "Neglected tropical diseases: diseases," webpage, http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/diseases/en/; Neglected Tropical ...
IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Screening for Infectious Diseases among Newly Arrived Migrants in EU/EEA Countries-Varying Practices...
We conducted a survey among country experts from EU/EEA countries and Switzerland, asking whether their countries had ... and was targeted to specific migrant groups in over half of the countries performing screening. Twenty-five of all the country ... Of the countries, 16 (59%) had implemented screening programmes and 15 (56%) had national guidelines. The rate of asylum- ... However, there is limited information on screening programmes targeted for newly arrived migrants in EU/EEA countries. Our aim ...
The cost-effectiveness of treating chronic hepatitis B patients in a median endemic and middle income country. | CureHunter
The cost-effectiveness of treating chronic hepatitis B patients in a median endemic and middle income country. - Mehlika Toy, ... Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection is a serious public health problem due to its potential liver disease sequelae and highly ... The cost-effectiveness of treating chronic hepatitis B patients in a median endemic and middle income country.. Abstract. ... In a country with considerable amount of active CHB patients, monotherapy with a highly potent third generation drug has the ...
Remains endemicOutbreakAfghanistanCholeraEradicationHighly endemicSchistosomiasis endemicLatin-AmericanHumansCommunicable DiseasesTropical diseasesViralTransmissionSurveillance2016Control of neglected diseasesSpeciesEndēmicusDengue hemorCentersRegionsHelminthsTropicsEbolaHepatitisClinicalEpidemicsBacterial diseaseOccursMosquitoesBangladeshPolio vaccineGreekRabiesVaccineFeverNTDsImmunization
- The pathogen has a substantial economic and public health impact in countries with limited resources for the development of anthrax control and outbreak response programs. (cdc.gov)
- During an outbreak of the disease in 2019, we donated medical supplies to the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Department of Health. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
- In 2019, during a dengue outbreak across the country, we supported the health authorities through awareness campaigns and donations of mosquito nets, logistical and medical equipment, and insecticide. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
- The objective of the conference is to help the countries that have been adversely affected by Ebola and share containment measures to prevent another outbreak. (medindia.net)
- The disease has occurred there in three- to five-year cycles since the first recorded outbreak in 1970. (nsf.gov)
- An outbreak of polio in a previously polio-free region of China shows that the crippling, potentially deadly disease will remain a global threat as long as the poliovirus circulates anywhere in the world, scientists say. (foxnews.com)
- In October, an outbreak of polio that affected at least 22 people was reported in Syria , and was a setback for a country that had a vaccination rate of 95 percent and was polio-free for 14 years. (foxnews.com)
- The outbreak is possibly being fueled by disrupted vaccinations amid the ongoing civil war in the country. (foxnews.com)
- Zika virus disease is a mosquito-borne disease caused by zika virus, On 1st February 2016 the World Health Organization has declared the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak to be a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC). (atousante.com)
- Tanzania is facing a major cholera outbreak, counting nearly 5,000 cases and dozens of deaths, the World Health Organization said Thursday, calling for urgent action to stop the disease from spreading to neighboring countries…" (10/22). (kff.org)
- Back in May 2017 a team of scientists used satellite information to assess whether an outbreak would occur in Yemen, and they ended up predicting an outburst that spread across the country in June. (scientificamerican.com)
- At least 17 people have died in an outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in the north-west of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in the town of Bikoro. (bizcommunity.com)
- General and/or serious outbreak of disease. (heirloomroses.com)
- AS DESPERATE efforts continue across Europe to contain an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in animals, health officials have urged tougher international controls to prevent a global epidemic. (economist.com)
- While eradication and isolation have been used for decades in most rich countries and have been considered to be the most cost-effective way to stamp out the disease, new strains of the virus-such as the Asian one believed to be responsible for the British outbreak could make this approach less effective. (economist.com)
- STOCKHOLM ) - Europe is experiencing its first sustained transmission of dengue fever since the 1920s after an outbreak of the mosquito-borne disease in Madeira, Portugal that has infected more than 1,300 people, an EU agency said. (eubusiness.com)
- The outbreak of this disease is a seasonal public health event in Nigeria, which occurs mostly during the dry season months usually between November to May. (who.int)
- This is the tenth outbreak to affect the country, although there may have been more that have gone undetected. (telegraph.co.uk)
- Jose Barahona, Oxfam Country Director for the DRC, said: 'This outbreak comes at a time when the country is already unstable, with millions of people caught up in humanitarian crises as a result of ongoing conflicts. (telegraph.co.uk)
- The WHO convened the emergency talks last week after the virus was discovered in 10 countries, including three where it is still considered endemic: Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan. (straitstimes.com)
- Only four countries remain endemic: Afghanistan, India, Nigeria and Pakistan. (who.int)
- Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan are the last three countries where the disease is endemic. (reuters.com)
- Pakistan and Afghanistan are the only two countries where the disease is still endemic. (rferl.org)
- If no previously undisclosed cases of the crippling disease are discovered across the country, India will no longer be considered to be polio endemic, leaving only Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria on that list. (deseretnews.com)
- After more than a decade of declining cholera incidence, Vietnam faced an increase in cases of the diarrheal disease during 2007-2010. (eurekalert.org)
- Risk factors for contracting cholera in Ben Tre province of Vietnam include drinking iced tea or unboiled water and having a water source near a toilet, researchers report in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases . (eurekalert.org)
- Around the world, more than a million people a year suffer from cholera and tens of thousands die from the disease. (eurekalert.org)
- The researchers found that drinking iced tea, not always boiling drinking water, having a main water source near a toilet, living with other who have diarrhea, and having little or no education were all associated with an increased risk of cholera, while drinking stored rainwater, eating cooked seafood or steamed vegetables were protective against the disease. (eurekalert.org)
- 22% of people with cholera reported drinking iced tea in the week prior to their disease, whereas only 3% of controls had drank iced tea in the week before being interviewed. (eurekalert.org)
- Now a country already struggling to deal with critically damaged infrastructure has to manage cholera, too. (globalissues.org)
- Bangladesh struggles with endemic cholera. (globalissues.org)
- Globalization can take cholera to countries that have lived without it so long that doctors don't know what they're dealing with. (globalissues.org)
- In tropical countries lacking fully developed water and sanitation infrastructure, the soil and untreated groundwater hosts cholera bacteria that can contaminate public water supplies. (globalissues.org)
- The less dramatic example is someone carrying cholera traveling by car to an urban hospital, spreading the disease as they travel. (globalissues.org)
- Epidemics of waterborne diseases such as cholera often occur after natural disasters such as earthquakes and severe storms that disrupt or destroy sanitation systems and supplies of fresh water. (dictionary.com)
- Cholera and other watery diarrheas, amebic and bacillary dysentery, typhoid fever, and hepatitis A and E can occur in all countries in the area. (ncbuy.com)
- 1 The study was carried out in Bangladesh, where cholera is endemic. (bmj.com)
- Cholera is a common disease in many countries of the world. (bmj.com)
- About 230 000 cases in more than 50 countries are reported globally, but the World Health Organization estimates that official notifications make up only 5-10% of the real burden of cholera. (bmj.com)
- More than 10,700 cholera cases and 170 deaths are reported in five countries in the Eastern Mediterranean and African regions, Iraq, Bahrain, Kuwait, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Tanzania…" (Schlein, 10/22). (kff.org)
- Cholera is a waterborne bacterial disease that causes intestinal distress and dehydration. (scientificamerican.com)
- With a fast-moving disease like cholera, advanced warnings matter, especially in remote places. (scientificamerican.com)
- Colwell has been studying global infectious diseases for decades, and says their model for cholera is highly predictive. (scientificamerican.com)
- Foodborne and waterborne diseases are common throughout the area, in particular cholera and other watery diarrheas, the dysenteries, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and E, and helminthic infections. (ncbuy.com)
- Of these 20, two were targeted for eradication ( dracunculiasis (guinea-worm disease) by 2015 and yaws by 2020), and four for elimination ( blinding trachoma , human African trypanosomiasis , leprosy and lymphatic filariasis by 2020). (wikipedia.org)
- Global eradication of poliomyelitis will benefit all countries, even those that are currently free of poliomyelitis,' the researchers wrote in their study. (foxnews.com)
- The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) is spearheaded by WHO, Rotary International, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and UNICEF. (who.int)
- Poliomyelitis eradication activities have begun in all countries in the area, but transmission is still occurring. (ncbuy.com)
- The event is part of the Assembly Government's Hydatid Disease Awareness and Eradication Campaign. (thefreedictionary.com)
- It is thus an important part of the control and eradication of major exotic or emergency livestock diseases. (fao.org)
- n 1993 the International Task Force for Disease Eradication identified lymphatic filariasis as one of six infectious diseases that it would be possible to eliminate. (bmj.com)
- The global eradication programme aims to break the cycle of transmission of the disease between mosquitoes and humans. (bmj.com)
- aegypti has reinvaded nearly every country in the American region that had achieved eradication during the 1950s and 1960s (Pan American Health Organization, personal communication). (cdc.gov)
- This study aimed to investigate factors associated with asthma in a schistosomiasis endemic area. (hindawi.com)
- It is noteworthy that in these previous studies conducted with S. mansoni infected patients, symptoms of asthma or frequency of positive SPT was compared to individuals from outside schistosomiasis endemic areas. (hindawi.com)
- The programme aims to address gaps in critical knowledge to guide the design of sustainable water infrastructure for schistosomiasis-endemic regions. (imperial.ac.uk)
- To the best of our knowledge, no European countries have implemented at national level a screening for Latin American childbearing women and this activity is currently carried out only in circumscribed regions such as Catalonia, Comunitat Valenciana (Spain) or Tuscany (Italy) 12 , 13 , 14 . (peah.it)
- The disease is endemic in 21 Latin American countries, where it is the second leading cause for developing chronic heart failure. (novartis.com)
- Exposure of humans to infected birds (for example in poultry processing plants) can cause mild conjunctivitis and influenza -like symptoms, but the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) otherwise poses no hazard to human health. (wikipedia.org)
- Though there were cases where H5N1 was "transferred from birds to humans, in settings such as farms or open markets with live animal vending," said researchers in the Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology, H5N1 lacked the human-to-human transmission of H1N1. (organicconsumers.org)
- It doesn't affect humans, just birds," they declared , even as CAFO (Confined Animal Feeding Operations, the industry term for factory farms) operations across the country have been depopulated under the public's radar. (organicconsumers.org)
- This knowledge is enormously helpful in developing effective strategies for suppressing the transmission of infectious agents in animal populations and reducing the burden of disease in humans. (nsf.gov)
- Projects funded through the EEID program allow scientists to study how large-scale environmental events--such as habitat destruction, invasions of non-native species and pollution--alter the risks of emergence of viral, parasitic and bacterial diseases in humans and animals. (nsf.gov)
- Infectious diseases have a major effect on these issues, threatening the health of humans and livestock. (nsf.gov)
- Animal and plant diseases cause significant losses in food production around the globe, with some pathogens also causing food-borne illnesses in humans,' says Sonny Ramaswamy, director of USDA's National Institute of Food and Agriculture. (nsf.gov)
- Hydatid disease - a public awareness campaign was launched by the Welsh Assembly Government because of the potential for the re-emergence of hydatid disease in humans in South-East Wales. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The disease is spread to humans by contact with contaminated freshwater which is inhabited by snails carrying the parasite. (imperial.ac.uk)
- Animal bite infections develop in humans when an animal's teeth break the skin and introduce saliva containing disease organisms below the skin surface. (encyclopedia.com)
- The study gathered and analysed data from six European countries to build a picture of the 'exposome' - the array of environmental factors that humans are exposed to from the moment they are conceived. (europa.eu)
- Within developed countries , neglected tropical diseases affect the very poorest in society. (wikipedia.org)
- [ citation needed ] In countries such as these, the burdens of neglected tropical diseases are often overshadowed by other public health issues. (wikipedia.org)
- Twenty neglected tropical diseases are prioritized by the World Health Organization (WHO), though other organizations define NTDs differently. (wikipedia.org)
- The World Health Organization recognizes the seventeen diseases below as neglected tropical diseases. (wikipedia.org)
- PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases is the top Open Access tropical medicine journal, featuring an International Editorial Board and increased support for developing country authors. (plos.org)
- The need for alternative models such as DND i , to boost innovation and access for neglected tropical diseases, where the commercial model clearly fails to meet the needs of patients in low- and middle-income countries, has long been recognized. (dndi.org)
- Dr Lorenzo Savioli, Director of the WHO Department of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD), informed the meeting of the changes within CDS since the previous GCDPP meeting and of the establishment of a separate unit, Vector Ecology and Management (VEM), reflecting the priority that the Organization has given to this cross-cutting programme. (who.int)
- The UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) was created in 1975 to support the development of new tools to fight tropical diseases of poverty and to strengthen the research capacity of affected developing countries. (who.int)
- The Novartis Institute for Tropical Diseases (NITD), the Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation (GNF) and collaborators have developed a promising portfolio of novel drug candidates for the treatment of kinetoplastid diseases. (novartis.com)
- 33) 220.127.116.11.86 ------------------------------------------------------------- SCOPE OF THE MEETING The meeting is being organized under the auspices of the European Commission INCO-DC program, by the Tropical Diseases Research Branch of the World Health rganisation and as the annual spring meeting of the European Concerted Action on hemotherapy of Protozoal Infections (Cost action B9). (bio.net)
- The report Working to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical diseases covers 17 neglected tropical diseases(1) that thrive in impoverished settings, where housing is often substandard, environments are contaminated with filth, and disease-spreading insects and animals abound. (disabled-world.com)
- It provides opportunities to broader health education, thereby ensuring healthier future generations," says Dr Lorenzo Savioli, Director of the WHO Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases. (disabled-world.com)
- Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral disease that affects people who are bitten by infected ticks or those in direct contact with blood or tissues of infected animals or patients. (medindia.net)
- We will collect samples and examine data on viral incidence within animal populations at 10 sites in each country. (nih.gov)
- A group of parasitic, bacterial, and viral infectious diseases that primarily affect the most impoverished and vulnerable populations in the world and, as such, have received scant attention until the past decade. (kff.org)
- Friman G, Fohlman J. The epidemiology of viral heart disease. (medscape.com)
- Polio, a crippling and potentially fatal viral disease that mainly affects children under the age of five, has come close to being beaten as the result of a 25-year effort. (straitstimes.com)
- EU travellers to Russia may encounter locally endemic infections and specific instances related to mass gatherings (e.g. norovirus, salmonellosis, STEC infections, campylobacteriosis, giardiasis and viral gastrointestinal illness). (foodnavigator.com)
- For this reason, detailed discussion in this section is confined to the OIE List A diseases, all but one of which have a viral aetiology. (fao.org)
- Charles Franklin Craig helped establish the viral etiology of dengue fever in 1907, (1) so it is appropriate that I talk about this disease today. (cdc.gov)
- Lassa fever is an acute viral zoonotic disease with high virulence. (who.int)
- The authors explain that elimination has occurred when endemic transmission has been stopped and the risk of a return of the disease is minimal. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Transmission of T. cruzi through transfusion of blood and other hemocomponents, organ transplant 5 , 6 , laboratory accident 7 , travel to Latin America 8 , and mother-to-child vertical transmission 9 has been already demonstrated in non-endemic countries. (peah.it)
- It supports efforts to understand the underlying ecological and biological mechanisms behind human-induced environmental changes and the emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. (nsf.gov)
- The copepods serve as agents of disease transmission. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- However, surveillance data are incomplete, and poliovirus transmission should still be assumed to be a risk for travelers in most countries, especially in the Indian subcontinent. (ncbuy.com)
- Conditions are favorable for transmission of the disease in 60% of Brazil's territory. (who.int)
- It was chosen because of advances in diagnosing and treating the disease and in controlling its transmission. (bmj.com)
- With tourists visiting Madeira, continued import of dengue cases from the island to other EU countries is to be expected until the mosquito population is decreased and transmission interrupted," the ECDC said. (eubusiness.com)
- This happens only when a country has excellent surveillance and response capacity, able to detect every imported case and ensure that it does not ignite a re-establishment of transmission. (who.int)
- In addition to the naturally acquired forms of anthrax, B. anthracis is designated as a potential bioweapon, and the risk of acquiring anthrax from laboratory-produced B. anthracis spores emphasizes the importance of anthrax surveillance, prevention, and control in anthrax-endemic countries ( 5 , 6 ). (cdc.gov)
- However, countries with underresourced public and veterinary health surveillance programs and laboratory capacity are disproportionately affected by this disease ( 8 ). (cdc.gov)
- In this proposed work we will use a combination of three different modeling approaches, collection of field surveillance data on domestic poultry and wild birds and a contact survey in /VH5N1 endemic countries to investigate what factors lead to the endemic persistence of A/H5N1. (nih.gov)
- Communicable disease epidemiology reports are collected by the Russian Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing (Rospotrebnadzor). (foodnavigator.com)
- The RCC concluded that countries had provided sufficient evidence addressing immunization coverage and on the sensitivity of their polio surveillance systems, including establishing sustainable transport of specimens. (who.int)
- The World Health Organisation has donated 853 motorcycles to the Nigerian government to improve disease surveillance in the country. (bizcommunity.com)
- The Regional Office has been assisting Member countries to strengthen AFP and vaccine preventable disease (VPD) surveillance. (who.int)
- As an integral component of this process, countries are encouraged to conduct periodic internal reviews of disease surveillance systems. (who.int)
- Building on DND i 's experience in developing a research & development pipeline for neglected diseases, the Global Antibiotic Research & Development Partnership was officially launched in May 2016. (dndi.org)
- WASHINGTON (May 23, 2016) --Researchers from the George Washington University (GW) School of Medicine and Health Sciences received a $2.1 million U01 grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to begin work on a phase 1 clinical trial to test a hookworm vaccine in an endemic area of Brazil. (eurekalert.org)
- As of January 2016, a total of 198 countries and territories have been certified by WHO to be free of Guinea worm disease. (cartercenter.org)
Control of neglected diseases1
- a species of bat endemic to Mexico. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The second study focused on producing a reference genome for L. mexicana from a sample taken in Guatemala and comparing it with existing reference genomes for various Leishmania species on the spectrum of cutaneous to visceral disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Despite intensive efforts, the bacteria that cause Lyme disease, Borrelia species collectively termed the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato ( B. burgdorferi s.l.) complex, have not been cultured from any definite locally acquired cases of the disease. (mja.com.au)
- In 1998, a pandemic of dengue resulted in 1.2 million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever in 56 countries. (nsf.gov)
- In Brunei, the common arthropod-borne diseases such as filariasis, dengue, hemorrhagic fever, and Japanese encephalitis are nonendemic. (ncbuy.com)
- First, to put things in perspective, I will briefly review the current problem of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and of Aedes aegypti-borne disease prevention and control from a historical standpoint. (cdc.gov)
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention uses a 2-phase framework when providing technical assistance to partners in anthrax-endemic countries. (cdc.gov)
- Although Sears is correct that doctors do not often review all of the studies on vaccine science, safety, and efficacy, he ignores the expert committees that do, specifically the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, which advises the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Committee on Infectious Diseases, which advises the American Academy of Pediatrics. (aappublications.org)
- For DND i , the transfer of technology consists of transferring the industrial development know-how to partners in disease endemic regions to ensure a wide-spread distribution of treatments. (dndi.org)
- Despite a fair amount of epidemiological information is available on risk factors for asthma in developed countries, scant attention has been given to risk factors associated with asthma in rural communities from developing countries, especially in regions endemic for schistosomiasis. (hindawi.com)
- The aim of this project is to inform the design of sustainable water infrastructure for endemic regions, by investigating the effectiveness of water treatment processes at removing or inactivating Schistosoma cercariae in water. (imperial.ac.uk)
- Regions of Japan used to have endemic strongyloidiasis, but control programs have eliminated the disease. (princeton.edu)
- We have the capacity to do vaccine clinical trials here and in developing countries. (eurekalert.org)
- Until there is strong evidence from well performed clinical studies that bacteria present in Australia cause a chronic debilitating illness that responds to prolonged antibiotics, treating patients with "Lyme disease-like illness" with prolonged antibiotic therapy is unjustified, and is likely to do much more harm than good. (mja.com.au)
- Epidemics happen when a disease is highly contagious -meaning it spreads easily. (dictionary.com)
- The causes of epidemics are much more complicated than we thought," says Sam Scheiner, NSF program director for the joint NSF-National Institutes of Health Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Diseases (EEID) Program. (nsf.gov)
- Anthrax is a zoonotic bacterial disease caused by Bacillus anthracis , which primarily inhabits herbivorous wildlife and livestock and is usually fatal among these animals. (cdc.gov)
- A bacterial disease, which results in dark spots on leaves, dying flowers, and oozing branches. (heirloomroses.com)
- Lyme is an infectious bacterial disease most commonly contracted through a tick bite. (klinespecter.com)
- Indigestion may be caused by a disease, but it primarily occurs because of stress or improper eating habits, smoking, drinking excessive quantities of coffee or alcohol, or hypersensitivity to particular foods. (britannica.com)
- Schistosomiasis is endemic in the southern Philippines and in central Sulawesi (Indonesia) and occurs in small foci in southern Laos and Cambodia. (ncbuy.com)
- There is no convincing evidence that classic Lyme disease occurs in Australia, nor is there evidence that the causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi , is found in Australian animals or ticks. (mja.com.au)
- Rabies is a serious disease. (slideshare.net)
- An animal gets rabies from saliva, usually from a bite of an animal that has the disease. (slideshare.net)
- The exceptions are rabies and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), List B diseases with such serious implications for human health that they have been included. (fao.org)
- International dog imports pose a risk because of the potential movement of disease agents, including the canine rabies virus variant which has been eliminated from the United States since 2007. (cdc.gov)
- If unchecked, this situation could result in failure to eradicate globally one of the world's most serious vaccine preventable diseases," he added. (straitstimes.com)
- The decision to categorise polio as a public health emergency brings with it recommendations for countries where the disease is endemic to implement vaccine requirements for anyone wishing to travel abroad. (straitstimes.com)
- It will be the first parasitic disease to be eradicated and the first disease to be eradicated without the use of a vaccine or medicine. (cartercenter.org)
- If licensed, it would be the very first human vaccine against a parasitic disease. (who.int)
- Part is also attributed to the rollout of a new vaccine in 2010 that more powerfully targeted the two remaining strains of the disease. (deseretnews.com)
- Under the $300 million-a-year campaign the government runs with help from the WHO and UNICEF, 2.5 million workers fan out across the country twice a year to give the vaccine to 175 million children. (deseretnews.com)
- Paul also appealed to public health officials to begin switching from the oral vaccine, which is easy to administer but contains live virus that can cause the disease in rare cases, to an injectible vaccine that uses dead virus. (deseretnews.com)
- Though there are rare cases where the disease gives a mild fever and/or conjunctivitis. (wikipedia.org)
- Every visitor to Nigeria and all those who left the country were scanned for a fever. (medindia.net)
- The pathogen Zika virus disease is caused by the Zika virus (ZIKV) : it belongs to the virus family Flaviviridae, which includes the viruses that cause dengue fever , yellow fever, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile fever. (atousante.com)
- Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne disease that has severe impacts on livelihoods, national and international markets, and human health. (fao.org)
- As deaths from dengue fever soar up, Malaysia has set up a task force to combat the mosquito-borne tropical disease, Prime Minister Najib Razak said Tuesday. (medindia.net)
- The Aedes aegypti mosquito which carries the disease has been present on Madeira since at least 2005, the agency said, and the first two cases of dengue fever were reported among residents on October 3. (eubusiness.com)