Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
Differential response to different stimuli.
Any situation where an animal or human is trained to respond differentially to two stimuli (e.g., approach and avoidance) under reward and punishment conditions and subsequently trained under reversed reward values (i.e., the approach which was previously rewarded is punished and vice versa).
Learning to make a series of responses in exact order.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
Performance of an act one or more times, with a view to its fixation or improvement; any performance of an act or behavior that leads to learning.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.
Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
The phenomenon of an organism's responding to all situations similar to one in which it has been conditioned.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.
A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.
Group behavior toward others by virtue of their group membership.
The ability to differentiate tones.
Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Usually refers to the use of mathematical models in the prediction of learning to perform tasks based on the theory of probability applied to responses; it may also refer to the frequency of occurrence of the responses observed in the particular study.
Differential treatment or unequal access to opportunities, based on group membership such as origin or ethnicity.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
The educational process of instructing.
The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
The smallest difference which can be discriminated between two stimuli or one which is barely above the threshold.
A statistical analytic technique used with discrete dependent variables, concerned with separating sets of observed values and allocating new values. It is sometimes used instead of regression analysis.
Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.
The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.
Performance of complex motor acts.
Tests of the ability to hear and understand speech as determined by scoring the number of words in a word list repeated correctly.
Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.
The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.
Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.
The tendency to react to stimuli that are different from, but somewhat similar to, the stimulus used as a conditioned stimulus.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.

Neural encoding in orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala during olfactory discrimination learning. (1/2342)

Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is part of a network of structures involved in adaptive behavior and decision making. Interconnections between OFC and basolateral amygdala (ABL) may be critical for encoding the motivational significance of stimuli used to guide behavior. Indeed, much research indicates that neurons in OFC and ABL fire selectively to cues based on their associative significance. In the current study recordings were made in each region within a behavioral paradigm that allowed comparison of the development of associative encoding over the course of learning. In each recording session, rats were presented with novel odors that were informative about the outcome of making a response and had to learn to withhold a response after sampling an odor that signaled a negative outcome. In some cases, reversal training was performed in the same session as the initial learning. Ninety-six of the 328 neurons recorded in OFC and 60 of the 229 neurons recorded in ABL exhibited selective activity during evaluation of the odor cues after learning had occurred. A substantial proportion of those neurons in ABL developed selective activity very early in training, and many reversed selectivity rapidly after reversal. In contrast, those neurons in OFC rarely exhibited selective activity during odor evaluation before the rats reached the criterion for learning, and far fewer reversed selectivity after reversal. The findings support a model in which ABL encodes the motivational significance of cues and OFC uses this information in the selection and execution of an appropriate behavioral strategy.  (+info)

Acquisition of nicotine discrimination and discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine in rats chronically exposed to caffeine. (2/2342)

Caffeine and nicotine are the main psychoactive ingredients of coffee and tobacco, with a high frequency of concurrent use in humans. This study examined the effects of chronic caffeine exposure on 1) rates of acquisition of a nicotine discrimination (0.1 or 0.4 mg/kg, s.c., training doses) and 2) the pharmacological characteristics of the established nicotine discrimination in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Once rats learned to lever-press reliably under a fixed ratio of 10 schedule for food pellets, they were randomly divided into two groups; 12 animals were maintained continuously on caffeine added to the drinking water (3 mg/ml) and another 12 control rats continued to drink tap water. In each group of water- and caffeine-drinking rats, there were six rats trained to discriminate 0.1 mg/kg of nicotine from saline and six rats trained to discriminate 0.4 mg/kg of nicotine from saline. Regardless of the training dose of nicotine, both water- and caffeine-drinking groups required a comparable number of training sessions to attain reliable stimulus control, although there was a trend for a slower acquisition in the caffeine-drinking group trained with 0.1 mg/kg of nicotine. Tests for generalization to different doses of nicotine revealed no significant differences in potency of nicotine between water- and caffeine-drinking groups. The nicotinic-receptor antagonist mecamylamine blocked the discriminative effects of 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg nicotine with comparable potency and efficacy in water- and caffeine-drinking groups. There was a dose-related generalization to both the 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg nicotine cue (maximum average of 51-83%) in water-drinking rats after i.p. treatment with d-amphetamine, cocaine, the selective dopamine uptake inhibitor GBR-12909, apomorphine, and the selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958, but not in caffeine-drinking rats (0-22%). There was no generalization to the nicotine cues after i.p. treatment with caffeine or the selective D2 (NPA) and D3 (PD 128,907) dopamine-receptor agonists in water- and caffeine-drinking rats. The dopamine-release inhibitor CGS 10746B reduced the discriminative effects of 0.4 mg/kg nicotine in water-drinking rats, but not in caffeine-drinking rats. There was no evidence of development of tolerance or sensitization to nicotine's effects throughout the study. In conclusion, chronic caffeine exposure (average, 135 mg/kg/day) did not affect the rate of acquisition of the nicotine discrimination, but it did reduce the dopaminergic component of the nicotine-discriminative cue. The reduction of the dopaminergic component of the nicotine cue was permanent, as this effect was still evident after the caffeine solution was replaced with water in caffeine-drinking rats. That nicotine could reliably serve as a discriminative stimulus in the absence of the dopaminergic component of its discriminative cue may differentiate nicotine from "classical dopaminergic" drugs of abuse such as cocaine and amphetamine.  (+info)

Discriminative stimulus effects of naltrexone after a single dose of morphine in the rat. (3/2342)

The discriminative stimulus effects of an acute morphine (MOR) --> naltrexone (NTX) combination were characterized and compared with the stimulus effects of NTX-precipitated and spontaneous withdrawal from chronic MOR administration. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6-8) were trained to discriminate between two drug treatments in a discrete-trial avoidance/escape procedure: MOR (10 mg./kg, s.c., 4 h) --> NTX (0.3 mg/kg, s.c., 0.25 h) versus saline (SAL, 1 ml/kg, s. c., 4 h) --> NTX (0.3 mg/kg, s.c., 0.25 h). Subjects responded only on the SAL --> NTX-appropriate lever when SAL was given 3.75 h after MOR or 3.75 h before any dose of NTX (0.3-100 mg/kg). Responding was dose dependent and MOR --> NTX-appropriate when NTX (0.01-0.1 mg/kg) followed MOR. Full MOR --> NTX-appropriate responding was dependent on the pretreatment dose and time of MOR, with full effects observed only when MOR (10 mg/kg) was given 3 to 4 h before NTX. While subjects were maintained on either 20- or 40 mg/kg/day of MOR via osmotic pump, NTX produced full dose-dependent, MOR --> NTX-appropriate responding. When the MOR-filled pumps were removed, partial MOR --> NTX-appropriate responding occurred, peaking at 6 to 12 h. The physical withdrawal signs produced by NTX after acute or during chronic MOR exposure were of smaller magnitude compared with the ones that occurred during abrupt withdrawal from chronic MOR. A qualitatively unique "withdrawal" stimulus that is dose- and time-dependent appears to be the basis of this MOR --> NTX discrimination.  (+info)

Behavioral, toxic, and neurochemical effects of sydnocarb, a novel psychomotor stimulant: comparisons with methamphetamine. (4/2342)

Sydnocarb (3-(beta-phenylisopropyl)-N-phenylcarbamoylsydnonimine) is a psychostimulant in clinical practice in Russia as a primary and adjunct therapy for a host of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and depression. It has been described as a stimulant with an addiction liability and toxicity less than that of amphetamines. The present study undertook to evaluate the psychomotor stimulant effects of sydnocarb in comparison to those of methamphetamine. Sydnocarb increased locomotor activity of mice with reduced potency (approximately 10-fold) and efficacy compared with methamphetamine. Sydnocarb blocked the locomotor depressant effects of haloperidol at doses that were inactive when given alone. The locomotor stimulant effects of both methamphetamine and sydnocarb were dose-dependently blocked by the dopamine D1 and D2 antagonists SCH 39166 and spiperone, respectively; blockade generally occurred at doses of the antagonists that did not depress locomotor activity when given alone. In mice trained to discriminate methamphetamine from saline, sydnocarb fully substituted for methamphetamine with a 9-fold lower potency. When substituted for methamphetamine under self-administration experiments in rats, 10-fold higher concentrations of sydnocarb maintained responding by its i.v. presentation. Sydnocarb engendered stereotypy in high doses with approximately a 2-fold lower potency than methamphetamine. However, sydnocarb was much less efficacious than methamphetamine in inducing stereotyped behavior. Both sydnocarb and methamphetamine increased dialysate levels of dopamine in mouse striatum; however, the potency and efficacy of sydnocarb was less than methamphetamine. The convulsive effects of cocaine were significantly enhanced by the coadministration of nontoxic doses of methamphetamine but not of sydnocarb. Taken together, the present findings indicate that sydnocarb has psychomotor stimulant effects that are shared by methamphetamine while demonstrating a reduced behavioral toxicity.  (+info)

Extinction of responding maintained by timeout from avoidance. (5/2342)

The resistance to extinction of lever pressing maintained by timeout from avoidance was examined. Rats were trained under a concurrent schedule in which responses on one lever postponed shock on a free-operant avoidance (Sidman) schedule (response-shock interval = 30 s) and responses on another lever produced 2 min of signaled timeout from avoidance on a variable-ratio 15 schedule. Following extended training (106 to 363 2-hr sessions), two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1 two different methods of extinction were compared. In one session, all shocks were omitted, and there was some weakening of avoidance but little change in timeout responding. In another session, responding on the timeout lever was ineffective, and under these conditions timeout responding showed rapid extinction. The within-session patterns produced by extinction manipulations were different than the effects of drugs such as morphine, which also reduces timeout responding. In Experiment 2 shock was omitted for many consecutive sessions. Response rates on the avoidance lever declined relatively rapidly, with noticeable reductions within 5 to 10 sessions. Extinction of the timeout lever response was much slower than extinction of avoidance in all 4 rats, and 2 rats continued responding at baseline levels for more than 20 extinction sessions. These results show that lever pressing maintained by negative reinforcement can be highly resistant to extinction. The persistence of responding on the timeout lever after avoidance extinction is not readily explained by current theories.  (+info)

Psychophysics of remembering. (6/2342)

We present a new model of remembering in the context of conditional discrimination. For procedures such as delayed matching to sample, the effect of the sample stimuli at the time of remembering is represented by a pair of Thurstonian (normal) distributions of effective stimulus values. The critical assumption of the model is that, based on prior experience, each effective stimulus value is associated with a ratio of reinforcers obtained for previous correct choices of the comparison stimuli. That ratio determines the choice that is made on the basis of the matching law. The standard deviations of the distributions are assumed to increase with increasing retention-interval duration, and the distance between their means is assumed to be a function of other factors that influence overall difficulty of the discrimination. It is a behavioral model in that choice is determined by its reinforcement history. The model predicts that the biasing effects of the reinforcer differential increase with decreasing discriminability and with increasing retention-interval duration. Data from several conditions using a delayed matching-to-sample procedure with pigeons support the predictions.  (+info)

Language processing is strongly left lateralized in both sexes. Evidence from functional MRI. (7/2342)

Functional MRI (fMRI) was used to examine gender effects on brain activation during a language comprehension task. A large number of subjects (50 women and 50 men) was studied to maximize the statistical power to detect subtle differences between the sexes. To estimate the specificity of findings related to sex differences, parallel analyses were performed on two groups of randomly assigned subjects. Men and women showed very similar, strongly left lateralized activation patterns. Voxel-wise tests for group differences in overall activation patterns demonstrated no significant differences between women and men. In further analyses, group differences were examined by region of interest and by hemisphere. No differences were found between the sexes in lateralization of activity in any region of interest or in intrahemispheric cortical activation patterns. These data argue against substantive differences between men and women in the large-scale neural organization of language processes.  (+info)

Blind smell: brain activation induced by an undetected air-borne chemical. (8/2342)

EEG and behavioural evidence suggests that air-borne chemicals can affect the nervous system without being consciously detected. EEG and behaviour, however, do not specify which brain structures are involved in chemical sensing that occurs below a threshold of conscious detection. Here we used functional MRI to localize brain activation induced by high and low concentrations of the air-borne compound oestra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3yl acetate. Following presentations of both concentrations, eight of eight subjects reported verbally that they could not detect any odour (P = 0.004). Forced choice detection performed during the presentations revealed above-chance detection of the high concentration, but no better than chance detection of the low concentration compound. Both concentrations induced significant brain activation, primarily in the anterior medial thalamus and inferior frontal gyrus. Activation in the inferior frontal gyrus during the high concentration condition was significantly greater in the right than in the left hemisphere (P = 0.03). A trend towards greater thalamic activation was observed for the high concentration than the low concentration compound (P = 0.08). These findings localize human brain activation that was induced by an undetectable air-borne chemical (the low concentration compound).  (+info)

Synaptic plasticity plays a key role in processes of learning and memory. Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a relatively stable enhancement of synaptic transmission following specific patterns of electrical stimulation. Some types of learning (e.g. motor learning, fear conditioning) result in LTP-like changes at synapses. However, no studies have examined LTP-like plasticity in the visual cortex as a result of visual discrimination learning. A visual discrimination task was used to examine changes in LTP in the primary visual cortex (V1) of adult rats. Rats were placed in a Y-shaped water maze and required to swim to one choice arm containing a hidden platform. Distinct visual cues indicated the presence (CS+) and absence (CS-) of the platform. Rats learned to reliably discriminate the visual cues to successfully navigate the maze. Control rats received the same procedure, but the visual cues did not have a predictive relation with the platform. Following training, trained, control, and ...
Marmosets were trained on a task involving simultaneous and successive visual discrimination performance where responses were required on all trials. Performance of this task was not affected by low doses of amphetamine. From this it is concluded that amphetamine does not cause a narrowing of attention and that the disruptive effect of amphetamine on the go-no go successive discrimination task already reported is due to a loss of response inhibition rather than to difficulties in the recognition of stimuli presented without a comparison stimulus.. ...
Padeh, B; Wahlsten, D; and Fries, J C., Operant discrimination learning and operant bar-pressing rates in inbred and heterogeneous laboratory mice. (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 797 ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Rationale: The neurobiological systems that mediate the discriminative stimulus effects of self-administered drugs are largely unknown. The present study examined the discriminative stimulus effects o
Drug discrimination studies in rats and monkeys with competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists an training drugs have shown that these drugs typically cross-substitute for each other, whereas phencyclidine (PCP)-like NMDA channel blockers produce partial, if any, substitution. In the present study, rats and squirrel monkeys were trained to discriminate the
Elias, M F. and Eleftheriou, B E., Genetic analysis of water maze discrimination learning for Mus musculus: polygenes and albinism. (1975). Faculty Research 1970 - 1979. 596 ...
Two groups of healthy young adults were exposed to 3 weeks of cognitive training in a modified version of the visual flanker task, one group trained to discriminate the target (discrimination training) and the other group to ignore the flankers (inhibition training). Inhibition training, but not discrimination training, led to significant reductions in both Garner interference, indicating improved selective attention, and in Stroop interference, indicating more efficient resolution of stimulus conflict. The behavioral gains from training were greatest in participants who showed the poorest selective attention at pretest. Electrophysiological recordings revealed that inhibition training increased the magnitude of Rejection Positivity (RP) to incongruent distractors, an event-related potential (ERP) component associated with inhibitory control. Source modeling of RP uncovered a dipole in the medial frontal gyrus for those participants receiving inhibition training, but in the cingulate gyrus for those
Apparatus. For antinociception, schedule-controlled responding, and drug discrimination procedures, monkeys were seated in commercially available primate chairs (model R001; Primate Products, Miami, FL). Monkeys in schedule-controlled responding and drug discrimination studies were placed in ventilated, sound-attenuating chambers equipped with two response levers; stimulus lights, which were located above each lever; and a food cup into which pellets could be delivered from a dispenser (for schedule-controlled responding experiments). Feet were placed into shoes containing brass electrodes to which a brief (250 ms; 3 mA) electric shock could be delivered from a remote a.c. generator. Experiments were controlled, and data were recorded with a microprocessor and a commercially available interface (MED Associates, St. Albans, VT).. Thermal Nociception. A warm water, tail-withdrawal procedure was described in detail previously (Lelas et al., 1999). In brief, monkeys were seated in chairs, and the ...
Spatial properties of stimuli are sometimes encoded even when incidental to the demands of a particular learning task. Incidental encoding of spatial information may interfere with learning by (i) causing a failure to generalize learning between trials in which a cue is presented in different spatial locations and (ii) adding common spatial features to stimuli that predict different outcomes. Hippocampal lesions have been found to facilitate acquisition of certain tasks. This facilitation may occur because hippocampal lesions impair incidental encoding of spatial information that interferes with learning. To test this prediction mice with lesions of the hippocampus were trained on appetitive simple simultaneous discrimination tasks using inserts in the goal arms of a T-maze. It was found that hippocampal lesioned mice were facilitated at learning the discriminations, but they were sensitive to changes in spatial information in a manner that was similar to control mice. In a second experiment it was
A more direct method than the usual ones for obtaining inhibitory gradients requires that the dimension of the nonreinforced stimulus selected for testing be orthogonal to the dimensions of the reinforced stimulus. In that case, the test points along
The investigation tested the hypothesis that tolerance would develop to the discriminative stimulus properties of fentanyl upon discontinuation of discrimination training and injection of fentanyl in doses larger than the training dose. Rats were trained to discriminate an injection of fentanyl, 0.04 mg/kg, from saline using a two-lever choice procedure with food as a reinforcer. Given acutely, morphine substituted for fentanyl and was 100-times less potent. Subsequently, training was stopped, and fentanyl, 0.08 mg/kg, was injected every 12 hr for 1 week. This procedure did not produce tolerance nor did tolerance occur when fentanyl, 0.16 mg/kg every 24 hr, was continued for an additional week. In contrast, a dose of morphine (8.0 mg/kg) that was equated for efficacy to the 0.08-mg/kg dose of fentanyl produced both tolerance to the morphine stimulus and cross-tolerance to the fentanyl stimulus after 3 to 4 days of administration. In an additional experiment, the time course for detection of ...
The problem for an analysis of the activity of type 1 musculature as a learned or operant behavior is that tension is a core component of emotional responses such as anxiety, fear or anger that are difficult to precisely define, and it is hard to tease apart the S-R from the R-S components that are purported to control the neuro-muscular aspect of emotionality. Perhaps the easiest way to analyze the discriminative stimuli that activate Type 1 musculature and to control for the confounding influence of S-R processes is to examine this behavior under conditions that minimize the presence of real or imputed reflexive S-R mechanisms. This is the case when we become tense as we make day to day choices between alternative contingencies wherein the choice of one marks a small opportunity loss of the other, or distractive choices. Because the initiating cause for this tension is a simple discrimination between two alternative contingencies or choices, and not complex linguistic (rumination) ...
Free Online Library: Fatigue strength of vibration-welded unreinforced nylon butt joints. by Polymer Engineering and Science; Engineering and manufacturing Science and technology, general
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
A sample stimulus in the invisible condition.The left image was presented to the non-dominant eye and the right image was presented to the dominant eye.
Prior work by Radin et al. (2012, 2016) reported the astonishing claim that an anomalous effect on double-slit (DS) light-interference intensity had been measured as a function of quantum-based observer consciousness. Given the radical implications, could there exist an alternative explanation, other than an anomalous consciousness effect, such as artifacts including systematic methodological error (SME)? To address this question, a conceptual replication study involving 10,000 test trials was commissioned to be performed blindly by the same investigator who had reported the original results ...
Prior work by Radin et al. (2012, 2016) reported the astonishing claim that an anomalous effect on double-slit (DS) light-interference intensity had been measured as a function of quantum-based observer consciousness. Given the radical implications, could there exist an alternative explanation, other than an anomalous consciousness effect, such as artifacts including systematic methodological error (SME)? To address this question, a conceptual replication study involving 10,000 test trials was commissioned to be performed blindly by the same investigator who had reported the original results ...
This post will look at animal study of pigs, sheep, mice, and some primates to understand what makes them great proxies for human test trials.
The Star analyzed more than 33,000 complaints made to the citys licensing and standards division in 2013 - and found a few oddities among them.
Update: In subsequent tests, the performance impact of attaching an interrupt with PCintPort::attachInterrupt has been measured to be near negligible. In the worst case test there was a 5% overhead (over INT0,INT1 ), in the best case it was actually 15% faster. This out performance of PCintPort happens when one or more interrupts trigger more or less at the same instant. The pinChangeInt library is able to handle these within a single hardware interrupt. It will loop through the pins that have changed calling the user supplied interrupt service routines before passing control back to the hardware. This is more efficient than completing a single routine and then passing control back to the hardware each time. Note that this is a special case and most applications will not see any advantage from this ...
The primary purpose of INTERFACES as an Initial Training Network is to develop young researchers to be outstanding supra-disciplinary scientists. We have 11 Early Stage Researchers (studying for PhDs) and 4 Experienced Researchers (post-docs) within the project.. ...
Granted, Im still eager to boost my cuss-o-meter rating, but that seems kind of blunt and Ive been puzzled over its directness since reading it a couple days ago. Even the Gray Lady is getting the point across, like in todays piece on McCain being a little jealous of the attention Obamas getting ...
Two different discrimination learning experiments, the first using rats and the second cats, provide clear support for facilitation of acquisition rate by physostigmine injections. The results...
Despite vast literature on catecholaminergic neuromodulation of auditory cortex functioning in general, knowledge about its role for long-term memory formation is scarce. Our previous pharmacological studies on cortex-dependent frequency-modulated tone-sweep discrimination learning of Mongolian gerb …
The pattern of wake-state deterioration followed by sleep-state recovery and stabilization is consistent with other sleep consolidation studies, as the same result has been found for perceptual learning of synthetic speech (Fenn et al., 2003) and sensorimotor learning (Brawn et al., 2008). Moreover, although sleep has been commonly reported to enhance visual texture discrimination learning (e.g., Gais et al., 2000), it is plausible that texture discrimination studies may suffer from task-structure confounds that result in similar fatigue or reactive inhibition and could potentially follow the pattern of consolidation demonstrated here. Indeed, texture discrimination training and testing sessions entail ,1000 trials, and performance has been shown to deteriorate if participants are retested multiple times during the day, implicating fatigue in the visual system as a critical factor in the reported pattern of performance changes (Mednick et al., 2002). Additionally, similar inhibition effects were ...
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
Drug discrimination studies showed that 5-methyl-MDA substitutes for MDA, MMAI, and LSD, but not amphetamine, suggesting that it produces a mix of entactogen and hallucinogenic effects without any stimulant effects.[2]. 5-Methyl-MDA acts as a selective serotonin releasing agent (SSRA) with IC50 values of 107nM, 11,600nM, and 1,494nM for serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine efflux.[1] It is over 5x more potent than MDA, with a suitable active dose possibly being around 15-25 mg.[1][2] Subsequent testing, however, has found that it is not as potent as once thought and is active at at least 100mg. 2-Methyl-MDA is also much more potent than MDA, but is not quite as potent as 5-methyl-MDA.[1] 6-methyl-MDMA (also known as Madam-6) is mostly inactive, likely due to steric hindrance.[1][3]. Recent research has used data on 2-methyl-MDA and 5-methyl-MDA to help guide computer modeling of the serotonin transporter complex.[4]. ...
Survey on discrimination against women in economic and social life. Make your voice heard. Dear all,. the Working Group on Discrimination against Women invites you to contribute to its 2014 report by taking the survey on discrimination against women in economic and social life available at this link:https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/Questionnaire_on_Economic_and_Social_Life. The Working Group on Discrimination against Women is a special procedure established by the Human Rights Council in 2010. It has been tasked to identify, promote and exchange views on good practices to eliminate discrimination against women in law and in practice. The Working Group will devote its thematic report, to be presented to the Human Rights Council in June 2014, on womens economic and social life, in particular during time of economic crisis. The inputs you will provide through the survey will inform the report. The deadline for reply is 1st of March 2013.. Depending on your expertise and experiences, you might want ...
It is debated whether subregions within the medial temporal lobe (MTL), in particular the hippocampus (HC) and perirhinal cortex (PrC), play domain-sensitive roles in learning. In the present study, two patients with differing degrees of MTL damage were first exposed to pairs of highly similar scenes, faces, and dot patterns and then asked to make repeated same/different decisions to preexposed and nonexposed (novel) pairs from the three categories (Experiment 1). We measured whether patients would show a benefit of prior exposure (preexposed , nonexposed) and whether repetition of nonexposed (and preexposed) pairs at test would benefit discrimination accuracy. Although selective HC damage impaired learning of scenes, but not faces and dot patterns, broader MTL damage involving the HC and PrC compromised discrimination learning of scenes and faces but left dot pattern learning unaffected. In Experiment 2, a similar task was run in healthy young participants in the MRI scanner. Functional ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selective tolerance to discriminative stimulus effects of morphine or d-amphetamine.. AU - Young, Alice. AU - Walton, M A. AU - Carter, T L. PY - 1992/6/1. Y1 - 1992/6/1. M3 - Article. SP - 201. EP - 209. JO - Behavioural Pharmacology. JF - Behavioural Pharmacology. SN - 0955-8810. ER - ...
Open your mind to the universal energies of infinite creation. Easily overcome obstacles, create positive permanent change, and energize your quality of life with chi energy. If you request a 3 day chi energy transfer test, youll receive it within 24 hours. You will receive the 24 hour transfer test by email instantly and you will be free to experience the power of a continuous supply of chi energy. Print the chi energy card you receive by email. Color or Black and white, Any size that feels comfortable to you. Relax and hold the palm of your hand over the card. You will feel a warmth, cool breeze, or tingling in the fingers. This is chi energy and its transmitted to you from any distance. Now follow the instructions included on the experiment page and charge your water. ...
Open your mind to the universal energies of infinite creation. Easily overcome obstacles, create positive permanent change, and energize your quality of life with chi energy. If you request a 3 day chi energy transfer test, youll receive it within 24 hours. You will receive the 24 hour transfer test by email instantly and you will be free to experience the power of a continuous supply of chi energy. Print the chi energy card you receive by email. Color or Black and white, Any size that feels comfortable to you. Relax and hold the palm of your hand over the card. You will feel a warmth, cool breeze, or tingling in the fingers. This is chi energy and its transmitted to you from any distance. Now follow the instructions included on the experiment page and charge your water. ...
Following a 1994 study that found that errorless learning was better than trial-and-error learning for amnesic patients and older adults, errorless learning has been widely adopted in the rehabilitation industry. Errorless learning involves being told the answer without repeatedly trying to answer the question and perhaps making mistakes. For example, in the 1994 study, participants in the trial-and-error condition could produce up to three errors in answer to the question I am thinking of a word that begins with QU, before being told the answer was QUOTE; in contrast, participants in the errorless condition were simply told I am thinking of a word that begins with QU and it is QUOTE.. In a way, it is surprising that errorless learning should be better, given that trial-and-error produces much deeper and richer encoding, and a number of studies with young adults have indeed found an advantage for making errors. Moreover, its well established that retrieving an item leads to better ...
Abstract: Multiply controlled intraverbals commonly occur in social interactions and are important for the acquisition of academic skills. Research on the effectiveness of strategies for teaching multiply controlled intraverbals to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is limited. It has been suggested that multiply controlled intraverbals involve conditional or compound stimulus control. Procedures involving prompt delays have resulted in acquisition of multiply controlled intraverbals for some children with autism spectrum disorder. Blocked-trials procedures (BTP) have also been effective for teaching responses to auditory-visual and visual-visual stimuli involving conditional and compound stimulus control. The purpose of the present study was to extend the literature on teaching multiply controlled intraverbals by evaluating (a) the effects of a constant prompt delay on the acquisition of multiply controlled intraverbals by children with ASD, (b) a BTP on the acquisition of multiply ...
Table 1 gives the relative frequency of choices that were repeated on at least the next trial for both the present experiment and for Thorndike and Tilton. Following Thorndike, data are reported only on those choices made for the first time on Trials 2, 3, or 4 (and, therefore, followed by right or wrong for the first time). Thorndike eliminated from his computations all items that were chosen correctly on the first trial because his correct choices were the actual translations of the Spanish words. Because correct choices were selected randomly in the present experiment, data for Trials 1-4 are also presented in Table 1. All statistical analyses were made on this data.. The most striking result seen in Table 1 was the most unexpected. In all four groups, per cent repetition after choice-alone was markedly higher than after right. This result can be found in Tiltons tabled results, but it has not been previously discussed. Not only do Ss repeat unreinforced responses at greater than the chance ...
Monkeys with PFCxIT disconnection were unimpaired at a concurrent visual reversal learning task relative to controls. A separate group of monkeys were severely impaired at a serial visual reversal learning task in which they had preoperatively acquired a robust learning set, again relative to controls. Experiments 1 and 2 therefore provide a striking contrast between the effects of PFC-IT disconnection in two tasks that both test reversal learning. Despite the clear differences between these tasks, most notably the preoperative training in experiment 2, the procedure on any one trial is identical in the two tasks, and both tasks require the monkey to inhibit previously learned associations between object and reward. Furthermore, the impairment is seen in the serial reversal task, which only contained one problem and in which the monkeys received extensive preoperative training but is not seen in the concurrent reversal task, which lacked preoperative training and contained a number of problems. ...
class is not necessarily true equality. Very often it is merely an equivalence relation, where two equivalent values may be distinguishable by other means. For example, we might consider two binary trees to be equal if they contain the same elements, even if their shapes are different. Because of this phenomenon, implementations of observable collections (ie, collections where it is possible to inspect the elements) are rather constrained. Such an implementation must retain the actual elements that were inserted. For example, it is not possible in general to represent an observable bag as a finite map from elements to counts, because even if we know that a given bag contains, say, three elements from some equivalence class, we do not necessarily know which three. On the other hand, implementations of non-observable collections have much greater freedom to choose abstract representations of each equivalence class. For example, representing a bag as a finite map from elements to counts works fine ...
Fancy a peek at drunk people cavorting within our recently launched Great Coney Island Spectacularium? The video above was shot at our Obscura Day Oddities party a few weeks ago. The sharp-eyed among you might spot yourself, the cast of TVs Oddities and their spouses, friends, and my mother ...
RESULTS: The PTZ-kindling animals have shown impaired motor activity, locomotion, discrimination ability, learning, and memory, along with increased emotional tension, anxiety, neuronal damage (increased sNSE), hippocampal pro-inflammatory mediators (increased IL-1β and TNF-α), oxidative stress (increased TBARS, decreased GSH and CAT), and mitochondrial dysfunction. The administration of NF110 in 3 different doses has significantly and dose-dependently corrected PTZ-kindling-induced impaired behavior, learning, memory, locomotion, motor activity, discrimination ability, neuronal damage, hippocampal inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. These beneficial effects of NF110 in PTZ-kindling animals were significantly abolished by the administration of the P2X agonist α, β methylene-ATP ...
This site is for certificate payment/downloading only. If you have other questions about this activity, please call Jill Tepe at 206-616-7843. Use this site only if all three of the steps below apply to you. ...
Author: Wolfensteller, Uta et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2011-07-15; Keywords: fMRI; Prefrontal cortex; Rule learning; Strategy; Integration; Interference; Title: Strategy-effects in prefrontal cortex during learning of higher-order S-R rules
Turqousie coach purse - Reduce fouling and most were present in the. Conditional discriminations in which of critical exit points name of the.
Joe Wos, a Pittsburgh-based cartoonist and performer, is currently working on what he hopes will be the new worlds largest most difficult hand-drawn maze. Creating this thing is one daunting task, but nowhere as difficult as finding someone willing to spend approximately 40 hours trying to solve it.. Like all children, Joe Wos loved to doodle when he was young boy. He grew up to become an cartoonist, and as he approached 40 years old, he felt the need to achieve some lifelong goals, one of which was setting a Guinness record. He remembered that as a kid, he would create mazes on huge pieces of paper that often ended up on the walls of his home, and realized that could be his shot. After doing some research he learned Guinness had other maze-related records so he asked them if they were willing to acknowledge the world largest hand-drawn maze. They accepted, but with a number of conditions: Wos maze would have to be at least 10 square meters in size, it would have to be solvable, and drawn by ...
Sometimes the human body can be a strange place. All its mechanisms serve a purpose, but sometimes biology even makes mistakes. In this lens, I will highlight some of the weird, gross, and well, odd oddities that can occur in biology and the ever...
Characteristics Sentinel Event of Monitoring System There are several methods for monitoring adverse events in the healthcare system, characterized by strengths and weaknesses. The correct choice should be appropriate to achieve their goals.
How do you locate the best facial cream [ครีมทาหน้าที่ดีที่สุด, which are the term in Thai] for facial lines to stay away from the worries trial-and-error? After going through the post, youll comprehend what you must accomplish while looking for it. At present, many individuals fall short at getting the ideal facial cream for facial lines. […]. ...
When the Proportional Value line was drawn free-hand, the line was fit in place visually. A clear ruler was positioned on top of the scattergram, with the straight edge passing through the pivot point. The ruler was moved until the straight edge fit the data most closely. This required that the line be adjusted until one was drawn that fit the points on the scattergram.. Regression analysis is the mathematical way of accurately finding the line which best fits the points on the graph. Regression analysis calculates a line that produces the smallest sum of distances of points to the line. The calculations can be done using a computer program or a calculator with the regression function. Unlike drawing a line free-hand, this method does not entail a trial-and-error process. ...
Motive: to eliminate the manual trial-and-error play that is currently required to maximize returns from the Artifact system. each player gets 4...
Doctors prescribing blood thinners have had to go through a lengthy trial-and-error process to arrive at the optimal dose for their patients.
The high NLR group had a low complete response (CR) rate compared to low NLR group (51.6% vs. 83.5%; p,0.001). The 5-year PFS and OS rates were 27.4% and 30% in the high NLR group and 61.1% and 63.7% in the low NLR group, respectively (both p,0.001). Multivariate analyses confirmed that NLR is one of the independent risk factors for failure to achieve CR and for worse PFS and OS. The nomogram showed superior discrimination ability for predicting 5-year PFS and OS rates compared with NCCN-IPI (c index 0.78 vs. 0.75 and 0.79 vs. 0.75, respectively).. ...
Heliophiliac . Frigophobiac. The wintertide gain.. icicles sharp and brittle. barren tree limbs. harsh winds. the dark outstripping the days:premature this Achromatic existence. This SADness.. | awakening is strenuous | wide open alongside the roosters howl still snugged under the fondness of blankets spurning to vacant the warmth of Is own body only if... the…
Have you experienced age discrimination? This writer says it exists, and its real. Maybe you are having a hard time getting hired, or worse yet, youve lost your job for flimsy reasons. Here are...
Having breastfed two children, I had a lot of time to ponder our mammal traits. But it turns out lactation in nature is even weirder than I thought.
Seven weeks ago, the management at Gulfstream Park promised that its new $170 million facility, which one official dubbed the Taj Mahal of racing, would be the new paradigm for thoroughbred sport.
- Get the pigeon into a safe, warm enclosure. ... - If the pigeon is feral, contact a local wildlife hospital or rehabilitator that takes wild pigeons.
Your right to breastfeed in public is protected under the law (ACT Discrimination Act 1991). If you experience discrimination, you can seek advice from, or make a complaint to:. ...
Racing Pigeon products, Pigeon Supplies and Pigeon medicines. We have a massive range of pigeon medicines, such as pigeon antibiotic, vitamins, pigeon stimulant and more.
Racing Pigeon products, Pigeon Supplies and Pigeon medicines. We have a massive range of pigeon medicines, such as pigeon antibiotic, vitamins, pigeon stimulant and more.
Cognition, discrimination, and learning[edit]. Computational modeling of higher cognitive functions has only recently[when?] ... machine learning, artificial neural networks, artificial intelligence and computational learning theory.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11] ... Earlier models of memory are primarily based on the postulates of Hebbian learning. Biologically relevant models such as ... Machens CK, Romo R, Brody CD (2005). "Flexible control of mutual inhibition: a neural model of two-interval discrimination". ...
"Discrimination Learning in Paramecia (P. caudatum)". The Psychological Record. 56 (4): 489-498. doi:10.1007/BF03396029.. ... Learning[edit]. The question of whether paramecia exhibit learning has been the object of a great deal of experimentation, ... Ginsburg, Simona; Jablonka, Eva (2009). "Epigenetic learning in non-neural organisms". Journal of Biosciences. 34 (4): 633-646 ... Alipour, Abolfazl; Dorvash, Mohammadreza; Yeganeh, Yasaman; Hatam, Gholamreza (2017-11-27). "Paramecium Learning: New Insights ...
... speed of learning, and memory. Horses excel at simple learning, but also are able to use more advanced cognitive abilities that ... They also have good spatial discrimination abilities.[92] They are naturally curious and apt to investigate things they have ... Intelligence and learning. Studies have indicated that horses perform a number of cognitive tasks on a daily basis, meeting ... They can learn using habituation, desensitization, classical conditioning, and operant conditioning, and positive and negative ...
Discrimination training[edit]. Operant stimulus control is typically established by discrimination training. For example, to ... J. E. R. Staddon (7 March 2016). Adaptive Behavior and Learning. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-316-46776-3. .. ... James E. Mazur (10 November 2016). Learning & Behavior: Eighth Edition. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-315-45026-1. .. ... Nevin, J. A. (1965). "Decision theory in studies of discrimination in animals". Science. 150 (3699): 1057. doi:10.1126/science. ...
"Music discriminations by carp (Cyprinus carpio)". Animal Learning & Behavior. 29 (4): 336-353. doi:10.3758/bf03192900. ISSN ... Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... They do, however, have a remarkably long memory, and once a task is learned, it will be retained for a very long time. For this ... While continuous reinforcement in a fixed ratio schedule may be necessary for the initial learning stages, a variable ratio ...
"Learning for Life - Exploring". Learning For Life. Retrieved June 24, 2008. "Learning For Life". BSA Discrimination. Archived ... Learning for Life is a school and work-site based program that is a subsidiary of the BSA. It utilizes programs designed for ... The Scouts learn teamwork by meeting and working together in a den of four to ten boys or girls under adult leadership. They ... In order to learn leadership, the youth must actually serve in leadership roles. Adult leaders may be either men or women in ...
When an individual learns something new, a neurochemical "memory trace" is created. However, over time this trace slowly ... Harris JD (November 1952). "Pitch discrimination". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 24 (6): 750-5. doi:10.1121 ... Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 34 (6): 1561-4. doi:10.1037/a0013356. PMID 18980415. Buhusi CV, Meck WH (July 2006). "Interval ... The term "decay theory" was first coined by Edward Thorndike in his book The Psychology of Learning in 1914. This simply states ...
"Learning For Life". BSA Discrimination. Archived from the original on June 9, 2008. Retrieved June 24, 2008. "What Is Exploring ... Exploring is the worksite-based program of Learning for Life. Leadership positions and membership in the Learning for Life ... See Discrimination in the BSA Archived September 18, 2010, at the Wayback Machine "Boy Scouts of America v. Dale - 530 U.S. 640 ... However, the Venturing and Learning for Life programs were and continue to be open to young men and women ages 14 through 21. ...
It is about who takes decisions, and how, including in relation to learning processes and evolving institutions in society. ... preventing discrimination; fostering subsidiarity, mutual respect, dialogue, consensus and agreed rules… Direction- i.e. ... A structured programme of governance assessments, supported by learning and capacity development networks is a short and medium ... learn from experience and weigh options through dialogue, exchanges, experiment and debate… able to take rapid and meaningful ...
Discrimination learning refers to learning to distinguish. Rao, K. Ramakrishna; Paranjpe, Anand C. (2016). Psychology in the ... According to Rao and Paranjpe, viveka can be explained more fully as: Sense of discrimination; wisdom; discrimination between ... right intuitive discrimination; ever present discrimination between the transient and the permanent. The Vivekachudamani is an ... is a Sanskrit and Pali term translated into English as discernment or discrimination. ...
POP이슈]MAMA, 가수·배우 차별 의혹→해명 "코로나 방역 수칙 때문" [[POP Issue] MAMA Suspects Discrimination against Singers and Actors → Explained " ... Song Da-young (December 8, 2020). 배우는 대기실, 아이돌은 주차장?…MAMA 차별 논란 [Waiting room for learning, parking lot for idols?... MAMA ... discrimination controversy]. The Kukmin Daily. Kim Soo-ji, Goo Min-ji (December 8, 2020). [D-eye] MAMA, 아이돌 홀대의 그늘…"카니발, 햄버거, ...
"Monocular-unihemispheric sleep and visual discrimination learning in the domestic chick". Experimental Brain Research. 176 (1 ... Learning tasks, such as those including predator recognition, demonstrated the open eye could be preferential.[6] This has also ...
Mascetti, GG; Rugger, M; Vallortigara, G; Bobbo, D (2007). "Monocular-unihemispheric sleep and visual discrimination learning ... An observation of the Datta study is that the learning group spent 180% more time in SWS than did the control group during the ... Flies deprived of sleep require a longer time to learn this and also forget it more quickly. If an arthropod is experimentally ... During the posttrial sleep recording session, rats spent 25.47% more time in REM sleep after learning trials than after control ...
The company has also begun offering web-based learning. The organisation itself functions as a secretariat for the schools and ... For instance, acceptance of student applications is based on grades from previous institutions only; no discrimination is ...
Animal discrimination learning, 1969 (Edited, with R. M. Gilbert)[ISBN missing] Mechanisms of animal discrimination learning, ... ISBN 0-8245-2509-4. Irrationality Mackintosh, Nicholas John (1963). Discrimination learning in animals. bodleian.ox.ac.uk ( ... the two-factor theory of discrimination learning that he developed with Nicholas Mackintosh was an important step in the ... particularly in relation to visual pattern recognition and discrimination learning. In the 1950s and 1960s he carried out ...
These include discrimination learning, ape language, the evolution of language, and animal cognition. Terrace was born and ... Subjects who learn with few or no errors do not exhibit the frustration they would have experienced had they learned by trial ... Terrace, H. S. (1963a). "Discrimination learning with and without errors". Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 6 ... Terrace, H. S. (1968). "Discrimination learning, the peak shift, and behavioral contrast". Journal of the Experimental Analysis ...
Discrimination learning in animals. bodleian.ox.ac.uk (DPhil thesis). University of Oxford. EThOS uk.bl.ethos.710358. Pearce, ... Mackintosh, N. J. (1974), Psychology of Animal Learning, Academic Press, ISBN 0124646506 Mackintosh, N. J. (1983), Conditioning ... psychometrics and animal learning. Mackintosh was born in London, the son of Ian Mackintosh and his wife Daphne Cochrane. He ... and Associative Learning, Clarendon Press, ISBN 0198521014 Mackintosh, N. J. (1995), Cyril Burt: fraud or framed?, Oxford ...
Learning & memory, 10(5), P 319. *^ Herz RS, Engen T (September 1996). "Odor memory: Review and analysis". Psychonomic Bulletin ... Jones, Barbara P.; Moskowitz, Howard R.; Butters, Nelson (1975-04-01). "Olfactory discrimination in alcoholic korsakoff ... 2006). Learning to smell: Olfactory perception from neurobiology to behavior.. Baltimore, MD, US: Johns Hopkins University ... Odor Discrimination and Olfactory Threshold". Chemical Senses. 22 (1): 39-52. doi:10.1093/chemse/22.1.39. ISSN 0379-864X. PMID ...
"UN Free & Equal , Learn More". UN Free & Equal. Retrieved 2019-07-19. "UN Free & Equal Campaign 2018 Progress Report" (PDF). UN ... "We know from experience that eradicating discrimination requires more than just changes in laws and policies. It takes a change ... Radcliffe, Charles; ContributorChief; Equality; Non-discrimination; Office, U. N. Human Rights; York, New (2013-09-26). " ... Radcliffe, Charles; ContributorChief; Equality; Non-discrimination; Office, U. N. Human Rights; York, New (2014-10-01). " ...
Whitley, B. E. (2010). The Psychology of Prejudice & Discrimination. United States: Wadsworth Engage Learning. Fazio, R. H. & ... According to Doob (1947), learning can account for most of the attitudes we hold. The study of attitude formation is the study ... The theory of reasoned action was in turn grounded in various theories of attitude such as learning theories, expectancy-value ... Theories of classical conditioning, instrumental conditioning and social learning are mainly responsible for formation of ...
Calves are capable of discrimination learning and adult cattle compare favourably with small mammals in their learning ability ... Schaeffer, R.G.; Sikes, J.D. (1971). "Discrimination learning in dairy calves". Journal of Dairy Science. 54 (6): 893-896. doi: ... Although they initially learn to avoid low-quality food, this memory diminishes over the same duration. Under less artificial ... Mature cattle perform well in spatial learning tasks and have a good long-term memory in these tests. Cattle tested in a radial ...
Rapping, L. (1965). "Learning and World War II Production Functions". The Review of Economics and Statistics. 47 (1): 81-86. ... Pascal, Anthony H; Rapping, Leonard A. (1972). Racial Discrimination in Economic Life. The Rand Corporation, Lexington Books. ...
The Law of Sex Discrimination. Cengage Learning. pp. 291-. ISBN 9780495793229. Retrieved 29 December 2012. CS1 maint: ...
Popescu, Eugenia (2011-07-19). "Discriminarea se invata... in familie" [Discrimination is learned ... in the family]. ... The National Anti-Discrimination Council in 2020 fined the mayor for not demolishing the wall. Also in 2020, the mayor of Târgu ... the continued high levels of discrimination are a serious concern.. and progress has been limited to programmes aimed at ... Within the Romanian education system there is discrimination and segregation, which leads to higher drop-out rates and lower ...
Altonji, J.G., Pierret, C.R. (2001). Employer learning and statistical discrimination. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 116(1), ... In 2018, his contributions to the analysis of labour supply, family economics and discrimination were rewarded with the IZA ... Altonji has also made substantial contributions to the field of labour market discrimination, especially through his ... as firms learn about workers' productivity. More recently, in work with Ulrich Doraszelski, Altonji has studied the role of ...
Learn more about housing discrimination. "File a housing discrimination complaint". HUD.gov. Archived from the original on 2013 ... Like other forms of discrimination, the history of insurance redlining began in conscious, overt racial discrimination ... This type of discrimination is called linguistic profiling. There have also been concerns raised about redlining in the ... "Online price discrimination: a surprising reality in ecommerce". 2013-05-09. Retrieved 26 April 2018. Maxwell, Ann; Daniel, ...
Learn how and when to remove these template messages) The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the ... Puhl, R.M.; Brownell, K.D. "Stigma, discrimination, and obesity". Eating Disorders and Obesity: A Comprehensive Handbook.. ... Weight discrimination[edit]. Weight stigma is present in multiple settings including healthcare, education, interpersonal ... Puhl, R.; Brownell, K. (2001). "Bias, discrimination, and obesity". Obesity Research. 9 (12): 788-805. doi:10.1038/oby.2001.108 ...
... a Matter of Learning and Forgetting". Netherlands Journal of Zoology. Koninklijke Brill NV. 30 (2): 254-27. doi:10.1163/ ... "Discrimination Between Parasitized and Unparasitized Hosts in the Egg Parasite Trichogramma embryophagum (Hym.= ...
Armus, Harvard L.; Montgomery, Amber R.; Jellison, Jenny L. (October 2006). "Discrimination Learning in Paramecia (P. caudatum ... Cengage Learning philosophical topics. Cengage Learning. ISBN 9780495005025. Moreland, James Porter; Craig, William Lane (2003 ... is capable of a type of learning called habituation. This discovery throws light on the origins of learning ability during ... "For the first time, scientists have demonstrated that an organism devoid of a nervous system is capable of learning. A team ...
"CHAPTER 20: Limited Response to Discrimination". webdoc.sub.gwdg.de. Retrieved September 20, 2018. "Report of the U.S. ... and Lessons Learned" (PDF).[dead link] "Document Display , NEPIS , US EPA". Retrieved September 20, 2018. "Carlisle P. Runge · ... and advocated against racial discrimination against African Americans in the military. Runge was supportive of efforts of the ...
talk , contribs)‎ (→‎Informal learning: Journal cites:,) (Tag: AWB). *(diff , hist) . . m Education‎; 18:07 . . (+87)‎ . . ‎. ... Reverse discrimination‎; 21:48 . . (+1)‎ . . ‎. 24.193.124.140. (talk)‎ ('Less' to 'fewer'). *(diff , hist) . . Veganism‎; 21: ... Discrimination‎; 09:53 . . (+391)‎ . . ‎. Dr. Zaius 1976. (talk , contribs)‎ (→‎Modeling: Started new section.) ... talk , contribs)‎ (discrimination is not segregation). *(diff , hist) . . Employment‎; 05:27 . . (-5)‎ . . ‎. 124.83.126.2. ( ...
Some scholars have tied toilet sex-separation to segregation based on race discrimination in the US.[67] Advocates of this view ... UNICEF (2012). Raising even more clean hands - Advancing health, learning and equity through WASH in schools. United Nations ... This denial was a sign of discrimination against based on race and/or poverty, a sign of society assigning a lesser value to ... They argue that unisex public toilets can eliminate discrimination and harassment for people who may be perceived to be in the ...
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... Kaufman, E.L.; Lord, M.W.; Reese, T.W. & Volkmann, J. (1949). "The discrimination of visual number". American Journal of ... Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ...
JEL: J16 - Economics of gender; Non-labor Discrimination. JEL: J17 - Value of life; Foregone Income. JEL: J18 - Public Policy. ... JEL: D83 - Search; Learning; Information and Knowledge. *JEL: D84 - Expectations; Speculation. *JEL: D85 - Network Formation ... JEL: J15 - Economics of Minorities and Races; Non-labor Discrimination. ...
"Hematopoietic stem cell therapy for multiple sclerosis: top 10 lessons learned". Neurotherapeutics. 10 (1): 68-76. doi:10.1007 ... was previously applied to patients undergoing allogeneic HCT but appears to provide less survival prediction and discrimination ...
It is not known precisely what contribution learning makes to adult octopus behaviour. Young octopuses learn nothing from their ... "Color Discrimination Conditioning in Two Octopus Octopus aegina and O. vulgaris" (PDF). Nippon Suisan Gakkashi. 67 (1): 35-39 ... They have been reported to practise observational learning,[87] although the validity of these findings is contested.[83][84] ... Octopuses are highly intelligent, but the extent of their intelligence and learning capability are not well defined.[83][84][85 ...
The Act "amend[s] the Fair Housing Act to modify the exemption from certain familial status discrimination prohibitions granted ...
Nineteenth-Century Women Learn to Write (1995).. *Horowitz, Helen Lefkowitz. Alma Mater: Design and Experience in the Women's ... 1972: Title IX was passed, making discrimination against any person based on their sex in any federally funded educational ... becoming the first African-American woman to head an institution for higher learning in the United States.[54] ... lawsuits on the basis of sexual discrimination under Title IX can be brought by parents. ...
A statistic called ρ that is linearly related to U and widely used in studies of categorization (discrimination learning ... Machine Learning. 45 (2): 171-186. doi:10.1023/A:1010920819831.. *^ Kasuya, Eiiti (2001). "Mann-Whitney U test when variances ...
Encouraged to learn about Sunni Islam after his departure from the Nation of Islam, he converted; others from the Nation of ... subsequent realization of the deep-seated racial tensions and discrimination in the US made Ahmadi missionaries focus their ...
Rospenda, K.M., & Richman, J.A. (2005). Harassment and discrimination. In J. Barling, E.K. Kelloway & M.R. Frone (Eds.), ... Lifelong learning. *Practice-based professional learning. *Professional association. *Professional certification. *Professional ...
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... transsexuals may become victims of different social obstacles such as discrimination, prejudice and stigmatising behaviours.[39 ... APA Policy Statement Transgender, Gender Identity, and Gender Expression Non-Discrimination. See online at: http://www.apa.org/ ... of Delegates stated that the denial to patients with gender dysphoria or otherwise covered benefits represents discrimination, ...
Akeson, M.; Branton, D.; Kasianowicz, J.J.; Brandin, E.; Deamer, D.W. (1999). "Microsecond time-scale discrimination among ... where he learned techniques of electron microscopy. Deamer and Branton demonstrated that the freeze-etch method split the lipid ...
Institutionalised discrimination[edit]. A study[vague] found little evidence of institutional discrimination against asexuals ... Anti-discrimination endeavours[edit]. In New York, the Sexual Orientation Non-Discrimination Act categorises asexuals as a ... Discrimination against asexual people, also known as acephobia[1][2][3] or aphobia,[4][5][6] encompasses a range of negative ... Social discrimination[edit]. Asexual people may be socially discriminated against due to beliefs of heterosexuality being the ...
The Nguyễn court also showed signs of subtle discrimination against people of Chinese origin; only one Minh Huong Chinese was ... Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... to pay their way out remained to face continued discrimination ...
Infobase Learning. August 31, 2008. p. 429. ISBN 9781438140605. .. *^ a b Ostriker, Alicia (1994), Empire of Dreams, New Haven ... Rivera Monclova, Marta S. "Discrimination, evasion, and livability in four New York Puerto Rican narratives". Doctoral ... Infobase Learning. August 31, 2008. p. 429. ISBN 9781438140605. .. *^ Fuentes, Yvonne; Parker, Margaret R. (2006-03-01). ... I've sung songs in foreign languages and learned those languages through those songs. I memorized T.S. Eliot's The Waste Land ...
In this capacity, she spoke against discrimination in a talk entitled, "You Can't Be Beautiful and Hate."[15][16][17][18][41] ... "Seven things we learned at breakfast with John Oliver". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 28 August 2015 ... faced discrimination in response to her win and later resigned under pressure due to a scandal involving nude photographs.[28][ ...
... learning from parents). The crows that were captured directly had the most precise discrimination between dangerous and neutral ... Observational learning is learning that occurs through observing the behavior of others. It is a form of social learning which ... Learning in fish[edit]. Experiments with ninespine sticklebacks showed that individuals will use social learning to locate food ... Observational causal learning[edit]. Humans use observational Moleen causal learning to watch other people's actions and use ...
The change from LL.B. to J.D. was intended to end "this discrimination, the practice of conferring what is normally a first ... University of Ulster Learning and Teaching Committee. 18 June 2014. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-01-10. ... that the law is to be learnt by a perpetual copying of precedents".[64] There were some few mentors that were dedicated to the ... in consideration of the learning and abilities requisite for taking such degree".[46] This was extended in 1837 to cover the ...
"Ivory Coast" - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (April 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... Some of them thought that discrimination and political inequality would end only with independence; others thought the problem ... "Ivory Coast" - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (September 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template ...
... were often female and Minahasa culture does not show any particular discrimination against women. Important decisions ...
On top of this, they now learn that a one-way privilege is to be established by Act of Parliament; a law which cannot, and is ... The discrimination and the deprivation, the sense of alarm and of resentment, lies not with the immigrant population but with ... He argued that journalists who urged the government to pass anti-discrimination laws were "of the same kidney and sometimes on ... and 65 per cent favoured anti-discrimination legislation.[27] According to George L. Bernstein, the speech made the British ...
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... They oppose abortion, same-sex marriage, civil unions, and anti-discrimination laws against homosexuals.[95] The libertarian ... Cengage Learning. pp. 47-49. ISBN 9781337025966. . Retrieved March 30, 2016.. *^ Arthur Aughey, Greta Jones, W. T. M. Riches, ... Cengage Learning. p. 934. ISBN 978-0618801596. .. *^ see Steven Brint and Jean Reith Schroedel, eds., Evangelicals and ...
Her writings on Egypt in particular are testimony to her learning, literary skill and philosophy of life. Sailing up the Nile ... She was a strong opponent of discrimination both against Christians of different denominations, and against those of non- ...
Thach, W. T. (1998). "A role for the cerebellum in learning movement coordination". Neurobiol. Learn. Mem. 70: 177-188. doi: ... Findings indicate that the dorsolateral cerebellum may act as a pitch discrimination processor and the SMG may act as a short- ... Graybiel, A. M. (2005). "The basal ganglia: learning new tricks and loving it". Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 15: 638-644. doi:10.1016 ... Sakai, K.; Hikosaka, O.; Nakamura, H. (2004). "Emergence of rhythm during motor learning". Trends Cogn. Sci. 8: 547-553. doi: ...
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women monitors the CEDAW. It receives states' reports on their ... The Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination monitors the CERD and conducts regular reviews of countries' ... On the issue of "universal", the declarations did not apply to domestic discrimination or racism.[17] Henry J. Richardson III ...
American Council of Learned Societies. Retrieved 24 January 2018.. *^ Fuller, Paul E. (1992). Laura Clay and the Woman's Rights ... Montana's men voted to end the discrimination against women in 1914, and together they proceeded to elect the first woman to ...
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ... Unemployment is high on the reservation, in large part due to discrimination, and half of the tribal members work for the ... A number of Ute learned Spanish through trading. The Spanish "seriously guarded" trade with the Utes, limiting it to annual ...
"Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: A systematic and critical review" (PDF). Learning and Skills Research Centre ... Using only items with high midpoint discrimination allows the MBTI to have fewer items on it, but still provide as much ... Cognitive learning styles[edit]. The test is scored by evaluating each answer in terms of what it reveals about the taker. Each ... Language learning motivation: pathways to the new century (Google Book). Retrieved 2012-01-27.. ...
... but efficient behavioral procedures to analyze olfactory discrimination and memory are lacking. We devised an automated... ... We developed efficient methods to analyze olfactory discrimination learning in adult zebrafish. Fish learned to respond ... Discrimination learning curve. a Mean composite behavioral scores ζcomp for responses to the CS+ and CS− as a function of ... Analysis of discrimination learning. a ζ scores for the six behavioral parameters as a function of time, binned per day ( ...
Discrimination learning can be studied in both humans and other animals. Animals can use discrimination learning to help them ... Humans can use discrimination learning to detect danger, learn about differences, and more. One example of discrimination ... Predator can also use discrimination learning to distinguish between two camouflaged prey. Discrimination learning teaches us ... which is discrimination learnings polar opposite. A book written on discrimination learning studied the behaviors and ...
Prejudice and discrimination are important issues in the U.S. that ESL/EFL students should learn about during university ... Lesson about prejudice and discrimination, critical issues in U.S.,br, ... Learning about Prejudice and Discrimination. Colleen Soares. cosoares[at]yahoo.com. Hawaii Pacific University (Honolulu, Hawaii ... 2. What is discrimination? Give an example. (Note: discrimination is action.). 3. What causes people to be prejudiced? (Why do ...
Notably, the extent of pattern separation in M/T assemblies predicted behavioral discrimination performance during the learning ... Inhibitory interneuron activation causally improves pattern separation and facilitates odor discrimination learning. Neuronal ... it remains unknown whether pattern separation acts as a driving force for sensory discrimination and the learning thereof. We ... altered pattern separation and thereby odor discrimination learning in a bidirectional way. In conclusion, we propose that the ...
Impaired olfactory discrimination learning and decreased olfactory sensitivity in aged C57Bl/6 mice.. Patel RC1, Larson J. ... Error patterns in discrimination learning by young and old mice. A) Errors were classified as spatial errors if the response on ... Impaired olfactory discrimination learning and decreased olfactory sensitivity in aged C57Bl/6 mice ... Impaired olfactory discrimination learning and decreased olfactory sensitivity in aged C57Bl/6 mice ...
Two-choice discrimination learning of delinquent boys as a joint function of reinforcement contingency and delinquent subtype ( ... Intermediate Level Individual Basis Discrimination Learning Contingency Management Token Contingency The authors wish to thank ... Ratliff, R. G., Morganstern, K. F., & Ratliff, A. R. Patterns of learning in verbal discrimination as an interaction of social ... Ratliff, R. G., Shoulders, D. I., & Ratliff, A. R.Delay of reinforcement and two-choice discrimination learning in delinquent ...
Cue discrimination in the taste-reward circuit improves with learning. To quantify the influence of learning on this AC ... Note that the learning curve has a sigmoidal shape, suggesting that the learning process is gradual. Therefore, the learning ... Behavior: learning the cues in a single lick. Adult rats were trained in a taste discrimination go/no-go response task (Fig. 1A ... Note that, after learning, this OFC neuron developed a larger cue discrimination. B, The overall mean firing rate of the neuron ...
The Influence of Amitriptyline on Learning in a Visual Discrimination Task. This study has been completed. ...
... visual discrimination learning), and subsequently learned to adjust their response when this rule changed (reversal learning). ... visual discrimination learning), and subsequently learned to adjust their response when this rule changed (reversal learning). ... We therefore examined visual discrimination and reversal learning in the APPPS1-21 mouse model of amyloid-based AD pathology. ... We therefore examined visual discrimination and reversal learning in the APPPS1-21 mouse model of amyloid-based AD pathology. ...
A general theory of discrimination learning. In D. Klahr, P. Langley, & R. Neches (Eds.), Production system models of learning ... Discrimination Learning in Production Systems Besides extending the Bacon research, my early post-dissertation work focused on ... Langley, P. (1983). Learning search strategies through discrimination. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 18, 513- ... which supported discrimination as one of its central learning mechanisms. Related Publications. Langley, P. (1987). ...
1. Auditory Learning. *Auditory discrimination learning in the shuttle box (FMTD paradigm) Note: Always wear gloves while ... Here, the workflow of a proteomic study on auditory discrimination learning in mice is described. In this learning paradigm, ... Use a fully computer-controlled learning schedule for auditory discrimination learning. Begin with a habituation period of 3 ... frequency-modulated tone discrimination (FMTD), is a well-characterized auditory discrimination task in rodents5. Learning and ...
Nevertheless, our study demonstrates the advantages of machine-learning-based approaches for the quantitative discrimination of ... The best model yielded a discrimination rate of ~97%, and the CV method validated this approach. We applied the discrimination ... The elemental abundance-based geochemical discrimination was tested by selecting 16 elements from granitic and metamorphic ... a ratio-based discrimination would be more reliable. ... was obtained by using the elemental-ratio-based discrimination ...
The task consisted of 20 object discriminations presented concurrently, but at the rate of only one trial on each per day; ... Monkeys with bilateral ablations of the inferior temporal cortical area TE were trained on a visual discrimination task thought ... Dissociation of the effects of inferior temporal and limbic lesions on object discrimination learning with 24-h intertrial ... The task consisted of 20 object discriminations presented concurrently, but at the rate of only one trial on each per day; ...
With this system in hand, we trained mice on a series of four odor pair discrimination tasks as well as their respective ... Our results confirm that the system allows investigating higher-order cognitive functions such as learning set formation (which ... Over the series of subsequent odor pair discriminations, the number of errors to criterion decreased significantly, thus ... Over the series of subsequent odor pair discriminations, the number of errors to criterion decreased significantly, thus ...
The effects of energy-rich diets on discrimination reversal learning and on BDNF in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of ... However, prior unrestricted access to the HFD diet impaired discrimination reversal learning and reduced BDNF in the prefrontal ... The results suggest that consumption of the HFD diet may have had enduring effects on learning processes, some of which may ... Also, rats given the HFD diet responded more than controls to the previously rewarded cue at the outset of discrimination ...
... ... However, no studies have examined LTP-like plasticity in the visual cortex as a result of visual discrimination learning. A ... These experiments demonstrate that visual discrimination learning might involve stimulus-selective facilitation of neuronal ... Some types of learning (e.g. motor learning, fear conditioning) result in LTP-like changes at synapses. ...
... Zheng, Y. KTH, ... Drugs and explosives, Machine learning, Muon tomography, Scattering density National Category Physical Sciences Identifiers. ... classifier based on machine learning is trained to differentiate drugs and explosives from air background and metals ...
Learning in aged (25 months) rats was significantly impaired compared with young (5 months) rats. Daily administration of ... Although tacrine (0.3 and 1 mg/kg, IP), a cholinesterase inhibitor, also did not affect the learning in young rats, it slightly ... whereas it did not affect the learning in young rats. ... learning deficit in an operant brightness discrimination task ... augmented the aging-induced learning deficit in the present task. These data indicate the therapeutic potential of paeoniflorin ...
A total of 540 college students were run in two verbal discrimination learning studies (the second, a replication of the first ... A total of 540 college students were run in two verbal discrimination learning studies (the second, a replication of the first ... Patterns of Learning in Verbal Discrimination as an Interaction of Social Reinforcement and Sex Combinations ... Descriptors: Child Rearing, College Students, Discrimination Learning, Experimenter Characteristics, Higher Education, Parent ...
VPL of texture discrimination is retinotopically specific, and consolidation of this learning is enhanced by rapid eye movement ... The effects of cholinergic enhancement and consolidation duration on perceptual learning of texture discrimination ... The effects of cholinergic enhancement and consolidation duration on perceptual learning of texture discrimination ... The effects of cholinergic enhancement and consolidation duration on perceptual learning of texture discrimination. Journal of ...
... employment law pregnancy discrimination, Jack Tuckner, Media, pregnancy, Pregnancy Discrimination, Pregnancy Discrimination Act ... You are here: Home / All Posts / "What Ive Learned From My Pregnancy Discrimination Experience" - by Chelsey Glasson ... "What Ive Learned From My Pregnancy Discrimination Experience" - by Chelsey Glasson. April 7, 2020. by Jack Tuckner ... I remember learning, when I was a teenager, about sex discrimination against women in the workplace in the United States. I ...
Image Denoising Methods for Tumor Discrimination in High-Resolution Computed Tomography ... Semi-Supervised Learning Literature Survey by Xiaojin Zhu , 2006 "... We review the literature on semi-supervised learning, ... We review the literature on semi-supervised learning, which is an area in machine learning and more generally, artificial ... There has been a whole spectrum of interesting ideas on how to learn from both labeled and unlabeled data, i.e. semi-supervised ...
Live and Learn Landlord. Submitted by Lauren on October 20, 2010 - 9:01pm ... Please dont diminish one groups discrimination in the process of trying to prove another groups discrimination. ... Housing Discrimination. Submitted by Jeanine on October 24, 2010 - 4:26pm As an educated white professional woman with an ... I had several apartments by myself before I bought a house, and if I ever faced discrimination, I am not aware of it. As long ...
Here, using a validated discrimination learning task that distinguishes goal-directed learning from habit learning in 72 ... we investigated the corticostriatal correlates of goal-directed learning and tested whether brain activation during learning is ... In addition, early phase of learning was associated with increased activation in the frontoparietal control network and dorsal ... While rodent studies implicate distinct prefrontal/striatal regions in goal-directed and habit learning, neural systems ...
This introduction to machine learning provides an overview of its history, important definitions, applications and concerns ... Bias and Discrimination:. Instances of bias and discrimination across a number of intelligent systems have raised many ethical ... Machine Learning vs. Deep Learning vs. Neural Networks. Since deep learning and machine learning tend to be used ... The way in which deep learning and machine learning differ is in how each algorithm learns. Deep learning automates much of the ...
learning theory: Any of the proposals put forth to explain changes in behaviour produced by practice, as opposed to other ... Discrimination learning. In discrimination learning the subject is reinforced to respond only to selected sensory ... what is called learning to learn).. For example, a monkey may learn a long series of discriminations; e.g., red versus green, ... The animal is said to have learned to learn such discriminations.. Evidence clearly shows that the monkey gradually abandons ...
... with racial discrimination pinpointed as a contributing factor in ... Learning To Trust Yourself Again After Betrayal. 3. Many ... Racial Discrimination Tied to Suicidal Thoughts in African-American Men. By Janice Wood Associate News Editor ... And the experiences with discrimination do not have to be overt to be harmful, said Janelle Goodwill, the studys lead author ... A new study from researchers at the University of Michigan found that various forms of discrimination are associated with ...
Looking Ahead: Lessons Learned for Investigations. Sponsored by: Control Risks , Webcast Date: July 29, 2020 , Join this ... Best Buy Faces Allegations of Employment Discrimination. Six former and current employees of Best Buy Co. sued the electronics ...
Two federal appeals courts may be marking the outer limits of legal protection from discrimination claims against Web sites ... Looking Ahead: Lessons Learned for Investigations. Sponsored by: Control Risks , Webcast Date: July 29, 2020 , Join this ... Discrimination immunity uncertain for bulletin board Web sites. Two federal appeals courts may be marking the outer limits of ... legal protection from discrimination claims against Web sites like Craigslist.org and Roommates.com that post discriminatory ...
... in the workplace occurs whenever an employee or prospective employee is treated more or less favorably than ... Learn About Age Discrimination. * Age Discrimination: Overview Read this article for a summary of the primary federal law ... Age Discrimination in Employment. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) prohibits discrimination against employers ... Age Discrimination Law Click here for a breakdown of the federal anti-bias law known as the Age Discrimination in Employment ...
  • The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) prohibits discrimination against employers and applicants who are 40 years of age or older. (findlaw.com)
  • The Fair Housing Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of seven protected classes: race, color, national origin, religion, sex, disability, or familial status. (eff.org)
  • Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination by employers on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin. (theledger.com)
  • We focus on women's rights in the workplace, representing employees of both genders in sex, pregnancy, disability, and all other forms of employment discrimination. (womensrightsny.com)
  • I remember learning, when I was a teenager, about sex discrimination against women in the workplace in the United States. (womensrightsny.com)
  • A common impression is that fighting workplace discrimination won't cost you anything - there must be a long line of attorneys hungry to file employment discrimination lawsuits on a contingency basis (meaning for for free) for a percentage of any settlement. (womensrightsny.com)
  • Lawsuits are a final course of action in an attempt to fight workplace discrimination, with many steps that can proceed going to court that attorneys might bill you for. (womensrightsny.com)
  • Read this article for a summary of the primary federal law against age discrimination in the workplace, including how age discrimination looks in the office, as well as basic information on claims. (findlaw.com)
  • This decision reflects that homophobia remains alive in pockets of every workplace, and employers need to do more to protect people, who are vulnerable to harassment and discrimination. (abc.net.au)
  • The Supreme Court is back in session, and will begin Tuesday by hearing Zarda v. Altitude Express, a case which involves LGBTQ workplace discrimination and continues the debate over whether Title VII applies to LGBTQ issues. (diversityinc.com)
  • Learn about the different kinds of discrimination that can happen in the workplace and how you are protected under Massachusetts law. (mass.gov)
  • How about workplace discrimination against older people? (slate.com)
  • Has workplace discrimination gotten worse as the population has gotten older? (slate.com)
  • People with diabetes sometimes face discrimination in the workplace. (diabetes.org)
  • Learn more about what constitutes workplace discrimination, what rights you have, and how to take action to stop discrimination. (diabetes.org)
  • However, despite the clear and unambiguous legal safeguards in place to protect employees from age discrimination in the workplace, many workers over the age of 40 still face ageism at work, which can potentially cost your business money in lost productivity and performance, as well as exposing you to the very real risk of a legal challenge. (business.com)
  • In this article, we'll review age discrimination in the workplace, share some facts and figures on the scope of the problem, and highlight five things that every business needs to know about age discrimination - and how to prevent it. (business.com)
  • Age discrimination in the workplace is the negative or disadvantageous treatment of employees based on their age rather than performance or merit. (business.com)
  • While any employee can be targeted by age discrimination - including younger employees - protection from age discrimination is mandated in law only for employees over the age of 40, which is the main target group for age-based discrimination in the workplace. (business.com)
  • Legal protection against age discrimination in the workplace is provided under the remit of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (1967) , or ADEA, and failure to protect and preserve the rights of older workers is a type of employment discrimination. (business.com)
  • 64 percent of workers aged 45 or older have experienced or witnessed workplace discrimination, according to research by AARP. (business.com)
  • All businesses are keen to avoid potentially costly litigation on the basis of age discrimination in the workplace, but the threat of litigation isn't the only reason why companies and organizations should take a proactive approach to preventing age discrimination at work. (business.com)
  • Here are five important pieces of information about age discrimination in the workplace. (business.com)
  • 5. Age discrimination in the workplace can be subtle as well as overt. (business.com)
  • For 41 years, federal law has banned pregnancy discrimination in the workplace. (theledger.com)
  • We devised an automated odor discrimination task for adult zebrafish based on olfactory conditioning of feeding behavior. (springer.com)
  • Robust discrimination behavior was observed in different strains, even when odors were chemically similar, and learned preferences could overcome innate odor preferences. (springer.com)
  • These findings reveal the temporal dynamics of instrumental behavior and suggest that avoidance motivation predicts performance and brain activity during goal-directed learning. (nature.com)
  • According to the EEOC, "such alleged behavior violates Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits sex discrimination, including that based on gender stereotyping. (btlaw.com)
  • The zebrafish is a model organism to study olfactory information processing, but efficient behavioral procedures to analyze olfactory discrimination and memory are lacking. (springer.com)
  • The procedure is efficient and provides novel opportunities to dissect the neural mechanisms underlying olfactory discrimination and memory. (springer.com)
  • Impaired olfactory discrimination learning and decreased olfactory sensitivity in aged C57Bl/6 mice. (nih.gov)
  • They were then trained to criterion on a series of eight novel olfactory discrimination problems. (nih.gov)
  • The old mice required many more sessions and made 70% more errors than young mice before reaching criterion performance on the series of eight olfactory discrimination problems. (nih.gov)
  • Testing chamber and odor generators used for olfactory discrimination training. (nih.gov)
  • This article explains how to avoid housing discrimination in the first place and the basics of discrimination complaints and lawsuits, including the value of hiring a discrimination lawyer. (nolo.com)
  • Disparate impact lawsuits have been a critical tool for fighting housing discrimination and ensuring equal housing opportunity for decades. (eff.org)
  • This past Monday the Supreme Court frustrated the rule of law and invited a tsunami of future federal employment discrimination lawsuits. (ncregister.com)
  • The youth trend also becomes evident in age-discrimination lawsuits. (csmonitor.com)
  • Earlier this year, the Supreme Court agreed to hear arguments in Babb v. Wilkie , in order to determine whether to maintain the so-called "but-for cause" standard in age discrimination lawsuits. (govexec.com)
  • Young (4 months) and old (24 months) C57Bl/6J mice were tested in an automated simultaneous-cue, two-odor discrimination task. (nih.gov)
  • For this reason, we measured the simultaneous electrical activity of neuronal ensembles in the orbitofrontal cortex, insular cortex, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens while rats licked for taste cues and learned to perform a taste discrimination go/no-go task. (jneurosci.org)
  • That is, as animals learned a go/no-go task, there were increases in the number of licking coherent neurons as well as synchronous spiking between neuron pairs from different brain regions. (jneurosci.org)
  • Overall, these results show that, throughout a large segment of the taste-reward circuit, appetitive and aversive associative learning improves spike-timing precision, suggesting that proficiency in solving a taste discrimination go/no-go task requires licking-induced neural ensemble synchronous activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we addressed these two fundamental questions by simultaneously recording the activity of neural ensembles located in the IC, OFC, AMY, and NAcc, while rats learned to perform a new version of a taste discrimination go/no-go response task. (jneurosci.org)
  • I incorporated this approach to rule learning into a number of systems, including the Amber model of syntax acquisition, the Sage system for learning search heuristics, and the first computational model of learning on the balance-scale task (done jointly with Stephanie Sage). (isle.org)
  • Monkeys with bilateral ablations of the inferior temporal cortical area TE were trained on a visual discrimination task thought to measure non-cognitive habit formation. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast to the latter animals, which learned the 24-h intertrial interval task about as quickly as the normal controls, monkeys with area TE removals were markedly impaired. (nih.gov)
  • A visual discrimination task was used to examine changes in LTP in the primary visual cortex (V1) of adult rats. (queensu.ca)
  • The effects of paeoniflorin isolated from peony were examined on an aging-induced learning deficit in an operant brightness discrimination task in Fischer 344 rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Visual perceptual learning (VPL) is an enduring improvement in performance following training on a visual task. (arvojournals.org)
  • Here, using a validated discrimination learning task that distinguishes goal-directed learning from habit learning in 72 subjects in fMRI, we investigated the corticostriatal correlates of goal-directed learning and tested whether brain activation during learning is associated with trait motivation and behavioral performance in the post-learning test phase. (nature.com)
  • In this task, monkeys learn a set of object discrimination problems in which the rewarded objects are paired with one of two distinct reinforcers (foods). (jneurosci.org)
  • Spatial properties of stimuli are sometimes encoded even when incidental to the demands of a particular learning task. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We show that reference and working memories are largely unimpaired in the two mutant mice performing a spatial discrimination task in a radial maze. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • However, mdx3cv mice showed enhanced emotional reactivity and developed different strategies in learning the task, as compared to control mice. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Here, we enzymatically degraded the ECM in the auditory cortex of adult Mongolian gerbils during a reversal learning task. (pnas.org)
  • In this study, we removed the ECM in the auditory cortex of adult Mongolian gerbils during specific phases of cortex-dependent auditory relearning, which was induced by the contingency reversal of a frequency-modulated tone discrimination, a task requiring high behavioral flexibility. (pnas.org)
  • The Modified Barnes Maze is thought to measure similar learning abilities as the DMP without forcing the subjects to perform a task under unnatural conditions, i.e. swimming in water. (stanford.edu)
  • The Object-Location Memory task assesses cognition, specifically spatial memory and discrimination, in rodent models of CNS disorders. (stanford.edu)
  • The Passive Avoidance task is a fear-aggravated test used to evaluate learning and memory in rodent models of CNS disorders. (stanford.edu)
  • Furthermore, exciting or inhibiting GABAergic OB interneurons, using optogenetics or pharmacogenetics, altered pattern separation and thereby odor discrimination learning in a bidirectional way. (nature.com)
  • Figure 5: OB output, but not input, patterns correlation predicts odor discrimination performances. (nature.com)
  • Figure 6: Optogenetic stimulation of GCL neurons enhances pattern separation and improves odor discrimination learning. (nature.com)
  • Figure 7: Pharmacogenetic inhibition of GCL neurons decreases pattern separation and deteriorates odor discrimination learning. (nature.com)
  • Young and old mice did not differ in retention of the last odor discrimination when tested 2 weeks after training. (nih.gov)
  • The processes of perceptual learning are treated in the article perception: Perceptual learning . (britannica.com)
  • Abstract Perceptual learning can occur when stimuli are only imagined, i.e., without proper stimulus presentation. (arvojournals.org)
  • For example, perceptual learning improved bisection discrimination when only the two outer lines of the bisection stimulus were presented and the central line had to be imagined. (arvojournals.org)
  • We hypothesized that those differences also affect imagery perceptual learning. (arvojournals.org)
  • It is usually assumed that perceptual learning is stimulus-driven, i.e., the synaptic modifications underlying learning are triggered by the presentation of the stimuli. (arvojournals.org)
  • However, we have recently shown that visual perceptual learning can also occur in the absence of proper stimulus presentation when observers imagined the relevant part of a bisection stimulus (Tartaglia et al. (arvojournals.org)
  • In standard perceptual learning experiments, observers train to discriminate whether this central line is closer to the left or right outer line. (arvojournals.org)
  • Two different discrimination learning experiments, the first using rats and the second cats, provide clear support for facilitation of acquisition rate by physostigmine injections. (springer.com)
  • Physostigmine induced hippocampal theta activity and learning in rats. (springer.com)
  • This finding supports the presence of learning set formation and the acquisition of higher-order response rules even in rats. (frontiersin.org)
  • Also, rats given the HFD diet responded more than controls to the previously rewarded cue at the outset of discrimination reversal. (nih.gov)
  • Rats learned to reliably discriminate the visual cues to successfully navigate the maze. (queensu.ca)
  • Learning in aged (25 months) rats was significantly impaired compared with young (5 months) rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Daily administration of paeoniflorin (0.01 mg/kg, PO) significantly attenuated the learning impairment in aged rats, whereas it did not affect the learning in young rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The present study recorded local field potentials (LFPs) and single units in old and young rats during the performance of tasks that involve discrimination learning and probabilistic decision making. (eneuro.org)
  • An attempt was made to realize this condition by obtaining inhibitory gradients along the frequency dimension of a pure tone after discrimination training in which the nonreinforced stimulus was a pure tone (or tones), and the reinforced stimulus was either white noise or the absence of a tone. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The results indicated that it could not, since discrimination training produced a concentration of responding in the vicinity of the reinforced stimulus which cannot be derived from any plausible gradient of inhibition. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These experiments demonstrate that visual discrimination learning might involve stimulus-selective facilitation of neuronal responses at early stages of visual processing (LGN, V1). (queensu.ca)
  • The normal egocentric spatial encoding in hippocampal lesioned mice contradicts theories of hippocampal function that suggest that the hippocampus is necessary for incidental learning per se, or is required for modulating stimulus representations based on the relevancy of information. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In this test, subjects learn to avoid an environment in which an aversive stimulus (such as a foot-shock) was previously delivered. (stanford.edu)
  • Learning occurs when no stimulus at all is presented during training, whereas no learning occurs when only noise is presented. (arvojournals.org)
  • Learning occurs when presented with the two outer lines of the bisection stimulus, i.e., with only a part of the visual stimulus, while no learning occurs when no stimulus at all is presented. (arvojournals.org)
  • Yet, the relationship between varying stimulus salience and discrimination learning remains unclear. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We hypothesize that structural variations in the environment where the conditioned stimulus (CS) is embedded will be a significant determinant of learning rate and retention level. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Yet, stimulus salience is subject to variation as learning occurs, and multiple items compete for attention. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A book written on discrimination learning studied the behaviors and discriminatory habits of animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2007 ). While various quantitative procedures have been established to analyze sensory-motor behaviors of zebrafish larvae, there is an increasing demand for methods to study complex behaviors and learning in juvenile or adult zebrafish. (springer.com)
  • The first three types involve behaviors of individuals and organizations: intentional discrimination, subtle discrimination, and statistical profiling. (nap.edu)
  • Thus, ECM modulation might promote the cognitive flexibility that can build on learned behaviors, and has further implications to develop new tools for guided neuroplasticity with therapeutic potential. (pnas.org)
  • The stigma and discrimination around HIV status could cause you to not get tested for HIV, not to open up about your HIV status, and not to take antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). (webmd.com)
  • 2016 ) including place preference and associative learning in different sensory modalities (Agetsuma et al. (springer.com)
  • Using numerical simulations, we show how a modified version of the Rescorla-Wagner model, an influential theory of associative learning, predicts relevant interactions between varying salience and discrimination learning. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For the past four decades, the Rescorla-Wagner (RW) model [ 6 ] has been a very influential theory of associative learning. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There is ambiguity over whether claims of associative discrimination can succeed under the Equality Act 2010 but EU law offers some encouragement to. (personneltoday.com)
  • EEOC cases are typically opened by employees who report incidents of discrimination. (findlaw.com)
  • If the agency finds evidence that establishes that discrimination is occurred the EEOC issues a letter of determination and attempts 'conciliation' with the employer to develop a remedy for the problem. (findlaw.com)
  • Read this article for general guidance, statistics, and more on age discrimination filings from the EEOC. (findlaw.com)
  • Zarda filed a discrimination charge with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). (diversityinc.com)
  • The takeaway from this is that the EEOC is pursuing religious discrimination claims as a priority and employers should take heed anytime an employee claims that he needs some change to his job duties based on his "religious beliefs. (btlaw.com)
  • In June, we wrote about a landmark decision where the EEOC found that discrimination against transgender individuals constitutes sex discrimination in violation of Title VII. (btlaw.com)
  • Macy appealed to the EEOC, and the EEOC determined that discrimination against a transgender individual is actionable under Title VII. (btlaw.com)
  • On September 25, 2014, the EEOC filed suit against Lakeland Eye Clinic alleging that it violated Title VII after it terminated an employee after learning she was transgender. (btlaw.com)
  • Age discrimination in the U.S. is becoming even more common - the EEOC saw nearly 21,000 age discrimination complaints filed in 2016, compared to 15,000 in 1997. (business.com)
  • Age discrimination complaints or complaints that contain an element of age discrimination make up 23 percent, or almost a quarter, of all EEOC complaints received across the board. (business.com)
  • For example, California fair housing laws prohibit discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and marital status. (nolo.com)
  • Twelve states' and the District of Columbia have enacted laws that prohibit discrimination in employment on the basis of sexual orientation. (worldcat.org)
  • NDSS continues to lead an effort to enact state legislation to prohibit discrimination for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities when it comes to life-saving organ transplants. (ndss.org)
  • And in 1964, ordinary Americans most certainly would not have understood Title VII to ban discrimination because of sexual orientation or gender identity. (ncregister.com)
  • Acquisition of olfactory discriminations is slower in old than in young mice. (nih.gov)
  • B) The average number of errors (mean + s.e.m.) committed before achieving criterion performance on discrimination problems 1-4 and 5-8 for young (open bars) and old (shaded bars) mice. (nih.gov)
  • Mice were trained to associate a visual cue with a food reward (VD learning), and subsequently learned to adjust their response when this rule changed (reversal learning). (frontiersin.org)
  • With this system in hand, we trained mice on a series of four odor pair discrimination tasks as well as their respective reversals. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our results confirm that the system allows investigating higher-order cognitive functions such as learning set formation (which is understudied in mice) and reversal learning (which is a measure of cognitive flexibility and impaired in many clinical populations). (frontiersin.org)
  • To test this prediction mice with lesions of the hippocampus were trained on appetitive simple simultaneous discrimination tasks using inserts in the goal arms of a T-maze. (ox.ac.uk)
  • It was found that hippocampal lesioned mice were facilitated at learning the discriminations, but they were sensitive to changes in spatial information in a manner that was similar to control mice. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These results demonstrate that mice show incidental encoding of egocentric spatial information that decreases the ability to solve simultaneous discrimination tasks. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The facilitated learning suggests that the hippocampal lesions can enhance learning of the same qualitative information as acquired by control mice. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The present results suggest that altered expression of dystrophin or C-terminal dystrophin proteins in brain did not markedly affect hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and CA1 hippocampal long-term potentiation in mdx and mdx3cv mice. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • There were 2,790 cases alleging pregnancy discrimination filed with the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 2018. (theledger.com)
  • Two federal appeals courts may be marking the outer limits of legal protection from discrimination claims against Web sites like Craigslist.org and Roommates.com that post discriminatory ads on listings to buy, sell or rent housing and find roommates. (law.com)
  • Under current law, plaintiffs can bring claims under the Act not only when there is direct evidence of intentional discrimination, but also when they can show that a facially-neutral practice or policy actually or predictably has a disproportionate discriminatory effect, or "disparate impact. (eff.org)
  • Discrimination on the basis of retaliation involves taking an adverse action against a person because he or she has opposed a discriminatory employment practice (e.g., race discrimination, military status discrimination), has complained about discrimination, or has assisted in the investigation of a complaint of discrimination. (justice.gov)
  • As such, employers across the nation could now face federal claims of discrimination by transgender employees. (btlaw.com)
  • As such, employers must update their policies and ensure that it trains employees and managers to identify - and eliminate - all types of discrimination and harassment. (btlaw.com)
  • There is no mention of Catholic bishops, landlords, bankers, employers and educational institutions who discriminate against LGBT persons when non-discrimination laws are not in place to protect against it. (ncronline.org)
  • Employers could be exposing themselves to allegations of discrimination if they require employees who live with a clinically vulnerable person to return to work. (personneltoday.com)
  • 1. ADEA legislation to protect workers against age discrimination applies to all local governmental, state and federal employers regardless of their number of employees, as well as to private employers with 20 or more employees. (business.com)
  • Employers have gotten much more discreet in acts of discrimination," said Craig Barkacs, a law professor at the University of San Diego School of Business who successfully prosecuted one of the first cases of pregnancy discrimination in the U.S. in 1992. (theledger.com)
  • Whitehouse , J. M.: Cholinergic mechanisms in discrimination learning with redundant cues. (springer.com)
  • These systems were implemented within the PRISM architecture, which supported discrimination as one of its central learning mechanisms. (isle.org)
  • This point of view, called learning theory, is concerned with identifying those mechanisms that can be offered to explain differences in behaviour, motives, and values among children. (britannica.com)
  • We begin by discussing four types of discrimination and the various mechanisms that may lead to such discrimination. (nap.edu)
  • Structural remodeling and stabilization of synaptic networks are key mechanisms underlying learning in the adult brain. (pnas.org)
  • Tens of thousands of tenants file fair housing complaints with HUD every year (approximately half of which involve claims concerning disability discrimination ). (nolo.com)
  • In some circumstances, national origin discrimination may involve discrimination based on unjustified English-fluency requirements and English-only rules and policies. (justice.gov)
  • In addition, many states and cities prohibit more types of discrimination. (nolo.com)
  • Learning theory , any of the proposals put forth to explain changes in behaviour produced by practice, as opposed to other factors, e.g., physiological development. (britannica.com)
  • Recognizing this danger (and the corollary that no definition of learning is likely to be totally satisfactory) a definition proposed in 1961 by G.A. Kimble may be considered representative: Learning is a relatively permanent change in a behavioral potentiality that occurs as a result of reinforced practice. (britannica.com)
  • To say that learning occurs as a result of practice excludes the effects of physiological development, aging, and brain damage. (britannica.com)
  • The stipulation that practice must be reinforced serves to distinguish learning from the opposed loss of unreinforced habits. (britannica.com)
  • I'm Steve Parente, and this is module 2.1.2 Price Discrimination in Practice. (coursera.org)
  • In many communities, the practice of racial profiling and ethnic discrimination is still commonplace. (rand.org)
  • HUD's proposal is flawed, and suggests that the agency doesn't understand how machine learning and other algorithmic tools work in practice. (eff.org)
  • In August, Ada County, Idaho, passed legislation against employment, housing and public accommodations discrimination based on gender or sexual orientation. (diversityinc.com)
  • Sexual orientation-based employment discrimination : states' experience with statutory prohibitions. (worldcat.org)
  • I thought you might be interested in this item at http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/53164172 Title: Sexual orientation-based employment discrimination : states' experience with statutory prohibitions. (worldcat.org)
  • on Tuesday, the U.S. Supreme Court was asked to decide if it also bans discrimination based on sexual orientation and transgender status. (theledger.com)
  • The Equality Act protects you from discrimination or unfair treatment on the basis of certain personal characteristics, such as age. (ageuk.org.uk)
  • This is direct disability discrimination and you can take action under the Equality Act. (citizensadvice.org.uk)
  • If you are looking after someone who is elderly or disabled, the law - under the Equality Act 2010 - will protect you against direct discrimination or harassment because of your caring responsibilities. (carersuk.org)
  • This information focuses mainly on "disability discrimination" and "discrimination by association", but it is important to be aware that the Equality Act applies to all of the above characteristics. (carersuk.org)
  • In non-learning imagery experiments, imagining static stimuli is different from imagining motion stimuli. (arvojournals.org)
  • If supported by empirical data, our model will help to interpret critical experiments addressing the relations between attention, discrimination and learning. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We evaluated the effects of these dietary manipulations on discrimination and reversal performance and on post-training levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the prefrontal cortex and the ventral and dorsal hippocampus. (nih.gov)
  • However, prior unrestricted access to the HFD diet impaired discrimination reversal learning and reduced BDNF in the prefrontal cortex and ventral hippocampus. (nih.gov)
  • Disability discrimination is the unequal treatment of an individual based on that individual's real or perceived disability. (findlaw.com)
  • This section offers in-depth information about disability discrimination in a number of settings, including employment and public accommodations (access to buildings and businesses). (findlaw.com)
  • You will also find an overview of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and links to other key federal laws and U.S. Supreme Court decisions related to disability discrimination. (findlaw.com)
  • Click on one of the links below to learn more about disability discrimination and applicable laws. (findlaw.com)
  • An overview of disability discrimination law. (findlaw.com)
  • The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) prohibits disability discrimination in a number of different contexts. (findlaw.com)
  • Learn about what constitutes a "disability" under the Act and much more. (findlaw.com)
  • The federal fair housing law (the Fair Housing Act of 1968, as amended ( 42 U.S. Code §§ 3601-3619 and 3631 )) specifically prohibits housing discrimination on the following grounds (called "protected categories"): race, religion, ethnic background or national origin, sex, familial status (such as having children under age 18), or physical or mental disability. (nolo.com)
  • Title VII grants protections against discrimination for various categories, such as race, sex, marital status, religion and disability. (diversityinc.com)
  • A learning disability is a reduced intellectual ability and difficulty with everyday activities. (gmc-uk.org)
  • Someone with a mild learning disability might only need support with bigger things. (gmc-uk.org)
  • Learning disability is often confused with learning difficulty or mental health problems. (gmc-uk.org)
  • A person with a learning disability might also have a learning difficulty or a mental health problem but these are separate. (gmc-uk.org)
  • This includes people with a learning disability and people without. (gmc-uk.org)
  • Many people with a learning disability face health inequalities. (gmc-uk.org)
  • In general, people with a learning disability die earlier than the rest of the population. (gmc-uk.org)
  • Patients with a learning disability do not have a higher pain threshold. (gmc-uk.org)
  • Evidence shows that people with a learning disability have poorer health outcomes than the rest of the population though doctors don't intend to discriminate against their patients. (gmc-uk.org)
  • People with a learning disability die around 23 - 27 years earlier than the general population. (gmc-uk.org)
  • GINA also does not protect against genetic discrimination in forms of insurance other than health insurance, such as life, disability, or long-term care insurance. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Read this page to find out more about disability discrimination in schools. (citizensadvice.org.uk)
  • In some cases carers may also have rights under disability and sex discrimination legislation. (carersuk.org)
  • It also explains other forms of discrimination, which may be useful if you feel the person you are looking after has been treated unfairly because of their age or disability. (carersuk.org)
  • This conditioning demonstrates discrimination through specific micro-instances of reinforcement and non-reinforcement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reinforcement objectively refers to any condition-often reward or punishment-that may promote learning. (britannica.com)
  • Underlying such improvement may be a transfer across problems resulting in the acquisition of a response rule such as "win-stay, lose-shift," which makes learning set formation a higher-order cognitive function ( Levine, 1959 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Still, rodents' ability to acquire a learning set through rule acquisition akin to primates has also been questioned in favor of more parsimonious explanations for performance improvements, such as the abandonment of inefficient response tendencies with extensive training ( Reid and Morris, 1992 , 1993 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Neither diet nor restriction condition affected discrimination acquisition. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, avoidance motivation scores measured by Behavioral Inhibition/Activation System (BIS/BAS) correlated with accuracy during goal-directed learning and showed a nominally significant correlation with activation in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex during goal-directed acquisition of stimuli. (nature.com)
  • We, therefore, examined visual discrimination (VD) and reversal learning in the APPPS1-21 mouse model of amyloid-based AD pathology. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, no studies have examined LTP-like plasticity in the visual cortex as a result of visual discrimination learning. (queensu.ca)
  • Ever wonder how many people file age discrimination claims with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission? (findlaw.com)
  • The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is the main federal law protecting the disabled from discrimination in the areas of employment, state and local government, public accommodations, commercial facilities (such as restaurants and stores), transportation, and telecommunications. (findlaw.com)
  • File an ADA complaint related to HIV discrimination in employment or housing. (cdc.gov)
  • But a look at the 2011-2012 employment data show that Sen. Fort and Mr. Evans' fears of discrimination are entirely unfounded: MARTA is currently plagued by a gross lack of diversity, with 83 percent of the 4,527 employees being black. (wnd.com)
  • The argument goes that, for many, the risk of discrimination (namely in the employment and insurance contexts) could outweigh the benefits of information that could lead to more personalized and efficient health care. (mccarthy.ca)
  • In a 6-3 decision, the court held in Bostock v. Clayton County that Title VII - the federal law prohibiting discrimination in employment based on sex - makes it unlawful for an employer to fire an individual for being gay or transgender. (ncregister.com)
  • GINA has two parts: Title I, which prohibits genetic discrimination in health insurance, and Title II, which prohibits genetic discrimination in employment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Although since 2012 Massachusetts law has provided legal protections against discrimination on the basis of gender identity in employment, housing, public education, and credit and lending, those protections don't extend to public spaces. (harvard.edu)
  • Discrimination on the basis of race involves denying equal employment opportunity to any person because that person is of a particular race or has personal characteristics associated with a particular race (e.g., hair texture, facial features). (justice.gov)
  • Discrimination on the basis of color involves denying equal employment opportunity to any person because of that person's skin color or complexion. (justice.gov)
  • Race and color discrimination could take the form of refusing to hire, discharging, failing to promote, harassing, or discriminating against a person with respect to any other term, condition or privilege of employment. (justice.gov)
  • Discrimination on the basis of national origin involves denying equal employment opportunity to any person because that person is from a different country or part of the world, or because of ethnicity or accent, or because that person is perceived to be of a particular ethnicity. (justice.gov)
  • Discrimination on the basis of religion involves denying equal employment opportunity to any person because of that person's sincerely held religious, ethical or moral beliefs. (justice.gov)
  • Discrimination on the basis of military status involves denying equal employment opportunity to any person because of that person's past, current or future membership, service or obligation in a uniformed service. (justice.gov)
  • The law pertaining to the prevention of age discrimination applies to every stage of the employment process, including recruitment and job advertising, hiring and interviewing practices, job assignments, performance reviews, benefits, career advancement, and termination. (business.com)
  • In 1978, it was amended to forbid discrimination based on pregnancy in any aspect of employment, including hiring, firing, pay and job assignments in companies with 15 or more employees. (theledger.com)
  • In the coming months, the Supreme Court could make it easier for federal employees to prove that they were discriminated against on the basis of age in federal Age Discrimination in Employment Act cases. (govexec.com)
  • In federal Age Discrimination in Employment Act and Title VII cases, some federal courts use the same standard for both federal agencies and private sector organizations: that age discrimination must be the proximate cause of an adverse personnel action against the plaintiff. (govexec.com)
  • The Age Discrimination in Employment Act sets differing standards for proving age discrimination: in the private sector, the discrimination must be the proximate cause of the adverse action, but language addressing federal agencies prohibits "any discrimination" based on an employee's age. (govexec.com)
  • The ADEA's federal-sector provision provides that 'all personnel actions' affecting employees or applicants for employment in executive agencies who are at least 40 years of age 'shall be made free from any discrimination based on age,'" the government wrote. (govexec.com)
  • Are you sure you want to remove Discrimination in employment from your list? (openlibrary.org)
  • A new study from researchers at the University of Michigan found that various forms of discrimination are associated with increased rates of depression . (psychcentral.com)
  • Some forms of discrimination are obvious and immediately offensive. (gdc-uk.org)
  • But some forms of discrimination are more insidious: they shape expectations and opportunities, they create institutions which do not represent the populations they serve, they result in an absence of role models. (gdc-uk.org)
  • This type of learning is used in studies regarding operant and classical conditioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the olfactory system, it remains unknown whether pattern separation acts as a driving force for sensory discrimination and the learning thereof. (nature.com)
  • It neither affected general sensory learning nor erased already established, learned memory traces. (pnas.org)
  • The cognitive flexibility required for reversal learning of previously acquired behavioral habits, commonly understood to mainly rely on frontostriatal circuits, was enhanced by promoting synaptic plasticity via ECM removal within the sensory cortex. (pnas.org)
  • Research on the basic principles underlying this learning style has their roots in neuropsychology sub-processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results suggest that consumption of the HFD diet may have had enduring effects on learning processes, some of which may contribute to the control of intake regulation. (nih.gov)
  • Synaptic plasticity plays a key role in processes of learning and memory. (queensu.ca)
  • While rodent studies implicate distinct prefrontal/striatal regions in goal-directed and habit learning, neural systems underpinning these two processes in humans remain poorly understood. (nature.com)
  • Specific learning difficulties affect the way someone learns and processes information. (gmc-uk.org)
  • State laws and additional federal laws such as the Older Worker's Benefit Protection Act also serve to protect older workers from discrimination, though the ADEA remains the primary legislation on the issue. (findlaw.com)
  • In their letter to Congress opposing non-discrimination legislation, the bishops asserted that such legislation would be "to the detriment of society as a whole. (ncronline.org)
  • The data indicate that , far from being a negligible issue, discrimination and violence against LGBT persons remains a social issue demanding legislation to protect them. (ncronline.org)
  • Age discrimination against older employees is illegal in the U.S. - and legislation is in place to protect employees (and prospective employees) over the age of 40 who might otherwise be disadvantaged simply because of their age. (business.com)
  • As the Supreme Court has stated , recognizing disparate impact liability "permits plaintiffs to counteract unconscious prejudices and disguised animus" and helps prevent discrimination "that might otherwise result from covert and illicit stereotyping. (eff.org)
  • In a brief to the Supreme Court, the Trump administration argued that despite the "any discrimination" language in the portion of the law governing federal agencies, the stricter standard of proof should still apply. (govexec.com)
  • Animals can use discrimination learning to help them survive, be trained for assisting humans in tasks, and much more. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we examined how age impacts local circuit rhythmicity in the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) during performance of discrimination learning and decision-making tasks. (eneuro.org)
  • We could then use discrimination learning to see which colors a dog can discriminate between. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generalization gradients of inhibition following auditory discrimination learning. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here, a workflow is described addressing the relative quantification of synaptic proteins supposedly involved in the molecular reorganization of synapses during learning and memory consolidation in an auditory learning paradigm. (jove.com)
  • Animals learn to use multisensory cues to procure appetitive and avoid aversive food sources. (jneurosci.org)
  • Classical conditioning involves learning through association when two stimuli are paired together repeatedly. (wikipedia.org)
  • When it involves racial discrimination, the risk of suicidal thoughts among African-American men becomes particularly concerning, according to the researchers. (psychcentral.com)
  • Most people's concept of racial discrimination involves explicit, direct hostility expressed by whites toward members of a disadvantaged racial group. (nap.edu)
  • Sex discrimination also involves treating a woman unfavorably because she is pregnant or based on gender stereotype. (justice.gov)
  • Here, we show that imagery training also improves motion direction discrimination. (arvojournals.org)
  • Learning to search: From weak methods to domain-specific heuristics. (isle.org)
  • Learning search strategies through discrimination. (isle.org)
  • Learning effective search heuristics. (isle.org)
  • To further explore the role of these membrane cytoskeleton-associated proteins in brain function, we studied spatial learning and ex vivo synaptic plasticity in the mdx mouse, which lacks 427,000 mol. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • However, to which degree the mature ECM is a compromise between stability and flexibility in the adult brain impacting synaptic plasticity as a fundamental basis for learning, lifelong memory formation, and higher cognitive functions is largely unknown. (pnas.org)
  • 2013). Here, we conducted a double-blind crossover study to determine if cholinergic enhancement would facilitate texture discrimination learning and, if so, at what time scale. (arvojournals.org)
  • International students learn many things about U.S. culture when studying in the U.S. It is important that they have accurate information about our turbulent race history, as well as about the courage of people who have worked hard to secure human and civil rights in this country. (iteslj.org)
  • I've since learned that companies routinely employ a number of strategies, including gaslighting, to make discrimination reports, and the people who file them, go away quietly. (womensrightsny.com)
  • Find out what housing programs are available for people with HIV and learn about eligibility requirements. (cdc.gov)
  • Learn about how the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) protects people who are discriminated against because they have HIV or have a relationship with someone with HIV. (cdc.gov)
  • The very people who might be affected by age discrimination often don't want to bring it up-especially in Silicon Valley. (wired.com)
  • The research showed the disproportionate impact on people from Black and Asian ethnic groups is rooted in deep seated inequality and experience of discrimination, in their social and economic circumstances as much as their direct experience of healthcare. (gdc-uk.org)
  • A proposed Labor Department rule would exempt certain federal contractors from facing charges of discrimination against LGBTQ people, based on religious views. (diversityinc.com)
  • The biggest lesson franchisors have learned is that there have to be real people behind all that posting, and more often than not, the personality needs to be that of the franchisees. (entrepreneur.com)
  • People with learning disabilities often present late with serious illnesses so carry out diagnostic tests wherever you see unexplained symptoms or physical changes. (gmc-uk.org)
  • People with learning disabilities are vulnerable to mental health problems. (gmc-uk.org)
  • The first claim about the widespread support of LGBT persons flies in the face of the manifest American cultural sin of homophobia, that leads to the rejection of LGBT persons and discrimination and violence against them, especially transgender people, more than half of whom are women of color, which the American Medical Association has declared an "epidemic. (ncronline.org)
  • Genetic discrimination occurs when people are treated differently by their employer or insurance company because they have a gene mutation that causes or increases the risk of an inherited disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Fear of discrimination is a common concern among people considering genetic testing. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Several laws at the federal and state levels help protect people against genetic discrimination. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In particular, a federal law called the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) is designed to protect people from this form of discrimination. (medlineplus.gov)
  • GINA and other laws do not protect people from genetic discrimination in every circumstance. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Student NT editor Rebecca Hammond asks how we can provide mental health support to people with learning disabilities. (nursingtimes.net)
  • HIV status discrimination is when people living with HIV and AIDS face negative attitudes, abuse, and discrimination. (webmd.com)
  • In the United States, people living with HIV or AIDS are protected from HIV status discrimination under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA). (webmd.com)
  • The complex and fundamental nature of discrimination learning allows for psychologists and researchers to perform more in-depth research that supports psychological advancements. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can be contrasted with the Little Albert studies where Albert's lack of discrimination between animals exhibited the psychological and learning phenomenon of generalization learning, which is discrimination learning's polar opposite. (wikipedia.org)
  • that the word learning , for example, corresponds to a definite psychological process. (britannica.com)
  • Therefore, discrimination against a male who is presenting as a female falls within the purview of Title VII. (btlaw.com)
  • The federal sector provisions of the ADEA and Title VII instruct that 'all personnel actions' affecting federal employees 'shall be made free from any discrimination based on' the listed protected characteristics," her attorneys wrote. (govexec.com)
  • Machine learning is a branch of artificial intelligence (AI) and computer science which focuses on the use of data and algorithms to imitate the way that humans learn, gradually improving its accuracy. (ibm.com)
  • Machine learning, deep learning, and neural networks are all sub-fields of artificial intelligence. (ibm.com)
  • Computational neuroscience focuses on the description of biologically plausible neurons (and neural systems ) and their physiology and dynamics, and it is therefore not concerned with biologically unrealistic disciplines such as connectionism , machine learning , artificial neural networks , artificial intelligence and computational learning theory . (wikipedia.org)
  • Reversal learning, a representation of flexibility and adaptability to a changing environment, might represent such a translatable feature of human cognition. (frontiersin.org)
  • Such local weakening of the structurally rigid ECM specifically accelerated strategy changes required for reversal learning. (pnas.org)
  • Bill S-201 and the Protection Against Genetic Discrimination. (mccarthy.ca)
  • This is the heart of Bill S-201 , an act to prohibit and prevent genetic discrimination. (mccarthy.ca)
  • Canada is now following suit with the introduction of Bill S-201 , an act to prohibit and prevent genetic discrimination. (mccarthy.ca)
  • What is genetic discrimination? (medlineplus.gov)
  • The Genetic Alliance offers links to resources and policy statements on genetic discrimination . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some famous studies using discrimination learning include: Natural concepts in pigeons by Hernstein RJ, Loveland DH, Cable C. A study in 1976 found that discrimination learning will occur when the stimuli is realistic but unfamiliar in the study using pigeons and fish. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fortunately, many states have extensive complaint and fact-finding procedures so that employees can determine when they have been victims of discrimination and assert their rights. (findlaw.com)
  • Violating antidiscrimination laws can be especially costly if a prospective or current tenant files a fair housing complaint or a discrimination lawsuit. (nolo.com)
  • These include filing an administrative complaint with HUD or a state fair housing agency or a local agency charged with overseeing discrimination complaints. (nolo.com)
  • The mathematical models formulated in computational neuroscience are useful since they capture the essential features of the biological system at multiple spatial-temporal scales, from membrane currents, proteins, and chemical coupling to network oscillations , columnar and topographic architecture, and learning and memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • This facilitation may occur because hippocampal lesions impair incidental encoding of spatial information that interferes with learning. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In the context of learning disabilities this means that 'symptoms of physical ill health are mistakenly attributed to either a mental health/behavioural problem or as being inherent in the person's learning disabilities' (Emerson and Baines, 2010). (gmc-uk.org)
  • Ageism is discrimination or unfair treatment based on a person's age. (ageuk.org.uk)
  • addictions and prejudices are learned as well as high-level skills and useful knowledge. (britannica.com)
  • Hippocampal lesions can enhance discrimination learning despite normal sensitivity to interference from incidental information. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Passage and enforcement of transgender rights laws that include protections against discrimination in public settings, inclusive of health care, is a critical public health policy approach needed to move toward health equity," lead author Sari Reisner , research fellow in the Department of Epidemiology , said in a press release from The Fenway Institute at Fenway Health, where he is a research scientist. (harvard.edu)