Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.
Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).
A willingness to reveal information about oneself to others.
A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.
A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
Errors or mistakes committed by health professionals which result in harm to the patient. They include errors in diagnosis (DIAGNOSTIC ERRORS), errors in the administration of drugs and other medications (MEDICATION ERRORS), errors in the performance of surgical procedures, in the use of other types of therapy, in the use of equipment, and in the interpretation of laboratory findings. Medical errors are differentiated from MALPRACTICE in that the former are regarded as honest mistakes or accidents while the latter is the result of negligence, reprehensible ignorance, or criminal intent.
The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)
An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.
The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.
Human artificial insemination in which the semen used is that of a man other than the woman's husband.
Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.
Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
An emotional attitude excited by realization of a shortcoming or impropriety.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
The interactions between physician and patient.
A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
Financial support of research activities.
The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
Persons whom one knows, likes, and trusts.
Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.
Sexual attraction or relationship between males.
Payment, or other means of making amends, for a wrong or injury.
The act, process, or an instance of narrating, i.e., telling a story. In the context of MEDICINE or ETHICS, narration includes relating the particular and the personal in the life story of an individual.
The sexual attraction or relationship between members of both the same and the opposite SEX.
Transfer of preovulatory oocytes from donor to a suitable host. Oocytes are collected, fertilized in vitro, and transferred to a host that can be human or animal.
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.
A health professional's obligation to breach patient CONFIDENTIALITY to warn third parties of the danger of their being assaulted or of contracting a serious infection.
Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
Interactions between health personnel and patients.
Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
Married persons, i.e., husbands and wives, or partners. Domestic partners, or spousal equivalents, are two adults who have chosen to share their lives in an intimate and committed relationship, reside together, and share a mutual obligation of support for the basic necessities of life.
The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.
Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
Failure of a professional person, a physician or lawyer, to render proper services through reprehensible ignorance or negligence or through criminal intent, especially when injury or loss follows. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Excusing or pardoning for an offense or release of anger or resentment.
Confidence in or reliance on a person or thing.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.
Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Research into the cause, transmission, amelioration, elimination, or enhancement of inherited disorders and traits.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
Medical tests taken by couples planning to be married in order to determine presence of genetic and contagious diseases.
The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.
The identification, analysis, and resolution of moral problems that arise in the care of patients. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.
Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.
Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)
A process by which an individual unconsciously endeavors to pattern himself after another. This process is also important in the development of the personality, particularly the superego or conscience, which is modeled largely on the behavior of adult significant others.
The act of deceiving or the fact of being deceived.
Sexual activities of humans.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
The circulation or wide dispersal of information.
Sexual attraction or relationship between females.
Frequency and quality of negative emotions, e.g., anger or hostility, expressed by family members or significant others, that often lead to a high relapse rate, especially in schizophrenic patients. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 7th ed)
The practice of prescribing or using a drug outside the scope of the drug's official approved label as designated by a regulatory agency concerning the treatment of a particular disease or condition.
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.
Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.
The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
The interactions between parent and child.
The bestowing of tangible or intangible benefits, voluntarily and usually without expectation of anything in return. However, gift giving may be motivated by feelings of ALTRUISM or gratitude, by a sense of obligation, or by the hope of receiving something in return.
Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.
The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.
Those individuals engaged in research.
Fundamental claims of patients, as expressed in statutes, declarations, or generally accepted moral principles. (Bioethics Thesaurus) The term is used for discussions of patient rights as a group of many rights, as in a hospital's posting of a list of patient rights.
Nonexpendable items used in the performance of orthopedic surgery and related therapy. They are differentiated from ORTHOTIC DEVICES, apparatus used to prevent or correct deformities in patients.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Drugs or chemical agents whose manufacture, possession, or use are regulated by government. This may include narcotics and prescription medications.
Interaction between a mother and child.
Set of expectations that exempt persons from responsibility for their illness and exempt them from usual responsibilities.
A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.
Promotion and protection of the rights of children; frequently through a legal process.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.
The science dealing with the study of mental processes and behavior in man and animals.
The cognitive and affective processes which constitute an internalized moral governor over an individual's moral conduct.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
Sexual maltreatment of the child or minor.
Women who allow themselves to be impregnated with the understanding that the offspring are to be given over to the parents who have commissioned the surrogate.
Public Law 104-91 enacted in 1996, was designed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the healthcare system, protect health insurance coverage for workers and their families, and to protect individual personal health information.
A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.
A person who has not attained the age at which full civil rights are accorded.
The geographic area of the midwestern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not indicated. The states usually included in this region are Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wisconsin.
A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
Organizations which provide an environment encouraging social interactions through group activities or individual relationships especially for the purpose of rehabilitating or supporting patients, individuals with common health problems, or the elderly. They include therapeutic social clubs.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures.
Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.
The process of bargaining in order to arrive at an agreement or compromise on a matter of importance to the parties involved. It also applies to the hearing and determination of a case by a third party chosen by the parties in controversy, as well as the interposing of a third party to reconcile the parties in controversy.
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.
Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.
Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
The state or quality of being kind, charitable, or beneficial. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). The ethical principle of BENEFICENCE requires producing net benefit over harm. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
Documents describing a medical treatment or research project, including proposed procedures, risks, and alternatives, that are to be signed by an individual, or the individual's proxy, to indicate his/her understanding of the document and a willingness to undergo the treatment or to participate in the research.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
Behavioral, psychological, and social relations among various members of the nuclear family and the extended family.
Compensatory plans designed to motivate physicians in relation to patient referral, physician recruitment, and efficient use of the health facility.
The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.
(LA) is not a medical term; it is a region, specifically the second most populous city in the United States, located in Southern California, which contains several world-renowned hospitals and medical centers that offer advanced healthcare services and cutting-edge medical research.
The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the opposite SEX.
Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)
The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
Female parents, human or animal.
The interactions between the professional person and the family.
A method of examining and setting levels of payments.
The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.
Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES; DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.
A person's view of himself.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.
Deliberate, often repetitive physical, verbal, and/or other types of abuse by one or more members against others of a household.
Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.
Any violation of established legal or moral codes in respect to sexual behavior.
Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.
Tissue, organ, or gamete donation intended for a designated recipient.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.
The moral and ethical obligations or responsibilities of institutions.
Women who are physically and mentally abused over an extended period, usually by a husband or other dominant male figure. Characteristics of the battered woman syndrome are helplessness, constant fear, and a perceived inability to escape. (From American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 3d ed)
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.
A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human chromosome 13 at locus 13q12.3. Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. It encodes a large, nuclear protein that is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev 2000;14(11):1400-6)
Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Individuals licensed to practice medicine.

Driving toward guiding principles: a goal for privacy, confidentiality, and security of health information. (1/885)

As health care moves from paper to electronic data collection, providing easier access and dissemination of health information, the development of guiding privacy, confidentiality, and security principles is necessary to help balance the protection of patients' privacy interests against appropriate information access. A comparative review and analysis was done, based on a compilation of privacy, confidentiality, and security principles from many sources. Principles derived from ten identified sources were compared with each of the compiled principles to assess support level, uniformity, and inconsistencies. Of 28 compiled principles, 23 were supported by at least 50 percent of the sources. Technology could address at least 12 of the principles. Notable consistencies among the principles could provide a basis for consensus for further legislative and organizational work. It is imperative that all participants in our health care system work actively toward a viable resolution of this information privacy debate.  (+info)

Confidentiality and HIV status in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa: implications, resistances and challenges. (2/885)

This article provides a contextualized comparison and analysis of the former Kwazulu and the new Kwazulu-Natal policy documents on HIV confidentiality, the differing practices within the region, and their implications for support and gender. It is based on interviews with key players in the regional NACOSA (National AIDS Convention of South Africa), and participation in meetings between August and November 1995. The main division is between those influenced by other rural African models, especially the Zambian concept of "shared confidentiality' as a way of ensuring support, and who have gone on to develop more community-based practices to destigmatize the disease, in contrast with the stronger emphasis in the new document on individual rights, assuming a more urban constituency, and where "shared confidentiality' is much more circumscribed. One of the difficulties of the new policy in which "confidentiality' is interpreted as "secrecy', is that it would seem to foreclose and neutralize lay and community support, as distinct from the earlier and unacknowledged policy of former Kwazulu. It also seeks to provide an enhanced role for professional counsellors. This psychologizing of the infection and the distancing from "community', and from women's groups, is surprising in a country in whose townships "community' remains a powerful motivating symbol, and where NGOs and peer groups have been identified everywhere as central to effective HIV/AIDS related prevention, care and support for behavior change.  (+info)

To tell the truth: disclosing the incentives and limits of managed care. (3/885)

As managed care becomes more prevalent in the United States, concerns have arisen over the business practices of managed care companies. A particular concern is whether patients should be made aware of the financial incentives and treatment limits of their healthcare plan. At present, managed care organizations are not legally required to make such disclosures. However, such disclosures would be advisable for reasons of ethical fidelity, contractual clarity, and practical prudence. Physicians themselves may also have a fiduciary responsibility to discuss incentives and limits with their patients. Once the decision to disclose has been made, the managed care organization must draft a document that explains, clearly and honestly, limits of care in the plan and physician incentives that might restrict the care a patient receives.  (+info)

Physicians' perceptions of managed care. (4/885)

We wished to determine physicians' views and knowledge of managed care, particularly their beliefs about the provisions of managed care contracts in terms of legality and ethics. A questionnaire was sent to the 315 physicians of the medical staff of Norwalk Hospital in Connecticut regarding managed care and managed care contracts. Sixty-six responses were received within a 45-day period (20.9% return). Although only 1 of 11 contract provisions presented in one section of the questionnaire was illegal in Connecticut, a majority of physicians believed 7 of the 11 were illegal. On average, 50% of physicians polled thought each of the provisions was illegal, and a varying majority of physicians (53% to 95.4%) felt the various provisions were unethical. The majority of respondents (84.8% to 92.4%) believed that nondisclosure provisions were unethical. Ninety-seven percent thought managed care interferes with quality of care, and 72.7% of physicians felt that the managed care industry should be held legally responsible for ensuring quality of care. However, 92.4% of physicians considered themselves to be ethically responsible for ensuring quality of care. Physicians have a poor understanding of the legal aspects of managed care contracts but feel strongly that many provisions of these contracts are unethical. Physicians also believe that managed care is causing medicine to be practiced in a manner that is contrary to patients' interests and that legal recourse is needed to prevent this.  (+info)

Is recruitment more difficult with a placebo arm in randomised controlled trials? A quasirandomised, interview based study. (5/885)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether including a placebo arm in a clinical trial of hormone replacement therapy influenced women's stated willingness to participate. DESIGN: Quasirandomised, interview based study. SETTING: 10 group practices in the Medical Research Council's General Practice Research Framework. PARTICIPANTS: 436 postmenopausal women aged 45-64 who had not had a hysterectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stated willingness to enter a trial and reasons for the decisions made. RESULTS: Of 218 women told about the trial without a placebo arm, 85 (39%) indicated their willingness to enter compared with 65 (30%) of the 218 women told about the trial with the placebo arm (P=0.06). Part of this difference was due to explicit reluctance to take a placebo. Altruism and personal benefit were the reasons most frequently given for wanting to take part in a trial. The reasons most frequently cited for not wanting to take part were reluctance to restart periods, not wanting to take unknown or unnecessary tablets, or not wanting to interfere with present good health. CONCLUSION: For preventive trials the inclusion of a placebo arm may reduce patients' willingness to participate.  (+info)

The basis of informed consent for BMT patients. (6/885)

During recent decades the doctrine of informed consent has become a standard part of medical care as an expression of patients' rights to self-determination. In situations when only one treatment alternative exists for a potential cure, the extent of a patient's self-determination is constrained. Our hypothesis is that for patients considering a life-saving procedure such as bone marrow transplant (BMT), informed consent has little meaning as a basis for their right to self-determination. A longitudinal study of BMT patients was undertaken with four self-administered questionnaires. Questions centered around expectations, knowledge, anxiety and factors contributing to their decision to undergo treatment. Although the informed consent process made patients more knowledgeable about the treatment, their decision to consent was largely based on positive outcome expectations and on trust in the physician. Informed consent relieved their anxieties and increased their hopes for survival. Our conclusion was that the greatest value of the informed consent process lay in meeting the patients' emotional rather than cognitive needs. When their survival is at stake and BMT represents their only option, the patient's vulnerability puts a moral responsibility on the physician to respect the principle of beneficence while not sacrificing the patient's right to self-determination.  (+info)

Genetic privacy: orthodoxy or oxymoron? (7/885)

In this paper we question whether the concept of "genetic privacy" is a contradiction in terms. And, if so, whether the implications of such a conclusion, inevitably impact on how society comes to perceive privacy and responsibility generally. Current law and ethical discourse place a high value on self-determination and the rights of individuals. In the medical sphere, the recognition of patient "rights" has resulted in health professionals being given clear duties of candour and frankness. Dilemmas arise, however, when patients decline to know relevant information or, knowing it, refuse to share it with others who may also need to know. This paper considers the notions of interconnectedness and responsibility to others which are brought to the fore in the genetic sphere and which challenge the primacy afforded to personal autonomy. It also explores the extent to which an individual's perceived moral obligations can or should be enforced.  (+info)

Genetics and the British insurance industry. (8/885)

Genetics and genetic testing raise key issues for insurance and employment. Governmental and public concern galvanised the British insurance industry into developing a code of practice. The history of the development of the code, issues of genetic discrimination, access to medical information, consent and the dangers of withholding information and the impact on the equity of pooled risk are explored. Proactive steps by the Association of British Insurers suggest that moral reflection not legislation is the way forward.  (+info)

In medical terms, disclosure generally refers to the act of revealing or sharing confidential or sensitive information with another person or entity. This can include disclosing a patient's medical history, diagnosis, treatment plan, or other personal health information to the patient themselves, their family members, or other healthcare providers involved in their care.

Disclosure is an important aspect of informed consent, as patients have the right to know their medical condition and the risks and benefits of various treatment options. Healthcare providers are required to disclose relevant information to their patients in a clear and understandable manner, so that they can make informed decisions about their healthcare.

In some cases, disclosure may also be required by law or professional ethical standards, such as when there is a legal obligation to report certain types of injuries or illnesses, or when there is a concern for patient safety. It is important for healthcare providers to carefully consider the potential risks and benefits of disclosure in each individual case, and to ensure that they are acting in the best interests of their patients while also protecting their privacy and confidentiality.

"Truth disclosure" is not a standard term in medicine, but it may refer to the act of revealing or expressing the truth, particularly in the context of medical communication. This can include:

1. Informed Consent: Disclosing all relevant information about a medical treatment or procedure, including its risks and benefits, so that a patient can make an informed decision about their care.
2. Breaking Bad News: Communicating difficult medical news to patients honestly, clearly, and compassionately, such as telling a patient they have a serious illness.
3. Medical Error Disclosure: Admitting and explaining mistakes made in the course of medical treatment, including any harm that may have resulted.
4. Research Integrity: Disclosing all relevant information and conflicts of interest in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

The term "truth disclosure" is not commonly used in these contexts, but the principle of honesty and transparency in medical communication is a fundamental aspect of ethical medical practice.

In a medical or healthcare context, self-disclosure generally refers to the act of a patient voluntarily sharing personal, relevant information about themselves with their healthcare provider. This could include details about their lifestyle, thoughts, feelings, experiences, or symptoms that may be pertinent to their health status or treatment. The purpose of self-disclosure is to enhance the provider's understanding of the patient's condition and facilitate more effective care planning, monitoring, and management. It is essential for building trust, fostering open communication, and promoting a strong therapeutic relationship between patients and healthcare providers.

It is important to note that self-disclosure should be encouraged in a safe, respectful, and confidential environment, where the patient feels comfortable sharing personal information without fear of judgment or negative consequences. Healthcare providers must maintain appropriate professional boundaries while still fostering an atmosphere of trust and collaboration with their patients.

A conflict of interest (COI) is a situation in which a person or organization has dual loyalties or is in a position to exploit their professional or personal relationships for personal or institutional gain. In the medical field, COIs can arise when healthcare providers, researchers, or institutions have financial or other interests that may influence their judgment or actions in providing care, conducting research, or making recommendations.

Examples of conflicts of interest in medicine include:

* A physician who has a financial relationship with a pharmaceutical company and receives compensation for promoting the company's products to patients or colleagues.
* A researcher who owns stock in a company that is funding their study and may stand to benefit financially from positive results.
* An institution that accepts funding from industry partners for research or educational programs, which could potentially influence the outcomes of the research or bias the education provided.

COIs can compromise the integrity of medical research, patient care, and professional judgment. Therefore, it is essential to disclose and manage COIs transparently to maintain trust in the healthcare system and ensure that decisions are made in the best interests of patients and society as a whole.

Editorial policies refer to a set of guidelines and principles that govern the development, selection, peer-review, production, and publication of manuscripts in a medical journal. These policies aim to ensure the integrity, transparency, and quality of the published research while adhering to ethical standards and best practices in scientific publishing.

Some essential components of editorial policies include:

1. Authorship criteria: Defining who qualifies as an author, their roles, and responsibilities, and specifying the order of authorship based on contribution.
2. Conflict of interest disclosure: Requiring authors, reviewers, and editors to declare any potential conflicts of interest that may influence their judgment or objectivity in the manuscript's evaluation.
3. Peer-review process: Outlining the steps involved in the peer-review process, including the selection of reviewers, the number of required reviews, and the criteria for accepting or rejecting a manuscript.
4. Plagiarism detection: Employing plagiarism detection software to ensure originality and prevent unethical practices such as self-plagiarism or duplicate publication.
5. Data sharing: Encouraging or requiring authors to share their data, code, or materials to promote transparency and reproducibility of the research findings.
6. Corrections and retractions: Establishing procedures for correcting errors, addressing scientific misconduct, and retracting published articles when necessary.
7. Post-publication discussions: Encouraging open dialogue and constructive criticism through post-publication discussions or letters to the editor.
8. Accessibility and copyright: Describing how the journal ensures accessibility of its content, such as through open-access models, and outlining the terms of copyright and licensing agreements.
9. Archiving and preservation: Ensuring long-term preservation and availability of published content by depositing it in appropriate digital archives or repositories.
10. Compliance with international standards: Adhering to guidelines and best practices established by organizations such as the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME), and the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Confidentiality is a legal and ethical principle in medicine that refers to the obligation of healthcare professionals to protect the personal and sensitive information of their patients. This information, which can include medical history, diagnosis, treatment plans, and other private details, is shared between the patient and the healthcare provider with the expectation that it will be kept confidential and not disclosed to third parties without the patient's consent.

Confidentiality is a fundamental component of the trust relationship between patients and healthcare providers, as it helps to ensure that patients feel safe and comfortable sharing sensitive information with their doctors, nurses, and other members of their healthcare team. It also helps to protect patients' privacy rights and uphold their autonomy in making informed decisions about their healthcare.

There are some limited circumstances in which confidentiality may be breached, such as when there is a legal obligation to report certain types of information (e.g., suspected child abuse or neglect), or when the disclosure is necessary to protect the health and safety of the patient or others. However, these exceptions are typically narrowly defined and subject to strict guidelines and safeguards to ensure that confidentiality is protected as much as possible.

A social stigma is a socially constructed phenomenon where certain individuals or groups are labeled, discriminated against, and excluded because of their perceived differences, which may be based on characteristics such as race, ethnicity, nationality, religion, gender, sexual orientation, age, mental or physical abilities, or health status. These negative attitudes and behaviors can lead to unequal treatment, prejudice, and discrimination, resulting in significant harm to the stigmatized individuals' social, emotional, and psychological well-being.

In medical terms, a social stigma may be associated with certain health conditions, illnesses, or disabilities that are perceived as shameful, undesirable, or deviant by society. For example, people with mental illness, HIV/AIDS, substance use disorders, or sexually transmitted infections may experience social stigma, which can negatively impact their access to healthcare services, treatment outcomes, and overall quality of life.

The negative consequences of social stigma can be reduced through education, awareness, and advocacy efforts that challenge stereotypes, promote understanding and empathy, and foster inclusive and supportive communities.

In the context of medical research, authorship refers to the recognition of individuals who have made significant contributions to the development and completion of a scientific paper or research project. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) has established guidelines for determining authorship, which include the following four criteria:

1. Substantial contribution to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work.
2. Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content.
3. Final approval of the version to be published.
4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

All authors should meet these criteria, and their contributions should be clearly described in the manuscript. It is important to note that authorship should not be granted based on position or status alone, but rather on the basis of substantial intellectual contribution and commitment to the work.

HIV seropositivity is a term used to describe a positive result on an HIV antibody test. This means that the individual has developed antibodies against the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), indicating that they have been infected with the virus. However, it's important to note that this does not necessarily mean that the person has AIDS, as there can be a long period between HIV infection and the development of AIDS.

In medical terminology, "sexual partners" refers to individuals who engage in sexual activity with each other. This can include various forms of sexual contact, such as vaginal, anal, or oral sex. The term is often used in the context of discussing sexual health and the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It's important to note that full disclosure of sexual partners to healthcare providers can help in diagnosing and treating STIs, as well as in understanding an individual's sexual health history.

Medical errors can be defined as the failure to complete a task (commission) or the use of an incorrect plan of action (omission) that results in harm to the patient. This can include mistakes made in diagnosis, treatment planning, medication dosage, health management, and other medical services. Medical errors can be caused by individual health care providers, system failures, communication breakdowns, or a combination of these factors. They are a significant source of preventable harm and can lead to patient death, injury, increased healthcare costs, and decreased trust in the medical profession.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Financial Support" is not a medical term. It generally refers to the provision of money or other financial resources to help meet expenses or needs. In a healthcare context, it might refer to assistance provided to patients who are unable to afford their medical costs, such as through insurance, government programs, or charitable organizations. However, there is no specific medical definition for this term.

In the context of medicine and psychology, stereotyping refers to the process of forming oversimplified generalizations about individuals or groups based on limited information or preconceived ideas. These generalizations may not accurately represent the characteristics, behaviors, or intentions of the individual or group being stereotyped. Stereotypes can lead to prejudice, discrimination, and social stigma, which can negatively impact mental and physical health outcomes in affected individuals and communities.

It is important to note that stereotyping is different from diagnostic criteria used in medicine. In medical diagnoses, patterns of symptoms or signs are identified and categorized based on established criteria to help healthcare professionals make accurate assessments and provide appropriate treatment. However, stereotypes can still influence medical decision-making and contribute to health disparities if they lead to biased assumptions about patients' conditions or needs.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Writing" is a common term used to describe the act or process of creating written content, whether it's for literary, professional, or personal purposes. However, if you're asking for a medical term related to writing, perhaps you meant "graphomotor," which refers to the fine motor skills required to produce handwriting or signing one's name. If this is not what you were looking for, please clarify your question so I can provide a more accurate answer.

Artificial insemination, heterologous (also known as donor insemination) is a medical procedure that involves the introduction of sperm from a donor into a woman's reproductive tract with the aim of achieving pregnancy. The sperm used in this procedure comes from a donor who is not the woman's sexual partner. This method may be used when the male partner has severe fertility problems, such as azoospermia (absence of sperm in the ejaculate), or when the couple has a high risk of passing on genetic disorders to their offspring. The donor sperm can be injected into the woman's uterus through intrauterine insemination (IUI) or placed directly into the cervix through intracervical insemination (ICI).

Informed consent is a process in medical care where patients are provided with all relevant information about their health status, proposed treatments, potential risks and benefits, and alternative options. This allows patients to make informed decisions regarding their healthcare and understand the consequences of their choices. The process includes ensuring that the patient has adequate mental capacity to make such decisions, is fully aware of the implications, and gives their voluntary agreement for the proposed treatment or procedure. It's a fundamental principle in medical ethics and is required by law in many jurisdictions to protect patients' rights.

Legal liability, in the context of medical law, refers to a legal obligation or responsibility that a healthcare professional or facility may have for their actions or negligence that results in harm or injury to a patient. This can include failure to provide appropriate care, misdiagnosis, medication errors, or other breaches of the standard of care. If a healthcare provider is found to be legally liable, they may be required to pay damages to the injured party. It's important to note that legal liability is different from medical malpractice, which refers to a specific type of negligence committed by a healthcare professional.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection is a viral illness that progressively attacks and weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to other infections and diseases. The virus primarily infects CD4+ T cells, a type of white blood cell essential for fighting off infections. Over time, as the number of these immune cells declines, the body becomes increasingly vulnerable to opportunistic infections and cancers.

HIV infection has three stages:

1. Acute HIV infection: This is the initial stage that occurs within 2-4 weeks after exposure to the virus. During this period, individuals may experience flu-like symptoms such as fever, fatigue, rash, swollen glands, and muscle aches. The virus replicates rapidly, and the viral load in the body is very high.
2. Chronic HIV infection (Clinical latency): This stage follows the acute infection and can last several years if left untreated. Although individuals may not show any symptoms during this phase, the virus continues to replicate at low levels, and the immune system gradually weakens. The viral load remains relatively stable, but the number of CD4+ T cells declines over time.
3. AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome): This is the most advanced stage of HIV infection, characterized by a severely damaged immune system and numerous opportunistic infections or cancers. At this stage, the CD4+ T cell count drops below 200 cells/mm3 of blood.

It's important to note that with proper antiretroviral therapy (ART), individuals with HIV infection can effectively manage the virus, maintain a healthy immune system, and significantly reduce the risk of transmission to others. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for improving long-term health outcomes and reducing the spread of HIV.

In medical or clinical terms, 'shame' is not typically defined as it is a psychological concept and a basic human emotion. Shame is the painful feeling or experience of believing that you are flawed and therefore unworthy of acceptance and belonging. It's often triggered by a perception of failing to meet certain standards or expectations, or by feeling exposed and vulnerable.

In a clinical context, shame may be discussed in relation to mental health conditions such as depression, anxiety, and personality disorders. For example, individuals with borderline personality disorder may experience intense feelings of shame, which can contribute to their difficulties with regulating emotions and maintaining stable relationships.

It's important to note that while shame is a universal emotion, excessive or chronic shame can be harmful to one's mental health and well-being. In such cases, seeking help from a mental health professional may be beneficial.

An "attitude to health" is a set of beliefs, values, and behaviors that an individual holds regarding their own health and well-being. It encompasses their overall approach to maintaining good health, preventing illness, seeking medical care, and managing any existing health conditions.

A positive attitude to health typically includes:

1. A belief in the importance of self-care and taking responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in regular exercise, eating a balanced diet, getting enough sleep, and avoiding harmful behaviors such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Regular check-ups and screenings to detect potential health issues early on.
4. Seeking medical care when necessary and following recommended treatment plans.
5. A willingness to learn about and implement new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Developing a strong support network of family, friends, and healthcare professionals.

On the other hand, a negative attitude to health may involve:

1. Neglecting self-care and failing to take responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in unhealthy behaviors such as sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, lack of sleep, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Avoidance of regular check-ups and screenings, leading to delayed detection and treatment of potential health issues.
4. Resistance to seeking medical care or following recommended treatment plans.
5. Closed-mindedness towards new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Lack of a support network or reluctance to seek help from others.

Overall, an individual's attitude to health can significantly impact their physical and mental well-being, as well as their ability to manage and overcome any health challenges that may arise.

Physician-patient relations, also known as doctor-patient relationships, refer to the interaction and communication between healthcare professionals and their patients. This relationship is founded on trust, respect, and understanding, with the physician providing medical care and treatment based on the patient's needs and best interests. Effective physician-patient relations involve clear communication, informed consent, shared decision-making, and confidentiality. A positive and collaborative relationship can lead to better health outcomes, improved patient satisfaction, and increased adherence to treatment plans.

The term "family" in a medical context often refers to a group of individuals who are related by blood, marriage, or adoption and who consider themselves to be a single household. This can include spouses, parents, children, siblings, grandparents, and other extended family members. In some cases, the term may also be used more broadly to refer to any close-knit group of people who provide emotional and social support for one another, regardless of their biological or legal relationship.

In healthcare settings, understanding a patient's family dynamics can be important for providing effective care. Family members may be involved in decision-making about medical treatments, providing care and support at home, and communicating with healthcare providers. Additionally, cultural beliefs and values within families can influence health behaviors and attitudes towards medical care, making it essential for healthcare professionals to take a culturally sensitive approach when working with patients and their families.

"Research Support as Topic" is not a specific medical term or diagnosis. However, in the context of medical literature and research, "research support" refers to the resources, funding, and infrastructure that enable and facilitate the conduct of scientific research. This can include financial support from various sources such as government agencies, private organizations, or institutions; access to laboratory facilities, equipment, and databases; and technical assistance in study design, data collection and analysis, and manuscript preparation.

When "research support" is designated as a topic in medical literature, it typically refers to articles that discuss the various aspects of research funding, ethics, and management, including best practices for grant writing, financial conflict of interest disclosures, and responsible conduct of research. It may also include studies that examine the impact of research support on the quality, quantity, and outcomes of scientific research.

In the context of healthcare, privacy is often referred to as the state of being free from unauthorized intrusion or observation in regards to one's personal health information. This includes maintaining confidentiality, restricting access to only those who have a legitimate need for the information, and protecting the information from being shared, disclosed, or used inappropriately. It is a fundamental right of individuals and is essential for maintaining trust in the healthcare system.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Friends" is not a medical term. If you are referring to the term "friends" in the context of social relationships, it generally refers to individuals who share a mutual affection and enjoy spending time together. However, if you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Social support in a medical context refers to the resources and assistance provided by an individual's social network, including family, friends, peers, and community groups. These resources can include emotional, informational, and instrumental support, which help individuals cope with stress, manage health conditions, and maintain their overall well-being.

Emotional support involves providing empathy, care, and encouragement to help an individual feel valued, understood, and cared for. Informational support refers to the provision of advice, guidance, and knowledge that can help an individual make informed decisions about their health or other aspects of their life. Instrumental support includes practical assistance such as help with daily tasks, financial aid, or access to resources.

Social support has been shown to have a positive impact on physical and mental health outcomes, including reduced stress levels, improved immune function, better coping skills, and increased resilience. It can also play a critical role in promoting healthy behaviors, such as adherence to medical treatments and lifestyle changes.

Medical definitions are often provided by authoritative medical bodies such as the World Health Organization (WHO) or the American Psychiatric Association (APA). It's important to note that these organizations have evolved their understanding and classification of homosexuality over time.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), produced by the APA, sexual orientation is not considered a mental disorder. The manual does not provide a definition or classification for 'homosexuality, male' as a medical condition.

The current understanding in the medical community is that homosexuality is a normal and natural variation of human sexual orientation. It is not considered a disorder or an illness. The World Health Organization (WHO) removed homosexuality from its list of mental disorders in 1990.

"Compensation and redress" are terms often used in the context of medical law and ethics to refer to the process of addressing harm or injury caused to a patient as a result of medical negligence or malpractice.

Compensation refers to the financial reparation awarded to the victim or their family to cover damages such as medical expenses, lost wages, and pain and suffering. The aim of compensation is to restore the victim to the position they were in before the harm occurred, to the extent that money can.

Redress, on the other hand, refers to the broader process of addressing and remedying the harm caused. This may include an apology, changes to hospital policies or procedures, or disciplinary action against the healthcare provider responsible for the negligence. The goal of redress is to acknowledge the harm that was caused and to take steps to prevent similar incidents from occurring in the future.

Together, compensation and redress aim to provide a measure of justice and closure for victims of medical harm, while also promoting accountability and transparency within the healthcare system.

In the context of medicine, "narration" typically refers to the description or telling of a patient's history, symptoms, and course of illness. It is the process of recounting the important medical events and experiences related to a patient's health status. This information is usually gathered through interviews, physical examinations, and review of medical records. The resulting narrative can help healthcare providers understand the patient's condition, make informed decisions about diagnosis and treatment, and provide appropriate care. However, it's important to note that "narration" itself is not a medical term, but rather a general term used in many fields including medicine.

Bisexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by the attraction to both males and females, or to individuals of any gender identity. It's important to note that bisexuality encompasses a wide range of experiences and attractions, and it does not necessarily mean equal attraction to both genders. Some people who identify as bisexual may experience a stronger attraction to one gender over the other, while others may feel an equal attraction to both.

Bisexuality is often misunderstood or stigmatized, but it is a normal and valid sexual orientation that has been recognized in various forms throughout history and across cultures. It's also important to recognize that bisexuality exists on a spectrum, and some people may identify as pansexual, queer, or fluid, which can also involve attraction to individuals of multiple genders. Ultimately, the most important thing is for each person to define their own sexual orientation in a way that feels authentic and true to themselves.

Oocyte donation is a medical procedure in which mature oocytes (or immature oocytes that are matured in the lab) are donated by one woman to another woman for the purpose of assisted reproduction. The recipient woman typically receives hormonal treatments to prepare her uterus for embryo implantation. The donated oocytes are then fertilized with sperm from the recipient's partner or a sperm donor in a laboratory, and the resulting embryos are transferred into the recipient's uterus.

Oocyte donation is often recommended for women who have poor ovarian function or who have a high risk of passing on genetic disorders to their offspring. It is also used in cases where previous attempts at in vitro fertilization (IVF) using the woman's own eggs have been unsuccessful.

The process of oocyte donation involves rigorous screening and evaluation of both the donor and recipient, including medical, psychological, and genetic evaluations, to ensure the safety and success of the procedure. The donor's ovaries are stimulated with hormonal medications to produce multiple mature oocytes, which are then retrieved through a minor surgical procedure.

Overall, oocyte donation is a complex and emotionally charged process that requires careful consideration and counseling for both the donor and recipient. It offers hope for many women who would otherwise be unable to conceive a biological child.

The "drug industry" is also commonly referred to as the "pharmaceutical industry." It is a segment of the healthcare sector that involves the research, development, production, and marketing of medications or drugs. This includes both prescription and over-the-counter medicines used to treat, cure, or prevent diseases and medical conditions in humans and animals.

The drug industry comprises various types of organizations, such as:

1. Research-based pharmaceutical companies: These are large corporations that focus on the research and development (R&D) of new drugs, clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approvals, manufacturing, and marketing their products globally. Examples include Pfizer, Johnson & Johnson, Roche, and Merck.

2. Generic drug manufacturers: After the patent for a brand-name drug expires, generic drug manufacturers can produce and sell a similar version of the drug at a lower cost. These companies must demonstrate that their product is bioequivalent to the brand-name drug in terms of safety, quality, and efficacy.

3. Biotechnology companies: These firms specialize in developing drugs using biotechnological methods, such as recombinant DNA technology, gene therapy, or monoclonal antibodies. Many biotech companies focus on specific therapeutic areas, like oncology, immunology, or neurology.

4. Contract research organizations (CROs): CROs provide various services to the drug industry, including clinical trial management, data analysis, regulatory affairs support, and pharmacovigilance. They work with both large pharmaceutical companies and smaller biotech firms to help streamline the drug development process.

5. Drug delivery system companies: These organizations focus on developing innovative technologies for delivering drugs more effectively and safely to patients. Examples include transdermal patches, inhalers, or long-acting injectables.

6. Wholesalers and distributors: Companies that purchase drugs from manufacturers and distribute them to pharmacies, hospitals, and other healthcare providers.

The drug industry plays a crucial role in improving public health by discovering, developing, and delivering new treatments for various diseases and medical conditions. However, it is also subject to criticism and regulation due to concerns about high drug prices, marketing practices, and the potential for conflicts of interest between industry and healthcare professionals.

Research ethics refers to the principles and guidelines that govern the conduct of research involving human participants or animals. The overarching goal of research ethics is to ensure that research is conducted in a way that respects the autonomy, dignity, and well-being of all those involved. Research ethics are designed to prevent harm, promote fairness, and maintain trust between researchers and study participants.

Some key principles of research ethics include:

1. Respect for Persons: This means treating all individuals with respect and dignity, and recognizing their autonomy and right to make informed decisions about participating in research.
2. Beneficence: Researchers have a duty to maximize the benefits of research while minimizing potential harms.
3. Justice: Research should be conducted fairly, without discrimination or bias, and should benefit all those who are affected by it.
4. Confidentiality: Researchers must protect the privacy and confidentiality of study participants, including their personal information and data.
5. Informed Consent: Participants must give their voluntary and informed consent to participate in research, after being fully informed about the nature of the study, its risks and benefits, and their rights as a participant.

Research ethics are typically overseen by institutional review boards (IRBs) or research ethics committees (RECs), which review research proposals and monitor ongoing studies to ensure that they comply with ethical guidelines. Researchers who violate these guidelines may face sanctions, including loss of funding, suspension or revocation of their research privileges, or legal action.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "organizational policy" is not a medical term. It falls under the broader category of management or administrative terminology.

An organizational policy generally refers to a formal statement or set of guidelines that outline an organization's approved course of action or conduct regarding various matters. These policies guide decision-making and help ensure consistent action across the organization. They can cover a wide range of topics, including (but not limited to) employee behavior, data security, patient care standards, and operational procedures.

In a healthcare setting, organizational policies play a crucial role in maintaining quality of care, ensuring patient safety, and complying with relevant laws and regulations.

The "duty to warn" is a legal and ethical obligation that healthcare professionals have to inform their patients or others who may be at risk of harm from the actions or behaviors of their patient. This duty arises from the principle of non-maleficence, which requires doctors to avoid causing harm to their patients.

In the context of medical practice, the duty to warn typically applies when a patient has a mental illness or condition that makes them a danger to themselves or others. For example, if a psychiatrist determines that their patient poses a serious threat of violence to a specific individual, they may have a legal and ethical obligation to warn that person or take other steps to protect them from harm.

The specifics of the duty to warn can vary depending on the jurisdiction and the circumstances involved. In some cases, healthcare professionals may be required to report certain types of threats or behaviors to law enforcement authorities. Ultimately, the goal of the duty to warn is to prevent harm and promote the safety and well-being of patients and others who may be at risk.

Genetic testing is a type of medical test that identifies changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins. The results of a genetic test can confirm or rule out a suspected genetic condition or help determine a person's chance of developing or passing on a genetic disorder. Genetic tests are performed on a sample of blood, hair, skin, amniotic fluid (the fluid that surrounds a fetus during pregnancy), or other tissue. For example, a physician may recommend genetic testing to help diagnose a genetic condition, confirm the presence of a gene mutation known to increase the risk of developing certain cancers, or determine the chance for a couple to have a child with a genetic disorder.

There are several types of genetic tests, including:

* Diagnostic testing: This type of test is used to identify or confirm a suspected genetic condition in an individual. It may be performed before birth (prenatal testing) or at any time during a person's life.
* Predictive testing: This type of test is used to determine the likelihood that a person will develop a genetic disorder. It is typically offered to individuals who have a family history of a genetic condition but do not show any symptoms themselves.
* Carrier testing: This type of test is used to determine whether a person carries a gene mutation for a genetic disorder. It is often offered to couples who are planning to have children and have a family history of a genetic condition or belong to a population that has an increased risk of certain genetic disorders.
* Preimplantation genetic testing: This type of test is used in conjunction with in vitro fertilization (IVF) to identify genetic changes in embryos before they are implanted in the uterus. It can help couples who have a family history of a genetic disorder or who are at risk of having a child with a genetic condition to conceive a child who is free of the genetic change in question.
* Pharmacogenetic testing: This type of test is used to determine how an individual's genes may affect their response to certain medications. It can help healthcare providers choose the most effective medication and dosage for a patient, reducing the risk of adverse drug reactions.

It is important to note that genetic testing should be performed under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional who can interpret the results and provide appropriate counseling and support.

Qualitative research is a methodological approach in social sciences and healthcare research that focuses on understanding the meanings, experiences, and perspectives of individuals or groups within a specific context. It aims to gather detailed, rich data through various techniques such as interviews, focus groups, observations, and content analysis. The findings from qualitative research are typically descriptive and exploratory, providing insights into processes, perceptions, and experiences that may not be captured through quantitative methods.

In medical research, qualitative research can be used to explore patients' experiences of illness, healthcare providers' perspectives on patient care, or the cultural and social factors that influence health behaviors. It is often used in combination with quantitative methods to provide a more comprehensive understanding of complex health issues.

Professional-patient relations, also known as physician-patient relationships or doctor-patient relationships, refer to the interactions and communications between healthcare professionals and their patients. It is a critical aspect of healthcare delivery that involves trust, respect, understanding, and collaboration. The American Medical Association (AMA) defines it as "a ethical relationship in which a physician, by virtue of knowledge and skills, provides medical services to a patient in need."

Professional-patient relations encompass various elements, including:

1. Informed Consent: Healthcare professionals must provide patients with adequate information about their medical condition, treatment options, benefits, risks, and alternatives to enable them to make informed decisions about their healthcare.
2. Confidentiality: Healthcare professionals must respect patients' privacy and maintain the confidentiality of their medical information, except in specific circumstances where disclosure is required by law or necessary for patient safety.
3. Communication: Healthcare professionals must communicate effectively with patients, listening to their concerns, answering their questions, and providing clear and concise explanations about their medical condition and treatment plan.
4. Empathy and Compassion: Healthcare professionals must demonstrate empathy and compassion towards their patients, recognizing their emotional and psychological needs and providing support and comfort when necessary.
5. Cultural Competence: Healthcare professionals must be aware of and respect cultural differences among their patients, adapting their communication style and treatment approach to meet the unique needs of each patient.
6. Shared Decision-Making: Healthcare professionals and patients should work together to make medical decisions based on the best available evidence, the patient's values and preferences, and the healthcare professional's expertise.
7. Continuity of Care: Healthcare professionals must ensure continuity of care for their patients, coordinating with other healthcare providers and ensuring that patients receive appropriate follow-up care.

Professional-patient relations are essential to achieving positive health outcomes, improving patient satisfaction, and reducing medical errors and adverse events. Healthcare professionals must maintain ethical and professional standards in their interactions with patients, recognizing the power imbalance in the relationship and striving to promote trust, respect, and collaboration.

Computer security, also known as cybersecurity, is the protection of computer systems and networks from theft, damage, or unauthorized access to their hardware, software, or electronic data. This can include a wide range of measures, such as:

* Using firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and other technical safeguards to prevent unauthorized access to a network
* Encrypting sensitive data to protect it from being intercepted or accessed by unauthorized parties
* Implementing strong password policies and using multi-factor authentication to verify the identity of users
* Regularly updating and patching software to fix known vulnerabilities
* Providing security awareness training to employees to help them understand the risks and best practices for protecting sensitive information
* Having a incident response plan in place to quickly and effectively respond to any potential security incidents.

The goal of computer security is to maintain the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of computer systems and data, in order to protect the privacy and safety of individuals and organizations.

I'm happy to help, but it seems there might be some confusion in your question. "Interviews" is a broad topic that isn't typically a medical term or subject. However, interviews can certainly be a part of medical settings and procedures, such as job interviews for healthcare positions, patient interviews during medical consultations, or research interviews in clinical studies.

In the context of medical education, an interview might refer to the process by which medical schools evaluate applicants for admission, known as the medical school interview. This is a critical component of the application process and typically involves one-on-one conversations between the applicant and an admissions committee member or a series of multiple mini-interviews (MMIs) with various evaluators.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you mean by "Interviews as Topic" in a medical setting, I'd be happy to help further!

A "periodical" in the context of medicine typically refers to a type of publication that is issued regularly, such as on a monthly or quarterly basis. These publications include peer-reviewed journals, magazines, and newsletters that focus on medical research, education, and practice. They may contain original research articles, review articles, case reports, editorials, letters to the editor, and other types of content related to medical science and clinical practice.

As a "Topic," periodicals in medicine encompass various aspects such as their role in disseminating new knowledge, their impact on clinical decision-making, their quality control measures, and their ethical considerations. Medical periodicals serve as a crucial resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, students, and other stakeholders to stay updated on the latest developments in their field and to share their findings with others.

Genetic counseling is a process of communication and education between a healthcare professional and an individual or family, aimed at understanding, adapting to, and managing the medical, psychological, and familial implications of genetic contributions to disease. This includes providing information about the risk of inherited conditions, explaining the implications of test results, discussing reproductive options, and offering support and resources for coping with a genetic condition. Genetic counselors are trained healthcare professionals who specialize in helping people understand genetic information and its impact on their health and lives.

Interpersonal relations, in the context of medicine and healthcare, refer to the interactions and relationships between patients and healthcare professionals, as well as among healthcare professionals themselves. These relationships are crucial in the delivery of care and can significantly impact patient outcomes. Positive interpersonal relations can lead to improved communication, increased trust, greater patient satisfaction, and better adherence to treatment plans. On the other hand, negative or strained interpersonal relations can result in poor communication, mistrust, dissatisfaction, and non-adherence.

Healthcare professionals are trained to develop effective interpersonal skills, including active listening, empathy, respect, and cultural sensitivity, to build positive relationships with their patients. Effective interpersonal relations also involve clear and concise communication, setting appropriate boundaries, and managing conflicts in a constructive manner. In addition, positive interpersonal relations among healthcare professionals can promote collaboration, teamwork, and knowledge sharing, leading to improved patient care and safety.

I apologize for any confusion, but "spouses" is not a term that has a medical definition. In general, a spouse refers to a person who is united to another in a marriage contract. The term can refer to either a husband or a wife. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

In the medical context, communication refers to the process of exchanging information, ideas, or feelings between two or more individuals in order to facilitate understanding, cooperation, and decision-making. Effective communication is critical in healthcare settings to ensure that patients receive accurate diagnoses, treatment plans, and follow-up care. It involves not only verbal and written communication but also nonverbal cues such as body language and facial expressions.

Healthcare providers must communicate clearly and empathetically with their patients to build trust, address concerns, and ensure that they understand their medical condition and treatment options. Similarly, healthcare teams must communicate effectively with each other to coordinate care, avoid errors, and provide the best possible outcomes for their patients. Communication skills are essential for all healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses, therapists, and social workers.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "prejudice" is not a term that has a medical definition in the same way that a term like "myocardial infarction" (heart attack) does. Prejudice is a psychological or sociological concept that refers to preconceived opinions or attitudes about a person or group that are not based on reason or actual experience. It often involves stereotypes and can lead to discrimination or unfair treatment. While prejudice itself is not a medical condition, it can certainly have impacts on mental and physical health, both for those who experience it and for those who hold such biases.

A "Research Report" in the medical context is a comprehensive and systematic documentation of the entire process, findings, and conclusions of a scientific research study. It typically includes an abstract, introduction, methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion sections. The report may also contain information about the funding sources, potential conflicts of interest, and ethical considerations related to the research. The purpose of a research report is to allow other researchers to critically evaluate the study, replicate its findings, and build upon its knowledge. It should adhere to strict standards of scientific reporting and be written in a clear, concise, and objective manner.

Biomedical research is a branch of scientific research that involves the study of biological processes and diseases in order to develop new treatments and therapies. This type of research often involves the use of laboratory techniques, such as cell culture and genetic engineering, as well as clinical trials in humans. The goal of biomedical research is to advance our understanding of how living organisms function and to find ways to prevent and treat various medical conditions. It encompasses a wide range of disciplines, including molecular biology, genetics, immunology, pharmacology, and neuroscience, among others. Ultimately, the aim of biomedical research is to improve human health and well-being.

Medical malpractice is a legal term that refers to the breach of the duty of care by a healthcare provider, such as a doctor, nurse, or hospital, resulting in harm to the patient. This breach could be due to negligence, misconduct, or a failure to provide appropriate treatment. The standard of care expected from healthcare providers is based on established medical practices and standards within the relevant medical community.

To prove medical malpractice, four key elements must typically be demonstrated:

1. Duty of Care: A healthcare provider-patient relationship must exist, establishing a duty of care.
2. Breach of Duty: The healthcare provider must have failed to meet the standard of care expected in their field or specialty.
3. Causation: The breach of duty must be directly linked to the patient's injury or harm.
4. Damages: The patient must have suffered harm, such as physical injury, emotional distress, financial loss, or other negative consequences due to the healthcare provider's actions or inactions.

Medical malpractice cases can result in significant financial compensation for the victim and may also lead to changes in medical practices and policies to prevent similar incidents from happening in the future.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "forgiveness" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a psychological and social concept that refers to the process of letting go of negative emotions such as resentment or anger towards someone who has hurt or wronged you. This process can have positive effects on mental health and well-being, but it is not a clinical or medical term with a standardized definition in the field of medicine.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "trust" is a general concept and not a medical term with a specific definition. It can be used in various contexts, including healthcare relationships between patients and healthcare providers. In this context, trust refers to the confidence and reliance that patients have on the competence, professionalism, honesty, and integrity of their healthcare providers.

However, if you're looking for a medical term related to "trust," there is a psychological concept called "interpersonal trust" which can be assessed using the "Trust Scale." Interpersonal trust refers to an individual's general willingness to rely on and be vulnerable to others across various situations. This concept might be relevant in some medical or healthcare research contexts, particularly those involving patient-provider communication, adherence to treatment plans, and therapeutic relationships.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Medical ethics is a branch of ethics that deals with moral issues in medical care, research, and practice. It provides a framework for addressing questions related to patient autonomy, informed consent, confidentiality, distributive justice, beneficentia (doing good), and non-maleficence (not doing harm). Medical ethics also involves the application of ethical principles such as respect for persons, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice to specific medical cases and situations. It is a crucial component of medical education and practice, helping healthcare professionals make informed decisions that promote patient well-being while respecting their rights and dignity.

"Personal Autonomy" is not a medical term per se, but it is often used in medical ethics and patient care. It refers to the ability of an individual to make informed decisions about their own health and healthcare, based on their own values, beliefs, and preferences, without undue influence or coercion from others. This includes the right to accept or refuse medical treatment, to maintain confidentiality, and to participate in shared decision-making with healthcare providers. Personal autonomy is recognized as a fundamental principle in medical ethics and patient rights, and is protected by laws and regulations in many countries.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "linguistics" is not a term that has a medical definition. Lingustics is the scientific study of language and its structure. It involves analysing language form, language meaning, and language in context.

If you have any questions related to healthcare or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer them!

Genetic research is a branch of biomedical science that involves the study of genes, their functions, and heredity. It aims to understand how genetic variations contribute to human health and disease by using various scientific approaches such as genetics, genomics, molecular biology, biochemistry, and bioinformatics.

Genetic research can be conducted on humans, animals, or plants, and it can focus on a variety of areas including:

1. Identifying genes associated with specific diseases or traits
2. Understanding how genes are regulated and expressed
3. Investigating the role of genetic mutations in disease development
4. Developing new diagnostic tests and treatments based on genetic information
5. Exploring evolutionary relationships between species
6. Examining ethical, legal, and social implications of genetic research.

Genetic research has led to significant advances in our understanding of many diseases, including cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and neurological disorders. It also holds great promise for personalized medicine, which tailors treatments to individual patients based on their genetic makeup.

Emotions are complex psychological states that involve three distinct components: a subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response. Emotions can be short-lived, such as a flash of anger, or more long-lasting, such as enduring sadness. They can also vary in intensity, from mild irritation to intense joy or fear.

Emotions are often distinguished from other psychological states, such as moods and temperament, which may be less specific and more enduring. Emotions are typically thought to have a clear cause or object, such as feeling happy when you receive good news or feeling anxious before a job interview.

There are many different emotions that people can experience, including happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, and shame. These emotions are often thought to serve important adaptive functions, helping individuals respond to challenges and opportunities in their environment.

In medical contexts, emotions may be relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of various mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorder. Abnormalities in emotional processing and regulation have been implicated in many psychiatric illnesses, and therapies that target these processes may be effective in treating these conditions.

A premarital examination is a medical evaluation typically consisting of screening tests and counseling, performed for individuals who are planning to get married. The purpose of this examination is to identify any potential health issues that may affect the couple's future family plans or overall well-being. These evaluations often include:

1. Medical History Review: Detailed review of past medical history, surgical history, allergies, current medications, and immunization status.
2. Physical Examination: Complete physical examination to identify any existing health conditions.
3. Infectious Disease Screening: Tests for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B, and sometimes gonorrhea and chlamydia.
4. Genetic Disorder Screening: Depending on family history or ethnic background, screening for genetic disorders may be recommended.
5. Blood Type Testing: Determination of blood types (A, B, AB, O) and Rh factor (positive or negative).
6. Counseling: Discussion about reproductive health, family planning, birth control methods, and prevention of sexually transmitted infections.
7. Vaccination Status Check: Ensuring up-to-date vaccinations for both partners.
8. Other Tests: Depending on specific circumstances, other tests like tuberculosis screening or cancer screenings might be advised.

It's important to note that laws regarding premarital examinations vary by country and state. Some places require certain tests by law while others do not.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "human characteristics" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to the typical traits, attributes, and features that define humans as a species, both physically and behaviorally. Physical human characteristics include bipedal locomotion, large brains, and fine motor skills, while behavioral characteristics can include complex language use, self-awareness, and sociality.

However, if you have any specific medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to help answer them to the best of my ability!

Decision-making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. In a medical context, decision-making refers to the process by which healthcare professionals and patients make choices about medical tests, treatments, or management options based on a thorough evaluation of available information, including the patient's preferences, values, and circumstances.

The decision-making process in medicine typically involves several steps:

1. Identifying the problem or issue that requires a decision.
2. Gathering relevant information about the patient's medical history, current condition, diagnostic test results, treatment options, and potential outcomes.
3. Considering the benefits, risks, and uncertainties associated with each option.
4. Evaluating the patient's preferences, values, and goals.
5. Selecting the most appropriate course of action based on a careful weighing of the available evidence and the patient's individual needs and circumstances.
6. Communicating the decision to the patient and ensuring that they understand the rationale behind it, as well as any potential risks or benefits.
7. Monitoring the outcomes of the decision and adjusting the course of action as needed based on ongoing evaluation and feedback.

Effective decision-making in medicine requires a thorough understanding of medical evidence, clinical expertise, and patient preferences. It also involves careful consideration of ethical principles, such as respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice. Ultimately, the goal of decision-making in healthcare is to promote the best possible outcomes for patients while minimizing harm and respecting their individual needs and values.

AIDS serodiagnosis refers to the detection and confirmation of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection through the identification of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to the virus. These antibodies are typically detected in blood samples using various testing methods, such as ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) and Western blot. A positive result in both tests indicates a high probability of HIV infection and progression to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), provided the individual has not been recently infected, as it may take several weeks for the antibodies to develop and become detectable. Regular testing and early diagnosis are crucial for timely medical intervention, treatment, and prevention of further transmission.

Clinical ethics refers to the branch of applied ethics that deals with ethical issues in clinical settings, such as hospitals and other healthcare facilities. It involves the application of moral principles and values to decision-making in clinical practice, with the aim of promoting patient autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice.

Clinical ethics often involves addressing complex ethical dilemmas that arise in the context of patient care, such as end-of-life decisions, informed consent, confidentiality, resource allocation, and research involving human subjects. Clinical ethicists may work as part of an institutional ethics committee or provide consultation services to healthcare providers, patients, and families facing ethical challenges.

The principles of clinical ethics are grounded in respect for patient autonomy, which includes the right to make informed decisions about their own care. Beneficence refers to the obligation to act in the best interests of the patient, while non-maleficence involves avoiding harm to the patient. Justice requires fair and equitable distribution of healthcare resources and respect for the rights and dignity of all patients.

Effective clinical ethics decision-making also involves careful consideration of contextual factors, such as cultural differences, religious beliefs, and social values, that may influence ethical judgments in particular cases. Clinical ethicists use a variety of methods to analyze ethical issues, including case consultation, ethical analysis frameworks, and moral deliberation processes that involve all stakeholders in the decision-making process.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Jurisprudence" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Jurisprudence refers to the theory and philosophy of law, or the study of legal systems, principles, and practices. It is a subject that falls under the purview of lawyers, judges, and scholars of law. If you have any questions about medical terminology, I'd be happy to help with those!

Paternalism, in the context of medical ethics, refers to the practice of healthcare providers making decisions for their patients without obtaining their consent, due to the belief that they know what is best for the patient. This approach can be seen as patronizing and disempowering, as it does not take into account the autonomy and preferences of the patient.

Paternalism can manifest in various forms, such as withholding information from patients, making treatment decisions without consulting them, or coercing patients to follow a particular course of action. While paternalistic attitudes may stem from a desire to protect patients, they can also undermine trust and lead to poorer health outcomes.

Modern medical ethics emphasizes the importance of informed consent, shared decision-making, and respect for patient autonomy, all of which are seen as essential components of ethical healthcare practice.

In the context of medicine, "publications" typically refers to the dissemination of research findings or other medical information through various forms of media. This can include:

1. Peer-reviewed journals: These are scientific or medical publications that undergo a rigorous review process by experts in the field before they are accepted for publication. They represent some of the most reliable sources of medical information.

2. Conference proceedings: Medical conferences often publish abstracts, presentations, or posters from the event. These can provide early insights into ongoing research and new developments in the field.

3. Books and book chapters: Medical texts and reference books are a common form of publication, offering comprehensive overviews of specific topics or conditions.

4. Online platforms: Websites, blogs, and social media platforms have become increasingly popular ways to share medical information. While these can be valuable resources, it's important to critically evaluate the quality and reliability of the information presented.

5. News articles and press releases: Media outlets may report on new medical research or developments, although these should also be approached with caution as they may not always accurately represent the findings or context of the original research.

It's worth noting that all publications should be evaluated based on their source, methodology, and relevance to the specific question or issue at hand.

Deception is not a medical term, but it is a concept that can be studied and applied in various fields including psychology, sociology, and forensics. In the context of medicine and healthcare, deception may refer to the act of misleading or providing false information to patients, research subjects, or healthcare providers. This can include situations where a patient is not fully informed about their medical condition or treatment options, or where researchers manipulate data or results in clinical trials. Deception can have serious ethical and legal implications, and it is generally considered unacceptable in medical practice and research.

Sexual behavior refers to any physical or emotional interaction that has the potential to lead to sexual arousal and/or satisfaction. This can include a wide range of activities, such as kissing, touching, fondling, oral sex, vaginal sex, anal sex, and masturbation. It can also involve the use of sexual aids, such as vibrators or pornography.

Sexual behavior is influenced by a variety of factors, including biological, psychological, social, and cultural influences. It is an important aspect of human development and relationships, and it is essential to healthy sexual functioning and satisfaction. However, sexual behavior can also be associated with risks, such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancies, and it is important for individuals to engage in safe and responsible sexual practices.

It's important to note that sexual behavior can vary widely among individuals and cultures, and what may be considered normal or acceptable in one culture or context may not be in another. It's also important to recognize that all individuals have the right to make informed decisions about their own sexual behavior and to have their sexual rights and autonomy respected.

Psychological adaptation refers to the process by which individuals adjust and cope with stressors, challenges, or changes in their environment or circumstances. It involves modifying thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and copabilities to reduce the negative impact of these stressors and promote well-being. Psychological adaptation can occur at different levels, including intrapersonal (within the individual), interpersonal (between individuals), and cultural (within a group or society).

Examples of psychological adaptation include:

* Cognitive restructuring: changing negative thoughts and beliefs to more positive or adaptive ones
* Emotion regulation: managing and reducing intense or distressing emotions
* Problem-solving: finding solutions to practical challenges or obstacles
* Seeking social support: reaching out to others for help, advice, or comfort
* Developing coping strategies: using effective ways to deal with stressors or difficulties
* Cultivating resilience: bouncing back from adversity and learning from negative experiences.

Psychological adaptation is an important aspect of mental health and well-being, as it helps individuals adapt to new situations, overcome challenges, and maintain a sense of control and optimism in the face of stressors or changes.

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "information dissemination" is not a medical term per se, but rather a general term used in various fields, including healthcare and medicine. It refers to the process of spreading or distributing information to a specific audience or the public.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, information dissemination often relates to sharing clinical guidelines, research findings, public health messages, or patient education materials with healthcare professionals, patients, or the general public. This can occur through various channels, such as scientific conferences, peer-reviewed journals, newsletters, websites, social media platforms, and other communication methods.

The goal of information dissemination in medicine is to ensure that accurate, evidence-based, and up-to-date information reaches the intended audience, ultimately improving healthcare quality, patient outcomes, and decision-making processes.

Female homosexuality, also known as lesbianism, is a romantic and/or sexual attraction or behavior between females. It is one of the forms of human sexual orientation, which also includes heterosexuality and bisexuality. Homosexual women, like gay men, can form committed relationships, have families, and live happy and fulfilling lives. It's important to note that homosexuality is not considered a mental illness or disorder by any major medical or psychological organization, including the American Psychiatric Association and the World Health Organization.

Expressed Emotion (EE) is a term used in the field of psychiatry and psychology to describe the level of criticism, hostility, and emotional over-involvement expressed by family members or close relatives towards an individual with a mental illness. It is measured through a standardized interview called the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI). High levels of EE have been found to be associated with poorer outcomes in individuals with mental illness, particularly those with severe and persistent conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

Off-label use refers to the practice of prescribing or using pharmaceutical drugs for purposes, dosages, patient populations, or routes of administration that are not included in the approved labeling of the drug by the regulatory authority, such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It is not illegal or unethical for physicians to prescribe medications off-label when they judge that it is medically appropriate for their patients. However, manufacturers are prohibited from promoting their drugs for off-label uses.

In the context of medical terminology, "attitude" generally refers to the position or posture of a patient's body or a part of it. It can also refer to the mental set or disposition that a person has towards their health, illness, or healthcare providers. However, it is not a term that has a specific medical definition like other medical terminologies do.

For example, in orthopedics, "attitude" may be used to describe the position of a limb or joint during an examination or surgical procedure. In psychology, "attitude" may refer to a person's feelings, beliefs, and behaviors towards a particular object, issue, or idea related to their health.

Therefore, the meaning of "attitude" in medical terminology can vary depending on the context in which it is used.

A research subject, also commonly referred to as a "human subject" or "participant," is an individual who takes part in a research study or clinical trial. Research subjects are essential for the advancement of medical and scientific knowledge, as they provide data that can help researchers understand various phenomena, develop new treatments, and improve existing ones.

The term "research subject" emphasizes the ethical considerations involved in conducting research with human participants. It highlights the importance of protecting their rights, dignity, and well-being throughout the study. Researchers must obtain informed consent from subjects before enrolling them in a study, ensuring that they understand the purpose, procedures, potential risks, and benefits associated with the research.

Additionally, researchers are required to follow strict guidelines and regulations to minimize any harm or discomfort to the research subjects during the study. These guidelines may include requirements for data confidentiality, privacy protection, and monitoring of adverse events. Overall, treating research subjects with respect and care is crucial in maintaining the integrity of medical research and ensuring its societal benefits.

Patient advocacy refers to the process of supporting and empowering patients to make informed decisions about their healthcare. Patient advocates may help patients communicate with healthcare providers, access necessary resources and services, understand their health conditions and treatment options, and navigate complex healthcare systems. They may also work to promote patient-centered care, raise awareness of patient rights and concerns, and advocate for policies that improve the quality and accessibility of healthcare services. Patient advocacy can be provided by healthcare professionals, family members, friends, or dedicated patient advocates.

Counseling is a therapeutic intervention that involves a trained professional working with an individual, family, or group to help them understand and address their problems, concerns, or challenges. The goal of counseling is to help the person develop skills, insights, and resources that will allow them to make positive changes in their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, and improve their overall mental health and well-being.

Counseling can take many forms, depending on the needs and preferences of the individual seeking help. Some common approaches include cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychodynamic therapy, humanistic therapy, and solution-focused brief therapy. These approaches may be used alone or in combination with other interventions, such as medication or group therapy.

The specific goals and techniques of counseling will vary depending on the individual's needs and circumstances. However, some common objectives of counseling include:

* Identifying and understanding the underlying causes of emotional or behavioral problems
* Developing coping skills and strategies to manage stress, anxiety, depression, or other mental health concerns
* Improving communication and relationship skills
* Enhancing self-esteem and self-awareness
* Addressing substance abuse or addiction issues
* Resolving conflicts and making difficult decisions
* Grieving losses and coping with life transitions

Counseling is typically provided by licensed mental health professionals, such as psychologists, social workers, marriage and family therapists, and professional counselors. These professionals have completed advanced education and training in counseling techniques and theories, and are qualified to provide a range of therapeutic interventions to help individuals, families, and groups achieve their goals and improve their mental health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Parent-Child Relations" is not a medical term per se. It falls more under the purview of psychology, social work, and sociology. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

Parent-Child Relations refers to the nature and quality of the emotional, behavioral, and social relationships between parents (or primary caregivers) and their children. This relationship significantly influences a child's development, including their cognitive, emotional, social, and behavioral growth. Positive parent-child relations typically involve warmth, support, communication, consistency, and appropriate expectations, which contribute to healthy child development outcomes. On the other hand, negative or dysfunctional parent-child relations can lead to various developmental and psychological issues for the child.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Gift Giving" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to the social practice of giving gifts to others, often as a sign of affection, celebration, or appreciation. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

'Unsafe sex' is not a term that would be found in a formal medical dictionary or textbook, but it is commonly used to refer to sexual activities that carry a significant risk of transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and/or unwanted pregnancy. These risks can be reduced through the use of various protective measures.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines 'unprotected sex' as sexual contact without the use of appropriate precautions, such as condoms, to prevent transmission of STIs. However, it is important to note that even the use of protection may not eliminate all risks associated with sexual activity. For example, some infections, like herpes or genital warts, can be transmitted through skin-to-skin contact, and condoms do not provide complete protection against these viruses.

In summary, 'unsafe sex' generally refers to sexual activities that carry a high risk of STIs and/or unwanted pregnancy due to the lack of appropriate protective measures.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Scientific misconduct is defined by the US Department of Health and Human Services as "fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in proposing, performing, or reviewing research, or in reporting research results." Fabrication means making up data or results that never occurred. Falsification means manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record. Plagiarism is the appropriation of another person's ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit.

Scientific misconduct also includes other practices that seriously deviate from those that are commonly accepted within the scientific community for proposing, conducting, or reporting research. It does not include honest error or differences of opinion.

It is important to note that scientific misconduct can have serious consequences for the individuals involved and for the integrity of the scientific enterprise as a whole. It is essential that researchers adhere to the highest standards of integrity in order to maintain public trust in science and to ensure that research results are reliable and reproducible.

I'm not able to provide a medical definition of "social responsibility" as it is not a term that has a specific meaning within the field of medicine. However, I can tell you that social responsibility generally refers to the idea that individuals and organizations have a duty to act in the best interests of society and to contribute to its overall well-being. This might involve taking actions to protect the environment, promote social justice, or support the needs of vulnerable populations. In a medical context, this could mean providing care to underserved communities, engaging in public health advocacy, or conducting research that addresses important societal issues.

Research personnel, in the context of medical and scientific research, refers to individuals who are involved in the design, conduct, or reporting of research studies. This can include, but is not limited to, principal investigators, co-investigators, research assistants, research coordinators, data managers, biostatisticians, and laboratory technicians. These individuals may have various levels of education, training, and expertise, and their roles and responsibilities will depend on the specific research study and their individual qualifications. It is important for research personnel to adhere to ethical guidelines and regulations in order to ensure the integrity and validity of research findings.

Patient rights refer to the ethical principles, legal regulations, and professional guidelines that protect and ensure the autonomy, dignity, and well-being of patients during healthcare encounters. These rights encompass various aspects of patient care, including informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, access to medical records, freedom from abuse and discrimination, pain management, and communication with healthcare providers.

The specific components of patient rights may vary depending on the jurisdiction and legal framework but generally include:

1. Right to receive information: Patients have the right to obtain accurate, clear, and comprehensive information about their health status, diagnosis, treatment options, benefits, risks, and prognosis in a manner they can understand. This includes the right to ask questions and seek clarification.
2. Informed consent: Patients have the right to make informed decisions about their care based on complete and accurate information. They must be given sufficient time and support to consider their options and provide voluntary, informed consent before any treatment or procedure is performed.
3. Privacy and confidentiality: Patients have the right to privacy during medical examinations and treatments. Healthcare providers must protect patients' personal and medical information from unauthorized access, disclosure, or use.
4. Access to medical records: Patients have the right to access their medical records and obtain copies of them in a timely manner. They can also request amendments to their records if they believe there are errors or inaccuracies.
5. Freedom from discrimination: Patients have the right to receive care without discrimination based on race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, age, disability, or socioeconomic status.
6. Pain management: Patients have the right to appropriate pain assessment and management, including access to palliative and hospice care when appropriate.
7. Refusal of treatment: Patients have the right to refuse any treatment or procedure, even if it may be life-saving, as long as they are competent to make that decision and understand the consequences.
8. Communication and language assistance: Patients have the right to clear, effective communication with their healthcare providers, including access to interpreters or other necessary language assistance services.
9. Respect and dignity: Patients have the right to be treated with respect, dignity, and consideration during all aspects of their care.
10. Complaint resolution: Patients have the right to voice concerns about their care and receive timely responses from healthcare providers or institutions. They also have the right to file complaints with regulatory bodies if necessary.

Orthopedic equipment refers to devices or appliances used in the practice of orthopedics, which is a branch of medicine focused on the correction, support, and prevention of disorders, injuries, or deformities of the skeletal system, including bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, and muscles. These devices can be categorized into various types based on their function and application:

1. Mobility aids: Equipment that helps individuals with impaired mobility to move around more easily, such as walkers, crutches, canes, wheelchairs, and scooters.
2. Immobilization devices: Used to restrict movement of a specific body part to promote healing, prevent further injury, or provide support during rehabilitation, including casts, braces, splints, slings, and collars.
3. Prosthetics: Artificial limbs that replace missing body parts due to amputation, illness, or congenital defects, enabling individuals to perform daily activities and maintain independence.
4. Orthotics: Custom-made or off-the-shelf devices worn inside shoes or on the body to correct foot alignment issues, provide arch support, or alleviate pain in the lower extremities.
5. Rehabilitation equipment: Devices used during physical therapy sessions to improve strength, flexibility, balance, and coordination, such as resistance bands, exercise balls, balance boards, and weight training machines.
6. Surgical instruments: Specialized tools used by orthopedic surgeons during operations to repair fractures, replace joints, or correct deformities, including saws, drills, retractors, and screwdrivers.
7. Diagnostic equipment: Imaging devices that help healthcare professionals assess musculoskeletal conditions, such as X-ray machines, CT scanners, MRI machines, and ultrasound systems.

These various types of orthopedic equipment play a crucial role in the diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, and management of orthopedic disorders and injuries, enhancing patients' quality of life and functional abilities.

The "attitude of health personnel" refers to the overall disposition, behavior, and approach that healthcare professionals exhibit towards their patients or clients. This encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Interpersonal skills: The ability to communicate effectively, listen actively, and build rapport with patients.
2. Professionalism: Adherence to ethical principles, confidentiality, and maintaining a non-judgmental attitude.
3. Compassion and empathy: Showing genuine concern for the patient's well-being and understanding their feelings and experiences.
4. Cultural sensitivity: Respecting and acknowledging the cultural backgrounds, beliefs, and values of patients.
5. Competence: Demonstrating knowledge, skills, and expertise in providing healthcare services.
6. Collaboration: Working together with other healthcare professionals to ensure comprehensive care for the patient.
7. Patient-centeredness: Focusing on the individual needs, preferences, and goals of the patient in the decision-making process.
8. Commitment to continuous learning and improvement: Staying updated with the latest developments in the field and seeking opportunities to enhance one's skills and knowledge.

A positive attitude of health personnel contributes significantly to patient satisfaction, adherence to treatment plans, and overall healthcare outcomes.

Controlled substances are drugs or chemicals that are regulated by governments to control their manufacture, distribution, and use. These substances have the potential for abuse and dependence, and therefore, they are classified into different schedules based on their medical use, abuse potential, and safety profile. The classification and regulation of controlled substances vary by country and jurisdiction, but in the United States, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is responsible for enforcing the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).

The CSA divides controlled substances into five schedules:

1. Schedule I drugs have no currently accepted medical use in the United States, a high potential for abuse, and are not considered safe for use even under medical supervision. Examples include heroin, LSD, marijuana (cannabis), ecstasy (MDMA), and psilocybin.
2. Schedule II drugs have a high potential for abuse, a currently accepted medical use in the United States, or a currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions, and abuse may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence. Examples include oxycodone, hydrocodone, fentanyl, morphine, cocaine, methamphetamine, and amphetamine.
3. Schedule III drugs have a lower potential for abuse than Schedule II drugs, a currently accepted medical use in the United States, and abuse may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence. Examples include buprenorphine, codeine, testosterone, anabolic steroids, and ketamine.
4. Schedule IV drugs have a lower potential for abuse than Schedule III drugs, a currently accepted medical use in the United States, and abuse may lead to limited physical or psychological dependence. Examples include alprazolam, clonazepam, diazepam, lorazepam, tramadol, and zolpidem.
5. Schedule V drugs have a lower potential for abuse than Schedule IV drugs, a currently accepted medical use in the United States, and contain limited quantities of certain narcotics. Examples include cough suppressants containing small amounts of codeine or hydrocodone.

The classification and regulation of controlled substances aim to balance their medical benefits with their potential risks and harms. Healthcare providers who prescribe controlled substances must comply with strict regulations, including maintaining accurate records, using secure storage, and following specific prescribing guidelines. Patients who receive controlled substances must also follow specific rules, such as not sharing or selling their medications and properly disposing of any unused or expired drugs.

I could not find a specific medical definition for "Mother-Child Relations," as it is more commonly studied in fields such as psychology, sociology, and social work. However, I can provide you with some related medical or psychological terms that might help you understand the concept better:

1. Attachment Theory: Developed by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth, attachment theory describes the emotional bond between an infant and their primary caregiver (usually the mother). Secure attachment is crucial for healthy emotional and social development in children.
2. Mother-Infant Interaction: This refers to the reciprocal communication and interaction between a mother and her infant, which includes verbal and non-verbal cues, such as facial expressions, gestures, touch, and vocalizations. Positive and responsive interactions contribute to healthy emotional development and secure attachment.
3. Parent-Child Relationship: A broader term that encompasses the emotional bond, communication patterns, and behaviors between a parent (in this case, the mother) and their child. This relationship significantly influences a child's cognitive, social, and emotional development.
4. Maternal Depression: A mental health condition in which a mother experiences depressive symptoms, such as sadness, hopelessness, or loss of interest in activities, after giving birth (postpartum depression) or at any point during the first year after childbirth (major depressive disorder with peripartum onset). Maternal depression can negatively impact mother-child relations and a child's development.
5. Parenting Styles: Different approaches to raising children, characterized by the degree of demandingness and responsiveness. Four main parenting styles include authoritative (high demandingness, high responsiveness), authoritarian (high demandingness, low responsiveness), permissive (low demandingness, high responsiveness), and neglectful/uninvolved (low demandingness, low responsiveness). These styles can influence mother-child relations and child development.

While not a direct medical definition, these terms highlight the significance of mother-child relations in various aspects of child development and mental health.

The "Sick Role" is a sociological concept that refers to the social position and expectations associated with being ill or sick. It was first introduced by sociologist Talcott Parsons in his 1951 work, "The Social System." According to Parsons, when an individual assumes the sick role, they are exempt from their normal social responsibilities and obligations. However, they are also expected to seek medical help, comply with medical treatment recommendations, and strive to get better and return to their regular social roles as soon as possible.

The sick role involves several key components:
1. The individual is not responsible for their illness and did not cause it intentionally.
2. They are exempt from normal social obligations and responsibilities, such as work or household duties.
3. They must seek medical help and follow the recommended treatment plan.
4. They should strive to get better and return to their regular social roles as soon as possible.

The sick role serves several functions in society, including:
1. Providing a framework for understanding and responding to illness.
2. Encouraging individuals to seek medical help when they are ill.
3. Allowing individuals to take a break from their normal social obligations while they recover.
4. Helping to maintain social order by ensuring that individuals do not abuse the sick role and return to their regular roles as soon as possible.

In the context of healthcare, "policy" refers to a course or principle of action adopted or proposed by an organization or government to guide and determine its decisions, actions, and responses to issues related to the provision, financing, and regulation of health and healthcare services. Health policies are formulated to address various aspects such as access to care, quality of care, cost containment, medical research, public health, and patient safety. They can be established through legislation, regulations, guidelines, protocols, or organizational rules and may be aimed at various stakeholders, including healthcare providers, payers, patients, and the general public.

Child advocacy refers to the act or process of advocating, supporting, or defending the rights and interests of children, particularly those who are vulnerable or at risk due to abuse, neglect, poverty, discrimination, or other challenging circumstances. Child advocacy can take many forms, including:

1. Direct services: Providing support and assistance to individual children and families, such as counseling, case management, legal representation, and medical care.
2. Systems reform: Working to change laws, policies, and practices that affect the lives of children, such as advocating for stronger child abuse reporting laws or better funding for child welfare services.
3. Education and awareness-raising: Providing information and resources to communities, professionals, and policymakers about the needs and rights of children, with the goal of promoting positive attitudes and behaviors towards children and families.
4. Research and evaluation: Conducting studies and evaluations to better understand the effectiveness of child advocacy interventions and to inform policy and practice.

Child advocates may work in a variety of settings, including nonprofit organizations, government agencies, schools, hospitals, and legal clinics. They may also be volunteers or community members who are committed to promoting the well-being of children.

Data collection in the medical context refers to the systematic gathering of information relevant to a specific research question or clinical situation. This process involves identifying and recording data elements, such as demographic characteristics, medical history, physical examination findings, laboratory results, and imaging studies, from various sources including patient interviews, medical records, and diagnostic tests. The data collected is used to support clinical decision-making, inform research hypotheses, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. It is essential that data collection is performed in a standardized and unbiased manner to ensure the validity and reliability of the results.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Uganda" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in East Africa, known officially as the Republic of Uganda. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Incidental findings are diagnoses or conditions that are discovered unintentionally while evaluating a patient for a different condition or symptom. These findings are not related to the primary reason for the medical examination, investigation, or procedure. They can occur in various contexts such as radiology studies, laboratory tests, or physical examinations.

Incidental findings can sometimes lead to further evaluation and management, depending on their nature and potential clinical significance. However, they also pose challenges related to communication, informed consent, and potential patient anxiety or harm. Therefore, it is essential to have clear guidelines for managing incidental findings in clinical practice.

Psychology is not a medical discipline itself, but it is a crucial component in the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of many medical conditions. It is a social science that deals with the scientific study of behavior and mental processes such as perception, cognition, emotion, personality, and motivation. In a medical context, psychology can be applied to help understand how biological, psychological, and social factors interact to influence an individual's health and well-being, as well as their response to illness and treatment. Clinical psychologists often work in healthcare settings to evaluate, diagnose, and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, using various therapeutic interventions based on psychological principles and research.

Conscience is not a medical term, but it is a concept that is often discussed in the context of ethics, psychology, and philosophy. In general, conscience refers to an individual's sense of right and wrong, which guides their behavior and decision-making. It is sometimes described as an inner voice or a moral compass that helps people distinguish between right and wrong actions.

While conscience is not a medical term, there are medical conditions that can affect a person's ability to distinguish between right and wrong or to make ethical decisions. For example, certain neurological conditions, such as frontotemporal dementia, can impair a person's moral judgment and decision-making abilities. Similarly, some mental health disorders, such as psychopathy, may be associated with reduced moral reasoning and empathy, which can affect a person's conscience.

It is worth noting that the concept of conscience is complex and multifaceted, and there is ongoing debate among philosophers, psychologists, and neuroscientists about its nature and origins. Some theories suggest that conscience is a product of socialization and cultural influences, while others propose that it has a more fundamental basis in human biology and evolution.

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

In the context of medicine, risk-taking refers to the decision-making process where an individual or a healthcare provider knowingly engages in an activity or continues a course of treatment despite the potential for negative outcomes or complications. This could include situations where the benefits of the action outweigh the potential risks, or where the risks are accepted as part of the process of providing care.

For example, a patient with a life-threatening illness may choose to undergo a risky surgical procedure because the potential benefits (such as improved quality of life or increased longevity) outweigh the risks (such as complications from the surgery or anesthesia). Similarly, a healthcare provider may prescribe a medication with known side effects because the benefits of the medication for treating the patient's condition are deemed to be greater than the potential risks.

Risk-taking can also refer to behaviors that increase the likelihood of negative health outcomes, such as engaging in high-risk activities like substance abuse or dangerous sexual behavior. In these cases, healthcare providers may work with patients to identify and address the underlying factors contributing to their risky behaviors, such as mental health issues or lack of knowledge about safe practices.

Sexual child abuse is a form of abuse in which a child is engaged in sexual activities or exposed to sexual situations that are inappropriate and harmful for their age. This can include:

1. Sexual contact or intercourse with a child.
2. Exposing a child to pornography or using a child to produce pornographic materials.
3. Engaging in sexual acts in front of a child.
4. Inappropriately touching or fondling a child.
5. Using a child for sexual exploitation, including prostitution.

Sexual child abuse can have serious and long-lasting effects on a child's emotional, psychological, and physical well-being. It is important to report any suspected cases of sexual child abuse to the appropriate authorities immediately.

A surrogate mother is a woman who carries and gives birth to a child for another person or couple, called the intended parents. This can occur through traditional surrogacy, in which the surrogate mother is artificially inseminated with the intended father's sperm and she is genetically related to the child, or gestational surrogacy, in which the embryo created through in vitro fertilization (IVF) using the eggs and sperm of the intended parents or donors is transferred to the surrogate mother's uterus. Surrogacy arrangements are complex and involve legal, ethical, and emotional considerations. It is important for all parties involved to have a clear understanding of the process and to work with experienced professionals in order to ensure a successful outcome.

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) is a US law designed to provide privacy standards to protect patients' medical records and other health information. It sets limits on who can look at and receive your protected health information (PHI), such as doctors, hospitals and healthcare clearinghouses. It also gives patients more control over their health information by setting rules for how it can be used or disclosed. Additionally, HIPAA establishes penalties for violations of the privacy rule.

HIPAA is enforced by the Department of Health and Human Services' Office for Civil Rights (OCR). It applies to covered entities, such as healthcare providers, health plans, and healthcare clearinghouses, that handle protected health information. Business associates of these covered entities, such as claims processing companies, also must comply with HIPAA regulations.

HIPAA is composed of several rules, including the Privacy Rule, Security Rule, Breach Notification Rule, and Enforcement Rule. These rules establish national standards for the protection of certain health information. The Privacy Rule establishes guidelines for how protected health information can be used and disclosed, while the Security Rule sets forth requirements for protecting electronic PHI. The Breach Notification Rule requires covered entities to notify affected individuals, the Secretary of HHS, and in some cases the media, following a breach of unsecured PHI. The Enforcement Rule provides for investigations and penalties for violations of the HIPAA rules.

In summary, HIPAA is a US law that establishes national standards to protect individuals' medical records and personal health information by setting guidelines for how it can be used and disclosed, as well as requirements for protecting electronic PHI. It applies to healthcare providers, health plans, and healthcare clearinghouses, as well as their business associates.

A condom is a thin sheath that covers the penis during sexual intercourse. It is made of materials such as latex, polyurethane, or lambskin and is used as a barrier method to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Condoms work by collecting semen when the man ejaculates, preventing it from entering the woman's body. They come in various sizes, shapes, textures, and flavors to suit individual preferences. It is important to use condoms correctly and consistently to maximize their effectiveness.

In medical and legal contexts, a minor is a person who has not yet reached the age of majority. The age of majority varies depending on the jurisdiction but is generally 18 or 21 years old. Minors are considered to be legally incompetent to make certain decisions for themselves, such as consenting to medical treatment or signing a contract. Therefore, in healthcare settings, minors typically require the consent of a parent or guardian before receiving medical care, except in specific circumstances where the minor is deemed mature enough to make their own decisions (e.g., emancipated minors).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Midwestern United States" is not a term that has a medical definition. The Midwestern United States, also known as the American Heartland or simply the Midwest, is a region of the United States that includes 12 states in the north central part of the country. It's a geographical and cultural region, not a medical one.

The term "Midwest" was reportedly first used in 1895 by journalist and historian Frederick Jackson Turner. The states included in this region can vary based on different definitions, but it generally includes Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

If you have any questions related to medical topics, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

"Focus groups" is a term from the field of social science research, rather than medicine. It does not have a specific medical definition. However, focus groups are sometimes used in medical research to gather data and insights from a small group of people on a specific topic or product. This can include gathering feedback on patient experiences, testing prototypes of medical devices or treatments, or exploring attitudes and perceptions related to health issues. The goal is to gain a deeper understanding of the perspectives and needs of the target population through facilitated group discussion.

Psychological stress is the response of an individual's mind and body to challenging or demanding situations. It can be defined as a state of emotional and physical tension resulting from adversity, demand, or change. This response can involve a variety of symptoms, including emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components.

Emotional responses may include feelings of anxiety, fear, anger, sadness, or frustration. Cognitive responses might involve difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, or negative thinking patterns. Behaviorally, psychological stress can lead to changes in appetite, sleep patterns, social interactions, and substance use. Physiologically, the body's "fight-or-flight" response is activated, leading to increased heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and other symptoms.

Psychological stress can be caused by a wide range of factors, including work or school demands, financial problems, relationship issues, traumatic events, chronic illness, and major life changes. It's important to note that what causes stress in one person may not cause stress in another, as individual perceptions and coping mechanisms play a significant role.

Chronic psychological stress can have negative effects on both mental and physical health, increasing the risk of conditions such as anxiety disorders, depression, heart disease, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, it's essential to identify sources of stress and develop effective coping strategies to manage and reduce its impact.

A tissue donor is an individual who has agreed to allow organs and tissues to be removed from their body after death for the purpose of transplantation to restore the health or save the life of another person. The tissues that can be donated include corneas, heart valves, skin, bone, tendons, ligaments, veins, and cartilage. These tissues can enhance the quality of life for many recipients and are often used in reconstructive surgeries. It is important to note that tissue donation does not interfere with an open casket funeral or other cultural or religious practices related to death and grieving.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "South Africa" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located at the southernmost tip of the African continent. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!

Self-help groups (SHGs) are peer-led support groups that provide a structured, safe, and confidential environment for individuals who share similar experiences or conditions to come together and offer each other emotional, social, and practical support. SHGs can be focused on various health issues such as mental illness, addiction, chronic diseases, or any personal challenges. The members of these groups share their experiences, provide mutual aid, education, and empowerment to cope with their situations effectively. They follow a common self-help philosophy that emphasizes the importance of personal responsibility, self-advocacy, and mutual respect in the recovery process. SHGs can complement professional medical or therapeutic treatments but are not intended to replace them.

The Journal Impact Factor (JIF) is a measure of the frequency with which the "average article" in a journal has been cited in a particular year. It is calculated by dividing the number of current year citations to the source items published in that journal during the previous two years. For example, if a journal has an Impact Factor of 3 in 2020, that means articles published in 2018 and 2019 were cited 3 times on average in 2020. It is used to gauge the importance or rank of a journal by comparing the times it's articles are cited relative to other journals in the field. However, it has been criticized for various limitations such as being manipulated by editors and not reflecting the quality of individual articles.

In medical terms, a patient is an individual who receives medical attention, treatment, or care from a healthcare professional or provider. This could be in the context of seeking help for a specific health concern, receiving ongoing management for a chronic condition, or being under observation as part of preventative healthcare. The term "patient" implies a level of trust and vulnerability, where the individual places their health and well-being in the hands of a medical expert. It's important to note that patients have rights and responsibilities too, including informed consent, confidentiality, and active participation in their own care.

An Ethics Committee for Research, also known as an Institutional Review Board (IRB), is a group that has been formally designated to review, approve, monitor, and revise biomedical and behavioral research involving humans. The purpose of the committee is to ensure that the rights and welfare of the participants are protected and that the risks involved in the research are minimized and reasonable in relation to the anticipated benefits.

The committee typically includes members with various backgrounds, including scientists, non-scientists, and community members. They review the research protocol, informed consent documents, and any other relevant materials to ensure that they meet ethical standards and regulations. The committee also monitors the progress of the research to ensure that it continues to be conducted in an ethical manner.

The role of ethics committees for research is critical in protecting human subjects from harm and ensuring that research is conducted with integrity, respect, and transparency.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "negotiating" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Negotiation is a process in which different parties come together to reach a mutually satisfactory agreement on a particular matter. It is often used in various contexts such as business, politics, and law, but it is not typically used in the context of medical terminology.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or healthcare, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you!

Patient satisfaction is a concept in healthcare quality measurement that reflects the patient's perspective and evaluates their experience with the healthcare services they have received. It is a multidimensional construct that includes various aspects such as interpersonal mannerisms of healthcare providers, technical competence, accessibility, timeliness, comfort, and communication.

Patient satisfaction is typically measured through standardized surveys or questionnaires that ask patients to rate their experiences on various aspects of care. The results are often used to assess the quality of care provided by healthcare organizations, identify areas for improvement, and inform policy decisions. However, it's important to note that patient satisfaction is just one aspect of healthcare quality and should be considered alongside other measures such as clinical outcomes and patient safety.

Medical oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer using systemic medications, including chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. Medical oncologists are specialized physicians who manage cancer patients throughout their illness, from diagnosis to survivorship or end-of-life care. They work closely with other healthcare professionals, such as surgeons, radiation oncologists, radiologists, pathologists, and nurses, to provide comprehensive cancer care for their patients. The primary goal of medical oncology is to improve the quality of life and overall survival of cancer patients while minimizing side effects and toxicities associated with cancer treatments.

Medical societies are professional organizations composed of physicians, surgeons, and other healthcare professionals who share a common purpose of promoting medical research, education, and patient care. These societies can focus on specific medical specialties, such as the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) for cancer specialists or the American College of Surgeons (ACS) for surgeons. They may also address broader issues related to healthcare policy, advocacy, and ethics. Medical societies often provide resources for continuing medical education, publish scientific journals, establish clinical practice guidelines, and offer networking opportunities for members.

Government regulation in the context of medicine refers to the rules, guidelines, and laws established by government agencies to control, monitor, and standardize various aspects of healthcare. These regulations are designed to protect patients, promote public health, ensure quality of care, and regulate the healthcare industry. Examples of government regulation in medicine include:

1. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations for drug approval, medical device clearance, and food safety.
2. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) regulations for healthcare reimbursement, quality measures, and program eligibility.
3. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations for workplace safety in healthcare settings.
4. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations to minimize environmental impacts from healthcare facilities and pharmaceutical manufacturing.
5. State medical boards' regulations for licensing, disciplining, and monitoring physicians and other healthcare professionals.
6. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations for patient privacy and data security.
7. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) regulations for laboratory testing quality and standards.
8. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) regulations to prevent deceptive or unfair trade practices in healthcare marketing and advertising.
9. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) guidelines for evidence-based practice and patient safety.
10. Public Health Service Act (PHSA) regulations related to infectious diseases, bioterrorism preparedness, and substance abuse treatment.

Beneficence is a principle in medical ethics that means to act in the best interest of the patient. It involves providing benefits and balancing benefits against risks and harms. Healthcare providers are expected to promote well-being, prevent harm, and remove harmful conditions for their patients. Beneficence also includes considerations such as respecting autonomy, being honest and transparent, and ensuring fairness and justice in the provision of healthcare.

Consent forms are documents used in medical settings to obtain a patient's voluntary and informed agreement to undergo a specific medical procedure, treatment, or participate in research. These forms typically outline the nature of the proposed intervention, its purpose, risks, benefits, alternatives, and any potential complications or side effects. The patient is provided with sufficient time and opportunity to ask questions, seek clarification, and discuss concerns with their healthcare provider before making a decision. By signing the consent form, the patient acknowledges that they have been fully informed about the proposed intervention and understand its implications. Consent forms serve as legal records of the patient's authorization for the medical procedure or treatment, protecting both the patient and the healthcare provider in case of any disputes or complications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "parents" is not a term that has a medical definition. In general usage, parents are the two people (typically) who bring up and care for a child, or who have given birth to or adopted a child. They are responsible for the child's housing, food, clothing, education, and medical care. Is there a specific medical or healthcare-related context you had in mind? I would be happy to help further if I can.

"Family relations" is a broad term that refers to the various interactions, roles, and relationships between members of a family unit. This can include the dynamics between parents and children, siblings, extended family members, and any other individuals considered part of the family.

Family relations can be influenced by a variety of factors, including cultural background, individual personalities, life experiences, and family structure. These relationships can have a significant impact on an individual's emotional, social, and psychological development and well-being.

Positive family relations are characterized by open communication, mutual respect, support, and affection. On the other hand, negative family relations can be marked by conflict, hostility, neglect, and abuse. It is important to note that family relations can be complex and multifaceted, with both positive and negative aspects coexisting within the same family system.

In a medical context, understanding family relations can be crucial for healthcare providers in order to provide effective care and support to their patients. This may involve assessing family dynamics and communication patterns, as well as providing education and resources to help families navigate any challenges or conflicts that may arise.

Physician Incentive Plans (PIPs) are programs that provide financial rewards or incentives to physicians for achieving specific goals or targets related to the quality, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness of the healthcare services they deliver. These plans are designed to align the financial interests of physicians with the objectives of improving patient care, reducing unnecessary healthcare costs, and promoting evidence-based medicine.

PIPs can be tied to a variety of performance metrics, such as:

1. Clinical outcomes: Physicians may receive incentives for achieving better patient outcomes, such as reduced readmissions, improved disease management, and higher patient satisfaction scores.
2. Process measures: Incentives can be linked to the adherence to evidence-based guidelines, best practices, and standardized care protocols.
3. Efficiency and cost reduction: Physicians may receive financial rewards for reducing unnecessary tests, procedures, and hospitalizations while maintaining high-quality care.
4. Practice transformation: PIPs can encourage physicians to adopt new technologies, participate in quality improvement initiatives, and engage in continuous learning and professional development activities.

It is important to note that PIPs should be designed carefully to avoid unintended consequences, such as overemphasis on financial incentives at the expense of patient care or cherry-picking healthier patients to improve performance metrics. Transparent communication, shared decision-making, and regular evaluation of the plans are crucial for ensuring their success and sustainability.

Consumer advocacy in a medical context refers to the process of representing and supporting the rights and interests of patients and healthcare consumers. Consumer advocates work to ensure that individuals receive safe, effective, and affordable healthcare services, and that they are empowered to make informed decisions about their own care. This may involve promoting transparency and accountability in the healthcare system, advocating for policies that protect patient rights, and providing education and support to help consumers navigate the complex world of healthcare. Consumer advocacy can take many forms, including individual case advocacy, class action lawsuits, policy reform efforts, and public awareness campaigns.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Los Angeles" is not a medical term or concept. It is a city in the state of California, USA. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them!

Heterosexuality is a sexual orientation where an individual is primarily attracted to, or forms romantic or sexual relationships with, people of the opposite sex or gender. This term is often used in contrast to homosexuality (attraction to the same sex) and bisexuality (attraction to both sexes). It's important to note that all sexual orientations are normal and healthy expressions of human sexuality.

A medical definition of "Manuscripts as Topic" refers to the study and analysis of written documents that report original research or scholarly work in the field of medicine. This can include research articles, review articles, case reports, and other types of manuscripts that are submitted for publication in medical journals. The study of manuscripts as a topic may involve analyzing their content, structure, and quality, as well as evaluating the peer-review process and editorial policies of medical journals. Additionally, it can also cover the historical development of medical knowledge and practices through the examination of ancient and medieval medical manuscripts.

Peer review in the context of research refers to the evaluation of scientific, academic, or professional work by others working in the same field. The purpose of peer review is to ensure that the research is rigorous, valid, and relevant to the field. In a peer-review process, experts in the relevant field assess the research article, report, or other type of scholarly work for its accuracy, quality, and significance before it is published or presented at a conference.

The peer-review process typically involves several stages:

1. Submission: The author(s) submit their manuscript to a journal, conference, or other publication venue.
2. Assignment: The editor of the publication assigns the manuscript to one or more reviewers who are experts in the field.
3. Review: The reviewers evaluate the manuscript based on criteria such as originality, methodology, data analysis, interpretation of results, and contribution to the field. They provide feedback and recommendations to the editor.
4. Decision: Based on the feedback from the reviewers, the editor makes a decision about whether to accept, reject, or request revisions to the manuscript.
5. Revision: If the manuscript is rejected or requires revisions, the author(s) may have an opportunity to revise and resubmit the manuscript for further consideration.

Peer review is a critical component of the scientific process, as it helps ensure that research is held to high standards of quality and integrity. It also provides a mechanism for identifying and correcting errors or weaknesses in research before it is published or disseminated widely.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric condition that can occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event such as a natural disaster, serious accident, war combat, rape, or violent personal assault. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), PTSD is characterized by the following symptoms, which must last for more than one month:

1. Intrusion symptoms: These include distressing memories, nightmares, flashbacks, or intense psychological distress or reactivity to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event.
2. Avoidance symptoms: Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event, including thoughts, feelings, conversations, activities, places, or people.
3. Negative alterations in cognitions and mood: This includes negative beliefs about oneself, others, or the world; distorted blame of self or others for causing the trauma; persistent negative emotional state; decreased interest in significant activities; and feelings of detachment or estrangement from others.
4. Alterations in arousal and reactivity: This includes irritable behavior and angry outbursts, reckless or self-destructive behavior, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle response, problems with concentration, and sleep disturbance.
5. Duration of symptoms: The symptoms must last for more than one month.
6. Functional significance: The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

It is essential to note that PTSD can occur at any age and can be accompanied by various physical and mental health problems, such as depression, substance abuse, memory problems, and other difficulties in cognition. Appropriate treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, can significantly improve the symptoms and overall quality of life for individuals with PTSD.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Mothers" is a term that refers to individuals who have given birth to and raised children. It is not a medical term with a specific definition. If you are referring to a different word or term, please clarify so I can provide a more accurate response.

I couldn't find a medical definition specifically for "professional-family relations," as it is more commonly referred to as "professional-patient relationship" in the medical field. However, I can provide you with the definition of professional-patient relationship:

A professional-patient relationship is a formal relationship between a healthcare provider and a patient, characterized by trust, honesty, and mutual respect. The healthcare provider has a duty to act in the best interest of the patient, providing competent and ethical care, while maintaining appropriate boundaries and confidentiality. Effective communication, shared decision-making, and informed consent are essential components of this relationship.

Family members may also be involved in the professional-patient relationship, particularly when the patient is unable to make decisions for themselves or when family involvement is necessary for the patient's care. In these cases, healthcare providers must communicate clearly and respectfully with family members while still maintaining the primary focus on the patient's needs and autonomy.

"Rate setting and review" is not a commonly used medical term with a specific definition in the field. However, I can provide you with information about what these terms might refer to in a broader healthcare context:

Rate setting generally refers to the process of determining the payment rates for healthcare services, programs, or products. This could involve setting reimbursement rates for medical procedures, medications, or durable medical equipment under government-funded health insurance programs like Medicare and Medicaid, or in the private insurance sector. Rate setting can be influenced by various factors, including the cost of providing care, resource utilization, quality metrics, and market competition.

Review, in this context, typically refers to the process of evaluating and assessing healthcare services, programs, or products to ensure their quality, effectiveness, and efficiency. This could involve reviewing medical records, clinical outcomes, and financial data to determine if the care provided is consistent with evidence-based guidelines, industry best practices, and regulatory requirements. Regular reviews are essential for maintaining high standards of care, identifying areas for improvement, and ensuring that resources are allocated efficiently.

Together, "rate setting and review" may refer to a comprehensive approach to managing healthcare costs and quality by establishing appropriate payment rates while continuously monitoring and improving the effectiveness and efficiency of healthcare services.

Sexuality is a multidimensional aspect of human life, which includes biological, psychological, social, and cultural dimensions. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), sexuality is "a central aspect of being human throughout life encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy and reproduction." It involves a person's capacity for sexual feelings, their emotional and romantic attraction to other people, and their self-concept as a sexual being. Sexuality can also refer to a person's sense of identity based on their sex and gender, as well as their engagement in sexual activity or behavior.

It is important to note that sexuality is a normal and natural part of human development and experience, and it is influenced by a variety of factors, including biological, psychological, social, cultural, and environmental factors. Everyone has the right to explore and express their sexuality in a responsible and consensual manner, free from coercion, discrimination, and violence.

Complementary therapies refer to a group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medicine. They are often used in conjunction with conventional treatments and are intended to facilitate the physical and emotional well-being of the patient. Complementary therapies can include a wide range of interventions such as acupuncture, chiropractic care, massage therapy, herbal medicine, yoga, meditation, guided imagery, hypnotherapy, and homeopathy, among others. It is important to note that while some complementary therapies have been shown to be effective for certain conditions, others lack scientific evidence of their safety and efficacy. Therefore, it is always recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new complementary therapy.

I am not a medical doctor, but I can provide you with some information on this topic. Self-concept is more commonly discussed in psychology than in medicine, but it still has relevance to understanding individual experiences and behaviors in health and illness.

Self-concept refers to an individual's perception, beliefs, and attitudes about themselves, encompassing various dimensions such as:

1. Physical self (how one perceives their physical appearance, abilities, and health)
2. Social self (how one perceives their relationships with others, social roles, and status)
3. Psychological or personal self (how one perceives their personality traits, values, and beliefs)

Self-concept can influence how people view their own health, cope with illness, and engage in health behaviors. For example, a positive self-concept may contribute to better adherence to treatment plans and healthier lifestyle choices, while negative self-concepts might lead to poorer health outcomes due to decreased motivation or self-efficacy.

Understanding an individual's self-concept can help healthcare professionals tailor their communication style, recommendations, and interventions to better meet the patient's needs and preferences.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Moral Obligations" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. The term "moral obligations" is more related to ethics and philosophy, referring to the duties or actions that are considered right or wrong based on a set of moral principles or values.

However, in a broader sense, healthcare professionals may use the term "moral obligations" to refer to their professional responsibility and commitment to providing compassionate, respectful, and high-quality care to all patients, regardless of their background, beliefs, or circumstances. This concept is closely related to medical ethics and professionalism, which provide guidelines for ethical decision-making in clinical practice.

Domestic violence is defined by the World Health Organization as:

"...a pattern of behavior in any relationship that is used to gain or maintain power and control over an intimate partner. Abusive behaviors can include physical, sexual, emotional, economic, and psychological actions or threats of actions that influence another person. This includes any behaviors that intimidate, manipulate, humiliate, isolate, frighten, terrorize, coerce, threaten, blame, hurt, injure, or wound someone."

It's important to note that domestic violence can occur in both heterosexual and same-sex relationships, and it can affect people of any race, ethnicity, age, economic status, or level of education. Domestic violence is a pervasive global health problem that affects millions of individuals and families worldwide.

"Safe sex" is a term used to describe sexual activities that reduce the risk of transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies. It typically involves the use of protective measures, such as condoms, dental dams, or other barriers, during sexual contact.

However, it's important to note that "safe" doesn't mean "risk-free." Even with protection, there is still a chance, though significantly reduced, of STI transmission or pregnancy. The term "safer sex" is sometimes used to more accurately reflect this concept.

Furthermore, regular testing for STIs and open communication with sexual partners about sexual health are also important components of safe sex practices.

Sex offenses are criminal acts that involve sexual misconduct or non-consensual sexual contact with another person. These crimes can range from non-contact offenses such as exhibitionism and voyeurism, to forcible rape and sexual assault. Sex offenses also include the crime of sexual abuse, which involves engaging in sexual contact with a minor or vulnerable adult who is unable to give consent due to age, disability, or incapacitation.

The legal definition of sex offenses varies by jurisdiction, but generally includes any form of unwanted sexual touching, forced penetration, or exploitation of another person for sexual gratification without their consent. In addition, some sex offenses may involve the production, distribution, or possession of child pornography, as well as other forms of sexual exploitation.

Those convicted of sex offenses often face severe penalties, including lengthy prison sentences, fines, and mandatory registration as a sex offender. The stigma associated with being labeled a sex offender can also have long-lasting consequences on an individual's personal and professional life, making it difficult to find employment or housing.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "social values" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in a broader social context, "social values" refer to the beliefs, principles, and standards that a group or society holds in regard to what is considered important, desirable, or acceptable. These values can influence attitudes, behaviors, and decisions related to health and healthcare. They may also impact medical research, policy-making, and patient care.

Directed tissue donation is the process by which a person designates a specific individual as the recipient of their donated tissues, such as corneas, heart valves, or skin, after their death. This allows the donor to make a direct and meaningful impact on the life of someone they know or are related to who may be in need of a tissue transplant. It is important to note that the final determination of whether the tissues are suitable for transplantation will be made by medical professionals at the time of donation, taking into account various factors such as the donor's medical history and cause of death. Directed tissue donation can provide comfort and solace to both the donor and their loved ones, knowing that they have been able to help someone in need even after their passing.

Vertical transmission of infectious diseases refers to the spread of an infection from an infected mother to her offspring during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. This mode of transmission can occur through several pathways:

1. Transplacental transmission: The infection crosses the placenta and reaches the fetus while it is still in the womb. Examples include HIV, syphilis, and toxoplasmosis.
2. Intrauterine infection: The mother's infection causes direct damage to the developing fetus or its surrounding tissues, leading to complications such as congenital defects. Examples include rubella and cytomegalovirus (CMV).
3. Perinatal transmission: This occurs during childbirth when the infant comes into contact with the mother's infected genital tract or bodily fluids. Examples include group B streptococcus, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and hepatitis B.
4. Postnatal transmission: This occurs after birth, often through breastfeeding, when the infant ingests infected milk or comes into contact with the mother's contaminated bodily fluids. Examples include HIV and HTLV-I (human T-lymphotropic virus type I).

Vertical transmission is a significant concern in public health, as it can lead to severe complications, congenital disabilities, or even death in newborns. Preventive measures, such as prenatal screening, vaccination, and antimicrobial treatment, are crucial for reducing the risk of vertical transmission and ensuring better outcomes for both mothers and their offspring.

A caregiver is an individual who provides assistance and support to another person who is unable to meet their own needs for activities of daily living due to illness, disability, frailty, or other reasons. Caregiving can take many forms, including providing physical care, emotional support, managing medications, assisting with mobility, and helping with household tasks and errands. Caregivers may be family members, friends, or professional providers, and the level of care they provide can range from a few hours a week to round-the-clock assistance. In medical contexts, caregivers are often referred to as informal or family caregivers when they are unpaid relatives or friends, and professional or paid caregivers when they are hired to provide care.

Institutional ethics refers to the ethical principles, guidelines, and practices that are established and implemented within organizations or institutions, particularly those involved in healthcare, research, and other fields where ethical considerations are paramount. Institutional ethics committees (IECs) or institutional review boards (IRBs) are often established to oversee and ensure the ethical conduct of research, clinical trials, and other activities within the institution.

Institutional ethics committees typically consist of a multidisciplinary group of individuals who represent various stakeholders, including healthcare professionals, researchers, community members, and ethicists. The committee's role is to review and approve proposed research studies, ensure that they adhere to ethical guidelines and regulations, protect the rights and welfare of study participants, and monitor ongoing research to identify and address any ethical concerns that may arise during the course of the study.

Institutional ethics also encompasses broader organizational values, policies, and practices that promote ethical behavior and decision-making within the institution. This includes developing and implementing codes of conduct, providing education and training on ethical issues, fostering a culture of transparency and accountability, and promoting open communication and dialogue around ethical concerns.

Overall, institutional ethics plays a critical role in ensuring that organizations and institutions operate in an ethically responsible manner, promote the well-being of their stakeholders, and maintain public trust and confidence.

"Battered Women" is a term used to describe women who have experienced repeated physical, emotional, sexual, or psychological abuse at the hands of an intimate partner. This pattern of behavior is often characterized by a power imbalance in the relationship, with the abuser using various tactics to control and intimidate the victim.

The term "battered" implies that the woman has been subjected to ongoing and severe violence, which can include punching, kicking, choking, burning, or use of weapons. Emotional abuse may involve threats, humiliation, isolation, or manipulation.

Battered women often experience a range of physical, emotional, and psychological symptoms as a result of the abuse, including anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and chronic pain. They may also face significant barriers to seeking help, such as fear of retaliation from their abuser, shame, or lack of resources.

It is important to note that anyone can be a victim of domestic violence, regardless of gender, age, race, or socioeconomic status. However, women are disproportionately affected by intimate partner violence, and the term "battered women" is often used to describe this specific population.

Medication adherence, also known as medication compliance, refers to the degree or extent of conformity to a treatment regimen as prescribed by a healthcare provider. This includes taking medications at the right time, in the correct dosage, and for the designated duration. Poor medication adherence can lead to worsening health conditions, increased hospitalizations, and higher healthcare costs.

BRCA2 is a specific gene that provides instructions for making a protein that helps suppress the growth of cells and plays a crucial role in repairing damaged DNA. Mutations in the BRCA2 gene are known to significantly increase the risk of developing breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and several other types of cancer.

The BRCA2 protein is involved in the process of homologous recombination, which is a type of DNA repair that occurs during cell division. When DNA is damaged, this protein helps to fix the damage by finding a similar sequence on a sister chromatid (a copy of the chromosome) and using it as a template to accurately repair the break.

If the BRCA2 gene is mutated and cannot produce a functional protein, then the cell may not be able to repair damaged DNA effectively. Over time, this can lead to an increased risk of developing cancer due to the accumulation of genetic alterations that cause cells to grow and divide uncontrollably.

It's worth noting that while mutations in the BRCA2 gene are associated with an increased risk of cancer, not everyone who has a mutation will develop cancer. However, those who do develop cancer tend to have an earlier onset and more aggressive form of the disease. Genetic testing can be used to identify mutations in the BRCA2 gene, which can help inform medical management and screening recommendations for individuals and their families.

'Pregnant women' refers to female individuals who have conceived and are in the process of carrying a developing fetus inside their womb (uterus) until childbirth. This state is typically marked by various physiological changes, including hormonal fluctuations, weight gain, and growth of the uterus and breasts, among others. Pregnancy usually lasts for about 40 weeks, starting from the first day of the woman's last menstrual period (LMP) and is divided into three trimesters. Each trimester is characterized by different developmental milestones in the fetus. Regular prenatal care is essential to monitor the health and wellbeing of both the mother and the developing fetus, and to address any potential complications that may arise during pregnancy.

Depression is a mood disorder that is characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities. It can also cause significant changes in sleep, appetite, energy level, concentration, and behavior. Depression can interfere with daily life and normal functioning, and it can increase the risk of suicide and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of depression is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. There are several types of depression, including major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder, postpartum depression, and seasonal affective disorder. Treatment for depression typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy.

In a medical context, awareness generally refers to the state of being conscious or cognizant of something. This can include being aware of one's own thoughts, feelings, and experiences, as well as being aware of external events or sensations.

For example, a person who is awake and alert is said to have full awareness, while someone who is in a coma or under general anesthesia may be described as having reduced or absent awareness. Similarly, a person with dementia or Alzheimer's disease may have impaired awareness of their surroundings or of their own memory and cognitive abilities.

In some cases, awareness may also refer to the process of becoming informed or educated about a particular health condition or medical treatment. For example, a patient may be encouraged to increase their awareness of heart disease risk factors or of the potential side effects of a medication. Overall, awareness involves a deep understanding and perception of oneself and one's environment.

Embryonic stem cells are a type of pluripotent stem cell that are derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, which is a very early-stage embryo. These cells have the ability to differentiate into any cell type in the body, making them a promising area of research for regenerative medicine and the study of human development and disease. Embryonic stem cells are typically obtained from surplus embryos created during in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures, with the consent of the donors. The use of embryonic stem cells is a controversial issue due to ethical concerns surrounding the destruction of human embryos.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

A physician is a healthcare professional who practices medicine, providing medical care and treatment to patients. Physicians may specialize in various fields of medicine, such as internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, psychiatry, or radiology, among others. They are responsible for diagnosing and treating illnesses, injuries, and disorders; prescribing medications; ordering and interpreting diagnostic tests; providing counseling and education to patients; and collaborating with other healthcare professionals to provide comprehensive care. Physicians may work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, private practices, and academic medical centers. To become a physician, one must complete a Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) degree program and pass licensing exams to practice medicine in their state.

... may refer to: Disclosure (The Gathering album), 2012 Disclosure (band), a UK-based garage/electronic duo Disclosure ... Full disclosure (disambiguation) All pages with titles containing Disclosure Disclosure and Barring Service, a body of the Home ... "Disclosure" (Stargate SG-1), an episode of Stargate SG-1 CBC News: Disclosure, a television newsmagazine series in Canada ... which may require disclosure This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Disclosure. If an internal link ...
... differs from reactive disclosure, as reactive disclosure occurs when a request is made, while proactive ... Proactive disclosure has also been referred to as stealing thunder, active disclosure in the United States and suo moto ... "Proactive Disclosure - Canada.ca". www.canada.ca. Retrieved 2016-11-28. Disclosure, Government of Canada, Treasury Board of ... Many consider proactive disclosure and the ability to have access to information as a way to watch over those in power within ...
"Michael Crichton interview on "Disclosure" (1994)". YouTube. "Michael Crichton interview on "Disclosure" (1994)". YouTube. " ... Disclosure is a novel by Michael Crichton, his ninth under his own name and nineteenth overall, and published in 1994. The ... In 1994, Disclosure, a film adaptation of the novel was released. It starred Demi Moore, Michael Douglas, Donald Sutherland and ... The New York Times's Christopher Lehmann-Haupt said of Disclosure that it is: an elaborate provocation of rage in which a ...
"Basic disclosure - mygov.scot". Disclosure Scotland. Retrieved 26 January 2017. "The PVG Scheme". Disclosure Scotland. ... Disclosure Scotland currently offers a range of products, starting with Basic Disclosures but continuing on to Standard and ... Disclosure Scotland also operates the national barring service in Scotland, investigating those with a known history of harm in ... Examples of the latter are a new mandatory PVG Scheme for those in regulated roles, a new focus on disclosure for those holding ...
Emotional disclosures are also shown to foster intimacy more than factual disclosures. Factual disclosures reveal facts and ... where self-esteem is enhanced by a partner's disclosures. In men, self-disclosure and the level of disclosure they perceive ... and prompt disclosures (perhaps with humor) usually facilitate disclosures from their children Reciprocal disclosure: Children ... disclosure by one leads to disclosure by the other. The modeling hypothesis suggests that the client will model the disclosures ...
... of Trade Secrets by Ivan Hoffman The Inevitable Disclosure Doctrine - A Necessary And Precise Tool For ... Inevitable disclosure is a legal doctrine through which an employer can claim trade secret to enjoin a former employee from ... The inevitable-disclosure doctrine is one's means in demonstrating a revelation of trade secrets, and some have recently found ... However, because it also rests on a prediction about a future harm, inevitable disclosure also is in tension with the general ...
The Court found that these disclosures were not confidential and therefore constituted public disclosures that compromised the ... The public disclosure bar is one of the bars established in section 102 (b): "(b) the invention was patented or described in a ... A public disclosure is any non-confidential communication which an inventor or invention owner makes to one or more members of ... A further disclosure occurred about a month later when, in the carpark of the Metropolitan mine, Mr Thompson demonstrated his ...
"Boiler Room: Disclosure in Shanghai, May 1, 2016 (DJ Mix) by Disclosure on Apple Music". Apple Music. Retrieved 6 March 2021. " ... "Disclosure: DJ - Kicks (DJ Mix) by Disclosure on Apple Music". Apple Music. Retrieved 7 November 2021. Peak chart positions for ... "Boiler Room: Disclosure, Streaming From Isolation, Apr 10, 2020 (DJ Mix) by Disclosure on Apple Music". Apple Music. Retrieved ... "Ecstasy - EP by Disclosure". Apple Music. Retrieved 28 February 2020. DJ Mag Staff (20 August 2021). "Disclosure release new EP ...
In the legal system of the United States, a Brady disclosure consists of exculpatory or impeaching information and evidence ... In California, there is a carefully prescribed procedure governing such request, and making disclosure without an order is a ... to favor disclosure over concealment. Conformity with Brady is a continuing obligation of prosecutors. Some prosecuting ... must be disclosed because its disclosure would create a reasonable probability of changing the outcome of the proceeding. The ...
... then the disclosure would constitute selective disclosure. Insider trading (Articles lacking sources from December 2013, All ... Selective disclosure is a situation when a publicly traded company discloses material information to a single person, or a ... An example of a selective disclosure could go as follows: A company insider tells a small group of Wall Street analysts that ... A problem with selective disclosure that the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) sought to eliminate with Regulation ...
An invention disclosure, or invention disclosure report, is a confidential document written by a scientist or engineer for use ... Inventor's notebook Lab notebook Electronic lab notebook Laboratory information management system LEDES invention disclosure ...
... is the second compilation album by the American punk rock band Pinhead Gunpowder. It was released on ... "Pinhead Gunpowder - Compulsive Disclosure". Punknews.org. Retrieved December 18, 2022. Allmusic review v t e (Articles with ... Compulsive Disclosure was re-released on CD and vinyl through Recess Records on February 12, 2010, with two unreleased tracks ...
Disclosure widget Chunking (writing) Experience, World Leaders in Research-Based User. "Progressive Disclosure". Nielsen Norman ... Progressive disclosure is an interaction design pattern used to make applications easier to learn and less error-prone. It does ... cite web}}: ,first= has generic name (help) UXPin (2023-03-13). "What is Progressive Disclosure? Show & Hide the Right ... progressive disclosure is used by modern theme park designers. Long waiting lines for rides can scare away visitors, so only a ...
... "reflective disclosure" after Martin Heidegger's insights into the phenomenon of world disclosure. He also argues that social ... Reflective disclosure is a model of social criticism proposed and developed by philosopher Nikolas Kompridis. It is partly ... In his book Critique and Disclosure: Critical Theory between Past and Future, Kompridis describes a set of heterogeneous social ... Kompridis, Nikolas (2006). Critique and disclosure: Critical theory between past and future. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN ...
Look up full disclosure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Full disclosure or Full Disclosure may refer to: Full disclosure ( ... "Full Disclosure", a song by Fugazi from their 2001 album The Argument "Full Disclosure (Part 1)" and "Full Disclosure (Part 2 ... "Full Disclosure" (The West Wing), an episode of the TV series The West Wing "Full Disclosure" (Alias episode), an episode of ... "Full Disclosure" (Girls), an episode of the TV series Girls Full Disclosure (book), 2018 memoir by Stormy Daniels Full ...
A disclosure widget, expander, or disclosure triangle is a graphical control element that is used to show or hide a collection ... The disclosure widget may be expanded or collapsed by the user; when this occurs, the containing window may be expanded to ... Some user interface designers call this widget a "norgie", or "twistie". Code folding Progressive disclosure "Modify "Wiki" and ... Some disclosure widgets can appear as a plus button when collapsed and a minus button when expanded. In some implementations, ...
Whereas first-order disclosure involves an implicit, unconscious and largely passive relation to meaning, reflective disclosure ... or first-order disclosure. However, this so-called first-order disclosure is not fixed, as it can vary across historical time ... Critique and Disclosure (MIT Press, 2006), 254-255. See also "The test of disclosure" in the same volume, 139-146. Nikolas ... in Critique and Disclosure (MIT Press, 2006), 119." "[Immanent] critique and reflective disclosure are practically ...
... is carried out by many companies, although the extent and type of voluntary disclosure differs by ... voluntary disclosures, and that managers have unique disclosure styles related to their personal backgrounds including their ... Voluntary disclosure is also affected by shareholder demands; for example 60 percent of the companies on the S&P 100 adopted ... Voluntary disclosure has also been identified as an important area in financial reporting research. There are links between ...
"Disclosure on disco, Sting and their new romantic parents , Music". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 November 2015. "Disclosure: The ... "Caracal (Deluxe) by Disclosure on iTunes". iTunes.apple.com. Retrieved 15 September 2015. "Instagram post by Disclosure • Feb 8 ... Disclosure's song "When a Fire Starts to Burn" was used in the sixth episode of the first season of The 100. Following the ... "Disclosure on Instagram: "Hello world! Sorry it's been a while this time.. We have been missing you all immensely, so we wanted ...
Closed adoption Adoption Information Disclosure Act American Adoption Congress AAC Bastard Nation Adoption Disclosure Register ... With a disclosure veto, the government announces that Bob's name will be available to Alice upon her request after a certain ... Adoption disclosure refers to the official release of information relating to the legal adoption of a child. Throughout much of ... A typical problem with disclosure is balancing the desire for information with the promises, explicit or implicit, that have ...
... s, also known as mandatory key disclosure, is legislation that requires individuals to surrender ... In Canada key disclosure is covered under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms section 11(c) which states "any person ... A problematic aspect of key disclosure is that it leads to a total compromise of all data encrypted using that key in the past ... Critics of key disclosure laws view them as compromising information privacy, by revealing personal information that may not be ...
"Disclosure announce new album 'Energy' and share video for title track". NME. 21 May 2020. Retrieved 26 May 2020. "Disclosure ... "Energy" is a song by British electronic music duo Disclosure. It was released as the third single from the duo's third studio ... "Disclosure - Energy" (in Dutch). Ultratip. Retrieved 11 July 2020. (Articles with short description, Short description is ... "ENERGY - Single by Disclosure". Apple Music. Retrieved 11 July 2020. " ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Operation Full Disclosure. Official press releases and media Operation Full Disclosure ... Operation Full Disclosure (Hebrew: מבצע חשיפה מלאה) was a military operation carried out by the Israel Defense Forces on March ... Zitun, Yoav (2014-03-06). "Iran weapons ship: Behind the scenes of IDF 'Operation Full Disclosure'". ynet. Retrieved 19 ... Ship carrying Iranian weapons bound from Syria to Hamas in Gaza and captured by Israel Operation Full Disclosure - Israel ...
2], 'Liechtenstein Disclosure Facility: Making a disclosure', ''HMRC''. Retrieved 2 March 2012. [3], 'Liechtenstein Disclosure ... Liechtenstein Disclosure Facility (LDF) - A reference website for the Liechtenstein Disclosure Facility with a knowledge base ... 4], 'Liechtenstein Disclosure Facility: Making a disclosure', ''HMRC''. Retrieved 2 March 2012. [5], Ariel Sergio Goekmen, ' ... The Liechtenstein Disclosure Facility (LDF) is an agreement between the governments of Liechtenstein and the United Kingdom ...
"Hypocrisy - End Of Disclosure". Metal Forces. Dome, Malcolm (28 March 2013). "Hypocrisy: End Of Disclosure". Metal Hammer. Rot ... Perri, David (13 April 2013). "Hypocrisy - End of Disclosure". BW&BK. Dick, Chris (May 2013). "Hypocrisy, End of Disclosure". ... Wiebe, Laura (3 April 2013). "Hypocrisy End of Disclosure". Exclaim!. Katharina (17 April 2013). "Hypocrisy - End Of Disclosure ... End of Disclosure is the twelfth studio album by Swedish death metal band Hypocrisy. It was released on 22 March 2013. To ...
The seller disclosure notice or statement is anecdotal and does not serve as a substitute for any inspections or warranties the ... In the United States, a seller disclosure statement is a form disclosing the seller's knowledge of the condition of the ... "Caveat Emptor and the Seller Disclosure Form" in Practical Real Estate Law. Seventh Edition. Cengage Learning. 2015. ISBN ... Seller disclosure statements are not compulsory in New Mexico. Caveat emptor http://www.trec.state.tx.us/pdf/contracts/op-h.pdf ...
This does not mean disclosure of each and every item of information. It only means disclosure of such information which is of ... The convention of disclosure requires that all material facts must be disclosed in the financial statements. For example, in ... IFRS 7, Financial Instruments: Disclosures v t e (Financial regulation, All stub articles, Legal terminology stubs, Accounting ...
Disclosure at IMDb v t e v t e (IMDb ID same as Wikidata, 2000s Canadian television news shows, 2001 Canadian television series ... "CBC axes Disclosure after three seasons". The Globe and Mail, April 5, 2004. "CBC-TV shuffles deck". Saskatoon StarPhoenix, ... CBC News: Disclosure is a Canadian investigative journalism television program. It debuted on CBC Television on November 13, ... "Dynamic duo: Wendy Mesley and Diana Swain hope to shock viewers with their new CBC show Disclosure". Halifax Daily News, ...
The Network of Disclosure (also called NOD) was a group of comic book dealers and collectors who pledged to disclose any form ... Disclosure of important information to a prospective buyer creates a greater sense of security and trust to minimize concerns ... As a result of this ballot, the Network of Disclosure effectively ceased to exist and a new organization with a broader mission ... On December 12, 2009, the members of the Network of Disclosure voted to change the name and mission statement of the ...
"FULL DISCLOSURE by Stormy Daniels". Kirkus Reviews. Retrieved April 7, 2019. "Full Disclosure: Stormy Daniels". St. Martin's ... Full Disclosure is a memoir written by Stormy Daniels with Kevin Carr O'Leary. It was published on October 2, 2018, by St. ... "Stormy Daniels announces new tell-all book: 'Full Disclosure'". The Hill. Retrieved September 14, 2018. Sidner, Sara; DiCarlo, ... Patricia (September 12, 2018). "Stormy Daniels writes tell-all book: 'Full Disclosure'". CNN. Retrieved September 14, 2018. ...
OPM Vulnerability Disclosure Process. * Introduction. As part of a U.S. government agency, the Office of Personnel Management ( ... our vendors fall outside of this policys scope and should be reported directly to the vendor according to their disclosure ...
The Disclosure and Barring Service helps employers make safer recruitment decisions. DBS is an executive non-departmental ... DBS disclosure service DBS customer services. PO Box 3961. Royal Wootton Bassett SN4 4HF. United Kingdom. Email ... The Disclosure and Barring Service webchat is available Monday to Friday from 09:00 to 18:00, and Saturday from 10:00 to 17:00 ... The Disclosure and Barring Service helps employers make safer recruitment decisions.. DBS is an executive non-departmental ...
Disclosure Review Policies and Procedures. RDC disclosure review policies and procedures exist to protect the identity of study ... You are required to read and follow the procedures outlined and described in the Disclosure Manual: Rules for Researchers [PDF ... and the Disclosure Manual outline the policies and procedures that are required of you and your team to protect the data and ... prevent disclosure of confidential information. You and your Research Team must complete the confidentiality training and ...
For additional information regarding these Disclosure Statements, please contact donor relations at (310) 794-2447. ... and provide prospective donors with the most up-to-date disclosure statements, UCLA has posted this information online. These ...
Disclosure. In compliance with continuing education requirements, all presenters must disclose any financial or other ...
... CE providers can use to notify participants of a financial or non-financial relationship to the ... Instructional Personnel Disclosure in Promotional Efforts. Each disclosure must address three things: (1) instructional ... Examples of a disclosure statement for a single presenter. Dr. Wadelmann, Cognitive Rehabilitation After Traumatic Brain Injury ... Example of disclosures of multiple presenters. View an example of a course with multiple sessions and presenters [PDF] courtesy ...
EU mandatory disclosure rules require of cross-border arrangements for taxpayers and intermediaries. ... Video] Mandatory Disclosure Regime legislation France (23 October 2019). *France publishes legislation on Mandatory Disclosure ... Spain publishes draft proposal on Mandatory Disclosure Rules (28 June 2019). *Spain issues draft mandatory disclosure regime ... Cyprus publishes draft Mandatory Disclosure Rules (28 Mar 2019). *Germany publishes draft Mandatory Disclosure Rules (20 Mar ...
Framework & Disclosure Management. Efficiently report to ESG rating, ranking organizations and multiple frameworks all in one ... Framework & Disclosure Management Report to ESG rating, ranking organizations, and one or multiple frameworks, and achieve ... Framework & Disclosure Management Process & Methodology. Were bringing efficiency and simplicity to the ESG reporting process ... A not-for-profit charity that runs the global disclosure system for investors, companies, cities, states and regions to manage ...
... ... content/basf/www/eg/en/who-we-are/sustainability/management-goals-and-dialog/management/topics/teaser-disclosure ...
Information disclosure through cache collisions. Announced. February 23, 2007. Reporter. Aad. Impact. Moderate. Products. ...
Please see special disclosure text.. *Deutsche Bank and/or its affiliate(s) own more than half a percent long or short of the ... Consequently, disclosures relating to conflicts of interest that may exist for Deutsche Bank AG and/or its affiliates do not ... For detailed disclosures pertaining to a specific recommendation or estimate made on a security mentioned in this report, ... The issuer/security-specific conflict of interest disclosures on this Numis webpage do not take into account the business and ...
Voluntary Disclosure and Compliance. Taxpayers who owe taxes to New York City and have not filed the related tax returns may be ... If you are found eligible for the VDCP, you will receive a Voluntary Disclosure and Compliance agreement letter, which usually ... For more information about the Voluntary Disclosure Compliance Program, please call 311. Please note that calling 311 is not a ... Taxpayers can apply to the New York City Department of Finances Voluntary Disclosure and Compliance Program online through ...
... where it will be handled under their coordinated vulnerability disclosure process. We will not share your name or contact ... our vendors fall outside of this policys scope and should be reported directly to the vendor according to their disclosure ...
... where it will be handled under their coordinated vulnerability disclosure process. We will not share your name or contact ... our vendors fall outside of this policys scope and should be reported directly to the vendor according to their disclosure ...
Some countries such as Brazil, France and the UK have al ready released there files, and the time is right for a disclosure ... We dont need to wait for the USA to make the first move, about disclosure. Now is the time for the truth. ...
GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets.
In accordance with the Student Right-to-Know Act, Spring Hill College publishes student-athlete outcomes information.. Please select a report:. ...
Example Disclosure (Show/Hide) for Answers to Frequently Asked Questions. *Example Disclosure (Show/Hide) for an Image ... Each disclosure button represents a section of the web site, and expanding it shows a list of links to pages within that ... Indicates that the container controlled by the disclosure button is hidden.. * CSS attribute selectors (e.g. [aria-expanded=" ... Indicates that the container controlled by the disclosure button is visible.. * CSS attribute selectors (e.g. [aria-expanded=" ...
This dramatic disclosure will inevitably further anger relatives of the Omagh victims campaigning for the bombers to be brought ...
The following legal disclosures are being made available at the request of the respective Deloitte entities listed below. ...
Proxy Disclosure Enhancements Transition Compliance and Disclosure Interpretations (UPDATED 01/20/10) ... Compliance and Disclosure Interpretations (UPDATED 11/13/20). *Staff Legal Bulletin No. 3A June 18, 2008 (UPDATED 06/18/08). ... Compliance and Disclosure Interpretations (UPDATED 1/2/22). *Staff Legal Bulletin No. 2 Apr. 15, 1997. Requests to modify the ... Compliance and Disclosure Interpretations (UPDATED 8/25/23). *Staff Legal Bulletin No. 18 Mar. 15, 2010. Exchange Act Rule 12h- ...
Disclosure of Interest (Updated February 2021). Please note: Your completed form is NOT to be submitted to the ICMJE and it ... Disclosure of Financial and Non-Financial Relationships and Activities, and Conflicts of Interest ... Disclosure of Financial and Non-Financial Relationships and Activities, and Conflicts of Interest ... How do I submit my disclosure of interest form to the ICMJE? ...
2014-Duty of Disclosure in Reexamination Proceedings and Supplemental Examination. *2015-Duties of Disclosure and Reasonable ... 2014-Duty of Disclosure in Reexamination Proceedings and Supplemental Examination. *2015-Duties of Disclosure and Reasonable ... 2001-Duty of Disclosure, Candor, and Good Faith *2001.01-Who Has Duty To Disclose ... 2001-Duty of Disclosure, Candor, and Good Faith *2001.01-Who Has Duty To Disclose ...
Search Disclosures. Conflict of Interest - Decisions/Voting. *Search a complete list of all Conflict of Interest - Decisions/ ... All other Financial Disclosure Statements filed with the OIG are public records and available upon request. Please send an ...
EMEA Disclosures EMEA Legal Entity Information - Incorporation Details & Regulatory Status Disclosures. EU e-Commerce Directive ... EMIR Clearing Member Disclosure (J.P. Morgan Securities LLC). EMIR and MiFIR Clearing Member Disclosure (J.P. Morgan Securities ... Sustainable Finance Disclosure Regulations (SFDR) Article 3 Disclosure Document: J.P. Morgan SE ... EMIR and MiFIR Clearing Member Disclosure (J.P. Morgan SE). EMIR and MiFIR Clearing Member Pricing Disclosure (J.P. Morgan ...
As part of a responsible submission, we ask that we coordinate any external disclosures to ensure that the vulnerabilities are ...
... gateway FAQs. Information on the Disclosure UK gateways connecting visitors to disclosure information about ... About Disclosure UK. Disclosure UK is an industry-led initiative to deliver a searchable database that shows payments and ... ABPI Statement about publication of 2021 disclosure data. Following the publication of the 2021 Disclosure UK data on 30 June ... This meant some of the 2021 disclosure data was not published on Disclosure UK on 30 June 2022. ...
AOA disclosure statement for members interested in serving on an AOA committee. ... AOA Committee Disclosure. Committees are always looking for qualified volunteers to help serve. Check the committees you are ... willing to serve on and complete the disclosure statement. Your information will be forwarded to the appropriate committee ...
Invention Disclosure. SUBMIT AN INVENTION DISCLOSURE. According to LSU policy, "All University Personnel are required to ... Within 15 days, someone from ITC will contact you to discuss the invention disclosure. ITC will work closely with you during ... As soon as you believe you have conceived a new technology, submit an Invention Disclosure to Innovation & Technology ... Upon receipt of your Invention Disclosure Form, ITC will conduct an intellectual property analysis and a commercial viability ...
  • Voluntary Disclosure #PP-2021-1. (nyc.gov)
  • The content for this program was developed and published prior to the ASHA Continuing Education Board requiring instructional personnel to provide financial and nonfinancial disclosure statements. (asha.org)
  • Please note that the term "patent disclosure" should be considered synonymous with "IPR disclosure" for the purposes of 'disclosure' link relation type semantics, as patent disclosures are a subset of IPR disclosures. (faqs.org)
  • To reduce UCLA's impact on the environment and printing costs, and provide prospective donors with the most up-to-date disclosure statements, UCLA has posted this information online. (uclafoundation.org)
  • For additional information regarding these Disclosure Statements, please contact donor relations at (310) 794-2447. (uclafoundation.org)
  • All other Financial Disclosure Statements filed with the OIG are public records and available upon request. (in.gov)
  • Now, the disclosures must be made in the same far-forward area of the statements that describes investment returns. (cfo.com)
  • She compared the new pension-plan disclosure requirements to the Compensation Discussion & Analysis section of company proxy statements that the Securities and Exchange Commission began requiring in 2007. (cfo.com)
  • In promotional efforts, the ASHA Approved CE Provider must provide instructional personnel disclosure for every presenter involved in the course and may need to disclose that the course is focused on a specific product or service. (asha.org)
  • The ASHA Approved CE Provider must disclose 2 things prior to the start of the course: (1) Instructional personnel disclosure and (2) The names of organizations that have provided financial or in-kind support (if applicable). (asha.org)
  • Determining the factors that influence a person 's decision to disclose a positive status is essential to understanding the process of and ways to improve disclosure rates. (bvsalud.org)
  • Taxpayers who owe taxes to New York City and have not filed the related tax returns may be eligible for the Voluntary Disclosure and Compliance Program (VDCP). (nyc.gov)
  • You or your representative may contact us (see contact information below or call 311) at any time to ask for additional information on how to join the Voluntary Disclosure and Compliance Program. (nyc.gov)
  • Once accepted into the Voluntary Disclosure and Compliance Program, you will receive a written commitment to waive penalties and a list of the periods for which you are required to file returns. (nyc.gov)
  • Taxpayers can apply to the New York City Department of Finance's Voluntary Disclosure and Compliance Program online through Business Tax e-Services or by mail to the address below. (nyc.gov)
  • For more information about the Voluntary Disclosure Compliance Program, please call 311. (nyc.gov)
  • If you are found eligible for the VDCP, you will receive a Voluntary Disclosure and Compliance agreement letter, which usually gives you 30 days to file the requested returns. (nyc.gov)
  • Prior to accepting the presenters for a course, ASHA CE Providers should have them fill out a Speaker Disclosure Form [DOCX] that outlines the financial and nonfinancial relationships that are relevant to their presentations. (asha.org)
  • For detailed disclosures pertaining to a specific recommendation or estimate made on a security mentioned in this report, please see the most recently published company report or visit our global disclosure look-up page on our website at https://research.db.com/Research/Disclosures/EquityResearchDisclosures or https://research.db.com/Research/Disclosures/FICCDisclosures . (db.com)
  • The following legal disclosures are being made available at the request of the respective Deloitte entities listed below. (deloitte.com)
  • Disclosure of returns and return information to the President or designated White House employees can only be made pursuant to IRC 6103(g)(1). (irs.gov)
  • Dr Teixeira made a presentation of early stage activities on the IASB's project to develop a disclosure framework, in particular its late-2012 survey of users and preparers on various disclosure issues and the public forum on disclosure held on 28 January 2013 in London. (iasplus.com)
  • A disclosure made under a patient's written authorization must conform to the authorization. (wa.gov)
  • It designates a list of IPR disclosures made with respect to the material for which such a relation type is specified. (faqs.org)
  • 2. 'disclosure' Link Relation Type Whenever the 'disclosure' relation type is used, the resource at the target Internationalized Resource Identifier (IRI) [ RFC5988 ] MUST represent a list of patent disclosures made with respect to the material referenced by context IRI. (faqs.org)
  • for the list of patent disclosures made with respect to this specification. (faqs.org)
  • 4. IANA Considerations IANA has registered the 'disclosure' link relation type in the "Link Relations" registry, with a reference to this document, using the following template: o Relation name: disclosure o Description: Refers to a list of patent disclosures made with respect to material for which 'disclosure' relation is specified. (faqs.org)
  • Proactive disclosure differs from reactive disclosure, as reactive disclosure occurs when a request is made, while proactive disclosure occurs without the filing of the request. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Canadian government has also made promises to be open by default with proactive disclosure in their Open Government Partnership (OGP) Third Action Plan The open by default principle not only provides Canadians with proactive information release, but is also meant to improve efficiency for requests for information or the ability to gain information such as personal details about themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recommendations were made to facilitate and increase disclosure rates. (bvsalud.org)
  • Additionally, vulnerabilities found in non-federal systems from our vendors fall outside of this policy's scope and should be reported directly to the vendor according to their disclosure policy (if any). (opm.gov)
  • As part of a responsible submission, we ask that we coordinate any external disclosures to ensure that the vulnerabilities are fixed prior. (gelighting.com)
  • T he following Responsible Disclosure Guidelines describe the voluntary program through which Accenture will engage with parties who identify and report to Accenture potential security vulnerabilities. (accenture.com)
  • These Responsible Disclosure Guidelines offer direction for identifying and submitting information regarding potential vulnerabilities to Accenture and apply only to disclosure of potential vulnerabilities affecting systems owned or controlled by Accenture, not to those affecting any other systems, including those owned or controlled by any Accenture clients, business partners, or others. (accenture.com)
  • Accenture does not provide compensation in exchange for information pertaining to security vulnerabilities under this Responsible Disclosure Program. (accenture.com)
  • Countries are implementing mandatory disclosure rules aimed at increasing transparency to detect what is perceived by tax authorities to be potentially aggressive cross-border tax planning. (ey.com)
  • Disclosure UK is part of a Europe-wide initiative​ to increase transparency between pharmaceutical companies and the doctors, nurses, pharmacists and other health professionals and organisations it works with. (abpi.org.uk)
  • Transparency and proactive disclosure are often associated in terms of creating open government. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitigate risk with provided guidance notes and an audit trail for disclosures. (nasdaq.com)
  • ITC will work closely with you during the disclosure evaluation process and provide guidance on prior art searching, market evaluation, and commercialization strategies. (lsu.edu)
  • Describing the plan investment and funding policies is problematic because the Labor Department has given no guidance on what these disclosures should include. (cfo.com)
  • While the SEC gave somewhat more guidance then than Labor is giving now, norms for what to include in the CD&A did not begin to take shape until after the SEC sent comment letters in October 2007 to 350 companies that it deemed to have provided insufficient disclosure. (cfo.com)
  • The Disclosure office, under GLDS, is responsible for the Disclosure program and guidance. (irs.gov)
  • RDC disclosure review policies and procedures exist to protect the identity of study participants. (cdc.gov)
  • The disclosures must be included in notices to plan participants, their beneficiaries, labor organizations, and the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation by April 30, except for plans with fewer than 100 participants, which have at least three more months. (cfo.com)
  • In regard to self-study products developed prior to July 1, 2012, we encourage you to obtain instructional personnel disclosure information. (asha.org)
  • Therefore, the objective of this study is to understand the process of disclosure of SV suffered by a boy on the basis of the report by his mother, through a case study. (bvsalud.org)
  • Our study fills this gap by using a follow-up survey of postpartum women with HIV to examine if disclosure prevalence has improved compared to the proportion recorded at childbirth . (bvsalud.org)
  • The findings of this study indicate that numerous factors influence HIV disclosure . (bvsalud.org)
  • Design: Comparative policy review of payment data in countries with different regulatory approaches to disclosure. (lu.se)
  • regulatory bodies overseeing payment disclosure. (lu.se)
  • Upon receipt of your Invention Disclosure Form, ITC will conduct an intellectual property analysis and a commercial viability analysis to determine LSU's ability to protect and commercialize the invention. (lsu.edu)
  • Gender dimensions of HIV status disclosure to sexual partners : rates, barriers and outcomes. (who.int)
  • Barriers to and facilitators of HIV serostatus disclosure to sexual partners among postpartum women living with HIV in South Africa. (bvsalud.org)
  • Also, complicated relationship dynamics and fear of social exclusion still constitute barriers to HIV status disclosure to sexual partners despite patients ' counselling. (bvsalud.org)
  • Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) M. Yevstifeyev Request for Comments: 6579 March 2012 Category: Informational ISSN: 2070-1721 The 'disclosure' Link Relation Type Abstract This document specifies the 'disclosure' link relation type. (faqs.org)
  • This document specifies the 'disclosure' link relation type. (faqs.org)
  • The confidentiality training, confidentiality forms, and the Disclosure Manual outline the policies and procedures that are required of you and your team to protect the data and prevent disclosure of confidential information. (cdc.gov)
  • The following example demonstrates using the Disclosure Pattern to show and hide dropdown lists of links in a navigation bar for a mythical university web site. (w3.org)
  • Time is running out to get a handle on an amendment to the Pension Protection Act of 2006 that requires plan sponsors to describe an investment policy and a funding policy for their plans, among other new disclosures they must make. (cfo.com)
  • 1) IRM 11.3.30.1(3) and (4), Updated Program Scope and Objectives, to align the Program and Policy owner sections to be in line with all other Disclosure IRMs. (irs.gov)
  • The Director of Governmental Liaison, Disclosure and Safeguards (GLDS) is responsible for oversight of Disclosure policy. (irs.gov)
  • Each IRS organization is responsible for ensuring its employees are aware of and follow Servicewide Disclosure policy. (irs.gov)
  • Proactive disclosure came into Canada in 2004 when it came to disclosing information on contracts over $10,000 and position reclassification, with grants and contributions being under the proactive disclosure policy since 2005. (wikipedia.org)
  • CFOs at small and midsize companies should monitor new 401(k) plan disclosure requirements. (cfo.com)
  • New disclosure requirements for defined-benefit pension plans could pose problems for CFOs not paying close attention, a benefits attorney told CFO.com. (cfo.com)
  • They may be aware of the new requirements but may not have heightened sensitivity that making the disclosures is more than just filling in the blanks. (cfo.com)
  • Other longer-term projects were also possible, including a separate project on materiality as well as a general review of disclosure requirements. (iasplus.com)
  • How do I submit my disclosure of interest form to the ICMJE? (icmje.org)
  • While CFOs usually weren't involved in preparing the old notices, the nature of the newly required disclosures and of the AFN form suggests that they should be involved now, according to Gross. (cfo.com)
  • These problems could arise from using the Labor Department's model AFN form - which companies are motivated to do, because the department has said it will treat those that do as having complied (although, as Gross noted, that is not a reprieve from the responsibility to make accurate disclosures). (cfo.com)
  • a) Except as provided in paragraph (b), no member that is promoting a day-trading strategy, directly or indirectly, shall open an account for or on behalf of a non-institutional customer unless, prior to opening the account, the member has furnished to each customer, individually, in paper or electronic form, the disclosure statement specified in this paragraph (a). (finra.org)
  • Disclosure of HIV serostatus to a sexual partner can facilitate partner's support and testing and better treatment outcomes. (bvsalud.org)
  • The EFRAG staff noted that once complete, they would pass the completed survey, comments and analysis to the IASB as an input to the IASB's disclosure framework project. (iasplus.com)
  • it should involve those like EFRAG and the FASB, which have already done related work on a disclosure framework. (iasplus.com)
  • The disclosure of sexual violence (SV) has been described as an important process culminating with the victim's report about the violence suff ered. (bvsalud.org)
  • We present a casual disclosure of an abnormal enlarged sella turcica with erosion of posterior clinoid process in an asymptomatic 32-year-old female. (bvsalud.org)
  • Check the committees you are willing to serve on and complete the disclosure statement. (alpacainfo.com)
  • In addition, any member that is promoting a day-trading strategy, directly or indirectly, must post such disclosure statement on the member's Web site in a clear and conspicuous manner. (finra.org)
  • Here, I must interject an important disclosure: I am a consultant who works in the nonprofit sector, and counsels nonprofit organizations and foundations, and my business is built on relationships. (forbes.com)
  • Common disclosures include a landlord's imposition of nonrefundable fees (where permitted), tenants' rights to move-in checklists, shared utility arrangements (if any), and the identity of the landlord or landlord's agent or manager. (nolo.com)
  • means the Public Servants Disclosure Protection Tribunal established under subsection 20.7(1). (gc.ca)
  • In 23 of the remaining countries with self-regulation and available data, disclosures were published in the portable document format (PDF) on individual company websites, preventing the public from understanding payment patterns. (lu.se)
  • This document is to fill this gap and encourage wider use of the 'disclosure' relation type. (faqs.org)
  • The Disclosure and Barring Service helps employers make safer recruitment decisions. (www.gov.uk)
  • This IRM section provides instructions concerning the disclosure of returns and return information to the President or specified White House employees pursuant to IRC 6103(g)(1). (irs.gov)
  • Examples This section provides an example of possible use of the 'disclosure' relation type. (faqs.org)
  • Accenture will deal in good faith with reporting parties who comply with these Responsible Disclosure Guidelines. (accenture.com)
  • I blame most of the alleged home defect non-disclosure problems on (1) dishonest sellers and/or (2) incompetent realty agents who either try to hide known defects or recommend "easy" home inspectors who avoid reporting obvious defects. (inman.com)
  • Disclosure of HIV status to partner was based on self - reporting . (bvsalud.org)
  • You are required to read and follow the procedures outlined and described in the Disclosure Manual: Rules for Researchers [PDF - 296 KB] . (cdc.gov)
  • Let me be clear: the idea that the Clinton Foundation has been less than forthcoming in its disclosure of data is preposterous, unfair, and unworthy of anyone interested in the truth. (forbes.com)
  • The Government of Canada believes the proactive disclosure of information and self-service tools will strengthen the type of data being released. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of proactive disclosure at the federal level is seen within Natural Resources Canada, which has three web portals releasing raw data on subjects such as road networks, electoral boundaries, and topographic maps. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the local level, open data and proactive disclosure are being linked together. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Disclosure Notification section appears on the PI & Personnel page. (washington.edu)
  • If the Sponsor name (on the Details page) is either blank or "Pending - Notify OSP of Correct Sponsor" the Send Disclosure Notifications button will be grayed out, and an alert message displays. (washington.edu)
  • This page contains links to disclosure documents for Westpac in Singapore. (westpac.com.au)
  • Each disclosure button represents a section of the web site, and expanding it shows a list of links to pages within that section. (w3.org)
  • Parties conducting activities under this Responsible Disclosure must comply with all federal, state, and local laws applicable with security research activities or any other activities under these Responsible Disclosure Guidelines. (accenture.com)
  • To the extent that any security research or vulnerability disclosure activity involves the networks, systems, information, applications, products, or services of any non-Accenture entity, such non-Accenture entity may independently determine whether to pursue legal action or remedies related to such activities. (accenture.com)
  • The W3C already mandates the use of the 'disclosure' link relation type for links to patent disclosures in all its documents. (faqs.org)
  • Below, you will find links to download ICANN's Lobbying Disclosures and Contribution Reports, dating back to 2010. (icann.org)
  • See the original article for disclosures of other authors. (medscape.com)
  • As well as searching Disclosure UK, you can also review each pharmaceutical company's methodological note or download the full dataset by year. (abpi.org.uk)
  • Within the government, proactive disclosure is meant to inform citizens of information that allows them to hold the government accountable. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is an ongoing review of the Access to Information Act and full proactive disclosure in the Office of the Information Commissioner of Canada. (wikipedia.org)
  • We further assessed the reasons for non- disclosure and correlates of serostatus disclosure to sexual partners . (bvsalud.org)
  • There was a statistically significant association between fear of blame or discrimination and disclosure to the sexual partner . (bvsalud.org)
  • Read the disclosure documents for your selected product or service, including the Terms and Conditions , before deciding. (westpac.com.au)
  • fear of abandonment and rejection as well as knowledge of the disease that may all influence disclosure rates. (bvsalud.org)
  • Some states also require specific disclosures regarding the landlord's use of security deposits . (nolo.com)
  • However, all information released under proactive disclosure must be held under the Access to Information Act or the Privacy Act, with any information that is normally withheld under those acts not being disclosed on the website. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies examining changes in disclosure rates of serostatus from delivery and postpartum periods are scarce. (bvsalud.org)
  • Disclosure rates of HIV -positive status remain low and are considered to be related to stigmatisation. (bvsalud.org)
  • As part of a U.S. government agency, the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) takes seriously our responsibility to protect the public's information, including financial and personal information, from unwarranted disclosure. (opm.gov)
  • Each disclosure must address three things: (1) instructional personnel's name, (2) whether there are relevant financial relationships (or not) and (3) whether there are relevant nonfinancial relationships (or not). (asha.org)
  • Disclosure: Jean Michaels Jones has disclosed no relevant financial relationships. (cdc.gov)