The use of animals as investigational subjects.
The moral and ethical bases of the protection of animals from cruelty and abuse. The rights are extended to domestic animals, laboratory animals, and wild animals.
Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.
The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.
Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.
The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
The use of humans as investigational subjects.
Human experimentation that is not intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed. Phase I drug studies (CLINICAL TRIALS, PHASE I AS TOPIC) and research involving healthy volunteers are examples of nontherapeutic human experimentation.
Human experimentation that is intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed.
Criminal acts committed during, or in connection with, war, e.g., maltreatment of prisoners, willful killing of civilians, etc.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.
Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.
Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.
Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.
The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)
A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.
Former state in north central Germany. Formally abolished March 1, 1947. Kingdom established 1701.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.
A familial disorder inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by the onset of progressive CHOREA and DEMENTIA in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Common initial manifestations include paranoia; poor impulse control; DEPRESSION; HALLUCINATIONS; and DELUSIONS. Eventually intellectual impairment; loss of fine motor control; ATHETOSIS; and diffuse chorea involving axial and limb musculature develops, leading to a vegetative state within 10-15 years of disease onset. The juvenile variant has a more fulminant course including SEIZURES; ATAXIA; dementia; and chorea. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1060-4)
An increase number of repeats of a genomic, tandemly repeated DNA sequence from one generation to the next.
An increased number of contiguous trinucleotide repeats in the DNA sequence from one generation to the next. The presence of these regions is associated with diseases such as FRAGILE X SYNDROME and MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY. Some CHROMOSOME FRAGILE SITES are composed of sequences where trinucleotide repeat expansion occurs.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Microsatellite repeats consisting of three nucleotides dispersed in the euchromatic arms of chromosomes.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
A phylum of EUKARYOTES in the RHIZARIA group. They are small endoparasites of marine invertebrates. Spores are structurally complex but without polar filaments or tubes.
Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.
Educational institutions.
The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.
The heath plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are generally shrubs or small trees. Leaves are alternate, simple, and leathery; flowers are symmetrical with a 4- or 5-parted corolla of partly fused petals.
Activated form of factor X that participates in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of blood coagulation. It catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in conjunction with other cofactors.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that is similar to MATRICARIA but this has tiny chaffy bract scales between each pair of florets. Members contain sesquiterpene lactones. Other plants with similar common names include FERULA; FOENICULUM; MATRICARIA; CHAMAEMELUM and TRIPLEUROSPERMUM.
Databases devoted to knowledge about PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS.
Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
He also initiated animal experimentation during those early years. In 1918, Wilson went overseas as the assistant director of ... the AEF division of laboratories and infectious diseases. Wilson and his chief, Col. Joseph F. Siler, greatly increased the ...
"Does animal experimentation inform human healthcare? Observations from a systematic review of international animal experiments ... Brain-on-a-chip systems can model organ-level physiology in neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's ... However, experiments on animals are lengthy, expensive and controversial. For example, animal models are often subjected to ... The model was used to study Ebola virus disease and to study anti-Ebola drugs. In 2021, the approach has been adapted to model ...
In most cases, it is a transfer of blood between a non-human animal and a human. However, further experimentation has been done ... Utilizing the unlimited blood supply from animal sources eliminates the risk of transmitting infectious diseases between humans ... It can be as short as half a day, or five to six days [...] But what that gives you is time to stabilize the animal and provide ... To come up with this answer they tested many animals to see which one was the best candidate for blood donation. As a result, ...
Furthermore, they hoped to spread disease via animal carriers. To this end, former members claim that experiments were also ... Bacteriological section Pathological section Animal Experimentation Organic chemistry Botanical, and plant pathology. Poisoning ... Some died during the experimentation. When survivors were determined to no longer be useful for experimentation and were ... Unit 100 (第百部隊, dai-hyaku butai) was an Imperial Japanese Army facility called the Kwantung Army Warhorse Disease Prevention ...
In 1835 (Principles of Investigation in Physiology), he outlined five principles to govern animal experimentation. An ... This is the Alpha and the Omega of the truth of Christ - In his treatise On the diseases and derangements of the nervous system ... In 1826 he removed to London, and in the following year he published his Commentaries on the More Important Diseases of Females ... London, Sherwood, Gilbert, and Piper 1836 Hall M. On the Diseases and Derangements of the Nervous System in their Primary Forms ...
Initially, he was notably against any experimentation on animals. The first person to volunteer for Canavero's procedure for ... Canavero has been described to have completed influential studies about central pain syndrome and Parkinson's disease. He ... a muscle-wasting disease. However, Spiridonov later cancelled his participation. In January 2016, Canavero and his team issued ...
Besides his medical work, he is also notable as a public commentator in support of animal experimentation. Aziz was born in ... He specialises in the study and treatment of Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, dystonia, spasmodic torticollis, fixed ... Animal Aid said about the e-mail "He [Dr Macleod] feared that an objective investigation of the associated animal research ... director of the pro-animal experimentation lobby group Research Defence Society said of Aziz: "He's not involved in cosmetic ...
Kehinde E.O (2013). "They See a Rat, We Seek a Cure for Diseases: The Current Status of Animal Experimentation in Medical ... and to translate the findings from animal models to yield new information on specific interrelated complex diseases in humans, ... of knowledge of basic cardiovascular physiology and a host of physiological and genomic data from animal models of disease, ... Retrieved June 4, 2016.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) "The Virtual Rat: Exploration of Complex Diseases Will Impact ...
Animal rights activists generally oppose animal experimentation for all purposes, and rabbits are no exception.[improper ... including the transmission of disease and protective antiserums. Production of quality animals for meat sale and scientific ... Albino rabbits are typically used in the Draize tests because they have less tear flow than other animals and the lack of eye ... FAO Animal Production and Health Series. 21. Rome, Italy: FAO - Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. ISBN 92- ...
This has opened ways to replace animal experimentation to generate disease models directly from patients as well as avenues for ... Clevers, H. (2013). "A gutsy approach to stem cells and signalling: an interview with Hans Clevers". Disease Models & ... they occur in every animal on the planet, they are the end point of the signal transcription cascade, and they control ... virtually every decision in a developing animal. When we realized this we started changing our model systems, we used to work ...
Animal testing regulations are laws and/or guidelines that permit and control the use of animals for experimentation. They are ... Comparative medicine is a distinct discipline of experimental medicine that uses animal models of human and animal disease in ... Wilkenson, L. (1992). Animals and Disease: An Introduction to the History of Comparative Medicine. Cambridge University Press. ... He also experimented with the injection of putrid fish into animals and was an advocate for experimentation in a time before ...
MAY HAVE A CURE FOR IT Its Germ Origin and Other Facts Were Discovered Only by Animal Experimentation.Article in N.Y. Times " ... In 1915, he discovered the pathogen of Weil's disease. He also invented the arsenic treatment of syphilis and the antimony ... He was able to conclude that the blood of different species of animals contained unique proteins. These discoveries extended to ... In 1915 Uhlenhoth was co-discoverer of Leptospira interrogans strain RGA, a cause of Weil's disease, a severe form of ...
... , also known as animal experimentation, animal research and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in ... Studies on induced animal models of human diseases. Here, an animal is treated so that it develops pathology and symptoms that ... The terms animal testing, animal experimentation, animal research, in vivo testing, and vivisection have similar denotations ... Animals and Animal Products. Code of Federal Regulations. Vol. 1 (1 January 2008). "Animal Testing and the Law - Animal Legal ...
He died of cardiovascular disease on March 30, 1934. Vaccination and Its Relation to Animal Experimentation (1911) Smallpox and ... Until 1910 the condition was known as Schamberg's Disease. In 1909, the disease struck the crew of a yacht in the Philadelphia ... Subsequently the eponymous designation of the disease was dropped and it was referred to as "straw mattress disease" or "grain ... He had two diseases named for him, one of which continues to carry his eponym. During World War I, Schamberg's research ...
Pressure from these groups has also led to novel modes of experimentation, which does not involve the sacrifice of live animals ... An animal model (short for animal disease model) is a living, non-human, often genetic-engineered animal used during the ... organs and even animal species which express human diseases, providing a more robust model of human diseases in an animal model ... Animal testing Ensembl genome database In vivo Animal testing on invertebrates Animal testing on rodents History of animal ...
... use of animal models raised in a high level laboratory after the approval of the ethics committee for animal experimentation. ... "Cell Death and Disease". Cell Death & Disease. 6 (10): e1959-. doi:10.1038/cddis.2015.319. PMC 5399181. PMID 26512966. Lino ... Research primarily aims at fighting cancer and degenerative diseases, often in collaboration with international groups. ... biological mechanisms and identifying the genes involved in the development and proliferation of various human diseases; the ...
... a centre of animal experimentation, and were shocked by the rooms full of caged animals given diseases by the researchers. When ... "History of Animal Experimentation Control in the U.K." International Journal for the Study of Animal Problems. 2 (5): 237-241. ... The 1876 Cruelty to Animals Act forbade the use of an animal in more than one experiment, yet it appeared that the brown dog ... The latter became the Animal Procedures Committee under the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986. Inscription In Memory of ...
... organs and even animal species which express human diseases, providing a more robust model of human diseases in an animal model ... Animal experimentation continues to be required for biomedical research, and is used with the aim of solving medical problems ... Animals in space Animal testing Animal testing on invertebrates Animal testing on rodents Cellular model (numerical), e.g., ... These test conditions are often termed as animal models of disease. The use of animal models allows researchers to investigate ...
... should be so designed and based on the results of animal experimentation and a knowledge of the natural history of the disease ... The Nuremberg Code (German: Nürnberger Kodex) is a set of research ethics principles for human experimentation created by the ... In response to the criticism of unethical human experimentation, the Reich government issued "Guidelines for New Therapy and ... Article seven prohibits experiments conducted without the "free consent to medical or scientific experimentation" of the ...
... of the relevance of theory to medical practice and the pros and cons of both animal experimentation and human experimentation. ... In the treatment of disease, Celsus' principal method was to observe and watch over the operations of Nature, and to regulate ... Specific Diseases Book 4 - Parts of the Body Book 5 and 6 - Pharmacology Book 7 - Surgery Book 8 - Orthopedics In the " ...
... animal experimentation (to determine causes of diseases and the effects of drugs) and pathological anatomy, particularly at the ... comparison of diseases common to humans and animals Virchow's disease, leontiasis ossea, now recognized as a symptom rather ... He was the first to establish a link between infectious diseases between humans and animals, for which he coined the term " ... comparison of diseases common to humans and animals). His most important work in the field was Cellular Pathology (Die ...
1909 The Conquest of Disease through Animal Experimentation, D. Appleton & Company, 1910 Surgical Treatment: A Practical ... He was a supporter of animal research and an opponent of limitations on the use of dogs. He was also involved with the ... In the 1910s, he published essays on The Socialization of Medicine and Conserving Health versus Exploiting Disease. ... Treatise on the Therapy of Surgical Diseases for the Use of Practitioners and Students of Surgery, W.B. Saunders Co., 1918 What ...
... animal experimentation continues to be used in research that aims to solve medical problems including Alzheimer's disease, ... Treatments to each of the following animal diseases have been derived from animal studies: rabies, anthrax, glanders, Feline ... Animal experimentation from antiquity to the end of the eighteenth century: attitudes and arguments. In N. A. Rupke (ed.) ... "Animal Experimentation: A Student Guide to Balancing the Issues" Archived 2009-12-18 at WebCite, Australian and New Zealand ...
... when through animal experimentation Benjamin Brodie demonstrated that nicotine-the principal active agent in tobacco smoke-is a ... Robert Dick, M.D. (1847) Attacks on the theories surrounding the ability of tobacco to cure diseases had begun early in the ... In an attempt to discourage disease tobacco was also used to fumigate buildings. In addition to the Native Americans' use of ... The ancient Greek physician Hippocrates recommended the inhalation of smoke for "female diseases" as did Pliny the Elder, as a ...
The law exempts acts done for the prevention or treatment of disease, experimentation or "folk games". The penalty for cruelty ... including matters related to animal farming. Regarding animal testing, alternatives to animals must be considered, animals less ... The law stipulates that Animal Experimentation Ethics Committees be created in facilities where animals are experimented on. In ... In 2016 the animal rights group Animal Arirang launched a petition to include clauses on animal rights in the South Korean ...
The carcinogenicity of acrolein has been difficult to study by animal experimentation, because it has such a toxicity that it ... Cardiovascular disease[edit]. Smoking can cause atherosclerosis, leading to coronary artery disease and peripheral arterial ... Smoking also increases the chance of heart disease, stroke, atherosclerosis, and peripheral vascular disease.[62][63] Several ... Although nicotine does play a role in acute episodes of some diseases (including stroke, impotence, and heart disease) by its ...
Although the two concepts are not strictly related, discussions of experimentation into blended human and animal creatures has ... In those comics, a set of teenagers in a 1970s era town become afflicted by a bizarre disease; the sexually transmitted ... The terms human-animal hybrid and animal-human hybrid refer to an entity that incorporates elements from both humans and ... DeMello, Margo (2012). Animals and Society: An Introduction to Human-Animal Studies. Columbia University Press. pp. 301-211. ...
... the amount evidence from animal experimentation on the rabies vaccine needed in order to justify giving the vaccine to humans. ... then an extremely prevalent and lethal disease, particularly among children. Diphtheria is contagious microbial disease marked ... Roux was more reluctant to give the vaccine to humans without further evidence that it was safe in animals. In 1883, he ... He studied its toxin and its properties, and began in 1891 to develop an effective serum to treat the disease, following the ...
This disease wiped out seventy-five percent of the world's human population. It infected most animals as well, and the animals ... Extensive, widespread experimentation in the creation of transgenic species resulted in the creation of mutated animals, ... The same technology led to both the elimination of viral disease as a major problem, and the introduction of diseases as pranks ... Because such diseases were easily cured, these pranks were regarded as "harmless". Eventually, someone came up with a way to ...
... designed by the Soviet military for export uses only An animal model of disease or toxicology developed by experimentation with ...
In studies of rats, animals fed a diet of 50% sweet pea seeds developed enlarged adrenals relative to control animals fed on ... Pests and diseases[edit]. The sweet pea plant does suffer from some pests, the most common being aphids. These insects suck the ... The sweet pea is thus a model organism being used in early experimentations in genetics, particularly by the pioneer geneticist ...
"Animal Planet :: Ferocious Crocs". 2008-09-10. Retrieved March 16, 2010.. ... Paterson, Sue (December 17, 2007). Skin Diseases of Exotic Pets. Blackwell Science, Ltd. pp. 74-79. ISBN 9780470752432. .. ... into the Ecology and Evolutionary Success of Crocodilians Revealed through Bite-Force and Tooth-Pressure Experimentation". PLOS ... a b Colbert, E.H. & Morales, M. (2001): Colbert's Evolution of the Vertebrates: A History of the Backboned Animals Through Time ...
The Hanford Thyroid Disease Study, an epidemiologic study of the relationship between estimated exposure doses to radioiodine ... Some downwinders may have suffered acute exposure due to their involvement in uranium mining and nuclear experimentation.[4] ... thus contaminating both groundwater systems and aquatic animals downstream as far west as the Washington and Oregon coasts.[19] ... Several severe adverse health effects, such as an increased incidence of cancers, thyroid diseases, CNS neoplasms, and possibly ...
Cheese flies - Family Piophilidae - Most are scavengers in animal products and fungi. The best-known member of the family is ... Historically, there have been several accounts of applications for, and experimentation with, forensic entomology. The concept ... it is often considered a pest that can carry serious diseases. The adults are 6-9 mm long. Their thorax is gray, with four ... Flesh-flies, being viviparous, frequently give birth to live young on corpses of human and other animals, at any stage of ...
The search for a stronger remedy against this disease was made more difficult because most animals are immune to it: it was ... and was employed for a long time by the members as a field for clinical observation and experimentations of therapeutical ... demonstrated that the serum of an animal vaccinated against the disease included the antibodies needed to defeat it. The anti- ... This made him realise that the vector of the disease were lice that were discarded with the patient's own clothes.[3] Nicolle ...
Gollmann, Wilhelm (1855). The Homeopathic Guide, In All Diseases of the Urinary and Sexual Organs, Including the Derangements ... Whereas sodomy between men, men and women, and men and animals was punishable by death in Britain, acknowledgment of sexual ... In the United States, the 1920s was a decade of social experimentation, particularly with sex. This was heavily influenced by ... Heart disease is listed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services as the number one cause of death for all women. ...
"I think it [religion] is a contagious mental disease. . . . The brain has a need to believe it knows a reason for things.. ... "Morgan's passion for experimentation was symptomatic of his general scepticism and his distaste for speculation. He believed ... of a universe without purpose of punishment or reward for a lately arrived animal species, free to make or mar its own destiny ... a much more reliable method of altering animal genomes than previously used, and the technique behind gene targeting and ...
Affective neuroscience is the study of the neural mechanisms involved in emotion, typically through experimentation on animal ... Neurology works with diseases of the central and peripheral nervous systems, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ... The scientific study of the biological mechanisms that underlie the disorders and diseases of the nervous system. ... Neurosurgery and psychosurgery work primarily with surgical treatment of diseases of the central and peripheral nervous systems ...
... animal experimentation (to determine causes of diseases and the effects of drugs) and pathological anatomy, particularly at the ... Anti-germ theory of diseasesEdit. Virchow did not believe in the germ theory of diseases, as advocated by Louis Pasteur and ... Virchow's concept of pathology, comparison of diseases common to humans and animals ... Virchow's disease, leontiasis ossea, now recognized as a symptom rather than a disease ...
Robertson KD, Wolffe AP (October 2000). "DNA methylation in health and disease". Nature Reviews Genetics. 1 (1): 11-9. PMID ... miRNAs regulate a large variety of biological functions in plants and animals.[64] So far, in 2013, about 2000 miRNAs have been ... mourning cloak butterflies will change color through hormone changes in response to experimentation of varying temperatures.[ ... Ballestar E (2010). "Epigenetics lessons from twins: prospects for autoimmune disease". Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 39 (1): 30-41 ...
... technique that measures muscle noise is undergoing experimentation to provide a way of monitoring neuromuscular disease. The ... Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals. Muscle cells contain protein filaments of actin and myosin that slide past one ... Other syndromes or conditions that can induce skeletal muscle atrophy are congestive heart disease and some diseases of the ... and Parkinson's disease to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, can lead to problems with movement or motor coordination. ...
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention *National Center for Injury ... In 2014, it was announced that the NIH is directing scientists to perform their experiments with both female and male animals, ... From then on, the NIH has required all grantee institutions to approve any research proposals involving human experimentation ... The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases maintains its Rocky Mountain Labs in Hamilton, Montana,[23] with an ...
This would not be in vivo as the donor is sacrificed by experimentation, but it would not be the same as working with the cell ... It is also possible for archaeological layers to be reworked on purpose or by accident (by humans, natural forces or animals). ... and therapies for loss-of-function genetic diseases.[10] ... Eventually, the limitation of in vitro experimentation was that ... To compensate for this problem, in vivo experimentation allowed testing to occur in the original organism or environment. To ...
Finally, the whole band would often tear apart stuffed animals while on stage, throwing the stuffing through the air, creating ... In contrast, songs on their earlier recordings had undergone far more in-studio development and experimentation. Pinkus has ... humorous explanations for the diseases.[9] After being caught with one of these pictures at work, Haynes left the accounting ...
... experimentation is performed on laboratory animals with the goal of defining safe exposure limits for humans.[30] Balancing the ... "Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition. United Kingdom: British Medical Journal Publishing Group. 76 (1 ... Spall, J. C. (2010), "Factorial Design for Efficient Experimentation: Generating Informative Data for System Identification," ... for example when testing the difference between two groups who have a different disease, or testing the difference between ...
Experimentation Cerebrale. 196 (3): 467-74. doi:10.1007/s00221-009-1862-x. PMC 2700244. PMID 19484465.. ... Some animals, such as tortoises and hamsters, blink their eyes independently of each other. Humans use winking, the blinking of ... and disease. The blinking rate is determined by the "blinking center", but it can also be affected by external stimulus. ... Conditions in which there is reduced dopamine availability such as Parkinson's disease have reduced eye blink rate,[8] while ...
"The Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases. 21: 31. doi:10.1186/s40409-015-0031-x. PMC 4529710. ... Experimentation also indicates that extrasynaptic activity is not required for the formation of LTP. In addition, both synaptic ... Most notably, excitotoxic events involving NMDA receptors have been linked to Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease, as ... Excitotoxicity is implied to be involved in some neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease ...
Major histocompatibility complex in animals[edit]. One example of where particular genes may be important in vertebrate animals ... Over the years, experimentation in plant genetics has proven that the reverse occurs, that yields increase in both the inbred ... Thus hybrids will be less likely to be succumb to pathogenic disease and will be more capable of fighting off infection. ... An epigenetic contribution to heterosis has been established in plants,[12] and it has also been reported in animals.[13] ...
The gut microbiota have been studied in relation to allergic airway disease, obesity, gastrointestinal diseases and diabetes. ... "Microbial Informatics and Experimentation. 1 (1): 5. doi:10.1186/2042-5783-1-5. PMC 3348666. PMID 22587826.. ... Non-human animalsEdit. *Amphibians have microbiota on their skin.[21] Some species are able to carry a fungus named ... All plants and animals, from simple life forms to humans, live in close association with microbial organisms.[8] Several ...
Animal studiesEdit. Many early studies of non-human economic reasoning were performed on rats and pigeons in an operant ... Selye, Hans (2013). Stress in Health and Disease. Elsevier Science. ISBN 978-1-4831-9221-5.. ... "The Economist as Engineer: Game Theory, Experimentation, and Computation as Tools for Design Economics," Econometrica, 70(4), ... 1981). "Demand Curves for Animal Consumers". Quarterly Journal of Economics. 96 (1): 1-16. doi:10.2307/2936137. JSTOR 2936137. ...
It is associated with active dental caries lesions.[1] It is also commonly found in fermenting animal and plant material.[2] It ... Among these health problems allergies, neoplastic growth, and inflammatory bowel disease are included. Recent areas of study ... Experimentation has also been conducted on the consumption of the ME-3 strain. The consumption had a positive influence on the ... They are considered potential vectors of antibiotic resistance genes from the environment to humans or animals to humans.[9] ...
Animals cooperate with each other to increase their own fitness.[89] These altruistic, and sometimes spiteful behaviors can be ... Several species exhibit this behavior, including, but not limited to the Belding's ground squirrel.[9] Experimentation with ... Most likely reasons are that a diverse worker pool attained by multiple mating by the queen increases disease resistance and ... Alcock, John (2013-07-01). Animal Behaviour: A Evolutionary Approach (10th ed.). Sinauer. pp. 70-72. ISBN 9780878939664. .. ...
Benedetti (1999a, 184-185) and Magarshack (1950, 304). Ribot's books The Diseases of the Memory and The Diseases of the Will ... their work emphasised experimentation, improvisation, and self-discovery.[169] Following Gorky's suggestions about devising new ... Nemirovich described one in which the cast imitated various animals.[130] In rehearsals he sought ways to encourage his actors ... Diseases of Memory: An Essay in the Positive Psychology. London: Kessinger Publishing's Legacy Reprints. ISBN 1-4325-1164-5. ...
It comes from the people involved with shipping other people, goods, animals, plants, knowledge, and of course, the knowledge ... better materials were found and the physics of sailing was better observed through experimentation. The details are closely ... Fish diseases and parasites. *Fish farming. *Fisheries management. *Fisheries science. *Individual fishing quota ...
Stray animals at Indian airports. References[edit]. *^ Gard, Katie; Groszos, Mark S.; Brevik, Eric C.; Lee, Gregory W. (2007). ... Some experimentation with small portable radar units has taken place at some airports. However, no standard has been adopted ... Prior to capture, proper permits must be obtained and the high mortality rates as well as the risk of disease transmission ... An animal hazard reported from London Stansted Airport in England is rabbits: they get run over by ground vehicles and planes, ...
"People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. Archived from the original on 6 May 2018. Retrieved 18 May 2018.. ... In a November 2014 cover story for Out promoting The Imitation Game, Cumberbatch opened up about sexual experimentation during ... "Film stars support the Motor Neurone Disease Association". MNDA. Archived from the original on 25 October 2015.. ... Cumberbatch stated, "Cancer isn't a disease that needs much awareness, but it does need continued funding for research."[166][ ...
Ocaña-Riola, R (2010). "Common errors in disease mapping". Geospatial Health. 4 (2): 139-154. doi:10.4081/gh.2010.196. PMID ... ethological studies of animal movement, landscape ecological studies of vegetation blocks, ecological studies of spatial ... Spatial statistics typically result primarily from observation rather than experimentation. ... Epidemiology contributed with early work on disease mapping, notably John Snow's work of mapping an outbreak of cholera, with ...
Disease transmission (xenozoonosis) and permanent alteration to the genetic code of animals are also causes for concern. ... allow experimentation toward the in vivo generation of functional organs from xenogenic pluripotent stem cells in large animals ... Many, including animal rights groups, strongly oppose killing animals to harvest their organs for human use.[46] None of the ... Similarly to objections to animal testing, animal rights activists have also objected to xenotransplantation on ethical grounds ...
Hurley R, de Louvois J, Mulhall A (1987). "Yeast as human and animal pathogens". In Rose AH, Harrison JS. The Yeasts. Volume 1 ... They are the species primarily responsible for cryptococcosis, a fungal disease that occurs in about one million HIV/AIDS ... This has occurred out of experimentation, as very little information exists regarding pure culture fermentative capabilities ... Candida is commonly found as a commensal yeast in the mucous membranes of humans and other warm-blooded animals. However, ...
Alternatives to Animal Testing, Experimentation and Dissection - All of Gods creatures have rights, includes both human and ... Parkinsons Disease and the Michael J. Fox Foundation - ... An artificially induced disease in animals which merely mimics ... Parkinsons Disease and the Michael J. Fox Foundation. Alternatives to Animal Testing, Experimentation and Dissection - An ... much of that being animal experimentation which has nothing whatsoever to do with finding treatments for people with PD. Since ...
Alternatives to Animal Testing, Experimentation and Dissection - All of Gods creatures have rights, includes both human and ... Editing the human genome to cure disease. Alternatives to Animal Testing, Experimentation and Dissection - An Animal Rights ... CAARE Citizens for Alternatives to Animal Research and Experimentation. April 2017. The Yale study concluded: "It is difficult ... Unfortunately, CRISPR-Cas9 is most often used to create animal models of human disease. The National Institutes of Health ...
Animal Research for Alzheimer Disease: Failures of Science and Ethics. in Animal Experimentation: Working Towards a Paradigm ... Animal Models of Alzheimer Disease: Historical Pitfalls and a Path Forward. Alternatives to Animal Experimentation31(3) pp. 279 ... Beekly D. E. Ramos W. Lee W. Deitrich M. Jacka J. Wu J. Hubbard T. Koepsell J. Morris W. Kukull and NIA Alzheimers Disease ... Kumar A. A. Aggarwal A. Singh and P. Naidu (2016). Animal Models in Drug Discovery of Alzheimers Disease: A Mini Review. ec ...
The Scientific Problems with Using Non-Human Animals to Predict Human Response to Drugs and Disease. in Animal Experimentation ... Animal experimentation has been one of the most controversial areas of animal use, mainly due to the intentional harms ... Contesting Animal Experiments through Ethics and Epistemology: In Defense of a Political Critique of Animal Experimentation ... Animal Experimentation: Working Towards a Paradigm Change. Series:*Human-Animal Studies, Volume: 22 ...
Not only do animal models fail to help us better understand human diseases, they often lead us down the wrong path of ... why animal experimentation is unreliable for understanding human health and disease. Animals Dont Get Human Diseases ... Why Animal Experimentation Doesnt Work -- Reason 2: Animals Dont Get Human Diseases. ... The inability to recreate human diseases accurately in other animals is an inherent and fundamental flaw in the use of animal ...
... antibiotics were designed for the human use of eradicating disease. In recent years, farmers have been pumping... ... Essay about The Necessities of Animal Experimentation. 1273 Words , 6 Pages. was able to give a solid and fair representation ... attack from a disease-causing agent. Therefore, multicellular animals have dedicated cells and tissues that fight off ... Essay about The Necessities of Animal Experimentation. 1273 Words , 6 Pages. *. A Research Study On Antibacterial Therapy. 1646 ...
Animals A common antibiotic slows a mysterious coral disease By Cassie Martin. 17 hours ago. ... Animals A common antibiotic slows a mysterious coral disease By Cassie Martin. 17 hours ago. ...
... animal disease: Animals in research: the biomedical model: …more than 1,200,000 species of animals thus far identified, only a ... an identical or similar disease exists in at least one other animal species. Veterinary medicine plays an ever-increasing role ... few have been utilized in research, even though it is likely that, for every known human disease, ... In animal disease: Animals in research: the biomedical model. …more than 1,200,000 species of animals thus far identified, only ...
Introductory course on animal experimentation. An introductory course on Animal Experimentation will be presented by the Animal ... Honours in immunology & Infectious Diseases. Infectious Diseases and Immunology Honours are research-based courses, commencing ... To qualify for Honours in Immunology or in Infectious Diseases a student must satisfy the minimal conditions. The student ... To keep the candidate abreast of wider issues in Immunology and Infectious Diseases, while fostering their particular research ...
Categorizes diseases and conditions affecting common research animals from most to least prevalent. Incidence, transmission, ... Home » Information Centers » Food Safety Research Information Office » Animal Experimentation and Animal Use Alternatives ... Organizes information on the Animal Welfare Act. Includes the full-text of the 1966 Animal Welfare Act, the Animal Welfare Act ... Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in the Care and Use of Animals. American Psychological Association; Committee on Animal Research ...
autism, diabetes, ME and degenerative diseases.. Suspicion falls on the obsession with (usually animal tested) synthetic. ... Animal Experiments do not inform on human healthcare. In reply to the article Does animal experimentation inform human. ... Does animal.... *Does animal experimentation inform human healthcare? Observations from a systematic review of international ... international animal experiments on fluid resuscitation. fails to mention the ethical consideration of animal. experimentation ...
Ethics of animal research in human disease remediation, its institutional teaching; and alternatives to animal experimentation ... AniCare animal-assisted interventions animal abuse animal cruelty animal law animal research animal rights animal sheltering ... Ethics of animal research in human disease remediation, its institutional teaching; and alternatives to animal experimentation ... Animals, Vol. 26, No. 4. Technologies being used to produce nonhuman animals who are used for meat and dairy.... Animal Models ...
AbstractAnimal models of autoimmune disease have been of vital importance in the advancement of ... ... Read this full essay on Animal Models Of Autoimunne Disease. ... Supporters of anti-animal experimentation also argue that ... 632 words - 3 pages animal. Transgenic animal with human DNA can benefit humans by utilising transgenic animals as disease ... Animal Models Of Autoimunne Disease Essay. 7146 words - 29 pages AbstractAnimal models of autoimmune disease have been of vital ...
Scientists are coming under increasing pressure from activist groups to stop animal experimentation, branded as cruel and ... The need for animal experimentation in drug and vaccine development against tropical diseases ... The necessity of animal experimentation in tumor immunology Guido Forni, Patrizia Caretto, Paola Ferraiorni, Maria Carla Bosco ... The need for animal experimentation in studying the carcinogenic risk of substances ...
Purchase Precision Medicine and the Reinvention of Human Disease - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780128143933, ... Animal Experimentation: New Opportunities, New Limits. Details. No. of pages:. 398 Language:. English Copyright:. © Academic ... What the Rare Diseases Tell Us About the Common Diseases. Treatments for Rare Diseases are Effective Against the Common ... The Biological Differences Between Rare Diseases and Common Diseases. Why Rare Diseases Are Precisely Understood; and Common ...
I have often said that one way animal models are used in research and testing is to predict human response to drugs and disease ... While animal models have been very useful in documenting the possible pathological mechanisms in many CNS diseases, they are ... Animal Models. In Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science. Second Edition. Animal Models, edited by J. Hau and G. K. van Hoosier ... Animal Experimentation: Prediction Claims vs Prediction Facts. Author:. Dr Ray Greek. Updated:. Mar 1, 2018. Original:. Jul 23 ...
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... which affect both animals and humans. Included are Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) in ... The prion diseases are a large group of related neurodegenerative conditions, ... further animal and in vitro experimentation is required. One source of potential toxicity is from the immunogen that is used. ... 2002 1169688-overview Diseases & Conditions Diseases & Conditions Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease and Bovine Spongiform ...
Childrens Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Centers (P01) RFA-ES-12-001. NIEHS ... Any justification for human and animal experimentation. Each individual project of a program project grant should represent ... d. Animal Welfare: A grant recipient must agree to comply with the Animal Welfare Act of 1966 (P.L. 89-544), as amended, 7 U.S. ... Vertebrate Animals. The committee will evaluate the involvement of live vertebrate animals as part of the scientific assessment ...
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These would be used for researching disease, effectively lab animals. Some would consider the ethics of animals born in a lab, ... We are cloning for food (beef). We are cloning for emotional satisfaction dogs). We are cloning for experimentation (lab ... These pigs are used as lab animals to test out new drugs for different diseases. Genetically modified pigs are also part of the ... Xu also maintains that food has never been uniform because each animal that is brought to slaughter is different to the other. ...
Failure of Research Gained from Animal Experimentation in Neurological Diseases. *Suffering of Animals During Medical ... nbsp10 Facts on Animal Experimentation for a Debate How to Debate about Animal Experimentation → ... Alternatives to Animal Experimentations. *Failures of Animal Experimentation in Improving Human Health and Scientific Discovery ... In the previous guide we explored animal experimentation and revealed some very disturbing facts. Study our 10 facts on animal ...
Read this full essay on Animal Experimentation in Scientific Research. For many years, scientists have conducted research to ... Recently, scientists have been genetically engineering animals to generate animals that represent human diseases more ... Using Animals in Research and Experimentation. 851 words - 4 pages Animals should be used for research and Experimentation ... Needless Animal Research, Testing, And Experimentation Is Wrong. 964 words - 4 pages Needless Animal Experimentation is Wrong ...
Animal models of human disease; techniques of experimentation. Species medicine: mice, rats, rabbits, primates, amphibians & ... To show a basic knowledge of common lab animal diseases which impact on animal welfare or research outcomes. To be able to name ... The role of the laboratory animal veterinarian in research. Review of the legislation related to animal research in Australia ... commonly used animal models for major disease research areas (eg, cancer biology). To be able to advise a researcher on ...
He also initiated animal experimentation during those early years. In 1918, Wilson went overseas as the assistant director of ... the AEF division of laboratories and infectious diseases. Wilson and his chief, Col. Joseph F. Siler, greatly increased the ...
Early experimentation with animals was originally born out... ... For centuries mankind has experimented on animals for a number ... Thanks to animal research, many diseases that once killed millions of people are now either treatable or curable. Animal ... Definition Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, is the use of non-human test subjects for experimentation and ... Biomedical research on animals Essay. 1734 Words , 7 Pages. *. Essay on Should Animal Experimentation Ever Be Permitted?. 1926 ...
Animal Experimentation. 3; Childhood diseases like measles, mumps, chickenpox, and diphtheria are rare in the modern world. ... ood meal to lay their eggs.Deer ticks carry many diseases. Some deer ticks carry a disease known as Lyme Disease. Lyme Disease ... Lyme Disease was quickly understood because of animal experimentation. Pigs have been used to simula ... ... Lime disease. Lime Disease Lyme disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is a tick-borne spirochete.The dangers of this ...
Despite his dedication to pathological research, Charcot was generally opposed to animal experimentation. Nevertheless, he was ... This research program resulted in classical descriptions of diseases such as cerebral hemorrhage, diseases of the aged, chronic ... now known as Lou Gehrigss Disease, but previous called Charcots disease. In 1886 Pierre Marie (1853-1940) and Charcot ... Lectures on the Diseases of the Nervous System. London, 1881. Reprint, New York: Hafner, 1962. ...
Animal tuberculosis (TB) caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) is a reemerging multihost infectious disease (5 ... following Animal Experimentation legislation (PR-2015-03-08). We collected serum and tested it for antibodies to MTC by using ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People ... and disease on population dynamics over time and to develop disease control-oriented hunting strategies. In central and ...
Study Design Animal experimentation. Methods Allergic rhinitis was stimulated in 42 rats by intraperitoneal sensitization and ... The present article gives an overview of MC phenotypes in health and disease, and attempts to provide explanations for the ... The animals were divided into six subgroups: healthy controls, AR group, AR group treated with corticosteroid (dexamethasone 1 ... The effects of PEG-CAT or aminotriazole were greater in 2K1C rats than in sham-operated animals. The effects of angiotensin II ...
  • Similarly, it is standard practice for researchers to employ animal models in their attempts to understand the way diseases present and progress in humans. (
  • These concerns are important because conducting disease research and drug development in a manner that is not supported by science will have suboptimal implications for the humans who rely on that research, which encompass the entire population. (
  • For example, Giles (2006, p. 981) states: "In the contentious world of animal research, one question surfaces time and again: how useful are animal experiments as a way to prepare for trials of medical treatments in humans? (
  • Huff, Jacobsen, and Davis (2008 , p. 1439) stated: "Chemical carcinogenesis bioassays in animals have long been recognized and accepted as valid predictors of potential cancer hazards to humans. (
  • Strike 1: Artificially inducing stroke in animals does not recreate the complex physiology that causes the natural disease in humans, which may develop over decades. (
  • Strike 3: Artificially inducing in animals the underlying conditions that lead to human stroke does not replicate the processes that occur in humans. (
  • Yet, over 150 stroke drugs found effective in animal stroke models failed in humans (1). (
  • Blanket assertions that we can not learn from animals are naive but equally, many generalisations about humans fall when we start to look at ethnic differences and, increasingly,genetic predisposition. (
  • Experiments on animals waste time and money which could be much better spent.Funding the implementation and development of non-animal methods of research and testing, directly applicable to humans, would result in better therapies and more effective medications. (
  • Understanding the body's functions requires scientific discoveries from animal research, and because humans and animals share more than 250 common illnesses, testing on animals is extremely beneficial to humans. (
  • The studies regarding medicines developed using that model needs to go through a lot of careful testing before they are approved to be used by humans and animals. (
  • If not for the existence of animals, humans would be left to experiment on themselves at a high rate which would create a worldwide moral dilemma. (
  • Animal testing has not only benefit humans, but animals as well. (
  • The Moral Equality of Animals vs Humans The discretion between animal versus human equality has been a controversial subject for many years. (
  • Although biological activity in an animal model does not ensure an effect in humans, many drugs, treatments and cures for human diseases are developed in part with the guidance of animal models. (
  • Homologous animals have the same causes, symptoms and treatment options as would humans who have the same disease. (
  • The increase in knowledge of the genomes of non-human primates and other mammals that are genetically close to humans is allowing the production of genetically engineered animal tissues, organs and even animal species which express human diseases, providing a more robust model of human diseases in an animal model. (
  • For instance, behavioral analogues of anxiety or pain in laboratory animals can be used to screen and test new drugs for the treatment of these conditions in humans. (
  • Unethical for using animals in an innatural and cruel way, I think animal testing is very dangerous for humans. (
  • Holder tries to hide the reality and he denies that animals have equal moral status to humans. (
  • It is often argued that humans are more important than animals. (
  • Schatten said, "Medical research needs to have healthy, genetically identical animals so cures can be perfected before they are tested on humans. (
  • Animal experimentation and cocoa interventions in humans support the anti-inflammatory effect of cocoa compounds. (
  • We animals can feel pain and experience happiness and have the ability to suffer and enjoy life just like humans do. (
  • veterinary medicine the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of animals other than humans. (
  • Unknown viruses that have become harmless to the animal may be lethal to humans. (
  • A disease that affects sheep maybe can gestate over years in a flock of sheep and then suddenly because they have many human organs its affecting humans too. (
  • These findings are not necessarily applicable to people, partly because humans have more complex cognitive capacities than animals - and so the causes for decline may be more complicated. (
  • Therefore, these ODUS/Odu-derived cells may be a useful tool for studying the molecular mechanisms that underlie periodontal disease in humans. (
  • If the aim is to prevent the disease occurring in humans, then history tells us that our best bet is vaccination. (
  • Medical experimentors insist we use as models physiologic processes of animals, such as respiration, heartbeat, and nervous reflexes, in which we humans share basic characteristics. (
  • However, the experimenters fail to mention the danger to humans from reliance on data obtained from experiments on animals. (
  • The urgently need a cure for AIDS to curtail the current epidemic, yet a proposed vaccine cannot be tested on humans due to the existence of a federal law known as the Delaney Act that requires prior testing on animals. (
  • However, animal rights' activists(or anti-vivisectionists) do not believe animals should be harmed to help humans. (
  • Researchers and others point to past advances in medicine made through the use of vivisection and say that many more disease that cause wide-spread suffering among humans may be cured through animal research. (
  • Salmonella enterica is a facultative intracellular pathogen capable of causing a spectrum of diseases in humans and other animals. (
  • It is an open secret in scientific circles that animal-modeled biomedical research yields results that can't safely and reliably be applied to humans. (
  • it seemed to work miracles in animals, but it didn't work in humans. (
  • It is pointless and dangerous to continue following the old, worn-out paths, for the difference between animals and humans is so great that vivisection leads us mostly into error. (
  • Emerging viruses existing in animal reservoirs may cause epidemic or epizootic diseases if transmitted to humans or livestock. (
  • The question then arises as to whether or not the absence of language also implies the absence of either consciousness or thought, or in fact whether the communication between animals is in fact related closely enough to that of humans that language ceases to be an issue when investigating the difference between human and animal consciousness, (Lea & Kiley-Worthington, 1996). (
  • There is reasonably strong evidence to suggest that not only can animals communicate with each other, but they can in fact learn to communicate with humans. (
  • Optimal health for all-One Health-should be underpinned by ethically conducted research in animals or humans and the results should be complementary to both. (
  • Insulin was discovered on HUMANS, Not animals. (
  • Every discovery derives from observations on humans, which are subsequently duplicated in animals, and whenever the findings happen to concur, their discovery is attributed to animal experimentation. (
  • A corollary of this position is that animals cannot be used by humans in any way, including their use in scientific research designed to advance human health and medical knowledge. (
  • In 1918, Wilson went overseas as the assistant director of the AEF division of laboratories and infectious diseases. (
  • They are also in charge of watching the care and use of those animals by studying the laboratories, keeping track of the programs and responding to any additional concerns. (
  • Within the department, research facilities available include laboratories for biochemistry, immunohistochemistry, small animal experimentation, cell culture and molecular biology. (
  • Sentient animals are created (bred) in laboratories as a means to our end. (
  • Simomics is seeking collaborators with in silico disease models with 3Rs benefits to be enhanced through Virtual Disease Laboratories. (
  • Here a unique solution is offered for improving the reuse and communicability of in silico models: Virtual Disease Laboratories, which are custom applications integrating Simomics evidencing tools with client data and in silico models. (
  • Virtual Disease Laboratories are customised by Simomics to provide appropriate visualisations of the in silico model structure and results from in silico experiments. (
  • The animal-rights movement encompasses a broad spectrum of members whose tactics range from scientific criticism of experiments to bombing laboratories. (
  • The revision of the European animal experiments legislation is in the crucial final stage, and Members of the European Parliament have a final opportunity to improve the protection of animals used in laboratories across Europe. (
  • There is a huge gap between the impression given by the EC of what will now happen and the actual reality for the millions of animals who will continue to suffer and die in European laboratories. (
  • He has written numerous opinion pieces (for example, here , here and here ) asserting with confidence that animal research will not lead to any advancements in human health, that the experiments are unnecessary because they can be conducted in human volunteers, and that the treatment of the animals in our nation's laboratories amount to torture. (
  • Since 2000 the Michael J. Fox Foundation has spent over $149 million dollars to fund PD research, much of that being animal experimentation which has nothing whatsoever to do with finding treatments for people with PD. (
  • Animal Research for Al. (
  • As with other diseases that have no meaningful methods for prevention and treatment, research targeting AD has primarily focused on preclinical approaches, predominantly using animals. (
  • This chapter addresses the epidemiology and current understanding of AD as a scientific and societal challenge, reviews the uses and results of animal research in basic science and drug development, and discusses risk factors and funding. (
  • Important follow-up topics, including current and in-development, human-relevant approaches for replacement of the failed animal research paradigm, deserve comparable treatment and hence are not addressed here. (
  • First, regardless of where one stands on the ethical spectrum of animal use for medical research, certainly the inhumane and lethal use of animals for demonstrably faulty research is unethical. (
  • People are accustomed to hearing about the ethical issues arising from the use of non-human animals in biomedical research, testing, and science in general. (
  • The issue is crucial, as public opinion is behind animal research, only if it helps develop better drugs. (
  • For example, the American Physiological Society ( apa ) (2017) states on its website: "Animals are used in research to develop drugs and medical procedures to treat diseases. (
  • In this article in my medical research series , I discuss the second major reason (click here for the first reason) why animal experimentation is unreliable for understanding human health and disease. (
  • Currently with the development of multi-drug resistant bacteria, a renewed interest in bacteriophage research has again emerged with emphasis not only on its antibacterial properties, but on its potential role in treating malignant diseases. (
  • more than 1,200,000 species of animals thus far identified, only a few have been utilized in research, even though it is likely that, for every known human disease, an identical or similar disease exists in at least one other animal species. (
  • fur (see nutria and chinchilla), test animals for biomedical and genetic research (especially mice and rats), pleasure as household pets (see golden hamster, guinea pig, and gerbil), and insight on mammalian biology and evolutionary history. (
  • Infectious Diseases and Immunology Honours are research-based courses, commencing in early February and culminating in presentation of a thesis in late October/early November. (
  • A Research Seminar Series at Infectious Diseases and Immunology or equivalent in other locations. (
  • Presents the text for the " U.S. Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research and Training" as well as the "Health Research Extension Act of 1985" (Public Law 99-158, "Animals in Research," November 20, 1985), which provides the statutory mandate for the PHS Policy. (
  • Categorizes diseases and conditions affecting common research animals from most to least prevalent. (
  • Incidence, transmission, clinical signs, pathology, and augment descriptions are included to serve as a basic reference for veterinarians, veterinary students, and residents involved in the care of animal species used in research. (
  • Lists criteria for establishing codes of practice or legislation around the use of animals in scientific research. (
  • States the American Veterinary Medical Association's positions on the use of research animals including antimicrobial use, euthanasia, abuse, pain, and other important animal welfare concerns. (
  • Assembles links to internet resources on animals in research and education including government agencies. (
  • Committee on Animal Research and Ethics. (
  • Finally it makes the usual assumption that research in animals is synonymous with studies in laboratory animals, mainly rats. (
  • Animal Models in Forensic Science Research: Justified Use or Ethical Exploitation? (
  • A moral dilemma exists in biomedical research relating to the use of animal or human tissue when conducting. (
  • The use of animals in experiments and research remains highly contentious. (
  • Many biomedical research studies use captive animals to model human health and disease. (
  • This book presents the proceedings of an international symposium organized in Strasbourg (October 24-25, 1988), with the aim of assessing present-day requirements as regards animal experimentation in research related to major medical and toxicological problems still awaiting solutions. (
  • Despite continuing debate over the ethics of using animal models in research, progress in the field has been phenomenal in recent times, and a whole host of models, particularly mouse models, have been developed. (
  • I have often said that one way animal models are used in research and testing is to predict human response to drugs and disease. (
  • Introducing human material into animals has furthered medical research. (
  • Gene therapy research in Alzheimer's disease, showing a laboratory rat being given an injection. (
  • NIEHS and EPA created the jointly funded Centers for Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Program (Children's Centers) in 1998. (
  • Study our 10 facts on animal experimentation for a debate speech in detail to find out various arguments regarding the disgraced research community. (
  • Major alternatives to animal experimentation are vitro cell culture techniques and computer simulation based research. (
  • It is estimated that more than 100 million animals are used in America "as models biological and medical research to study human disease, injury, development, psychology, and anatomy and physiology" (AAVS). (
  • Millions of animals are given these diseases and injuries to be studied for medical research in hopes of insight to a treatment or cure. (
  • Of the 100 million animals used as models, 13 million animals are being used in research projects each year in America (AAVS). (
  • Treatment of animals is only the beginning of the issues surrounding animal research. (
  • 1628 words - 7 pages It's Time for a More Responsible Approach to Animal Research, Testing, and Experimentation The debate about using animals for medical testing has been raging for years. (
  • The struggle always seems to be between extremist animal rights activists who believe that animals should never be used for research, and scientists who believe that any use of animals is acceptable. (
  • 2006 words - 8 pages We Must Put an End to Animal Research, Testing, and Experimentation Without animal research, cures for such diseases as typhoid, diphtheria, and polio might never have existed. (
  • Without animal research, the development of antibiotics and insulin would have been delayed. (
  • Without animal research, many human beings would now be dead. (
  • 1391 words - 6 pages The Cruelty of Animal Testing and the Need for Alternative Methods In his book Inhumane Society: The American Way of Exploiting Animals, Dr. Michael W. Fox estimates that twenty-five to thirty-five million animals are used in the United States each year for laboratory testing and research (58). (
  • Research involving tests done on animals is unnecessary and cruel. (
  • Animals commonly used in medical research are rats and chimpanzees. (
  • Thanks to animal research, many diseases that once killed millions of people are now either treatable or curable. (
  • The focus of animal research has been characterized by three criteria, The Three R's. (
  • Here in the US, research communities are committed to supporting techniques that reduce the number of higher species used, replace animals with other models wherever/whenever possible, and refine tests to ensure the most humane conditions possible. (
  • Every research laboratory is required to have an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, consisting of research experts, licensed vets and members of the public. (
  • performed vivisection on animals for hundreds of years, and nowadays animal testing remains an essential element of research in medicine and pharmacology. (
  • An animal model (short for animal disease model) is a living, non-human, often genetic-engineered animal used during the research and investigation of human disease, for the purpose of better understanding the disease process without the added risk of harming an actual human. (
  • Animal models representing specific taxonomic groups in the research and study of developmental processes are also referred to as model organisms. (
  • Although scientific study of animals predates Charles Darwin by several hundred years, the primary justification for the use of animals in research is based on the evolutionary principle that all organisms share some degree of relatedness and genetic similarity due to common ancestry. (
  • citation needed] Animal models serving in research may have an existing, inbred or induced disease or injury that is similar to a human condition. (
  • Animal Models of T Cell-Mediated Skin Diseases (Ernst Schering Research Foundation Workshop)» на сайте Libring. (
  • The current volume summarises recent advances in animal research that are important for anti-inflammatory drug discovery. (
  • These research tools have applications in a number of areas of science, including studies of disease, toxicology and drug discovery. (
  • An area of study that scientists believe will see a reduction in animal use is toxicology research. (
  • Additionally, organoids facilitate research that would be considered impossible or unethical to conduct in people, including studies of developmental diseases. (
  • Many researchers, however, seem hesitant to say that organoids will be able to fully replace animal research, with many viewing the models as simply complementary to animal studies. (
  • Some scientists even expressed concerns that the push to use organoids will make it more challenging to conduct animal research. (
  • Many commented that while organoids are proving to be powerful research tools, research will ultimately need to be validated in animal models. (
  • Animal Experimentation is when scientific researchers use animals in biomedical and veterinary research aimed at understanding diseases, developing new medicines, testing the safety of chemicals, improving the health of other animals and improving human health. (
  • Research using animals comprise only about 5% of total biomedical research and uses about 10% of research funds. (
  • Animals are only used when no other research technique will provide the required information. (
  • animal rights: scientists and animal-rights activists clash over the use of animals for medical research. (
  • He compares animals used for research to animals used for food: that's a crazy comparison. (
  • The questions posed represent two of the more contentious issues in animal based research, teaching and testing: the numbers of animals being used, and the pain and suffering being experienced by these animals. (
  • The question of pain and distress in animals used for research, teaching and testing has concerned the general public and thoughtful researchers for a long time. (
  • It was this concern, together with increasing use of animals in fundamental and applied research, that motivated W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch to examine how decisions should be made about such use of animals. (
  • In the book The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique , published in 1959, the authors Russell and Burch proposed that all research using animals should be evaluated to see if the Three Rs could be applied. (
  • They recognized that while the replacement of animals as research subjects was a desirable goal, considerable gains could be made in humane science through reducing the numbers of animals used and by refining the techniques that were applied to animals. (
  • The word "alternatives" came into use after 1978 following the publication by David Smyth, a physiologist and President of the UK Research Defence Society, of Alternatives to Animal Experiments . (
  • He added, "These animals suffer terribly in the research lab. (
  • Principal areas of research include neuropathology, immunology, breast cancer and cancer metastasis and diseases of the skin. (
  • Individual volumes in the series Frontiers in Animal Diabetes Research provide basic researchers as well as clinical investigators with in-depth coverage of basic experimental diabetes research. (
  • Major advances have been made in diabetes research, partly as a result of experimentation in animal models. (
  • Experimental animal research has contributed significantly to the understanding of the aetiology of this disease and its dreaded complications. (
  • Various animal models used in diabetes research are reviewed, together with the diverse but often interrelated mechanism in the complication of diabetes. (
  • 1. Diabetic Animals for Research into the Complications - A General Overview 2. (
  • Whereas it is true that animals have figured largely in the history of diabetic research and therapy, their use has not been necessary and furthermore has not always advanced science. (
  • They strongly discourage experimentation and research involving chimeras, even (and especially) research using animal organs for human transplant. (
  • Through comprehensive gene expression profiling, we aimed to evaluate the utility of ODUS/Odu-derived cells as an alternative to animal models for biomedical research into human periodontal disease. (
  • As physiologist Charles Bell (quoted above) noted long ago, animals who have the misfortune of being the subjects of scientific research often live lives full of what can only be described as torture. (
  • Regardless, if you and I cannot agree on any moral conclusion of using animals in scientific research, we, hopefully, can agree that these animals have some sort of worth. (
  • It must be said that the vast majority of those involved with using animals for research are not moral monsters, but are simply utilitarians . (
  • But, interestingly enough, memorials for animals used in research are popping up around the globe. (
  • The one above this post in Novosibirsk , Russia, is dedicated to all the animals used in scientific research. (
  • A plaque at the stone marker reads: "In recognition of the animals used by the University of Guelph community in support of excellence in teaching and research" ( p.223-5 ). (
  • Canada has offered to provide up to 1,000 doses of a vaccine called VSV-EBOV, which has shown promise in animal research. (
  • The cancer death rate in the United States has not changed in the last 15 years, despite an intense federal government national cancer research program--that is, animal research--during this period. (
  • Vivisection is the dissection of living animals for scientific research and is sometimes more broadly used to describe all types of animal research. (
  • This vein of research continues today in the study of diseases such as AIDS, malaria, and other infectious diseases. (
  • Keen insights and life-saving advances in medicine gained through vivisection have propelled animal experimentation to the forefront of modern scientific research. (
  • However, growing sentiments against this type of "non-necessary" research has led most industries to abandon animal testing. (
  • For example, recent animal research has indicated that nerve regeneration is possible, which could lead totreatments and cures for spinal cord injuries that cause paralysis. (
  • Since phytoestrogens are known to be constituents of animal/human food sources, these compounds have received increased research attention. (
  • Since phytoestrogens are known to be constituents of animal and human food sources, these compounds have received increased research attention because of their potential significance and applications in human cancers and other diseases [ 6 , 9 ]. (
  • Yet it stonewalls and stubbornly persists, misleading doctors and diverting research grants that should be going to clinical (human-based) methods of curing disease. (
  • Dr. Albert Sabin, famed developer of the polio vaccine, had this in mind when he said: 'The cancer research bodies cause pain and suffering to hundreds of thousands of animals every year by inducing in the animals, through chemicals and irradiation, large cancerous growths in their bodies and in their limbs. (
  • SHANGHAI (BP) -- The first-ever primates cloned through a technique that produced Dolly the sheep have been cited by Christian bioethicists as a potentially valuable development in animal research. (
  • The candidate will join an international research laboratory of 18 persons with a strong and long lasting expertise in genetic skin disorders, gene therapy, tissue engineering and in murine models of genetic skin diseases. (
  • The Senate of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) has established a Priority Programme on "Ecology and Species Barriers in Emerging Viral Diseases" (SPP 1596). (
  • As a contract research corporation, Covance will test any product-including chemicals, drugs, pesticides, cosmetics, and other household products-on animals for any company with enough money to pay it to do so. (
  • Using New York State's open-meeting law, they sought the right to attend meetings of the internal committee that reviews Stony Brook's animal research proposals. (
  • A growing number consider all scientific research on animals immoral. (
  • One key goal is access to the animal-care committees that Federal regulations require of universities, public and private, that spend Federal money on research involving animals. (
  • Over the past several years, we have enhanced this rich research training experience with the establishment of the Richard A. and Susan F. Smith Center for Outcomes Research in Cardiology and the program in Personalized Genomics and Cardiometabolic Disease . (
  • Our active research program in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention is focused on developing leading-edge molecular and clinical epidemiological approaches to detect and prevent cardiovascular disease at its earliest stages. (
  • Animal testing should be illegal for the following reasons:each year millions of innocent animals are killed during painfull tests and research. (
  • Animal research and testing takes lives,both people and animals. (
  • Chief Executive of the ECEAE, Michelle Thew states: The truth is that under this document animals will continue to be experimented on, in large numbers, for reasons which have nothing to do with finding cures for diseases such as the safety testing of non-essential products and curiosity-driven research. (
  • In 2009, AGRI Commission wrote amendments which removed from the proposal any progressive regulations and the research industry lobbied MEPs to resist meaningful improvements for animal welfare. (
  • As a member of the Association of Medical Research Charities (AMRC), we support the principle of using animals in research when it is necessary to advance understanding and to develop better treatments, although only where there is no alternative. (
  • We support research involving animals because it has been fundamental to understanding how the human body functions and how diseases occur, and has led to the development of many of the medicines and procedures that we use today. (
  • Our research strategy is based on understanding the basic mechanisms of kidney disease and developing solutions to its treatment and prevention. (
  • The majority of people in the UK believe that it is appropriate to use animals in medical research as long as suffering is minimised and there is no alternative. (
  • All research proposals are therefore rigorously peer reviewed and the use of animals approved by an ethics panel. (
  • The UK is widely considered to have the best regulations on the welfare of animals used in research in the world. (
  • The Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 and accompanying Home Office guidance set out the safeguards of animal welfare whilst allowing important research that requires animal experimentation. (
  • We not only support and adhere to these regulations in all the research work we fund, but also actively insist on the efforts to develop techniques that will allow medical research without requiring the use of animals. (
  • The AMRC is working closely with the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) to address this issue, and continues, with the support of its members, to maintain a responsible dialogue with all relevant parties involved in the debate about the use of animals in medical research. (
  • Essay about Animal Testing is Vital to Medical Advances - Research is responsible for virtually all the medical breakthroughs there have been- there are medicines and vaccines and cures and treatments and more life saving benefits being developed today- but an important factor to the development of medical advances is the inclusion of animals in research. (
  • Animal testing is defined as the use of non-human animals in research and development projects ( (
  • This outline demonstrates how the animal research lobby distorts medical history to support their agenda. (
  • The laboratory's research themes relate to viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases of ruminants with a high economic impact, such as caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV), maedi-visna , paratuberculosis and cryptosporidiosis . (
  • Organization of the American Academy of Tropical Medicine was the natural culmination of a need experienced by American physicians and medical scientists to integrate clinical and research activities in tropical diseases, to sponsor education in this field, and to discover ways of financing these objectives. (
  • When I say "properly conducted" I do not only mean pro-perly conducted in respect of experiments on animals (although that happens to be the particular theme of this lecture), but properly conducted in respect of every research activity that could reasonably cause misgivings. (
  • In saying that medical research workers should be required to give a fair account of themselves to the general public, I am talking as if the gene-ral public were a sort of all-wise body into whose care the well-being of animals could perfectly safely be entrusted. (
  • Somebody should make the general public familiar with modern research on the dynamics of natural populations of animals: for example, the work in which Professor Lack has shown that the annual adult mortality of the European robin is as high as 60 per cent, of the starling 50 per cent and of the sparrow no less than 45 per cent. (
  • Animal research has contributed widely to human health . (
  • The other is the level of hypocrisy required for a scholar like him to criticize animal research while simultaneously being involved in the work. (
  • In other words, Dr. Hansen's own federal grant has funded the animal research he presumably opposes. (
  • Incidentally, as far as we can tell, the Aims of the grant do not include any animal research. (
  • n=22) obtained from the Disease Model Cooperative Research Association (Kyoto, Japan). (
  • Since every species has its own unique metabolism, bio-chemistry, genetic make-up and physiology, any experiments or drug testing perpetrated on animals is completely irrelevant to human beings. (
  • There is no question that most medical progress - perhaps all, in fac- has been attained through knowledge derived initially from experiments in various animal species. (
  • Orphan models refer to diseases for which there is no human analog and occur exclusively in the species studied. (
  • Approximately 13 (40%) of their parasites have been shown to be pathogenic for primates, and 11 species have been associated with human disease (Brack, 1987). (
  • Differences between species can cause issues when extrapolating data from animal models to people. (
  • Because our biological systems are so similar we also share many diseases with at least one other species. (
  • And using animals the researchers can select the species of animals on the basis of the results they want obtain. (
  • The new EU law contemplates inescapable electric shocks (to induce helplessness), complete isolation for prolonged periods of social species like dogs or primates, forced swimming or exercise tests to exhaustion, destruction of animals' immune system - and so much more. (
  • Even with all the "advancement" such experimentation has provided our species, I believe it has been carried out in a most unjust way. (
  • Johanna Dwyer of Tufts University agreed: 'The major problems of animal studies are the validity of cross-species comparisons and relevance to the human disease. (
  • The efficacy of therapeutic interventions for zoonotic diseases is deemed to be comparable across species with scientifically valid results originating from a range of animal experiments. (
  • This would enable scientists to develop cures for diseases like sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy and so many others. (
  • The National Institutes of Health currently funds more than 400 protocols at an estimated cost of $100 million annually to use CRISPR-Cas9 to sicken animals with genetic defects, even though the previous NIH Director criticized scientists for "dancing around the problem" using animal models instead of directly studying human disease. (
  • Scientists are coming under increasing pressure from activist groups to stop animal experimentation, branded as cruel and unnecessary for improving human health. (
  • Precision Medicine and the Reinvention of Human Disease explains the scientific breakthroughs that have changed the way that we understand diseases, and reveals how medical scientists are using this new knowledge to launch a medical revolution. (
  • Recently, scientists have been genetically engineering animals to generate animals that represent human diseases more accurately (AAVS). (
  • Scientists try to keep the animals from being harmed as much as possible. (
  • Animal experimentation has generated heated discussions among scientists, philosophers, and politicians. (
  • Scientists have been able to take advantage of these similarities in generating experimental and predictive models of human disease. (
  • Many scientists believe that animal experimentation remains a crucial tool for the investigation and treatment of serious diseases such as cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and heart disease. (
  • Most scientists care a great deal about the animals they use and animal. (
  • In 1937, animal experiments led scientists to spray zinc sulfate and picric acid alum into children's noses, reasoning that if the human transmission route was via the nasal mucosa as it was in monkeys, this would kill the virus in the nose. (
  • Q: Wasn't it through lab animals that scientists discovered diabetes and developed insulin? (
  • In many institutions ( UPEI, for example), scientists will ask a simple question to themselves (and a group of their peers) before they test on an animal. (
  • Following in the footsteps of Pasteur, manyother scientists began experimenting with animals to develop vaccines and antibiotics. (
  • 4. The 1889 dog experiments of Oskar Minkowski and Joseph Von Mering, which involved removing the animals pancreas and monitoring the rise in blood sugar were consistent with then current autopsy findings which is why they were hailed by scientists of the day. (
  • Methods do not exist today that would allow scientists to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying disease in human volunteers non-invasively. (
  • Replacing Animal Models provides scientists and technicians with a practical, integrated guide to developing culture-based alternatives to in vivo experiments. (
  • The ethics of continued use of the animal-based approach in AD is troublesome in at least two respects. (
  • An introductory course on Animal Experimentation will be presented by the Animal Care and Ethics Committee of the University and attendance and successful completion by all Honours students whose projects involve animals is compulsory. (
  • Some would consider the ethics of animals born in a lab, being experimented on in a lab, and dying in a lab. (
  • The remarkable success of experimentalists in winning over the government, legislature, and universities, and in carrying through their objectives in a nation of reputed animal lovers, which proved critical in shaping the course of medical science and ethics, also calls for an explanation. (
  • 15 The experimental protocol was approved by the Committee on the Ethics of Animal Experimentation of the Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University. (
  • Essay on Should Animal Experimentation Ever Be Permitted? (
  • This is an essay on animal experimentation, specializing in the Cosmetic section. (
  • This essay discusses advantages of animal experimentation. (
  • Essay about The Controversy of Animal Testing - Imagine being forced to move away from your home and from your family with no say in the matter. (
  • Animal Testing Essay - Animal Testing In the 1880's, Louis Pasteur conducted one of the most unpleasant series of animal experiments in the history of the fight against infectious disease. (
  • Researchers who employ animal modeling often attempt to justify the practice based on claims of accurately predicting human response to drugs and disease. (
  • Medical researchers soon found that deer ticks carry the disease. (
  • Researchers contracted HFRS more frequently than laboratory animal technicians or caretakers, although a caretaker died of HFRS. (
  • On these successive facts, we emphasize that the prevention and control of laboratory acquired HFRS depend upon the knowledge and understanding of this disease among the biomedical researchers. (
  • The use of animal models allows researchers to investigate disease states in ways which would be inaccessible in a human patient, performing procedures on the non-human animal that imply a level of harm that would not be considered ethical to inflict on a human. (
  • One thing is certain, though: researchers agree that organoid models will reduce the number of animals that are experimented on. (
  • And when their drugs on the market will begin to kill people or to cause horrible diseases and reactions, the researchers will say that with animals the result was different, so it's not their fault. (
  • Meanwhile researchers successfully infected animals with polio. (
  • Some researchers have suggested that people with severely elevated blood glucose levels, such as type 2 diabetes patients, run a disproportionately higher risk of Alzheimer's disease and memory loss later in life. (
  • The researchers wrote in Cell that cloned primates "are ideal animal models for studying physiological functions unique to primates and for developing therapeutic treatments of human diseases. (
  • In recent years, animal-rights groups have routinely used the Federal Freedom of Information Act to learn about federally financed projects involving animals, often using the material in effective public campaigns against researchers. (
  • Unfortunately, CRISPR-Cas9 is most often used to create animal models of human disease. (
  • With rare exception, drug interventions cannot reach commercialization without safety and efficacy having first been demonstrated in animal models. (
  • The intention of regulations, which require the use of animal models in such contexts, is to ensure that only safe and effective drugs end up being used by patients. (
  • Based on complexity science, modern evolutionary biology, and empirical evidence, we demonstrate that animal models have failed as predictors of human response. (
  • That is, animal models do not and cannot have acceptably high predictive value for human response to drugs and disease. (
  • Not only do animal models fail to help us better understand human diseases, they often lead us down the wrong path of investigation. (
  • Strike 2: Animal stroke models don't usually include the underlying conditions, which contribute to human stroke. (
  • Recognition of each difference between animal models and human diseases leads to renewed efforts to eliminate these differences. (
  • AbstractAnimal models of autoimmune disease have been of vital importance in the advancement of our understanding of central pathological processes that underlie disease causation. (
  • Environmental influences also have a role in disease causation, but these are largely unknown, and many believe that a sensitisation event coupled with abnormal antigen presentation leads to autoimmunity.Present ModelsEarlier animal models, such as collagen-induced (Trentham, AS Townes, and Kang 1977) (Courtenay et al. (
  • Opponents of animal testing advocate alternative means such as using computer models in experiments. (
  • A third important group of animal models is employed as predictive models. (
  • These models are used with the aim of discovering and quantifying the impact of a treatment, whether this is to cure a disease or to assess toxicity of a chemical compound. (
  • Many are now coming to the realization that, as in other therapeutic areas, the greatest limitation for identifying new drugs for treating cancer are the deficiencies in the animal models used for testing NCEs (Aggarwal et al. (
  • Given this, it has been argued that a greater emphasis be placed on improving animal models of human disease rather than to emphasize the screening of chemical libraries for leads that are then tested in animal systems known to have limited predictive validity with respect to human illness. (
  • A major hurdle in the translational medicine undertaking is the fact that most preclinical animal models of disease generally lack predictive value with respect to the human condition under study. (
  • Experimentation in animal models could determine this. (
  • Due to the ever growing existence of organizations such as PETA and BUAV, the medical community is under heavy pressure to find alternatives to animal experimentation such as sophisticated computer models. (
  • A large portion of the International community is now questioning the very legitimacy of animal experimentation, appealing to the cruel nature of these experiments, the condition in which the animals are kept and the amount of misleading and inconclusive animal models which have yet to serve the human medical needs. (
  • There are three main types of animal models: Homologous, Isomorphic and Predictive. (
  • Predictive models are similar to a particular human disease in only a couple of aspects. (
  • These test conditions are often termed as animal models of disease. (
  • As in noted the introduction, animal models can be classified as homologous, isomorphic or predictive. (
  • Animal models can also be more broadly classified into four categories: 1) experimental, 2) spontaneous, 3) negative, 4) orphan. (
  • These refer to models of disease that resemble human conditions in phenotype or response to treatment but are induced artificially in the laboratory. (
  • Negative models essentially refer to control animals, which are useful for validating an experimental result. (
  • The best models of disease are similar in etiology (mechanism of cause) and phenotype (signs and symptoms) to the human equivalent. (
  • Such animal models should have impact not only on inflammatory dermatoses but also on other inflammatory disorders due to their model character. (
  • Desnick ?animal Models? (
  • Gretz: Contributions To Nephrology - Animal Models In Chronic ?renal? (
  • How Do We Best Employ Animal Models for Type 1 Diabetes and Multiple Sclerosis? (
  • Ironically, these animal models have not been formally validated themselves. (
  • We look forward to the full potential of these continually improving models being realized, as they will make a tremendous contribution to science, and will significantly impact animal use in the process. (
  • What are your thoughts on using human-relevant organoids as models for organ development, drug screening and disease modeling? (
  • Will Organs-in-a-Dish Ever Replace Animal Models? (
  • Studies in Animal Models on the Role of Glycation and Advanced Glycation End-products (AGE's) in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Complications: Pitfalls and Limitations 3. (
  • Diabetic Neuropathy in Various Animal Models 6. (
  • Diabetic Retinopathy in Experimental Animal Models and Their Feasibility for Understanding the Human Disease 10. (
  • Paralytic polio could be dealt with only by preventing the irreversible destruction of the large number of motor nerve cells, and the work on prevention was long delayed by the erroneous conception of the nature of the human disease based on misleading experimental models of the disease in monkeys. (
  • Animals are very poor often misleading models of human disease and drug response. (
  • Insights from computational and mathematical ( in silico ) models can reduce the number of animals used in the development of new products and drug treatments. (
  • Simomics' Virtual Disease Laboratory technology enables effective exploitation of in silico models, providing an online platform to explore, evidence, share and communicate the model and its results. (
  • Employing in silico models is one strategy for reducing the number of animals used in the development of new therapeutics, combination therapies, biomarkers and medical devices. (
  • Simomics develops tools to support evidence-based decision making from in silico models with a focus on reducing the number of animals used in the development of new products and drug treatments. (
  • They ignore the fact that animal experimentation is an archaic science and that science relevant to health is now possible through the development of computer models of human physiology, tissue culture testing, and dozens of other scientific measurement methods. (
  • People are very complacent with their animal models. (
  • The Institute has high-performance technical platforms in genomics, bioinformatics, cell imaging, flow cell sorting and animal models which could assist the applicant if necessary. (
  • Without animal experimentation, the course of medicine would have been radically different (one can admit as much without making any presumption about the validity of animal models). (
  • Animal models should be ethical and appropriate. (
  • And, as has been well chronicled on the web-sites listed below, safety-testing drugs and medicines in animal models is irrelevant when attempting to determine reactions in human beings. (
  • the amoral scientific problem with using rodents as models for neurodegenerative diseases is that rodents do not naturally develop Alzheimer disease or Parkinson`s disease. (
  • TDP-43 mice also have moderate overexpres- tients, as well as in transgenic SOD1 animal models of sion levels in total TDP-43, with a 2.5-fold increase in total ALS [8]. (
  • The chapters also include 'case studies' that illustrate the ways in which culture models can be used to answer a range of important biological questions of direct relevance to human development, physiology, disease and healing. (
  • The identification of animal models of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has therefore been helpful for evaluating phases of HIV pathogenesis. (
  • This review addresses those features of SIV, HIV, and SHIV infections of non-human primates that illustrate the importance of the animal models of AIDS. (
  • Despite the many advances made in medicine through vivisection, many people oppose animal experimentation. (
  • On the one hand, proponents say thathelping cure diseases justify vivisection. (
  • By the century's end, anti-vivisection had become a humanitarian cause celebre , a mainstream issue with great public support and many societies dedicated to it, despite vivisection being responsible for only a tiny fraction of the vast amount of suffering inflicted on animals by human hands. (
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is one of the major divisions of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). (
  • The BDMP was initiated by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in 1974. (
  • This is the greatest nightmare of the Centers for Disease Control. (
  • Just recently, two new diabetic drugs, Onglyza and aleglitazar , failed clinical trials after testing in animals. (
  • We are currently developing rational therapies and preventive measures, based on our precise understanding of the steps leading to the clinical expression of diseases. (
  • The revised program encourages strong links between disciplines in the basic, applied, clinical and public health sciences to prevent disease and promote health in all children. (
  • Whilst most of this involves using techniques such as cell culture, computer modelling, clinical trials and human tissue analysis, some advances do require animal-based studies. (
  • The other animal lentiviruses grow best in macrophages and their infection generally reflects clinical sequellae of infection of this cell type. (
  • The disease was often carried by rats and their fleas. (
  • Infection of laboratory rats can occur by transferring animals from contaminated to other facility. (
  • Supply of the rats from contaminated colonies is the important and actual causes of infection of rats in animal facilities. (
  • Eradication of HFRS virus from contaminated can be achieved best by elimination of all animals, especially when human HFRS is associated with an infected laboratory rats. (
  • I was nominated today to speak on behalf of the nearly 200 million animals used in laboratory experiments worldwide annually with mice and rats accounting for the vast majority of lab animals. (
  • Osaka-Dental-University-Susceptible rats (ODUS/Odu) are a useful animal model for human periodontal disease. (
  • The State University at Stony Brook caught the attention of animal-rights advocates in 1987, when someone distributed a three-year-old videotape of a student's experiment on predatory behavior in which a ferret slowly killed a rabbit and several rats. (
  • We took great pains to hear evidence from all interested parties, but the amount of evidence that bore on the welfare of unattractive animals, or on pests like rats, was negligible. (
  • The only way to get what looks even a little like AD or PD pathology in rats and mice is to make them transgenic - that is, to insert human disease causing genes into the rodents. (
  • The progression of medicine and the day to day life styles of the general population rely on the ethical practice of animal testing. (
  • Two leading questions are posed here to stimulate the reader, and frame the importance of considering the Three Rs principles in striving to meet our ethical responsibilities for conducting humane animal experimentation. (
  • Over the past 40 years the Three Rs have become widely accepted ethical principles to be embedded in the conduct of animal based science. (
  • A perfect animal model would be a model that satisfied not only scientific criteria, but ethical criteria as well. (
  • As a result, an ethical debate over animal experimentation hasbeen ongoing for more than 200 years. (
  • Yet even with animal experimentation, Mitchell said, there are ethical limits. (
  • Animal cloning is subject to the same ethical standards as other animal experimentation," Mitchell said. (
  • Strong quality criteria are applied to collaborative conception of work, rigorous design of field work, and strict ethical approaches to animal experimentation. (
  • Ethical obligations limit the number of animals used in experiments as well as reduce repetition of studies. (
  • On the other hand, he is a member and a mouthpiece for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals . (
  • Experimenters artificially induce strokes by methods such as clamping off major blood vessels in animals' brains or artificially inserting clots into their vessels. (
  • There is practically no way of replacing animals in these investigations and so-called 'alternative methods' are in reality merely complementary. (
  • What Methods Are Implemented on Animals During Induced Helplessness Tests? (
  • Non-animal methods such as computer modelling, tissue culture and patient studies are widely used alongside animal studies but more often compliment animal studies than act as a replacement for them. (
  • While the methods of torture sometimes change (instead of being nailed alive to boards, dogs are now fed harsh chemicals in toxicity studies), the disregard for the dignity and rights of the animals remains the same. (
  • WT Q331K Methods: Non-transgenic, TDP-43 and TDP-43 mice were examined at three different ages of disease progression. (
  • After looking at the reasons for and potential benefits of alternatives to animal experiments, the book covers a range of methods and examples emphasising the design considerations that went into each system. (
  • The vivisectors funded by The Michael J. Fox Foundation promise that "cures" will come from their cruel and useless experiments on animals which the vivisectors themselves know are fraudulent. (
  • Through animal testing doctors can obtain valid results regarding these medical problems and create cures for people with many other medical difficulties. (
  • Healing Cancer Naturally's pages on Alzheimer's Disease: Causes, Cures & Prevention are a work in progress and continue to be expanded, please check back occasionally. (
  • Therefore, multicellular animals have dedicated cells and tissues that fight off infectious microbes in order to build immunity. (
  • To qualify for Honours in Immunology or in Infectious Diseases a student must satisfy the minimal conditions. (
  • The student should have performed well in all aspects of the senior Immunology units IMMU3102/3902 and IMMU3202/3903 or Infectious Diseases course INFD3012 or Virology course VIRO3002/3902 and achieved at least a credit. (
  • In special circumstances applicants who have studied subjects other than Immunology or Infectious Diseases may be considered. (
  • Animal tuberculosis (TB) caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) is a reemerging multihost infectious disease ( 5 ). (
  • ABSTRACT Zoonoses constitute more than 60% of all known infectious diseases and 75% of emerging infectious diseases. (
  • A number of these and more proposed causative agents reportedly inducing or contributing to the deterioration of the nervous system as seen in the physical pathology of the dementias are discussed in Part 1: Alzheimer's Disease Suggested Causes . (
  • The major success reports with Alzheimer's disease I've seen so far seem to point to the central importance of chelating mercury deposits from the body and brain . (
  • Significantly, he believed, not that they are a separate class of nervous diseases but, rather, that they are governed by the same physiological laws as the "common" organically based neural diseases. (
  • Considerable evidence has accumulated from animal experimentation and from physiological investigations but the problem of colonization has not been completely solved. (
  • Not only is this malicious treatment a cruel way to treat animals, but it is also unnecessary, being that there are now other alternatives to animal testing. (
  • PETA regularly introduces shareholder resolutions at Covance's annual meetings urging the company to take meaningful steps to ensure that it is using alternatives to animal testing whenever possible and is in compliance with federal law. (
  • Epidemiology and Animal Experimentation: Which One Is More Successful? (
  • While we understand the pathogenicity and epidemiology of prototypic emerging viral diseases, we know little about mechanisms driving virus emergence from animal reservoirs. (
  • The USDA also cited Covance for physically abusive handling of primates and numerous failures of the committee responsible for oversight of animal testing at Covance. (
  • While it is generally accepted that testing cosmetics on animals is unnecessary and immoral, there is a debate concerning the use of animals for medical purposes. (
  • In addition to its limitations, animal experimentation is immoral and should be banned. (
  • Even if animal experimentation offered us some small hope it would still be immoral. (
  • We've cured mice engineered with this disease over 500 times. (
  • But here's the problem: we end up better understanding animal diabetes-- in dogs and mice-- but not necessarily human diabetes. (
  • [ 118 ] and the authors have demonstrated that a chelator, D-penicillamine, which selectively chelates copper, delays the onset of prion disease in infected mice. (
  • The years are filled with uncounted hope-inspiring 'miracle drugs''such as interferon, interleukin, and taxol'that worked well in animals, mostly mice. (
  • Subcutaneous inoculation of HF10-immunized mice against lethal infection by HSV-2, and attenuated the development of genital ulcer diseases. (
  • Justification for all these studies relies on the notion that one can model the disease in mice in ways that might be relevant to human patients - an idea that Dr. Hansen rejects vociferously. (
  • If mice can be used to model human disease, why couldn't other animals? (
  • This study therefore aimed to determine the expression of several key complement components and regulators in the Q331K lumbar spinal cord and tibialis anterior muscle of TDP-43 mice during different disease ages. (
  • Results: Altered levels of several major complement factors, including C5a, in the spinal cord and tibialis anterior Q331K muscle of TDP-43 mice were observed as disease progressed, suggesting overall increased complement Q331K activation in TDP-43 mice. (
  • Chronic complement activation is proposed to TDP-43 expression and 1.5-fold greater expression of hu- drive ALS disease progression through the actions of the man Q331K TDP-43 levels compared with endogenous pro-inflammatory complement peptide, C5a, signalling TDP-43 in NTg mice [13]. (
  • Inflicting cancer on laboratory animals has not and will not help us to understand the disease or to treat those persons suffering from it. (
  • To experimentalists, it was axiomatic that medical science must be objective, rational, and dispassionate: if its advancement required the infliction of pain on laboratory animals, then it was unprofessional, even unethical, to allow squeamishness or sentiment to get in the way. (
  • The Directive controls the use of laboratory animals within the EU but, now the directive is over 20 years old and desperately out of date. (
  • But many alternatives have been found over the years for cosmetic testing , that all are non- cruelty to animals. (
  • After the first law to protect animals was passed, anti-cruelty campaigners formed organisations such as the RSPCA to prosecute acts of brutality, which they thought tended to promote a culture of violence, but they allowed medics to self-regulate as their moral integrity was assumed to be irreproachable. (
  • We as a society have to make independent assessments rather than deferring to these people all the time and letting them do what they want,'' said Mr. Francione, who sued Stony Brook for the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals and the Bide-A-Wee Home Assocation. (
  • According to the Humane Society of the United States animal cruelty can either be deliberate abuse or a simple failure to care properly for an animal. (
  • Novel investigations are focused on identifying genetic, molecular and functional determinants that underlie cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, with the goal of using these mechanistic insights to begin the process of developing new therapies to benefit patients and populations. (
  • other animals, such as nonhuman primates, can be more intelligent than people with dementia or other brain injury. (
  • Primates are normally very social animals, but in Covance's laboratory, they are isolated in tiny barren, stainless-steel cages. (
  • As a result of PETA's complaint, Covance was cited and fined for multiple violations of the AWA, including failure to give veterinary care to sick animals, pain relief to animals who had been subjected to painful procedures, and social and psychological enrichment to primates. (
  • and keeping primates in isolation, which fails to meet the basic psychological needs of these highly social and intelligent animals. (
  • The ECEAE (European Coalition to End Animal Experiments) of which the BUAV is the UK member, has welcomed an investigation launched by the European Ombudsman into a report by the European Commission on experiments on non-human primates (NHP). (
  • Boenninghausen continued to develop animal homeopathy (veterinary homeopathy), on his extensive estate in Westphalia. (
  • Hahnemann even lectured on the use of homeopathy in animals (veterinary homeopathy) in Leipzig in c1813. (
  • The HOMEOPATHIC VET (homoeopathic vet, homeopathic veterinarian or veterinary homeopath) is one who not only uses homeopathic medicines but also uses homeopathic principles , when examining and prescribing for a patient or group of animals. (
  • Since the 1920s, we have been bred for disease modeling and gene manipulation, and sold in large quantities, as if we are an impersonal product. (
  • 16th European Colloqium on Animal Cytogenetics and Gene Mapping, 6. (
  • Animal studies consistently fail to elucidate the precise mechanisms of human genetics. (
  • However, these are useful in isolating and making predictions about mechanisms of a set of disease features. (
  • As our closest relatives, chimpanzees have a lot of potential to tell us about mechanisms of disease (and what genes may be responsible for human intelligence). (
  • Perhaps the most impactful and foreboding development in chronic diseases in recent decades has been the increasing prevalence and awareness of dementia. (
  • These could include impairments in overall growth, developmental challenges from adverse birth outcomes which may result in increased risk of chronic diseases later in life (e.g., childhood cancer and metabolic disorders), impairments in nervous system development which may lead to behavioral and learning deficits, altered structure and function of the respiratory system, associated immune responses, and endocrine disruption that may result in systemic disorders. (
  • In fact, animal experimentation does a terrible disservice to people with chronic diseases. (
  • It is this ability to differentiate into a variety of specialized cells that makes scientist believe that stem cells hold a cure for many of the chronic diseases. (
  • While there are notable, albeit retrospective, exceptions (Zambrowicz & Sands, 2003), this weakness in the conventional drug discovery process has not been resolved with the use of transgenic animals which themselves contribute additional confounds that further complicate data interpretation. (
  • Conclusions: These results indicate that similar to SOD1 transgenic animals, local complement activation and increased Q331K expression of C5aR1 may contribute to motor neuron death and neuromuscular junction denervation in the TDP-43 mouse ALS model. (
  • But the word has since progressed beyond the literal interpretation to establish its own definition and we all know that it means the dissection and examination of a corpse to establish the cause of death, although at best it should only really apply to human corpses and not to those of animals. (
  • The dissection of living animals to learn more about how the body functions datesback to ancient times. (
  • There is no need to inflict unnecessary suffering on animals. (
  • It's time to abandon the horrendous, unethical, and useless animal testing and redirect resources to building up a humane experimentation system. (
  • Subjecting human volunteers to risk in the absence of scientifically valid results from animal experiments is unethical. (
  • While it can be argued that there may be scientifically justified grounds for the use of non-human animals in some contexts, other than those that involve predicting human responses, it is most common to see attempts to justify the use of non-human animals for applications to human health (see Kramer and Greek (2018) , for additional discussion of this point). (
  • As a homeopathic vet of 40 years' experience, he has observed that a large proportion of chronic disease, when a start date can be defined, starts within three months of a vaccine event. (
  • Didn't the polio vaccine come from animal experimentation? (
  • A: Animal experimentation actually delayed this much-needed vaccine throughout the first half of the twentieth century. (
  • The pro-animal experimenters are not incorrect when they claim that a polio vaccine was derived from animal experiments because in 1934, a polio vaccine manufactured from monkey tissue was released. (
  • The vaccine could have been produced from non-animal tissue, however manufacturers opted for monkey kidney tissue instead. (
  • The older animal-based vaccine contained live virus, causing 204 people to contract polio, and eleven documented deaths. (
  • The polio vaccine is now grown in human diploid-cell culture instead of in animal tissue. (
  • In the mid-nineteenth century, Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) isolated the microbe that causes anthrax and then developed a vaccine against the deadly disease through his studies on rabbits and guinea pigs. (
  • Formulates guidelines for use by psychologists working with nonhuman animals. (
  • Technologies being used to produce nonhuman animals who are used for meat and dairy. (
  • Geum joponicum extracts may provide a novel therapeutic method for effective treatment of chronic coronary heart disease. (
  • These results point to intestinal epithelial cell CAV1 as a potential therapeutic target to lower circulating FFAs and LDL cholesterol, as high levels are associated with development of type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease. (
  • Roy Kupsinel, M.D. once announced that "animal experimentation produces a lot of misleading and confusing data which poses hazards to human health. (
  • The facts continue multiplying that refute the barbaric practice of animal experimentation in the name of human health and longevity. (
  • however, the degree of fibrin deposition in tissues was less prominent than has been reported in other viral hemorrhagic fevers.The sequence of pathogenic events identified in this study begins to shed light on the development of disease processes during Lassa fever and also may provide new targets for rational prophylactic and chemotherapeutic interventions. (
  • The sequence of pathogenic events identified in this study begins to shed light on the development of disease processes during Lassa fever and also may provide new targets for rational prophylactic and chemotherapeutic interventions. (
  • A vegetarian diet is associated with a more favourable cardiovascular diseases biomarker profile and better vascular structural and functional parameters. (
  • This inherent value is not respected when animals are reduced to being mere tools in a scientific experiment. (
  • If all human diseases were cured off the backs of these animals, I still think we trade one form of scientific advancement for a form of moral declination. (
  • Experimentation on animals may once have been the scientific path to reduced suffering and death, but today it is an atavistic myth. (
  • Many also question the validity of scientific results based on animal experimentation, pointing out that animals' bodies and physiology often differgreatly from human beings. (
  • However we oppose all animal experiments on moral and scientific grounds the abolition through the EU is simply not possible at this time. (
  • In 1986 the European Council adopted Directive 86/609/EEC on the protection of animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes. (
  • Humulin - as is every FDA approved medication - was "safety-tested" on animals but these procedures have no bearing on the scientific process used in the actual discovery. (
  • I think of Robert Louis Stevenson, who "strenuously opposed experiments on proverbial guinea pigs, even though the experiments were designed to provide a cure for a disease from which he suffered" ( p.255 ). (
  • Two new animals took charge after the death, two pigs named Snowball and Napoleon, who quickly got the animals ready to start the rebellion despite their two very different views. (
  • By using patient-derived cells to closely examine the multiple components of CRISP-Cas9, he and his team envision real progress in human genome editing and personalized treatment for genetic diseases. (
  • We now know that every disease develops over time, through a sequence of defined biological steps, and that these steps may differ among individuals, based on genetic and environmental conditions. (
  • Applicability The techniques allow the elucidation of transport function at the molecular level and the functional definition of genetic disease. (
  • The laboratory is part of the Imagine Institute for genetic diseases located at Necker hospital for sick children. (
  • Background (~ 10%), the disease has a familial component, and it is Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as due to specific genetic mutations. (
  • 05). These results suggest that the l -arginine-NO pathway in the rostral ventrolateral medulla is impaired in SHR and that this impairment may contribute to the increase in arterial pressure in this animal model of genetic hypertension. (
  • animal welfare, the treatment and use of experimental animals remain controversial. (
  • Many agencies responsible for setting standards for the care and use of experimental animals, including the Canadian Council on Animal Care, require investigators to consider the implementation of the Three Rs during the design of experiments that will use animals. (
  • In 1966, the United States passed the Animal Welfare Act, which sets standards for housing, handling, feeding, and transportation of experimental animals.However, the act places no restrictions on the types of experiments that canbe performed. (
  • The Stephen Paget Lecture has as its particular theme a defence of the use of experimental animals to enlarge medical knowledge. (
  • But PETA has not stopped keeping the pressure on Covance for using cruel and archaic animal tests and violating federal animal-protection law. (
  • This may be achieved by reducing the number of variables through good experimental design, by using genetically homogeneous animals or by ensuring that the conditions of the experiment are rigorously controlled. (
  • In medical bacteriology Robert Koch provided what many considered the "gold standard" of animal modeling, but the problem of identifying animal disease was significant. (
  • In circa 1813, in Leipzig, Hahnemann lectured on the use of his medical system in animals. (
  • internal medicine the medical specialty that deals with diagnosis and medical treatment of diseases and disorders of internal structures of the body. (
  • preventive medicine the branch of medical study and practice aimed at preventing disease and promoting health. (
  • tropical medicine medical science as applied to diseases occurring primarily in the tropics and subtropics. (
  • Unfortunately, it is this disease-orientation of American medicine that is responsible for the misplaced priorities that result in de-emphasizing prevention techniques, ignoring personal responsibility for one`s health, and the belief that the omnipotent medical profession has the potential to, and ultimately will remedy anything and everything--provided we continue endless, repetitive, redundant, irrelevant and wasteful animal experimentation. (
  • The medical establishment threatens us with dire consequences if animal experimentation is stopped. (
  • The petition has been launched in the UK with the support of Advocates for Animals, Animal Aid, Dr Hadwen Trust, Europeans for Medical Progress, PETA (Europe) and Uncaged). (
  • Virtually almost everyone alive has benefited from the medical advances made feasible through animal testing. (
  • A critical investigation into the history of a disease usually uncovers events that conflict with the orthodox drug lobby version of medical history. (
  • Organizes information on the Animal Welfare Act. (
  • Includes the full-text of the 1966 Animal Welfare Act, the Animal Welfare Act and Regulations "Blue Book" (September 2013), amendments to the act, quick reference, and the background of the act. (
  • Based on the video and photographic evidence produced during our investigation, PETA filed a complaint with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) alleging that Covance's inhumane treatment of animals violated the federal Animal Welfare Act (AWA). (
  • These experiments often include inhumane, abusive treatment to animals. (
  • Animal experimentation is not only inhumane, but it is also unreasonable in various ways. (
  • Prevention and Control of Laboratory Acquired Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) in Animal Experimentation. (
  • The CDC's stated mission is to protect health and promote "quality of life through the prevention and control of disease, injury, and disability. (
  • group medicine the practice of medicine by a group of physicians, usually representing various specialties, who are associated together for the cooperative diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. (
  • travel medicine ( travelers' medicine ) the subspecialty of tropical medicine consisting of the diagnosis and treatment or prevention of diseases of travelers. (
  • However, animal experimentation has shown that calorie restriction can play a positive role in disease prevention and also longevity. (
  • Animal experimentation can't cure or prevent cancer, but personal responsibility can--people taking control of their destiny through prevention. (
  • Plus, it must be said that prevention doesn't finance the charities, the universities, and the institutes as animal experimentation does. (
  • A key question for the historian is why, considering the level of popular support and money at their disposal, anti-vivisectionists made so little progress in curbing, still less ending, experiments on animals. (
  • Many monkeys bit their own flesh and pulled out their own hair as a result of being locked in this horrendous environment and of Covance's failure to provide these highly emotional and sensitive animals with meaningful psychological enrichment or socialization. (