Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Glucose in blood.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
The buttercup plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are usually alternate and stalkless. The flowers usually have two to five free sepals and may be radially symmetrical or irregular.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.
A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)
A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Hydrofluoric acid. A solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a colorless fuming liquid which can cause painful burns.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.
A strong oxidizing agent.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC 4.2.2.4 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC 4.2.2.5 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A trisaccharide occurring in Australian manna (from Eucalyptus spp, Myrtaceae) and in cottonseed meal.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Glycosphingolipids containing N-acetylglucosamine (paragloboside) or N-acetylgalactosamine (globoside). Globoside is the P antigen on erythrocytes and paragloboside is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of erythrocyte blood group ABH and P 1 glycosphingolipid antigens. The accumulation of globoside in tissue, due to a defect in hexosaminidases A and B, is the cause of Sandhoff disease.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.
A genus of tiny mushrooms in the family Tricholomataceae. They help break down the decaying organic matter of the forest floor.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-mannosides.
A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
Component of dermatan sulfate. Differs in configuration from glucuronic acid only at the C-5 position.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.
A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.2.7.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.
A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC 2.4.1.65; EC 2.4.1.68; EC 2.4.1.69; EC 2.4.1.89.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Glycosphingolipids which contain as their polar head group a trisaccharide (galactose-galactose-glucose) moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in ceramide trihexosidase, is the cause of angiokeratoma corporis diffusum (FABRY DISEASE).
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Polyacenes with four ortho-fused benzene rings in a straight linear arrangement. This group is best known for the subclass called TETRACYCLINES.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
A major glucose transporter found in NEURONS.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Abstaining from all food.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which can be converted to the deoxy sugar GDPfucose, which provides fucose for lipopolysaccharides of bacterial cell walls. Also acts as mannose donor for glycolipid synthesis.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A sulfated mucopolysaccharide initially isolated from bovine cornea. At least two types are known. Type I, found mostly in the cornea, contains D-galactose and D-glucosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit; type II, found in skeletal tissues, contains D-galactose and D-galactosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
D-Glucose:1-oxidoreductases. Catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-gamma-lactone and reduced acceptor. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.47; EC 1.1.1.118; EC 1.1.1.119 and EC 1.1.99.10.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.
An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.
A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Pathological conditions in which the BLOOD GLUCOSE cannot be maintained within the normal range, such as in HYPOGLYCEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA. Etiology of these disorders varies. Plasma glucose concentration is critical to survival for it is the predominant fuel for the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
A class of animal lectins that bind specifically to beta-galactoside in a calcium-independent manner. Members of this class are distiguished from other lectins by the presence of a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain. The majority of proteins in this class bind to sugar molecules in a sulfhydryl-dependent manner and are often referred to as S-type lectins, however this property is not required for membership in this class.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of alpha,alpha-trehalose and water to D-glucose. EC 3.2.1.28.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
A hexosaminidase with specificity for terminal non-reducing N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues in N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosaminides.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of galactose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-galactosides.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.
Two, three, several or many monosaccharides thus linked form disaccharides, trisaccharides, oligosaccharides, or ... When a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis (e.g., sucrose being broken down into glucose ... Malt made from barley is used as a source of β-amylase to break down starch into the disaccharide maltose, which can be used by ... Ruminants such as cows are able to hydrolyze cellulose into cellobiose and then glucose because of symbiotic bacteria that ...
Alpha amylase degrades starch to a mixture of the disaccharide maltose; the trisaccharide maltotriose, which contains three α ( ... 1-4)-linked glucose residues; and oligosaccharides, known as dextrins, that contain the α (1-6)-linked glucose branches. ...
The membrane-bound intestinal alpha-glucosidases hydrolyze oligosaccharides, trisaccharides, and disaccharides to glucose and ... Less glucose is absorbed because the carbohydrates are not broken down into glucose molecules. In diabetic patients, the short- ... Since alpha-glucosidase inhibitors prevent the degradation of complex carbohydrates into glucose, the carbohydrates will remain ... Horio, Hiroyuki; Ohtsuru, Masaru (2001). "Maitake (Grifola frondosa) Improve Glucose Tolerance of Experimental Diabetic Rats". ...
However, disaccharides, as well as longer polysaccharides (up to nine glucose units), are also present. The disaccharide ... and isomaltotriose make up the trisaccharide fraction. A mixture of isomaltotetraose, isomaltopentaose, maltohexaose, ... Although isomaltose is found in some foods, such as honey, as a disaccharide, it behaves like all other disaccharides and is ... In fact, it has been shown that these IMO preparations behave similarly to glucose syrup with respect to blood glucose ...
... to hydrolyse dietary starch into disaccharides and trisaccharides which are converted by other enzymes to glucose to supply the ... yielding glucose. The γ-amylase has most acidic optimum pH of all amylases because it is most active around pH 3. They belong ... cleaving off two glucose units (maltose) at a time. During the ripening of fruit, β-amylase breaks starch into maltose, ... glucose and "limit dextrin" from amylopectin. They belong to glycoside hydrolase family 13. Because it can act anywhere on the ...
... trisaccharides, and disaccharides to glucose and other monosaccharides in the small intestine. Inhibition of these enzyme ... Less glucose is absorbed because the carbohydrates are not broken down into glucose molecules. In diabetic patients, the short- ... such as glucose tablets or gel (GlucoBurst, Insta-Glucose, Glutose, Level One) and a doctor should be called. Because acarbose ... fasting blood glucose and post-prandial glucose than either agent alone. Since acarbose prevents the digestion of complex ...
... including monosaccharide glucose, disaccharide maltose, trisaccharide maltotriose, and higher sugars called maltodextrines. It ...
... spectrometric method for the qualitative and quantitative determination of disaccharides and trisaccharides in honey". Journal ... which is a glucose-galactose disaccharide, and sucrose, another disaccharide which is composed of glucose and fructose. Glucose ... Glucose circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar. The naturally occurring form of glucose is d-glucose, while l- ... The d-isomer, d-glucose, also known as dextrose, occurs widely in nature, but the l-isomer, l-glucose, does not. Glucose can be ...
Similar to the disaccharides, each glycosidic bond can be formed between any hydroxyl group on the component monosaccharides. ... Even if all three component sugars are the same (e.g., glucose), different bond combinations (regiochemistry) and ... Trisaccharides at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e. ... Trisaccharides are oligosaccharides composed of three monosaccharides with two glycosidic bonds connecting them. ...
... glucose MeSH D09.546.359.448.500 - blood glucose MeSH D09.546.359.588 - mannose MeSH D09.546.359.774 - rhamnose MeSH D09.546. ... disaccharides MeSH D09.698.629.305.200 - cellobiose MeSH D09.698.629.305.320 - isomaltose MeSH D09.698.629.305.340 - lactose ... trisaccharides MeSH D09.698.629.802.100 - acarbose MeSH D09.698.629.802.700 - raffinose MeSH D09.698.718.200 - bacterial ... adenosine diphosphate glucose MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.125 - adenosine diphosphate ribose MeSH D09.408.620.569.070.125.040 - o- ...
Disaccharides. Sucrose · Lactose · Maltose · Trehalose · Turanose · Cellobiose. Trisaccharides. Raffinose · Melezitose · ... Glucose/Glucan: Glycogen · Starch (Amylose, Amylopectin) · Cellulose · Dextrin/Dextran · Beta-glucan (Zymosan, Lentinan, ... Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase ഫ്രക്ടോസ് 6-ഫോസ്ഫേറ്റ് phosphofructokinase-1 Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate Fructose-bisphosphate ... വിക്കിമീഡിയ കോമൺസിലെ Glucose എന്ന വർഗ്ഗത്തിൽ ഇതുമായി ബന്ധപ്പെട്ട കൂടുതൽ പ്രമാണങ്ങൾ ലഭ്യമാണ്. ...
The best-known disaccharide is sucrose (table sugar). Hydrolysis of sucrose yields glucose and fructose. Invertase is a sucrase ... Two, three, several or many monosaccharides thus linked form disaccharides, trisaccharides, oligosaccharides, or ... When a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis (e.g. sucrose being broken down into glucose and ... Cellulose is first hydrolyzed to cellobiose by cellulase and then cellobiose is further hydrolyzed to glucose by beta- ...
Hydrolysis of disaccharides and tetrasaccharides into glucose (beta-glucosidase). ... In the example shown, a cellulase enzyme is able to recognise the trisaccharide fragment of cellulose and cleave this unit. The ... Nelson N (1944). "A photometric adaptation of the Somogyi method for the determination of glucose". J. Biol. Chem. 153: 375-80. ... The acetal functionalisation on the non-reducing end of the trisaccharide substrate prevents the action of the ancillary β- ...
CDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase EC 4.2.1.46: dTDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase EC 4.2.1.47: GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase EC 4.2.1.48: D- ... pectate disaccharide-lyase EC 4.2.2.10: pectin lyase EC 4.2.2.11: poly(a-L-guluronate) lyase EC 4.2.2.12: xanthan lyase EC 4.2. ... pectate trisaccharide-lyase EC 4.2.2.23: rhamnogalacturonan endolyase EC 4.2.2.24: rhamnogalacturonan exolyase EC 4.2.2.25: ... UDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase EC 4.2.1.77: trans-L-3-hydroxyproline dehydratase EC 4.2.1.78: (S)-norcoclaurine synthase EC 4.2. ...
... is a disaccharide made up of 50% glucose and 50% fructose and has a glycemic index of 65.[54] Sucrose is digested ... It is a disaccharide, a molecule composed of two monosaccharides: glucose and fructose. Sucrose is produced naturally in plants ... The rapidity with which sucrose raises blood glucose can cause problems for people suffering from defective glucose metabolism ... When glucose builds up in the bloodstream, it can cause two problems: *in the short term, cells become starved for energy ...
... is a condensation product of glucose and fructose. Maltose, another common disaccharide, is condensed from two glucose ... Common disaccharides[edit]. Disaccharide. Unit 1. Unit 2. Bond Sucrose (table sugar, cane sugar, beet sugar, or saccharose) ... Sucrose, a disaccharide formed from condensation of a molecule of glucose and a molecule of fructose ... Disaccharides are one of the four chemical groupings of carbohydrates (monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and ...
... contains a larger number of Glucose units (2000 to 200,000) as compared to Amylose containing 200 to 1000 α-Glucose ... Amylopectin /ˌæmɪloʊˈpɛktɪn/ is a water-soluble[1][2] polysaccharide and highly branched polymer of α-glucose units found in ... being formed of 2,000 to 200,000 glucose units. Its inner chains are formed of 20-24 glucose subunits. ... Glucose units are linked in a linear way with α(1→4) Glycosidic bonds. Branching usually occurs at intervals of 25 residues. At ...
Some β-glucan molecules have branching glucose side-chains attached to other positions on the main D-glucose chain, which ... β-Glucans (beta-glucans) comprise a group of β-D-glucose polysaccharides naturally occurring in the cell walls of cereals, ... The most common forms of β-glucans are those comprising D-glucose units with β-1,3 links. Yeast and fungal β-glucans contain 1- ... Although technically β-glucans are chains of D-glucose polysaccharides linked by β-type glycosidic bonds, by convention not all ...
1 All cells are coated in either glycoproteins or glycolipids, both of which help determine cell types.[7] Lectins, or proteins that bind carbohydrates, can recognize specific oligosaccharides and provide useful information for cell recognition based on oligosaccharide binding.[citation needed] An important example of oligosaccharide cell recognition is the role of glycolipids in determining blood types. The various blood types are distinguished by the glycan modification present on the surface of blood cells.[15] These can be visualized using mass spectrometry. The oligosaccharides found on the A, B, and H antigen occur on the non-reducing ends of the oligosaccharide. The H antigen (which indicates an O blood type) serves as a precursor for the A and B antigen.[7] Therefore, a person with A blood type will have the A antigen and H antigen present on the glycolipids of the red blood cell plasma membrane. A person with B blood type will have the B and H antigen present. A person with AB blood ...
Garot (1850) "De la matière colorante rouge des rhubarbes exotiques et indigènes et de son application (comme matière colorante) aux arts et à la pharmacie" (On the red coloring material of exotic and indigenous rhubarb and on its application (as a coloring material) in the arts and in pharmacy), Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie, 3rd series, 17 : 5-19. Erythrose is named on p. 10: "Celui que je propose, sans y attacher toutefois la moindre importance, est celui d'érythrose, du verbe grec 'ερυθραινω, rougir (1)." (The one [i.e., name] that I propose, without attaching any importance to it, is that of erythrose, from the Greek verb ερυθραινω, to redden (1).) ...
stimulate gene expression of glucose transporters in the intestinal mucosa, regulating glucose absorption[98] ... synthetic disaccharide Fiber contents in food[edit]. Dietary fibers are found in fruits, vegetables and whole grains. The ... improves glucose tolerance and the insulin response following a meal. *increases colonic fermentation and short-chain fatty ... Regulates blood sugar, which may reduce glucose and insulin levels in diabetic patients and may lower risk of diabetes[1][76] ...
Based on core disaccharide structures, GAGs are classified into four groups.[5] Heparin/heparan sulfate (HSGAGs) and ... HA, a linear polysaccharide, is composed of repeating disaccharide units of →4)GlcAβ(1→3)GlcNAcβ(1→ and has a very high ... Highly similar in structure to heparin, however heparan sulfate's disaccharide units are organised into distinct sulfated and ... Glycosaminoglycans have high degrees of heterogeneity with regards to molecular mass, disaccharide construction, and sulfation ...
stimulate gene expression of glucose transporters in the intestinal mucosa, regulating glucose absorption[112] ... improves glucose tolerance and the insulin response following a meal. *increases colonic fermentation and short-chain fatty ... Regulates blood sugar, which may reduce glucose and insulin levels in diabetic patients and may lower risk of diabetes[1][86] ... stabilize blood glucose levels by acting on pancreatic insulin release and liver control of glycogen breakdown ...
For the 24 hours after self-tanner (containing high DHA levels, ~5%) is applied, the skin is especially susceptible to free-radical damage from sunlight, according to a 2007 study led by Katinka Jung of the Gematria Test Lab in Berlin.[17] Forty minutes after the researchers treated skin samples with high levels of DHA they found that more than 180 percent additional free radicals formed during sun exposure compared with untreated skin. Another self-tanner ingredient, erythrulose, produced a similar response at high levels. For a day after self-tanner application, excessive sun exposure should be avoided and sunscreen should be worn outdoors, they say; an antioxidant cream could also minimize free radical production. Although some self-tanners contain sunscreen, its effect will not last long after application, and a fake tan itself will not protect the skin from UV exposure.[citation needed] The study by Jung et al. further confirms earlier results demonstrating that dihydroxyacetone in ...
The furanose ring is a cyclic hemiacetal of an aldopentose or a cyclic hemiketal of a ketohexose. A furanose ring structure consists of four carbon and one oxygen atom with the anomeric carbon to the right of the oxygen. The highest numbered chiral carbon (typically to the left of the oxygen in a Haworth projection) determines whether or not the structure has a ...
Table sugar, granulated sugar, or regular sugar, refers to sucrose, a disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose. ... Galactose generally does not occur in the free state but is a constituent with glucose of the disaccharide lactose or milk ... Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right), important molecules in the body. ... Glucose syrup is a liquid form of glucose that is widely used in the manufacture of foodstuffs. It can be manufactured from ...
Disaccharide. Notes[edit]. *^ "Carbohydrates". Chemistry for Biologists. Royal Society of Chemistry. Retrieved 10 March 2017.. ... In the Fischer projection, one of the two glucose isomers has the hydroxyl at left on C3, and at right on C4 and C5; while the ... Monosaccharides are the building blocks of disaccharides (such as sucrose and lactose) and polysaccharides (such as cellulose ... The most important monosaccharide, glucose, is a hexose. Examples of heptoses include the ketoses, mannoheptulose and ...
... is an aldohexose sugar. It is a monosaccharide that is very rare in nature, but has been found in archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes.[2] It also exists as a syrup with a sweet taste. It is soluble in water and slightly soluble in methanol. Neither the ...
Amylose is a linear polymer of glucose mainly linked with α(1→4) bonds. It can be made of several thousands of glucose units. ... Starch is a glucose polymer in which glucopyranose units are bonded by alpha-linkages. It is made up of a mixture of amylose ( ... The formations of starches are the ways that plants store glucose.. Glycogen[edit]. Glycogen serves as the secondary long-term ... Glycogen is analogous to starch, a glucose polymer in plants, and is sometimes referred to as animal starch,[13] having a ...
Disaccharides. *Cellobiose. *Lactose. *Maltose. *Sucrose. *Trehalose. *Turanose. Trisaccharides. *Maltotriose. *Melezitose. * ...
Beet molasses is 50% sugar by dry weight, predominantly sucrose, but contains significant amounts of glucose and fructose. Beet ... It contains betaine and the trisaccharide raffinose. These are a result of concentration from the original plant material or ... The sugars in molasses are sucrose (29% of total carbohydrates), glucose (12%) and fructose (13%) (data from USDA nutrition ...
The principal soluble carbohydrates of mature soybeans are the disaccharide sucrose (range 2.5-8.2%), the trisaccharide ... "The Effect of Phytic Acid on In Vitro Rate of Starch Digestibility and Blood Glucose Response". American Journal of Clinical ... comparable to the disaccharide trehalose. Undigested oligosaccharides are broken down in the intestine by native microbes, ...
... including monosaccharide glucose, disaccharide maltose, trisaccharide maltotriose, and higher sugars called maltodextrines. It ...
... to hydrolyse dietary starch into disaccharides and trisaccharides which are converted by other enzymes to glucose to supply the ... yielding glucose. The γ-amylase has most acidic optimum pH of all amylases because it is most active around pH 3. They belong ... cleaving off two glucose units (maltose) at a time. During the ripening of fruit, β-amylase breaks starch into maltose, ... glucose and "limit dextrin" from amylopectin. They belong to glycoside hydrolase family 13. ...
... the disaccharides such as maltose, lactose and sucrose; the trisaccharides, such as raffinose; and the short chain dextrins, e. ... This includes without limitation the monosaccharides such as the commonly available hexoses, including dextrose (glucose), ... 4. The material of claim 1 wherein the carbohydrate is a disaccharide. 5. The material of claim 4 wherein the carbohydrate is ...
Sucrose, maltose and lactose are examples of disaccharide.. Trisaccharides. Trisaccharides are oligosaccharides. A ... Glucose Is the Source of Energy for the Brain. The primary source of energy in the brain is glucose. Rarely, in glucose ... Disaccharides. Also known as biose and double sugar, a disaccharide is a class of sugar whose molecules contain two ... At the same time, glucose from simple sugars causes detrimental effect to the brain. Hence, glucose from whole food ...
Two, three, several or many monosaccharides thus linked form disaccharides, trisaccharides, oligosaccharides, or ... When a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis (e.g., sucrose being broken down into glucose ... Malt made from barley is used as a source of β-amylase to break down starch into the disaccharide maltose, which can be used by ... Ruminants such as cows are able to hydrolyze cellulose into cellobiose and then glucose because of symbiotic bacteria that ...
Alpha amylase degrades starch to a mixture of the disaccharide maltose; the trisaccharide maltotriose, which contains three α ( ... 1-4)-linked glucose residues; and oligosaccharides, known as dextrins, that contain the α (1-6)-linked glucose branches. ...
Preferred carbon sources include monosaccharides, disaccharides, and trisaccharides. A more preferred carbon source is glucose. ... CM17-1 contains, per liter of water, 3 grams of glucose, 200 mg of L-asparagine, 50 mg of MgSO.sub.4 .multidot.7H.sub.2 O,150 ... FM17-A medium contains, per liter water, 75 grams of Pharmamedia, 10 grams of glucose, 100 mg of MnSO.sub. .multidot.H.sub.2 O ... Apreferred solidified growth medium of the present invention is CM17-1, which is an aqueous medium containing glucose, ...
The AI-2 production profile by Salmonella serovar Typhimurium 14028 in LB with or without 0.5% glucose is shown in Fig. 1C. The ... 2). The following carbohydrates were tested: monosaccharides, including arabinose, galactose, and mannose; disaccharides, ... including maltose and melibiose; a trisaccharide (raffinose); and glycerol. Although the levels of AI-2 activity were ... In contrast to luxS transcription, pfs expression was sensitive to the presence of glucose. pfs expression in LB with 0.5% ...
... disaccharides such as sucrose; trisaccharides such as raffinose; tetrasaccharides such as stachyose; linear sugaralcohols such ... The sugar (C) usable in the present invention includes monosaccharides such as D-xylose, D-glucose, L-idose, and D-fructose; ... Concretely, D-xylose, D-glucose, xylitol, D-sorbitol and D-mannitol are even more preferable. The content of these sugars is ... D-Glucose (Molecular 1.5 Weight: 180) D-Mannitol(Molecular 1.5 Weight: 182) D Water 1 5 35 5 10 Pyrocatechol 10 Oleyl alcohol ( ...
Sucrose is a disaccharide composed of one glucose molecule (left) and one fructose molecule (right) ... Monosaccharides, disaccharides, trisaccharides, and oligosaccharides contain one, two, three, four or more monosaccharide units ... For example, sucrose is a disaccharide, a composition of the two monosaccharides glucose and fructose. Likewise, lactose (milk ... sugar) is made from glucose and galactose, and maltose is made from two molecules of glucose. Disaccharides have the formula C ...
Fragment disaccharides and trisaccharides into monosaccharides (simple sugars) *maltase splits maltose into 2 glucose ... For transporting glucose and sodium ions into intestinal cells both sodium ions and glucose molecules must bind to carrier ...
The name glucose comes from the Greek word glykys (γλυκύς), meaning sweet, plus the suffix -ose which denotes a sugar 4 ... Glucose 0.74 Monosaccharide   Sucrose 1.00 Invert sugar1.30  Fructose    1.73 Disaccharide Mixture of glucose and ... e.g.  disaccharides (2 units) e.g. maltose and sucrose,  trisaccharides (3 units).....etc. 3-Polysaccharides (poly = many): ... 6. Animals plant starch (+)-glucose (+)-glucose glycogen glycogen (+)-glucose (+)-glucose fats or aminoacids respiration (+)- ...
Hydrolyzes polysaccharides to disaccharides and trisaccharides like salivary amylase but much more powerful. Degrades nearly ... if glucose appears in the urine, it must be because the glucose transporters in the PCT are unable to reabsorb all of the ... The formation of glucose from glycogen when blood levels of glucose are low. Takes place in the liver. ... High blood glucagon levels are caused by low blood glucose. A patient has high blood glucose. Would you expect to see high ...
... fructose and glucose; disaccharides such as lactose, maltose and sucrose; trisaccharides such as raffinose, and polysaccharides ...
... fructose and glucose; disaccharides such as lactose, maltose and sucrose; trisaccharides such as raffinose, and polysaccharides ...
two D-glucoses linked α-1,4) and cellulobiose (two D-glucoses linked β-1,4).. disaccharides can be classified into two types. ... Raffinose is a trisaccharide composed of galactose, fructose, and glucose. It can be found in beans, cabbage, brussels sprouts ... For example, glucose. Glucose. Glucose is a simple sugar and an important carbohydrate in biology. Cells use it as the primary ... of unmodified disaccharides is C12H22O11. Although there are numerous kinds of disaccharides, a handful of disaccharides are ...
3. Disaccharides include sucrose (glucose + fructose), lactose (glucose + galactose), and maltose (two glucoses). Linkages of ... These include disaccharides (two sugars), trisaccharides (three sugars), oligosaccharides (several sugars), and polysaccharides ... glucose in beta 1-4 linkages), amylose (glucose in alpha 1-4 linkages), amylopectin (glucose in alpha 1-4 linkages plus some ... HERE is a better one. You are responsible for the structure of sucrose and the linkages for the disaccharides I described in ...
... a disaccharide consisting of one molecule of glucose and one molecule of fructose. ... and the trisaccharides. Monosaccharides are simple sugars, and a disaccharide is composed of two of these compounds, minus a ... Glucose can also be found anywhere there is sucrose, since it comprises part of that sugar. Commercially, glucose is produced ... a disaccharide consisting of one molecule of glucose and one molecule of fructose. Sucrose is present in most plants, but is ...
If there are two, it is a disaccharide. If there are three, it is a trisaccharide. You get the idea. Simple Sugars. What about ... Glucose (C6H12O6) is created by photosynthesis and used in cellular respiration. When you think of table sugar, like the kind ... The sugar on your dinner table is made of glucose and another monosaccharide called fructose (C6H12O6). These sugars have the ... You know that shirt youre wearing? If it is made of cotton, thats cellulose, too! There can be thousands of glucose subunits ...
In addition to disaccharides, trisaccharides like raffinose and maltotriose may be used. Larger oligosaccharides may also be ... Alternatively, monosaccharides like glucose, mannose and galactose may be used. These mono-, di-, tri- and larger oligo- ... disaccharide and trisaccharide. 6. The rHDL formulation according to according to claim 1, wherein the lyophilization ... For example, the inventors have found that disaccharides such as sucrose are particularly suitable sugars for use as the ...
Preferred carbon sources in the present invention include monosaccharides, disaccharides, and trisaccharides. The most ... 43.8 g/L of glucose and 0.5 ml/L of K60K antifoam. M-6 medium has the same ingredients as the M-3 medium except that it ... glucose, fructose, mannose, sorbose, arabinose, xylose, levulose, cellobiose, and molasses; fatty acids; and polyalcohols such ... Numerous fermentation samples were prepared that had increasing concentrations of glucose (the amounts are shown in Table 2, ...
Fructose is the predominant sugar at 38.5 percent, followed by glucose at 31 percent. Disac- charides, trisac -charides and ... glucose sugars) levels. Honey color is always graded with a number. A low number indicates a light color and the higher the ...
... other sugars including the disaccharides, trisaccharides and polysaccharides such as sucrose, maltose, lactose, rafiinose, ... such as glucose, galactose, mannose, gulose, idose, talose, allose and the like; keto- hexoses such as fructose or levulose, ... glucose, maltose, lactose, raffinose and others, and the mixed allyl, methallyl and crotyl polyethers of the above and other ... glucose, sucrose, and others; polyunsaturated ketones such as divinyl ketone, diallyl ketone (di-2 propenyl ketone), and others ...
The structural variability increases for the heterosides whose osidic moiety is a disaccharide or trisaccharide, which can be ... The monoosides are formed with D-glucose, but also with D-galactose or D-allose, with pentoses (D-apiose, L-arabinose, L- ... wherein the flavonoid component is substituted by an ose selected from the group consisting of shamnose, glactose, glucose and ... wherein the flavonoid component is substituted by an ose selected from the group consisting of a rhamnose, galactose, glucose ...
However, anthocyanins containing disaccharides and trisaccharides were also found in nature but no tetrasaccharides have been ... The usual monosaccharide residues are glucose, galactose, arabinose, ramnose, xylose and glucuronic acid. ... UDP-glucose: anthocianidin: flavonoid glucosyltransferase; OMT - O-methyltransferase; ACT - anthocyanin acyltransferase. ... UDP-glucose: anthocianidin: flavonoid glucosyltransferase; OMT - O-methyltransferase; ACT - anthocyanin acyltransferase. ...
... and disaccharides as well as other glucose-based oligomers.. Preferably, the combined amount of mono-, di-, and tri-saccharides ... The carrier component provided by the feedstock has a high glucose profile. A high glucose profile means that the elements ... nutritive saccharide polymers and other glucose-bearing oligomers as well as glucose units, which collectively provide a ... 138 has a D.E. of 27 and a mono-, di-, and tri- saccharide content of 29.4% by weight. It produces large flakes which are ...
... disaccharides and trisaccharides with different linkages: Vivinal and Oligomate® contain predominantly β-(l → 4) trisaccharides ... Glucose. 0.60 ± 0.02c. 4.04 ± 0.01c. 0.75 ± 0.06a,b. 5.02 ± 0.01d. 0.44 ± 0.01a,b. 4.12 ± 0.11c. ... In the reaction mixtures containing lactose, the major disaccharide was allolactose (7.7%) and the main trisaccharides were 6′- ... PG24 and PG0 is the probiotic OD600 on glucose after 24 h and 0 h fermentation, respectively. EP24, EP0 and EG24, EG0 are the E ...
More preferably disaccharide or trisaccharide oligosaccharide sequences according to the formula B are used. The trisaccharide ... To reduce the methylesterified GIcA units to glucose units, the methylesterified sample was dissolved in 100 1 of 50 mM ... These elements preferably include the 4-, and 6-hydroxyl groups of the Gal (34 residue in the trisaccharide and disaccharide ... However, the minimal disaccharide of the present invention GalNAcp4Glc (A) ou (NAc) on has different monosaccharides and ...
Voglibose is an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor used for lowering post-prandial blood glucose levels in people with diabetes ... The membrane-bound intestinal alpha-glucosidases hydrolyze oligosaccharides, trisaccharides, and disaccharides to glucose and ... Less glucose is absorbed because the carbohydrates are not broken down into glucose molecules. In diabetic patients, the short- ... Impaired Glucose Tolerance / Myocardial Infarction. 1. Not Available. Unknown Status. Prevention. Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) ...
Mice immunized with terminal disaccharide-CRM197 constructs produced high-titer antibody responses that crossreacted with Bm- ... With disaccharides 15-17 in hand, we then turn our attention to the synthesis of trisaccharides 24-26 (Table 2). Cleavage of ... Then TCA 35 was coupled with glucose acceptor 13 in the presence of TMSOTf in an attempt to form a trisaccharide. However, ... Indeed, disaccharide 6 was shown to bind more strongly to mAb 4C7 than disaccharide 7, with a K D value in the low nanomolar ...
Oligosaccharides may be referred to as disaccharides or trisaccharides depending on how many units of monosaccharides the ... The human body s primary source of energy is glucose. Glucose is derived from the breakdown or hydrolysis of carbohydrates that ... These simple sugars cannot be broken down or hydrolyzed into a simpler form (glucose). A complex carbohydrate refers to one or ... Alpha-amylase briefly acts on dietary carbohydrates in the mouth to hydrolyze starch into simple sugars such as glucose. In ...
The sugars used included monosaccharides (fructose, glucose, galactose, mannose, rhamnose), disaccharides (sucrose, maltose, ... Effect of sodium acetate on the volumetric behaviour of some mono-, di-, and tri-saccharides in aqueous solutions over ... glucose, and D(+)-mannose], six disaccharides [D(+)-cellobiose, sucrose, D(+)-melibiose, D(+)-lactose monohydrate, D(+)- ... glucose, disaccharides; D(+)-melibiose, D(+)-cellobiose, D(+)-maltose monohydrate, D(+)-trehalose dihydrate, D(+)-lactose ...
  • Glucose, galactose and fructose are examples of monosaccharide. (hubpages.com)
  • Monosaccharides , or "simple sugars" are monomers, and include such sugars as fructose , glucose , galactose , and ribose . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Likewise, lactose (milk sugar) is made from glucose and galactose, and maltose is made from two molecules of glucose. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • E.g. glucose, galactose,ribose 2- Oligosaccharides (oligo = few): contain from two to ten monosaccharide units joined in glycosidic bonds. (slideshare.net)
  • 3. Disaccharides include sucrose (glucose + fructose), lactose (glucose + galactose), and maltose (two glucoses). (oregonstate.edu)
  • 2,3 These technological and probiotic properties are based on the hydrolysis of milk sugar by β-gal, which releases its monosaccharides glucose and galactose. (rsc.org)
  • 4,5 GOS are defined as nondigestible carbohydrates, formed by two to five galactose monomers and often a unit of terminal glucose linked by glycosidic bonds that exert prebiotic effects in consumers. (rsc.org)
  • The splitting of melibiose (galactose and glucose) is carried out with autolyzate prepared from brewery yeast. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Simple carbohydrates are monosaccharide molecules such as glucose, fructose, and galactose. (jove.com)
  • None of the sugars, such as glucose, mannose or galactose, nor their derivatives, disaccharides, trisaccharides and tetrasaccharides have any effect on the agglutin-ation activity of this lectin. (iucr.org)
  • However, the two sugars glucose (Glc) and galactose (Gal) can form more than 1,160 different disaccharides, and in principle, all of the disaccharide structures are possible in biological organisms. (reasons.org)
  • ALDOHEXOSES: 4 chiral centres and a total of 16 possible aldohexose stereoisomers (24), but only three commonly occur in nature: D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-mannose. (foodelphi.com)
  • Composed of galactose & glucose, with b(1®4) glycosidic linkage from the anomeric OH of galactose. (foodelphi.com)
  • As a rule, flavonoid compounds occur in plants as glycosides, with hexoses such as glucose, galactose, and rhamnose, and pentoses such as arabinose and xylose as the most commonly found sugars. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • α-Tomatine is composed of the 6-ring steroidal aglycone tomatidine by which a tetrasaccharide moiety (containing xylose, galactose and 2 glucose units) is bound to the 3-OH group of the aglycone. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The simplest molecules of sugars are the monosaccharides, which include galactose, fructose and glucose, the only monosaccharides absorbed by humans. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Fructose ( fruit sugar ) is a monosaccharide, and so are glucose ( blood sugar ), the sugar produced when you digest carbohydrates, and galactose, the sugar derived from digesting lactose (milk sugar). (fitness-vip.com)
  • It has one unit each of galactose, glucose, and fructose. (fitness-vip.com)
  • Some kinds of dietary fiber also contain units of soluble or insoluble uronic acids, compounds derived from the sugars fructose, glucose, and galactose. (fitness-vip.com)
  • Also known as beta-galactosidase, lactase converts the disaccharide milk sugar called lactose into the monosaccharides glucose and galactose. (bio-cat.com)
  • Formula: C 6 H 12 O 6 raffinose a trisaccharide of fructose, glucose, and galactose that occurs in sugar beet, cotton seed, certain cereals, etc. (collinsdictionary.com)
  • It is composed of a molecule of D-galactose and a molecule of D-glucose bonded by a β-1-4 glycosidic linkage . (wikidoc.org)
  • The basic carbohydrate units are called monosaccharides , such as glucose , galactose , and fructose . (wikidoc.org)
  • Lactose is a disaccharide consisting of the monomers glucose and galactose. (candelaeventi.it)
  • Disaccharide is ingested as sucrose (from sugarcane or sugar beet, composed up of monosaccharides glucose and fructose ) and lactose (from milk, composed of the monosaccharides glucose and galactose ). (mrshum.com)
  • Composed of glucose and galactose. (richardsonthebrain.com)
  • Norman, 6/16/09) Formed by the "condensation" of a molecule of glucose and a molecule of "galactose. (richardsonthebrain.com)
  • Examples include glucose, fructose, and galactose. (richardsonthebrain.com)
  • Glucose + Galactose = Lactose. (richardsonthebrain.com)
  • Sucrose, maltose and lactose are examples of disaccharide. (hubpages.com)
  • Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharides linked together by covalent bonds, and include such examples as lactose and maltose, in addition to sucrose. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • When these compounds were tested without purifying, as carbon sources for the development of recognized probiotics and the producer strain, high growth was observed compared to non-prebiotic sugars like glucose and lactose. (rsc.org)
  • Disaccharides include lactose , maltose , and sucrose . (infoplease.com)
  • Oligosaccharides include disaccharides such as lactose (milk sugar), maltose (malt sugar), sucrose (table sugar), trisaccharides (raffinose), and tetrasaccharides (stachyose). (bodybuilding.com)
  • Disaccharides (including lactose, maltose and sucrose) and trisaccharides (including raffinose, found in cottonseed and sugar beets), are derived from the union of monosaccharides. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Formula: C 6 H 12 O 6 invert sugar a mixture of fructose and glucose obtained by the inversion of sucrose lactose or milk sugar maltose a disaccharide of glucose formed by the enzymic hydrolysis of starch: used in bacteriological culture media and as a nutrient in infant feeding. (collinsdictionary.com)
  • Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk . (wikidoc.org)
  • 2. Any of a class of water-soluble crystalline carbohydrates, including sucrose and lactose, having a characteristically sweet taste and classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, and trisaccharides. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A disaccharide is a double sugar, such as sucrose (table sugar) or lactose. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Several disaccharides such as maltose and lactose are also reducing sugars. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chemically, the term sugars includes sucrose and other disaccharides (maltose, lactose) and also the simple sugars, the monosaccharides (pentoses, hexoses). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • They all have a characteristically sweet taste, including the disaccharide lactose found in milk and maltose found in malt. (katecook.biz)
  • an 'aldehyde' sugar that combines with glucose to make lactose or 'milk sugar. (richardsonthebrain.com)
  • Trisaccharides are oligosaccharides. (hubpages.com)
  • and oligosaccharides, known as dextrins, that contain the α (1-6)-linked glucose branches. (wikipedia.org)
  • In disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides, the molar proportions deviate slightly from the general formula because two hydrogens and one oxygen are lost during each of the condensation reactions that forms them. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • These include disaccharides (two sugars), trisaccharides (three sugars), oligosaccharides (several sugars), and polysaccharides (many sugars). (oregonstate.edu)
  • The membrane-bound intestinal alpha-glucosidases hydrolyze oligosaccharides, trisaccharides, and disaccharides to glucose and other monosaccharides in the small intestine. (drugbank.ca)
  • Oligosaccharides may be referred to as disaccharides or trisaccharides depending on how many units of monosaccharides the compound contains. (positivearticles.com)
  • These enzymes inhibit hydrolysis of complex starches to oligosaccharides in the lumen of the small intestine and hydrolysis of oligosaccharides, trisaccharides, and disaccharides to glucose and other monosaccharides in the brush border of the small intestine. (rcsb.org)
  • Pancreatic alpha-amylase hydrolyzes complex starches to oligosaccharides in the lumen of the small intestine, while the membrane-bound intestinal alpha-glucosidases hydrolyze oligosaccharides, trisaccharides, and disaccharides to glucose and other monosaccharides in the brush border of the small intestine. (nih.gov)
  • The experiments were carried out in laboratory and when 14C-D-sucrose, 14C-D-fructose or 14C-D-mannitol radiolabelled saccharides were incorporated into: a) sorghum plant infected by C. africana, b) whole and macereted micelia tissue and c) cell-free honeydew of C. africana, it was observed that the glucose moiety of sucrose was not involved in oligosaccharides formation. (scielo.br)
  • nature Some common examples are glucose fructose ribose etc. ii Oligosaccharides Carbohydrates that yield two to ten. (articleist.com)
  • Humans naturally produce alpha-amylase in saliva and pancreatic "juice" to trim down starch into shorter chain oligosaccharides and disaccharides. (bio-cat.com)
  • In addition, transglucosidase facilitates the elongation of maltose to longer malto-oligosaccharides such as the trisaccharides panose and isopanose that are partially resistant to digestion by human pancreatic enzymes. (bio-cat.com)
  • Complex carbohydrates, on the other hand, are polysaccharides composed of long chains of glucose. (jove.com)
  • The principal categories of sugars are monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Includes "monosaccharides," "disaccharides" and "polysaccharides. (richardsonthebrain.com)
  • At the same time, glucose from simple sugars causes detrimental effect to the brain. (hubpages.com)
  • Monosaccharides are simple sugars, and a disaccharide is composed of two of these compounds, minus a single water molecule. (fsu.edu)
  • These simple sugars cannot be broken down or hydrolyzed into a simpler form (glucose). (positivearticles.com)
  • Alpha-amylase briefly acts on dietary carbohydrates in the mouth to hydrolyze starch into simple sugars such as glucose. (positivearticles.com)
  • Fructose is the sweetest of the simple sugars and is found as the monosaccharide, along with glucose and sucrose, in fruits and vegetables (Park and Yetley, 1993). (alpfmedical.info)
  • Hence, glucose from whole food carbohydrates is essential in diet but excess simple carbohydrates are harmful. (hubpages.com)
  • The term oligosaccharide refers to carbohydrates that have from 3 to 20 monosaccarides links, and thus includes trisaccharides. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Less glucose is absorbed because the carbohydrates are not broken down into glucose molecules. (drugbank.ca)
  • The digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth during mastication as numerous salivary glands release enzymes like amylase, which break down starches into smaller sugars, di and trisaccharides. (jove.com)
  • Glucose is derived from the breakdown or hydrolysis of carbohydrates that are consumed. (positivearticles.com)
  • An inhibitor of alpha glucosidase that retards the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates in the small intestine and hence reduces the increase in blood-glucose concentrations after a carbohydrate load. (rcsb.org)
  • Acarbose is a complex oligosaccharide that delays the digestion of ingested carbohydrates, thereby resulting in a smaller rise in blood glucose concentration following meals. (rcsb.org)
  • The specific combination and potencies of enzymes in PowerZyme are intended to enable more complete breakdown of casein, gluten, lipids, disaccharides, and carbohydrates compared to generally available digestive enzyme supplements. (appliedhealth.com)
  • As a result, digesting complex carbohydrates releases glucose into your bloodstream more slowly and evenly than digesting simple carbs. (fitness-vip.com)
  • Glucose monomer of many of the larger carbohydrates namely starch cellulose. (articleist.com)
  • In the beer wort, there are valuable carbohydrates in the form of hexoses: glucose and fructose. (portalosaberdacerveja.com.br)
  • Sugar is the general name for short-chain soluble carbohydrates - classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides or trisaccharides. (katecook.biz)
  • breaks down all macromolecules , including carbohydrates ( disaccharide , polysaccharide ), protein , nucleic acids and fats (mostly triglyceride ), but require an enzyme for the reaction to be meaningful. (mrshum.com)
  • Mouth contains saliva , which contains salivary amylase , which is an enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates into disaccharides and trisaccharides (but not monosaccharides ). (mrshum.com)
  • Trisaccharides, which consist of three monosaccharides, or hexoses, linked by glycosidic bonds, are quite rare compared to other sugar compounds, but can be found as raffinose in sugar beets, cottonseed, and molasses. (fsu.edu)
  • The utilization of melibiose , which remains after partial splitting of trisaccharide of raffinose is discussed. (worldwidescience.org)
  • raffinose is a trisaccharide present in cottonseed and in sugar beets. (infoplease.com)
  • Raffinose is a trisaccharide (tri = three) that's found in potatoes, beans, and beets. (fitness-vip.com)
  • they include fructose and glucose . (infoplease.com)
  • HFCS is a nutritive liquid sweetener containing the monosaccharides fructose and glucose, in varying proportions. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Sucrose's anomeric carbon is not free since this carbon is used to link fructose and glucose together. (toppr.com)
  • The disaccharide sucrose is decomposed into fructose and glucose by the enzyme invertase, which can be found near the plasma membrane of the yeast cell. (portalosaberdacerveja.com.br)
  • Here it is a combination of varying amounts of fructose and glucose plus a little sucrose. (katecook.biz)
  • Amylase (alpha amylase) is also present in pancreas and this aids in hydrolyzing the starch in our diet into disaccharides and trisaccharides, which are eventually converted into glucose by other enzymes. (medindia.net)
  • Glucose, also known as dextrose or corn syrup, is produced from corn starch. (alpfmedical.info)
  • This is a measure of the degree of starch break down (hydrolysis), and is used as a general way of identifying different glucose and glucose-fructose syrups. (cargill.com)
  • Sucrose Glucose Fructose, 2 From starch Commercially glucose is obtained by hydrolysis of. (articleist.com)
  • C6 H10 O5 n nH 2 O,393 K 2 3 atm,nC6 H12 O6,Starch or cellulose Glucose. (articleist.com)
  • Amylases help digest long chains of glucose called starch-the most common carbohydrate in the human diet. (bio-cat.com)
  • A polysaccharide is a sugar made up of repeating units of glucose, such as cellulose, starch, and glycogen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some of the main characteristics are color, granulation, moisture content, Levlose (fructose sugars) levels and Dextrose (glucose sugars) levels. (glorybee.com)
  • Interesting, I went to a bee info site and found this----- ---In the honey stomach, the nectar is mixed with what is known as the bee enzyme called invertase, and it is this which starts to transform the raw nectar's sucrose (a disaccharide - two sugars) into dextrose (glucose) and levulose (fructose) which are monossacharides (basic sugars). (homebrewersassociation.org)
  • Oral glucose ( dextrose ), whose absorption is not inhibited by acarbose, should be used instead of sucrose (cane sugar) in the treatment of mild to moderate hypoglycemia . (wikidoc.org)
  • By selecting the correct type of glucose syrup, glucose-fructose syrup or dextrose it is possible to influence the melting behavior of ice-cream. (cargill.com)
  • Structure of Glucose is an aldohexose and is also known as dextrose It is the. (articleist.com)
  • Formula: C 5 H 10 O 4 dextrose or grape sugar a white soluble sweet-tasting crystalline solid that is the dextrorotatory isomer of glucose, occurring widely in fruit, honey, and in the blood and tissue of animals. (collinsdictionary.com)
  • Formula: C 6 H 12 O 6 glucose a white crystalline monosaccharide sugar that has several optically active forms, the most abundant being dextrose: a major energy source in metabolism. (collinsdictionary.com)
  • Homopolymers include glycogen (glucose in alpha 1-4 linkages plus extensive alpha 1-6 branches), cellulose (glucose in beta 1-4 linkages), amylose (glucose in alpha 1-4 linkages), amylopectin (glucose in alpha 1-4 linkages plus some alpha 1-6 branches), and chitin (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine in beta 1-4 linkages). (oregonstate.edu)
  • There can be thousands of glucose subunits in one large molecule of cellulose. (chem4kids.com)
  • The purity of a carbohydrate preparation, which is frequently based on an analysis of its composition , is more easily established for monosaccharides and disaccharides than for large, insoluble molecules such as cellulose . (britannica.com)
  • Norton Lectures, 6/16/09) Cows feed on grass but rely on "bacteria" in their guts to break down the cellulose to glucose. (richardsonthebrain.com)
  • Sugars are classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, and trisaccharides. (hubpages.com)
  • are further classified as disaccharides trisaccharides tetrasaccharides. (articleist.com)
  • It has been optimized for the analysis of monosaccharides and provides separation of disaccharides, trisaccharides and tetrasaccharides. (epruibiotech.com)
  • 4. The material of claim 1 wherein the carbohydrate is a disaccharide. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Glucose is a carbohydrate. (hubpages.com)
  • This water-soluble crystalline carbohydrate is exemplified by sucrose and glucose. (hubpages.com)
  • When a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis (e.g., sucrose being broken down into glucose and fructose), this is recognized as saccharification. (wikipedia.org)
  • A carbohydrate with two units of sugar is called a double sugar or a disaccharide (di = two). (fitness-vip.com)
  • It is a disaccharide , meaning that it is made up of two monosaccharide sugar units and a simple carbohydrate. (candelaeventi.it)
  • 9. 2- According to the characteristic carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone group): - Aldo sugars: aldoses: Contain aldehyde group e.g. glucose, ribose, erythrose and glyceraldehydes. (slideshare.net)
  • Some common examples are glucose, Ribose etc. (toppr.com)
  • For example, glucose is an aldohexose (a six-carbon aldehyde), ribose is an aldopentose (a five-carbon aldehyde), and fructose is a ketohexose (a six-carbon ketone). (wikidoc.org)
  • For example, sucrose is a disaccharide, a composition of the two monosaccharides glucose and fructose. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Sucrose is a disaccharide formed by glucose and fructose units joined by an acetal oxygen bridge from hemiacetal of glucose to the hemiketal of the fructose. (candelaeventi.it)
  • Sucrose is a disaccharide, made from the monosaccharides glucose and fructose. (katecook.biz)
  • Gellan gum is an exocellular polysaccharide secreted from the bacterium Sphingomonas elodea and consists of repeating tetrasaccharide of glucuronic acid, rhamnose, and glucose [26, 27]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The retention factors of monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) was 0.6, sucrose, 0.5, trisaccharide (similar to 1-kestose standard solution), 0.4, and tetrasaccharide (similar to nystose standard solution), 0.3. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Glucose is the major component in glycogen, the sugar storage macromolecule, and is the central molecule involved in the anaerobic glycolysis process. (fsu.edu)
  • Commercially, glucose is produced by the enzyme conversion of cornstarch and then is refined by ion-exchange demineralization. (fsu.edu)
  • For example, the enzyme sucrase breaks down the disaccharide sucrose into glucose and fructose. (jove.com)
  • In diabetic patients, this enzyme inhibition results in a delayed glucose absorption and a lowering of postprandial hyperglycemia. (rcsb.org)
  • then hydrolyzes the maltose into glucose. (gustrength.com)
  • Transglucosidase belongs to the alpha-glucosidase family of enzymes that can hydrolyze the disaccharide maltose into glucose. (bio-cat.com)
  • Hexoses (six-carbon sugars) include glucose which is a universal substrate for the production of energy in the form of ATP in the process of glycolysis . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The sugar that most people come into contact with on a daily basis is a form of refined, crystalline sucrose, a disaccharide consisting of one molecule of glucose and one molecule of fructose. (fsu.edu)
  • For example, sucrose on hydrolysis gives one molecule of glucose and fructose each. (toppr.com)
  • hydrolysis gives one molecule of glucose and one molecule of fructose. (articleist.com)
  • 26. By hydrolysis of which substance, we obtain one molecule of glucose? (biologynotes.site)
  • Sucrose, the most common meaning of the word sugar, is a white, crystalline , solid disaccharide commonly added to foods in order to promote sweetness, as well as alter physical properties such as preservation and texture. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Αlpha-D-glucose will be called glucose, disaccharide composed of two 1,4-α-D-glucoses units maltose and oligomers of 3 to 14 units of glucose will be called 3Glc to 14Glc. (springer.com)
  • Also known as biose and double sugar, a disaccharide is a class of sugar whose molecules contain two monosaccharide residues. (hubpages.com)
  • A trisaccharide yields three monosaccharide molecules upon hydrolysis. (hubpages.com)
  • Maltase from the Small Intestine then hydrolyzes maltose (disaccharide) into glucose. (gustrength.com)
  • Acarbose is an oligosaccharide which is obtained from fermentation processes of a microorganism, Actinoplanes utahensis, and is chemically known as O-4,6-dideoxy4-[[(1S,4R,5S,6S)-4,5,6-trihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-2-cyclohexen-1-yl]amino] α-D-glucopyranos yl-(1 → 4)-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 →4)-D-glucose. (rxlist.com)
  • Obviously, if more than 100,000 trisaccharide structures are possible, then the number of possible oligosaccharide and polysaccharide structures is very diverse. (reasons.org)
  • 1 Unit of Maltose upon hydrolysis yields two glucose molecules]. (gustrength.com)
  • The mannitol was linked with fructose in a 2-position synthesizing the disaccharide 1-beta-D-fructofuranosyl-D-mannitol and then the process was repeated by the mannitol moiety of the disaccharide to yield the trisaccharide 1,6-di-beta-D-fructofuranosyl-D-mannitol, which became dominant. (scielo.br)
  • Its partial hydrolysis leads to the loss of different sugar parts of α-tomatine and to the formation of β 1 -(β 2 -) tomatine (containing a trisaccharide moiety), γ-tomatine (with a disaccharide) and δ-tomatine (with a monosaccharide) ( 1 , 2 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • To this end, α-D-glucose and its α-1,4-oligomers (degree of polymerization up to 14) were chosen as probes and docked into an ensemble of different conformations of the extracellular region of STR monomers (T1R2 and T1R3), using AutoDock Vina. (springer.com)
  • Depending on the number of molecules of monosaccharides liberated during hydrolysis there are disaccharides, trisaccharides, etc. (candelaeventi.it)
  • 10. which carbon is anomeric carbon in cyclic structure of glucose? (biologynotes.site)
  • As a consequence of plasma glucose reduction, Acarbose Tablets reduce levels of glycosylated hemoglobin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (nih.gov)
  • One metabolite (formed by cleavage of a glucose molecule from acarbose) also has alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity. (nih.gov)
  • Because acarbose given in combination with a sulfonylurea or insulin will cause a further lowering of blood glucose, it may increase the potential for hypoglycemia . (wikidoc.org)
  • Sucrose, whose hydrolysis to glucose and fructose is inhibited by acarbose, is unsuitable for the rapid correction of hypoglycemia. (wikidoc.org)
  • Here in the intestine, the di and trisaccharides are further broken down into monosaccharides by brush border enzymes of the intestinal microvilli. (jove.com)
  • and) it is readily broken down by "enzymes" into glucose. (richardsonthebrain.com)
  • Sucrose, however, is a nonreducing sugar in which the linkage of glucose and fructose masks the potential aldehyde group of glucose and the potential ketone group of fructose, so that no reduction occurs in the Fehling's and Benedict's tests. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Contains alpha-D-glucosidase inhibitors that participate in a reduction in disaccharide hydrolysis, thereby reducing the amount of free monosaccharides available for absorption in the intestine. (advocare.com)
  • Phloridzin, an alpha-D-glucosidase inhibitor, also acts directly on free glucose absorption in the jejunum, helping in the normal metabolic management of postprandial serum glucose. (advocare.com)
  • During treatment initiation and dose titration (see below), one-hour postprandial plasma glucose may be used to determine the therapeutic response to PRECOSE and identify the minimum effective dose for the patient. (rxlist.com)
  • The therapeutic goal should be to decrease both postprandial plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels to normal or near normal by using the lowest effective dose of PRECOSE, either as monotherapy or in combination with sulfonylureas, insulin or metformin. (rxlist.com)
  • Once a 25 mg t.i.d. dosage regimen is reached, dosage of PRECOSE should be adjusted at 4-8 week intervals based on one-hour postprandial glucose or glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and on tolerance. (rxlist.com)
  • If no further reduction in postprandial glucose or glycosylated hemoglobin levels is observed with titration to 100 mg t.i.d., consideration should be given to lowering the dose. (rxlist.com)
  • The development of these sequelae is believed to reflect an inability to provide exogenous insulin proportional to varying blood glucose concentrations experienced by the patient. (justia.com)
  • The reducing ability of disaccharides is defined by the presence of a potential aldehyde or ketone group. (candelaeventi.it)
  • a 'ketone' sugar that combines with glucose to make sucrose (table sugar. (richardsonthebrain.com)
  • It is generally present in honey and fruits and vegetables in similar amounts to glucose with the exception that it is found in much higher quantities than glucose in apples and pears. (alpfmedical.info)
  • present in sweet fruits and honey Ripe grapes also contain glucose. (articleist.com)