Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.
A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC 4.2.2.4 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC 4.2.2.5 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.
Component of dermatan sulfate. Differs in configuration from glucuronic acid only at the C-5 position.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.2.7.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A strong oxidizing agent.
A class of animal lectins that bind specifically to beta-galactoside in a calcium-independent manner. Members of this class are distiguished from other lectins by the presence of a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain. The majority of proteins in this class bind to sugar molecules in a sulfhydryl-dependent manner and are often referred to as S-type lectins, however this property is not required for membership in this class.
A sulfated mucopolysaccharide initially isolated from bovine cornea. At least two types are known. Type I, found mostly in the cornea, contains D-galactose and D-glucosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit; type II, found in skeletal tissues, contains D-galactose and D-galactosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.
An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of galactose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-galactosides.
Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A diet that contains limited amounts of CARBOHYDRATES. This is in distinction to a regular DIET.
A hexosaminidase with specificity for terminal non-reducing N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues in N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosaminides.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Glucose in blood.
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-mannosides.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of alpha,alpha-trehalose and water to D-glucose. EC 3.2.1.28.
Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.
A galectin found abundantly in smooth muscle (MUSCLE, SMOOTH) and SKELETAL MUSCLE and many other tissues. It occurs as a homodimer with two 14-kDa subunits.
A genus of leguminous shrubs or trees, mainly tropical, yielding useful compounds such as ALKALOIDS and PLANT LECTINS.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Hemorrhagic necrosis that was first demonstrated in rabbits with a two-step reaction, an initial local (intradermal) or general (intravenous) injection of a priming endotoxin (ENDOTOXINS) followed by a second intravenous endotoxin injection (provoking agent) 24 h later. The acute inflammation damages the small blood vessels. The following intravascular coagulation leads to capillary and venous THROMBOSIS and NECROSIS. Shwartzman phenomenon can also occur in other species with a single injection of a provoking agent, and during infections or pregnancy. Its susceptibility depends on the status of IMMUNE SYSTEM, coagulation, FIBRINOLYSIS, and blood flow.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.
Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.
A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.
Lectin purified from peanuts (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA). It binds to poorly differentiated cells and terminally differentiated cells and is used in cell separation techniques.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Acridines which are substituted in any position by one or more amino groups or substituted amino groups.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
A disaccharide consisting of one galactose and one glucose moiety in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.
Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).
Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.
A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.
Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC 2.4.1.65; EC 2.4.1.68; EC 2.4.1.69; EC 2.4.1.89.
A trisaccharide occurring in Australian manna (from Eucalyptus spp, Myrtaceae) and in cottonseed meal.
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of an alpha L-fucoside to yield an alcohol and L-fucose. Deficiency of this enzyme can cause FUCOSIDOSIS. EC 3.2.1.51.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Antibiotic complex obtained from Streptomyces bambergiensis containing mainly Moenomycins A and C. They are used as feed additives and growth promoters for poultry, swine, and cattle.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Substances capable of increasing BODY TEMPERATURE and cause FEVER and may be used for FEVER THERAPY. They may be of microbial origin, often POLYSACCHARIDES, and may contaminate distilled water.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Disaccharides are formed when two monosaccharides, or two single simple sugars, form a bond with removal of water. They can be ... Pigman, W.; D. Horton (1972). The Carbohydrates. 1A. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-12-395934-8. Jin, Tan; Wang He ... Examples of disaccharides include sucrose, maltose, and lactose. Polysaccharides are polymerized monosaccharides, or complex ... Biomolecules include large macromolecules (or polyanions) such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, as well ...
Reliance on the Disaccharide Trehalose". Carbohydrates - Comprehensive Studies on Glycobiology and Glycotechnology. InTech. doi ... Reyes-DelaTorre, Alejandro; Teresa, Maria; Rafael, Juan (2012). "Carbohydrate Metabolism in Drosophila: ...
... is a disaccharide carbohydrate composed of glucose and fructose. The glucose and fructose are linked by an alpha-1 ... carbohydrate-adjusted fluid diet in improving the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids in patients with esophageal cancer ... As an available carbohydrate, the food energy value of isomaltulose is identical to that of sucrose. For both, it is 4 kcal/g ( ... Isomaltulose is an available carbohydrate like sucrose and most other sugars or maltodextrins, in the sense that it is fully ...
Scientifically, sugar loosely refers to a number of carbohydrates, such as monosaccharides, disaccharides, or oligosaccharides ... Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. The acyclic mono- and disaccharides contain ... A The carbohydrate figure is calculated in the USDA database and does not always correspond to the sum of the sugars, the ... Galactose generally does not occur in the free state but is a constituent with glucose of the disaccharide lactose or milk ...
... and disaccharides. The major carbohydrate fraction in peas is starch, which is the major storage carbohydrate in the cotyledons ... During the extraction of the protein, it is dispersed in water so that other components of the pea, such as carbohydrates, are ... Pea protein is rich in nutrients such as protein and carbohydrates. Pea protein also contains various important vitamins and ... Peas are an excellent source of proteins, carbohydrates, dietary fibre, minerals, vitamins, and phytochemicals. For example, ...
Carbohydrates provide a quick energy source, increased palatability as well as fiber in canine diets; if disaccharides and ... Carbohydrates are required in lesser amounts. A study conducted on sled dogs found that dogs fed a high carbohydrate diet ... Direct carbohydrate levels are not displayed on feed labels due to the inaccuracy of current testing methods and varying ... Carbohydrates are the main source of fuel for these initial accelerations. Glycogen levels are depleted in the first several ...
Both non-structural and structural carbohydrates are hydrolysed to monosaccharides or disaccharides by microbial enzymes. The ... which preferentially digest structural carbohydrates, non-structural carbohydrates, and protein, respectively. Protozoa (40-60 ... Some carbon from carbohydrate or protein may be used for de novo synthesis of microbial lipid. High levels of lipid, ... Lipids, lignin, minerals, and vitamins play a less prominent role in digestion than carbohydrates and protein, but they are ...
Breakdown of carbohydrates (e.g., starch) yields mono- and disaccharides, most of which is glucose. Through glycolysis and ... A The carbohydrate value is calculated in the USDA database and does not always correspond to the sum of the sugars, the starch ... In turn, disaccharides are mostly degraded by specific glycosidases to glucose. The names of the degrading enzymes are often ... Most dietary carbohydrates contain glucose, either as their only building block (as in the polysaccharides starch and glycogen ...
Unlike protein and carbohydrates, fat composition in milk varies widely in the composition due to genetic, lactational, and ... Lactose is a disaccharide composite of two simple sugars, glucose and galactose. Bovine milk averages 4.8% anhydrous lactose, ... Levels of lactose are dependent upon the type of milk as other carbohydrates can be present at higher concentrations than ... Milk is an emulsion or colloid of butterfat globules within a water-based fluid that contains dissolved carbohydrates and ...
... (/ˈmɔːltoʊs/ or /ˈmɔːltoʊz/), also known as maltobiose or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of ... Carbohydrates are generally divided into monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides depending on the number of ... Maltose, with two sugar units, is a disaccharide, which falls under oligosaccharides. Glucose is a hexose: a monosaccharide ...
... relatively complex carbohydrates) consisting of repeating disaccharide units. Fibrocartilage does not have a surrounding ...
Carbohydrates[edit]. Main articles: Carbohydrate, Monosaccharide, Disaccharide, and Polysaccharide. Carbohydrates. Glucose, a ... Sugars are carbohydrates, but not all carbohydrates are sugars. There are more carbohydrates on Earth than any other known type ... Carbohydrates as energy source[edit]. Main article: Carbohydrate metabolism. Glucose is the major energy source in most life ... The best-known disaccharide is sucrose or ordinary sugar, which consists of a glucose molecule and a fructose molecule joined ...
Sugars are the simplest carbohydrates. The monosaccharides are "single sugars", such as glucose and fructose. The disaccharides ... Carbohydrates[change , change source]. Carbohydrates include sugars and starches. ... Carbohydrates have a number of functions in the body, but the most important is to act as a ready source of energy for the ... The study of biochemistry involves enzymes, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, sugars, proteins, and lipids. In the body, most of ...
Amylase breaks down carbohydrates into mono- and disaccharides, so a starch agar must be used for this assay. Once the bacteria ...
Those who eat a diet high in saturated fats and simple carbohydrates (mono- and disaccharide) have a higher risk. Raised blood ... The ketogenic diet is a very high-fat, adequate protein, low-carbohydrate diet that is used to treat refractory epilepsy in ... These diets are generally low in saturated fats while providing a good source of carbohydrates, mainly those that help ...
The biosynthesis of disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides involves the action of hundreds of different ... CArbohydrate-Active EnZymes) web site . The same three-dimensional fold is expected to occur within each of the families. ...
The main disaccharide units that occur in heparan sulfate and heparin are shown below. The most common disaccharide unit within ... Heparan sulfate is a member of the glycosaminoglycan family of carbohydrates and is very closely related in structure to ... Not shown below are the rare disaccharides containing a 3-O-sulfated glucosamine (GlcNS(3S,6S) or a free amine group (GlcNH3+ ... Both consist of a variably sulfated repeating disaccharide unit. ... of the total disaccharide units. Compare this to heparin, where ...
A The carbohydrate figure is calculated in the USDA database and does not always correspond to the sum of the sugars, the ... When fructose is ingested as part of the disaccharide sucrose, absorption capacity is much higher because fructose exists in a ... "Carbohydrates and Health" (PDF). UK Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition, Public Health England, TSO, Williams Lea, ... It is the sweetest of all naturally occurring carbohydrates. The relative sweetness of fructose has been reported in the range ...
... is a disaccharide produced by hydrogenation of maltose obtained from starch. Maltitol syrup, a hydrogenated starch ... hydrolysate, is created by hydrogenating corn syrup, a mixture of carbohydrates produced from the hydrolysis of starch. This ...
An astounding 8% of protein coding genes are related to carbohydrate transport in C. indolis. These genes are placed into two ... PTS transporters carry a wide variety of monosaccharides and disaccharides, and have a high affinity for hexose. C. indolis ... The genome encodes 910 genes, including glycoside hydrolases, with the potential to degrade complex carbohydrates. ... that it contains an abundance of genes in functional groups associated with the transport and utilization of carbohydrates. ...
O-antigens (the outer carbohydrates) are the most variable portion of the LPS molecule, imparting the antigenic specificity. In ... Lipid A is, in normal circumstances, a phosphorylated glucosamine disaccharide decorated with multiple fatty acids. These ... The LPS cores of many bacteria also contain non-carbohydrate components, such as phosphate, amino acids, and ethanolamine ...
The fermentation of the sugars (disaccharide carbohydrates) into ethanol and CO2 leads to acid conditions in the washing water ... polysaccharide carbohydrates. These sugars are fermenting using the enzymes from the bacteria on the cherries. Other components ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those racemases and epimerases acting on carbohydrates and their ... Tyler TR, Leatherwood JM (1967). "Epimerization of disaccharides by enzyme preparations from Ruminococcus albus". Arch. Biochem ...
2000). "Glucose and disaccharide-sensing mechanisms modulate the expression of α-amylase in barley embryos". Plant Physiol. 123 ... but rather acquired through the action of sucrose transporters for intracellular carbohydrate signaling. In addition to its ... Turanose is a reducing disaccharide. The d-isomer is naturally occurring. Its systematic name is α-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-d- ...
This is necessary as mono- and disaccharides have usually been consumed by the time they reach the lower gastrointestinal tract ... Up to 19 types of permease exist to transport various carbohydrates with 13 being ATP-binding cassette transporters. B. longum ... the three original species were phenotypically difficult to distinguish due to different carbohydrate fermentation patterns ...
These solids consist of carbohydrates (60%), proteins and other nitrogenous substances (10%), minerals (10%), fats and lipoids ... disaccharides (sucrose) and minor amounts of monosaccharides (fructose and glucose). Minor constituents include saponins, ...
Since alpha-glucosidase inhibitors prevent the degradation of complex carbohydrates into glucose, the carbohydrates will remain ... The membrane-bound intestinal alpha-glucosidases hydrolyze oligosaccharides, trisaccharides, and disaccharides to glucose and ... Less glucose is absorbed because the carbohydrates are not broken down into glucose molecules. In diabetic patients, the short- ... Their effects on blood sugar levels following meals will depend on the amount of complex carbohydrates in the meal. ...
Sugars and carbohydrates. A simplified representation of a lactose molecule being broken down into glucose (2) and galactose (1 ... Lactose, the disaccharide sugar component of all milk, must be cleaved in the small intestine by the enzyme lactase, in order ... Carbohydrate (i.e. the sugar form of lactose) g 4.8 4.4 5.1 4.9 ... Lactose is a disaccharide composite of two simple sugars, ... Milk is an emulsion or colloid of butterfat globules within a water-based fluid that contains dissolved carbohydrates and ...
Scientifically, sugar loosely refers to a number of carbohydrates, such as monosaccharides, disaccharides, or oligosaccharides ... DisaccharidesEdit. Lactose, maltose, and sucrose are all compound sugars, disaccharides, with the general formula C12H22O11. ... Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. The acyclic mono- and disaccharides contain ... The Carbohydrates: Chemistry and Biochemistry Vol 1A (2nd ed.). San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 1-67. ISBN 978-0125563529.. ...
... higher molecular mass carbohydrates.[7]p. 464 A typical 42 DE syrup has about half the sweetness of sugar,[1]p. 71 and ...
Cereal and fungal products have been used for centuries for medicinal and cosmetic purposes; however, the specific role of β-glucan was not explored until the 20th century. β-glucans were first discovered in lichens, and shortly thereafter in barley. A particular interest in oat β-glucan arose after a cholesterol lowering effect from oat bran reported in 1981.[2] In 1997, the FDA approved of a claim that intake of at least 3.0 g of β-glucan from oats per day decreased absorption of dietary cholesterol and reduced the risk of coronary heart disease. The approved health claim was later amended to include these sources of β-glucan: rolled oats (oatmeal), oat bran, whole oat flour, oatrim (the soluble fraction of alpha-amylase hydrolyzed oat bran or whole oat flour), whole grain barley and barley beta-fiber. An example of an allowed label claim: Soluble fiber from foods such as oatmeal, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease. A serving of ...
Ang mga carbohydrate o saccharide ay nahahati sa apat na mga kemikal na pagpapangkat: monosaccharide, disaccharide, ... na carbohydrate gaya ng cereal, tinapay at pasta o mga simpleng carbohydrate gaya ng asukal na natatagpuan sa mga jam, kendi at ... Ang carbohydrate ay isang organikong compound na may empirikal na pormulang Cm(H2O)n (kung saan ang m ay maaaring iba mula sa n ... ang asukal na panghapagkainan ang disaccharide sucrose at ang asukal ng gatas ang disaccharide lactose . ...
Lactose, a disaccharide molecule found in milk and dairy products, cannot be directly absorbed through the wall of the small ... Inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism: monosaccharide metabolism disorders Including glycogen storage diseases (GSD) ... "Diagnosing and Treating Intolerance to Carbohydrates in Children". Nutrients. 8 (3): 157. doi:10.3390/nu8030157. PMC 4808885 ...
Disaccharides: two saccharides. e.g. sucrose, lactose. *Longer chain saccharides: *Oligosaccharides (shortish chains), often ... If necessary, humans can live without eating carbohydrates because the human body can change proteins into carbohydrates. ... Carbohydrates are chemical compounds that contain only oxygen, hydrogen and carbon. They are made up of joined-up sugars. ... Certain carbohydrates are an important storage and transport form of energy in most organisms, including plants and animals. ...
Nectar is collected by foraging worker bees as a source of water and carbohydrates in the form of sucrose. The dominant ... bee diets are fructose and glucose but the most common circulating sugar in hemolymph is trehalose which is a disaccharide ... Adult worker honey bees require 4 mg of utilizable sugars per day and larvae require about 59.4 mg of carbohydrates for proper ...
Both disaccharides and monosaccharides can form sugar alcohols; however, sugar alcohols derived from disaccharides (e.g. ... This property makes them popular sweeteners among diabetics and people on low-carbohydrate diets. However, like many other ...
"Carbohydrate binding specificity of a fucose-specific lectin from Aspergillus oryzae: a novel probe for core Fuchse" Matsumura ... of an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-binding lectin from Dutch Iris bulbs which recognizes the blood group A disaccharide (GalNAc ... a b „Carbohydrate-binding specificity of the daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus) and amaryllis (Hippeastrum hybr.) bulb ... "Isolectins from Solanum tuberosum with different detailed carbohydrate binding specificities: unexpected recognition of ...
Algal cellulases are modular, consisting of putative novel cysteine-rich carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs), proline/serine-( ... or disaccharides, such as cellobiose. Exocellulases are further classified into type I, that work processively from the ... Carbohydrate Research. 385: 9-17. doi:10.1016/j.carres.2013.12.001. PMID 24398300.. ... Carbohydrate Research. 395: 47-51. doi:10.1016/j.carres.2014.05.002. PMID 25038461.. ...
When disaccharides are consumed, they must be broken down into monosaccharides by enzymes in the intestines before they can be ... January 2006). "Novel mutations in the human sucrase-isomaltase (SI) gene that cause congenital carbohydrate malabsorption". ... Sucrose (also termed saccharose) is a disaccharide and is a two-sugar chain composed of glucose and fructose which are bonded ...
... is composed of 22% water, 75% carbohydrates, and no protein or fat (table). In a 100 gram reference amount, molasses ... The sugars in molasses are sucrose (29% of total carbohydrates), glucose (12%) and fructose (13%) (data from USDA nutrition ...
When a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis (e.g. sucrose being broken down into glucose and ... The best-known disaccharide is sucrose (table sugar). Hydrolysis of sucrose yields glucose and fructose. Invertase is a sucrase ... The catalytic action of enzymes allows the hydrolysis of proteins, fats, oils, and carbohydrates. As an example, one may ... Two, three, several or many monosaccharides thus linked form disaccharides, trisaccharides, oligosaccharides, or ...
Until the late 1970s, hyaluronic acid was described as a "goo" molecule, a ubiquitous carbohydrate polymer that is part of the ... Hyaluronic acid can be 25,000 disaccharide repeats in length. Polymers of hyaluronic acid can range in size from 5,000 to ... Hyaluronic acid is energetically stable, in part because of the stereochemistry of its component disaccharides. Bulky groups on ... Hyaluronic acid is a polymer of disaccharides, themselves composed of D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, linked via ...
Principles of Biochemistry/The Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides, Disaccharides and Polysaccharides. *fa.wikipedia.org layihəsində ...
Carbohydrates[edit]. Main article: Carbohydrate. Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, or ... Simple carbohydrates None Obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease Complex carbohydrates None Obesity, cardiovascular ... Molecules of carbohydrates and fats consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Carbohydrates range from simple ... Dietary fiber is a carbohydrate that is incompletely absorbed in humans and in some animals. Like all carbohydrates, when it is ...
ಅನೇಕ ದೇಶಗಳು ಸಕ್ಕರೆಯ ಉತ್ಪಾದನೆಗೆ ಅತೀವವಾಗಿ ಅನುದಾನ ನೀಡುತ್ತವೆ. ಐರೋಪ್ಯ ಒಕ್ಕೂಟ, ಅಮೆರಿಕಾ ಸಂಯುಕ್ತ ಸಂಸ್ಥಾನಗಳು, ಜಪಾನ್‌‌ ಮತ್ತು ಅನೇಕ ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿಶೀಲ ದೇಶಗಳು ಸ್ವದೇಶಿ ಉತ್ಪಾದನೆಗೆ ಅನುದಾನ ನೀಡುತ್ತವೆ ಮತ್ತು ಆಮದುಗಳ ಮೇಲಿನ ಉನ್ನತ ಸುಂಕಪಟ್ಟಿಗಳನ್ನು ನಿರ್ವಹಿಸುತ್ತವೆ. ಈ ದೇಶಗಳಲ್ಲಿನ ಸಕ್ಕರೆ ಬೆಲೆಗಳು ಅನೇಕವೇಳೆ ಅಂತರರಾಷ್ಟ್ರೀಯ ಮಾರುಕಟ್ಟೆಯಲ್ಲಿನ ಬೆಲೆಗಳನ್ನು ಮೂರು ಪಟ್ಟುಗಳಷ್ಟರವರೆಗೆtoday[update] ಮೀರಿಸಿವೆ; ಇಂದು, ವಿಶ್ವ ...
Carbon is obtained mostly from hexose sugars, such as glucose and fructose, or disaccharides such as sucrose and maltose. Some ... By fermentation, the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae converts carbohydrates to carbon dioxide and alcohols - for ... Carbohydrate-containing plant material is fermented by yeast, producing a dilute solution of ethanol in the process. Spirits ... Lager strains of S. cerevisiae secrete an enzyme called melibiase, allowing them to hydrolyse melibiose, a disaccharide, into ...
CarbohydratesEdit. The principal soluble carbohydrates of mature soybeans are the disaccharide sucrose (range 2.5-8.2%), the ... Since soluble soy carbohydrates are found in the whey and are broken down during fermentation, soy concentrate, soy protein ... He found soybeans and corn to have a range of soluble carbohydrates protecting the seed's cell viability.[19] Patents were ... The insoluble carbohydrates in soybeans consist of the complex polysaccharides cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. The ...
Protein-Carbohydrate bonding is often mediated by hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces.[citation needed] ... Some, such as the raffinose series, occur as storage or transport carbohydrates in plants. Others, such as maltodextrins or ... In biology, glycosylation is the process by which a carbohydrate is covalently attached to an organic molecule, creating ... Glycoproteins and glycolipids are by definition covalently bonded to carbohydrates. They are very abundant on the surface of ...
Other Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism. References[edit]. *^ Goppert F. (1917). "Galaktosurie nach Milchzuckergabe bei ... Disaccharide catabolism. *Congenital alactasia. *Sucrose intolerance. Monosaccharide transport. *Glucose-galactose ... Inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism: monosaccharide metabolism disorders (E73-E74, 271) Including glycogen storage diseases ... the accumulation of galactose becomes the substrate for enzymes that catalyze the polyol pathway of carbohydrate metabolism. ...
Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides or polysaccharides depending on the number of monomer (sugar ... CarbohydratesEdit. The main fuel used by the body during exercise is carbohydrates, which is stored in muscle as glycogen - a ... Molecules of carbohydrates and fats consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Carbohydrates range from simple ... "Carbohydrates That Contain Monosaccharides". Healthy eating.. *^ Lean, Michael E.J. (2015). "Principles of human nutrition". ...
Two other isomers are not found in nature.[5] It is found in nature as a disaccharide and also as a monomer in some polymers.[5 ... Trehalose is the major carbohydrate energy storage molecule used by insects for flight. One possible reason for this is that ... Trehalose is a disaccharide formed by a 1,1-glycosidic bond between two α-glucose units. ...
Carbohydrate digestion. Further information: Carbohydrate metabolism and Carbohydrate catabolism. In humans, dietary starches ... Lactase is an enzyme that breaks down the disaccharide lactose to its component parts, glucose and galactose. Glucose and ... Sucrase is an enzyme that breaks down the disaccharide sucrose, commonly known as table sugar, cane sugar, or beet sugar. ... This releases carbohydrates, protein, fat, and various vitamins and minerals for absorption into the body. ...
A disaccharide composed of two units of galactose, galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), has been recognized as a ... a class of natural polymeric carbohydrates.[4] ... Lactose is a disaccharide of galactose plus glucose. ... When combined with glucose (monosaccharide), through a condensation reaction, the result is the disaccharide lactose. The ...
Disaccharides. Sucrose · Lactose · Maltose · Trehalose · Turanose · Cellobiose. Trisaccharides. Raffinose · Melezitose · ... Types of carbohydrates. General:. Aldose · Ketose · Furanose · Pyranose. Geometry. Cyclohexane conformation · Anomer · ...
Disaccharides are one of the four chemical groupings of carbohydrates (monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and ... Common disaccharides[edit]. Disaccharide. Unit 1. Unit 2. Bond Sucrose (table sugar, cane sugar, beet sugar, or saccharose) ... "Nomenclature of Carbohydrates (Recommendations 1996)2-Carb-36 Disaccharides". Archived from the original on 2017-08-26. ... There are two functionally different classes of disaccharides: *Reducing disaccharides, in which one monosaccharide, the ...
ଶ୍ୱେତସାର (Carbohydrate) ଏକ ଜୈବପଦାର୍ଥ ।[୧] ଏହା ଉଦ୍ଭିଦର କୋଷିକାରେ ଥିବା ହରିତ୍‌କଣାରେ ଆଲୋକ ସଂଶ୍ଳେଷଣ ପ୍ରକ୍ରିୟାଦ୍ୱାରା ତିଆରି ହୋଇଥାଏ । ... ୩.୨ ଡାଇସାକାରାଇଡ୍ (Disaccharide). *୩.୩ ପଲିସାକାରାଇଡ୍ (Polysaccharide) *୩.୩.୧ ଶ୍ରେଣୀ ବିଭାଗ ...
Those who eat a diet high in saturated fats and simple carbohydrates (mono- and disaccharide) have a higher risk.[149] The ...
In animals, when there is an oversupply of dietary carbohydrate, the excess carbohydrate is converted to triglycerides. This ... The minimal lipopolysaccharide required for growth in E. coli is Kdo2-Lipid A, a hexa-acylated disaccharide of glucosamine that ... Typical lipid A molecules are disaccharides of glucosamine, which are derivatized with as many as seven fatty-acyl chains. ... They are a major source of energy because carbohydrates are fully reduced structures. In comparison to glycogen which would ...
Garot (1850) "De la matière colorante rouge des rhubarbes exotiques et indigènes et de son application (comme matière colorante) aux arts et à la pharmacie" (On the red coloring material of exotic and indigenous rhubarb and on its application (as a coloring material) in the arts and in pharmacy), Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie, 3rd series, 17 : 5-19. Erythrose is named on p. 10: "Celui que je propose, sans y attacher toutefois la moindre importance, est celui d'érythrose, du verbe grec 'ερυθραινω, rougir (1)." (The one [i.e., name] that I propose, without attaching any importance to it, is that of erythrose, from the Greek verb ερυθραινω, to redden (1).) ...
Carbohydrate Metabolism in Drosophila: Reliance on the Disaccharide Trehalose. By Alejandro Reyes-DelaTorre, María Teresa Pen ... Reliance on the Disaccharide Trehalose, Carbohydrates Chuan-Fa Chang, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/50633. Available from:. ... Reliance on the Disaccharide Trehalose, Carbohydrates Chuan-Fa Chang, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/50633. Available from: ... studies-on-glycobiology-and-glycotechnology/carbohydrate-metabolism-in-drosophila-reliance-on-the-disaccharide-trehalose /,. ...
Home > A Level and IB > Biology > Carbohydrates - monosaccharides/Carbohydrates - disaccharides and polysaccharides ...
... disaccharides provide energy to muscles, fuel the central nervous system, metabolize fat and keep tissues from consuming ... A disaccharide is a type of carbohydrate made when two monosaccharides join and a molecule of water leaves the framework. ... One example of a disaccharide is lactose, which is made from the juncture of glucose and galactose and is found in milk. When ... After digestion, disaccharides provide energy to muscles, fuel the central nervous system, metabolize fat and keep tissues from ...
Disaccharides are one of the four chemical groupings of carbohydrates (monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and ... Common disaccharides[edit]. Disaccharide. Unit 1. Unit 2. Bond Sucrose (table sugar, cane sugar, beet sugar, or saccharose) ... "Nomenclature of Carbohydrates (Recommendations 1996)2-Carb-36 Disaccharides". Archived from the original on 2017-08-26. ... There are two functionally different classes of disaccharides: *Reducing disaccharides, in which one monosaccharide, the ...
Disaccharides are Sugars made up of two Monosaccharides held together by a covalent bond ... Disaccharides. "Disaccharides (Sugars)" Disaccharide (Sugar). In carbohydrate science, Disaccharides (Sugars), as ... In carbohydrate science, Isomaltose is a glucan disaccharide (sugar) consisting of two glucose units in an alpha (1-6) ... Disaccharides ⌊Alchemy Center. ⌊Physical Sciences. ⌊Natural Sciences. ⌊Biological Sciences. ⌊Biochemistry (Biological Chemistry ...
20.5 Disaccharides 20.6 Polysaccharides 20.7 Focus on the Human Body: Useful Carbohydrate Derivatives 20.8 Focus on the Human ... Chapter 20: Carbohydrates 20.1 Introduction 20.2 Monosaccharides 20.3 The Cyclic Forms of Monosaccharides 20.4 Reduction and ... Chapter 24: Carbohydrate, Lipid, and Protein Metabolism 24.1 Introduction 24.2 Understanding Biochemical Reactions 24.3 ...
Simple carbohydrates (monosaccharides and disaccharides), also called simple sugars, are found in processed and refined sugars ... Carbohydrates-Food sources and low carbohydrates diet. Retrieved August 10, 2015.. *WHO/FAO Joint Expert Consultation. 2003. ... Low-carbohydrate (low-carb) diets are based on the idea that a lower intake of carbohydrates leads to a reduction in the bodys ... Although the disaccharide maltose contains two glucose molecules, it is not the only disaccharide that can be made from two ...
Compound Carbohydrates (Disaccharides)[edit]. These are used by living organisms for energy. They are composed of two ... Simple Carbohydrates (Monosaccharides)[edit]. These are used only for energy in living organisms. Simple carbohydrates are also ... Disaccharides[edit]. Monosaccharides are simple forms of sugars consisting of one sugar, disaccharides on the other hand, ... Most carbohydrates are sugars or composed mainly of sugars. By far, the most common carbohydrate found in nature is glucose, ...
DisaccharidesEdit. Sucrose, also known as table sugar, is a common disaccharide. It is composed of two monosaccharides: D- ... Effects of dietary carbohydrate restrictionEdit. See also: Low-carbohydrate diet. Carbohydrates are a common source of energy ... Monosaccharides and disaccharides, the smallest (lower molecular weight) carbohydrates, are commonly referred to as sugars.[3] ... Sucrose, pictured to the right, is the most abundant disaccharide, and the main form in which carbohydrates are transported in ...
disaccharide definition: any of a group of sugars with a common formula, CHO, as sucrose, maltose, and lactose, which on ... disaccharide. Noun (plural disaccharides). *(biochemistry) Any sugar, such as sucrose, maltose and lactose, consisting of two ... disaccharide. di·sac·cha·ride. any of a group of sugars with a common formula, CHO, as sucrose, maltose, and lactose, which on ... How would you define disaccharide? Add your definition here.. Please enable JavaScript to view the comments powered by Disqus. ...
Disaccharide is one of four groups of Carbohydrates (monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysaccharide, and oligosaccharide). ... There are two basic types of disaccharides: reducing disaccharides, in which disaccharides are Hemiacetals and contain a ... Table of Common DisaccharidesEdit. Heres a quick summary of the subunits of common disaccharides and how they are linked to ... The most common disaccharides are Sucrose, Lactose, and Maltose. Sucrose is the sugar often found in the grocery store and is ...
... one of the four chemical groupings of carbohydrates (en); одна из основных групп углеводов (ru); organische Verbindung, Zucker ... disaccharide catabolic process (Reactant),. cellular response to disaccharide stimulus (Reactant),. disaccharide transmembrane ... disaccharide binding (Reactant),. disaccharide metabolic process (participant),. disaccharide biosynthetic process ( ... Disaccharide (de); дыцукрыды (be); Դիսախարիդներ (hy); 雙醣 (zh); Dîsakkarîd (ku); 二糖 (ja); ඩයිසැකරයිඩ (si); Disaccharides (la); ...
... All or part of this article may be confusing or unclear.Please help clarify the article. Suggestions may be on the ... Sucrose, pictured to the right, is the most abundant disaccharide and the main form in which carbohydrates are transported in ... Main article: Disaccharide. Two joined monosaccharides are called disaccharides and represent the simplest polysaccharides. ... Dieticians and nutritionists commonly classify carbohydrates as simple (monosaccharides and disaccharides) or complex ( ...
s and Disaccharide. Disaccharide. A disaccharide or biose is the carbohydrate formed when two monosaccharides undergo a ... s and disaccharide. Disaccharide. A disaccharide or biose is the carbohydrate formed when two monosaccharides undergo a ... s, disaccharide. Disaccharide. A disaccharide or biose is the carbohydrate formed when two monosaccharides undergo a ... Two joined monosaccharides are called a disaccharide. Disaccharide. A disaccharide or biose is the carbohydrate formed when two ...
... simple carbohydrates, and complex carbohydrates. Monosaccharides and disaccharides are simple carbohydrates, with single sugar ... Disaccharides. Sucrose, also known as table sugar, is a common disaccharide. It is composed of two monosaccharides: D-glucose ( ... For dietary purposes, carbohydrates can be classified as simple (monosaccharides and disaccharides) or complex ( ... Sucrose, pictured to the right, is the most abundant disaccharide, and the main form in which carbohydrates are transported in ...
Disaccharides. . . shows a α-glycosidic bond shows a β-glycosidic bond, like . ...
Disaccharides - LearnNext offers animated video lessons with neatly explained examples, Study Material, FREE NCERT Solutions, ... Carbohydrates: Disaccharides. Watch Carbohydrates: Disaccharides explained in the form of a story in high quality animated ... Biomolecules - Carbohydrates: Disaccharides X Thank you for watching the sample video. Please register to watch the complete ...
3-diacylglucosamine-1-phosphate to form lipid A disaccharide, a precursor of lipid A, a phosphorylated glycolipid that anchors ... Carbohydrate-Active enZymes. More...CAZyi. GT19. Glycosyltransferase Family 19. Protocols and materials databases. Structural ... Lipid-A-disaccharide synthaseUniRule annotation. ,p>Manual validated information which has been generated by the UniProtKB ... sp,Q7VMW5,LPXB_HAEDU Lipid-A-disaccharide synthase OS=Haemophilus ducreyi (strain 35000HP / ATCC 700724) OX=233412 GN=lpxB PE=3 ...
3-diacylglucosamine-1-phosphate to form lipid A disaccharide, a precursor of lipid A, a phosphorylated glycolipid that anchors ... Carbohydrate-Active enZymes. More...CAZyi. GT19. Glycosyltransferase Family 19. Protocols and materials databases. Structural ... Lipid-A-disaccharide synthaseUniRule annotation. ,p>Manual validated information which has been generated by the UniProtKB ... sp,Q02AZ6,LPXB_SOLUE Lipid-A-disaccharide synthase OS=Solibacter usitatus (strain Ellin6076) OX=234267 GN=lpxB PE=3 SV=1 ...
Disaccharides. Sucrose, also known as table sugar, is a common disaccharide. It is composed of two monosaccharides: D-glucose ( ... Sucrose, pictured to the right, is the most abundant disaccharide and the main form in which carbohydrates are transported in ... Dieticians and nutritionists commonly classify carbohydrates as simple (monosaccharides and disaccharides) or complex ( ... Main article: Disaccharide. Two joined monosaccharides are called disaccharides and represent the simplest polysaccharides. ...
see also Carbohydrates; Disaccharides.. Stephanie E. Dew Bibliography. Nelson, David L., and Cox, Michael M. (2000). Lehninger ... a carbohydrate (e.g., starch, cellulose, or glycogen) whose molecules consist of a number of sugar molecules bonded together. ... polysaccharides Complex carbohydrates formed by the condensation of large numbers of monosaccharide units, e.g. starch, ... Robyt, John F. (1998). Essentials of Carbohydrate Chemistry. New York: Springer.. Voet, Donald; Voet, Judith G.; and Pratt, ...
20.5 Disaccharides 20.6 Polysaccharides 20.7 Focus on the Human Body: Useful Carbohydrate Derivatives 20.8 Focus on the Human ... 20.5 Disaccharides 20.6 Polysaccharides 20.7 Focus on the Human Body: Useful Carbohydrate Derivatives 20.8 Focus on the Human ... Chapter 20: Carbohydrates 20.1 Introduction 20.2 Monosaccharides 20.3 The Cyclic Forms of Monosaccharides 20.4 Reduction and ... Chapter 20: Carbohydrates 20.1 Introduction 20.2 Monosaccharides 20.3 The Cyclic Forms of Monosaccharides 20.4 Reduction and ...
... the compound is called a disaccharide. Four examples of disaccharides composed of two glucose units are shown in the following ... Carbohydrates have been given non-systematic names, although the suffix ose is generally used. The most common carbohydrate is ... Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are the most abundant class of organic compounds found in living organisms. They originate as ... Carbohydrates are called saccharides or, if they are relatively small, sugars. Several classifications of carbohydrates have ...
Know the difference between monosaccharide, disaccharide, and polysaccharide. What is the most important carbohydrate?[edit]. * ... Disaccharides are sugars (carbohydrates) composed of two monosaccharides.. *Polysaccharides are relatively complex ... Carbohydrates are compounds made of sugars. Digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth, continues in the stomach, and is ... Know the difference between monosaccharide, disaccharide, and polysaccharide. What is the most important carbohydrate? ...
Carbohydrates: monosaccharides, disaccharides and oligosaccharides. What have the cell walls of fungi, the tough outer ... Proteins that have a carbohydrate chain attached to them. The carbohydrate chain sticks out of the outside of the cell and is ... Lipids that have a carbohydrate chain attached to them. The carbohydrate chain is attached to the outside of the cell and is ... Disaccharides are joined using a simple condensation reaction which forms a bond between the two monosaccharide units known as ...
... disaccharides; and other carbohydrates (such as glucose, mannose or dextrins); proteins (such as serum albumin, gelatin or ... carbohydrates, sugars, disaccharides, amino acids, nucleotides, phosphates, monosaccharides, peptides, peptide fragments, ... carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, glycoproteins, lipoproteins, glycolipids, glycosaminoglycans, and proteoglycans. Proteins ...
... s Carbohydrates. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Carbohydrates and what it means. Perfect for ... Disaccharides, meaning "two sugars", are commonly found in nature as sucrose, lactose and maltose. They are formed by a ... Carbohydrates are among the most abundant compounds on earth. They are normally broken down into five major classifications of ... Sources of glucose include starch, the major storage form of carbohydrate in plants. ...
Carbohydrates:. -Composed of what elements. -Monosaccharides. -Disaccharides. -Polysaccharides. -Uses in cells. -Foods they are ... carbohydrate. monosaccharides. disaccharide. polysaccharide. lipids. glycerol fatty acids. saturated. unsaturated. nucleic ... Carbohydrates. Lipids. DNA/RNA. Proteins. Chemical Reactions. Basic Chemistry:. -subatomic particles. Proton. Electron. Neutron ...
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from ... Carbohydrates. *Compounds used in a research, industrial, or household setting. *Diet, Food, and Nutrition ...
Read or Download Carbohydrate Chem, Monosaccharides, disaccharides and specific oligosaccharides a review of the recent ... Additional resources for Carbohydrate Chem, Monosaccharides, disaccharides and specific oligosaccharides a review of the recent ... Carbohydrate Chem, Monosaccharides, disaccharides and by Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain). ... Carbohydrate Chem, Monosaccharides, disaccharides and by Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain). ...
  • Disaccharides are one of the four chemical groupings of carbohydrates ( monosaccharides , disaccharides, oligosaccharides , and polysaccharides ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The dehydration reaction that bonds monosaccharides into disaccharides (and also bonds monosaccharides into more complex polysaccharides ) forms what are called glycosidic bonds . (wikipedia.org)
  • In carbohydrate science , Disaccharides (Sugars) , as oligosaccharides , are a carbohydrates (saccharides) made up of two monosaccharides held together by a covalent bond and are the simplest of all polysaccharides . (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • In disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides, the molar proportions deviate slightly from the general formula because two hydrogens and one oxygen are lost during each of the condensation reactions that forms them. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Stored form of carbohydrates is polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen. (reachingfordreams.com)
  • The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides , oligosaccharides , and polysaccharides . (wikipedia.org)
  • Disaccharides , the simplest polysaccharides , are the products of a condensation reaction between two monosaccharides . (wikibooks.org)
  • They are usually classified as monosaccharides (single sugars), disaccharides (double sugars), oligosaccharides (several sugars: 3-9 units) or polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates often composed of hundreds or thousands of units which form macromolecules). (abpischools.org.uk)
  • A major division of carbohydrates is between sugars and polysaccharides . (daviddarling.info)
  • Monosaccharides are sweet-tasting, cannot be broken down by hydrolysis , and combine to form disaccharides and polysaccharides. (daviddarling.info)
  • Polysaccharides are carbohydrates whose molecules are made of numerous sugar units that are bonded together. (buzzle.com)
  • Polysaccharides (long chains) are complex carbohydrates, with linear chains of sugars or branched clusters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrates are classified into monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. (angelfire.com)
  • Additionally, they can join together with other monosaccharides and/or other disaccharides to form polysaccharides. (weightlossforall.com)
  • Therefore polysaccharides are carbohydrates comprised of several different less complex sugar molecules. (weightlossforall.com)
  • Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides are more complex molecules and are referred to as complex carbohydrates. (news-medical.net)
  • In addition, the pathogenic capsular polysaccharides of bacteria are carbohydrate antigens, for which a safe and efficacious method of vaccination is required. (hindawi.com)
  • 11. Carbohydrates consist of monosaccharide, disaccharides and polysaccharides. (bartleby.com)
  • Simple carbohydrates are monosaccharides and disaccharides, while starches and fiber are polysaccharides. (livestrong.com)
  • Polysaccharides are the most complex of carbohydrates. (livestrong.com)
  • Learners read a brief introduction to monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. (wisc-online.com)
  • One example of a disaccharide is lactose, which is made from the juncture of glucose and galactose and is found in milk. (reference.com)
  • The most common types of disaccharides- sucrose , lactose , and maltose -have 12 carbon atoms, with the general formula C 12 H 22 O 11 . (wikipedia.org)
  • lactose , maltose and cellobiose are examples of reducing disaccharides, each with one hemiacetal unit, the other occupied by the glycosidic bond, which prevents it from acting as a reducing agent . (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, milk sugar ( lactose ) is a disaccharide made by condensation of one molecule of each of the monosaccharides glucose and galactose , whereas the disaccharide sucrose in sugar cane and sugar beet, is a condensation product of glucose and fructose . (wikipedia.org)
  • Disaccharides are a type of sugar (saccharide) composed of two sugar molecules bonded together with an ester (covalent) bond examples include sucrose, maltose, and lactose. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • Disaccharides (di-"two"), such as sucrose and lactose, are two monosaccharides linked together by covalent bonds . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Galactose is a sugar component of the disaccharide lactose, as found in milk. (wikibooks.org)
  • The backbone of Human Milk Oligosaccharides is the disaccharide lactose, which is formed by the linkage between galactose and glucose sugars. (wikibooks.org)
  • Molecular structure of lactose is composed of such monomers of carbohydrates as α - ring structure of glucose and α - ring structure of galactose . (reachingfordreams.com)
  • Lactose is a disaccharide found in animal milk. (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] While the scientific nomenclature of carbohydrates is complex, the names of the monosaccharides and disaccharides very often end in the suffix -ose , as in the monosaccharides fructose (fruit sugar) and glucose (starch sugar) and the disaccharides sucrose ( cane or beet sugar) and lactose (milk sugar). (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common disaccharides are Sucrose , Lactose , and Maltose . (wikibooks.org)
  • For example, blood sugar is the monosaccharide glucose , table sugar is the disaccharide sucrose , and milk sugar is the disaccharide lactose (see illustration). (thefullwiki.org)
  • Disaccharides, meaning "two sugars", are commonly found in nature as sucrose, lactose and maltose. (sparknotes.com)
  • any of a group of carbohydrates, as sucrose or lactose, that yield monosaccharides on hydrolysis. (dictionary.com)
  • Any of a class of carbohydrates, including lactose and sucrose, that yield two monosaccharides upon hydrolysis. (dictionary.com)
  • Double-unit sugars are called disaccharides, among which sucrose (table sugar) and lactose (milk sugar) are most widely known. (eufic.org)
  • Other important disaccharides include lactose and maltose . (daviddarling.info)
  • Sucrose, maltose and lactose are examples of disaccharide. (hubpages.com)
  • The disaccharide sugars include Sucrose, Lactose,and Maltose. (angelfire.com)
  • A monosaccharide, part of the disaccharide lactose. (brainscape.com)
  • Lactose is a disaccharide that is comprised of one molecule each of galactose and glucose. (weightlossforall.com)
  • Reducing disaccharides: cellobiose, maltose, lactose. (unige.it)
  • Lactose, sucrose and maltose are disaccharides (they contain two monosaccharides) and are easily converted to their monosaccharide bases by enzymes in the digestive tract. (howstuffworks.com)
  • 12. Examples of disaccharides are maltose, glucose and lactose. (bartleby.com)
  • 5. The material of claim 4 wherein the carbohydrate is selected from the group consisting of lactose, sucrose and maltose. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or bivose [1] ) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined by glycosidic linkage. (wikipedia.org)
  • So, even if both component sugars are the same (e.g., glucose ), different bond combinations (regiochemistry) and stereochemistry ( alpha- or beta- ) result in disaccharides that are diastereoisomers with different chemical and physical properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • This formula is characteristic of sugars and gave rise to the term carbohydrate because compounds of this sort were originally thought to be "hydrates of carbon. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Most carbohydrates are sugars or composed mainly of sugars. (wikibooks.org)
  • Monosaccharides are simple forms of sugars consisting of one sugar, disaccharides on the other hand, consists of two. (wikibooks.org)
  • Sugars do not stop at disaccharides, they are much more complex than that. (wikibooks.org)
  • Monosaccharides and disaccharides, the smallest (lower molecular weight ) carbohydrates, are commonly referred to as sugars. (wikipedia.org)
  • Starch and sugars are the most important carbohydrates in human diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aside from the sugars and starches that meet this vital nutritional role, carbohydrates also serve as a structural material (cellulose), a component of the energy transport compound ATP , recognition sites on cell surfaces, and one of three essential components of DNA and RNA. (msu.edu)
  • Carbohydrates are called saccharides or, if they are relatively small, sugars. (msu.edu)
  • In this part of our review on carbohydrates, we explain the different types and basic functions of carbohydrates including sugars. (eufic.org)
  • At their most basic, carbohydrates are made of building blocks of sugars, and can be classified according to how many sugar units are combined in their molecule. (eufic.org)
  • Simple carbohydrates - those with one or two sugar units - are also simply known as sugars. (eufic.org)
  • A disaccharide is any of a group of sugars the molecules of which are derived by the condensation of two monosaccharide molecules so that they are connected by an oxygen bridge. (daviddarling.info)
  • So-called available carbohydrates , which include sugars and starches, can be metabolized by the human body. (daviddarling.info)
  • sucrose (sōō´krōs) , commonest of the sugars, a white, crystalline solid disaccharide (see carbohydrate ) with a sweet taste, melting and decomposing at 186°C to form caramel. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Sugars are classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, and trisaccharides. (hubpages.com)
  • However, the brain prefers to get its carbohydrates from carbohydrate rich whole foods rather than simple sugars. (hubpages.com)
  • All carbohydrates get broken down to the simple sugars eventually. (hubpages.com)
  • Monosaccharides are the simplest of all sugars and are a base for all other carbohydrates. (angelfire.com)
  • Disaccharides are commonly referred to as sugars. (angelfire.com)
  • One of the sugars, sometimes called simple carbohydrates (along with disaccharides). (brainscape.com)
  • Sugars, or carbohydrates, are imperative for life. (weightlossforall.com)
  • Disaccharides are simply sugars that are comprised of two monosaccharide units. (weightlossforall.com)
  • Monosaccharides and disaccharides are considered simple sugars as they break down easily, readily providing the body with energy. (news-medical.net)
  • FODMAPs are specific types of carbohydrates (sugars) that pull water into the intestinal tract. (hon.ch)
  • When you look at a 'Nutrition Facts' label on a food package and see 'Sugars' under the 'Carbohydrates' section of the label, these simple sugars are what the label is talking about. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Like monosaccharides, disaccharides are simple sugars soluble in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sugars fall into three groups: the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and trisaccharides. (infoplease.com)
  • Disaccharides are sugars that will eventually be broken down into monosaccharides. (livestrong.com)
  • Although optical rotation has been one of the most frequently determined characteristics of carbohydrates since its recognition in the late 19th century, the rotational behaviour of freshly prepared solutions of many sugars differs from that of solutions that have been allowed to stand. (britannica.com)
  • Sugars are simple carbohydrates. (csun.edu)
  • These are basically different types of carbohydrates and sugars that either don't digest, or don't absorb well, in the gut. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • They are monosaccharide and disaccharide sugars. (reference.com)
  • Carbohydrates include sugars and starches . (wikipedia.org)
  • Sugars are the simplest carbohydrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • When glucose and fructose join together, they form the disaccharide sucrose, or table sugar. (reference.com)
  • Fructose as a straight-chain carbohydrate (Fischer projection). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • There are many other disaccharides, although they are not as common, including isomaltose (2 glucose monomers), turanose (a glucose and a fructose monomer), melibiose (a galactose and a glucose monomer), xylobiose (two xylopyranose monomers), sophorose (2 glucose monomers), and mannobiose (2 mannose monomers). (wikibooks.org)
  • The basic carbohydrate units are called monosaccharides , such as glucose , galactose , and fructose. (bionity.com)
  • A nonreducing disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose linked via their anomeric carbons. (rcsb.org)
  • The disaccharide sucrose (table sugar or cane sugar), for example, consists of one glucose molecule and one fructose molecule bound together (see Figure 2). (daviddarling.info)
  • The table or granulated sugar most customarily used as food is sucrose, a disaccharide (in the body, sucrose hydrolyses into fructose and glucose). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Fruits ( apples , pears , peaches , apricots , etc) would be the exception within this group because, although they contain many simple carbohydrates, such as fructose, they are equally recommendable since they also contain simple carbohydrates and other components like vitamins , minerals or fiber . (botanical-online.com)
  • When you eat simple carbohydrates such as glucose or fructose, they are quickly absorbed by the body which causes a very rapid increase of sugar content in the blood. (botanical-online.com)
  • Glucose, fructose and galactose are monosaccharides and are the only carbohydrates that can be absorbed into the bloodstream through the intestinal lining. (howstuffworks.com)
  • by combining the ingestion of glucose with fructose, both transport pathways are utilised, which increases the total capacity for carbohydrate absorption. (mdpi.com)
  • The co-ingestion of glucose and fructose therefore provides faster rates of carbohydrate absorption than the sum of glucose and fructose absorption rates alone. (mdpi.com)
  • Similar metabolic effects can be achieved via the ingestion of sucrose (a disaccharide of glucose and fructose) because intestinal absorption is unlikely to be limited by sucrose hydrolysis. (mdpi.com)
  • Providing these carbohydrates in the form of glucose-fructose (sucrose) mixtures does not further enhance muscle glycogen repletion rates over glucose (polymer) ingestion alone. (mdpi.com)
  • 3. The material of claim 2 wherein the carbohydrate is selected from the group consisting of dextrose, mannose, galactose and fructose. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A basic unit of carbohydrate is known as a monosaccharide (CH 2 O). Two examples of monosaccharides are glucose and fructose. (hypertextbook.com)
  • Table sugar (cane sugar) is a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. (wikipedia.org)
  • While carbohydrates are essential for the human diet, excessive consumption of particular types of carbohydrates correlates with obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and even drowsiness. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The carbohydrates found in candy or processed sugar can be very stimulating to the senses , but it is essential to use discipline in one's diet to avoid the complications of too many of the wrong types of carbohydrates. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Monosaccharides are the simplest form of 3 types of carbohydrates. (reachingfordreams.com)
  • Table 1 gives an overview of the major types of carbohydrates in our diet. (eufic.org)
  • Let us study the various types of carbohydrates in the following article. (buzzle.com)
  • There are four types of carbohydrates, named by the number of sugar molecules they contain. (wikipedia.org)
  • But why all of these different names and what are the differences between these various types of carbohydrates? (weightlossforall.com)
  • Eating less of these types of carbohydrates should decrease these symptoms. (harvard.edu)
  • What Are the 3 Types of Carbohydrates? (livestrong.com)
  • Galactose idoes not occur naturally in foods, but results from digestion of a disaccharide. (angelfire.com)
  • Carbohydrates, along with lipids , proteins , and nucleic acids , belong to 4 major macromolecules of life . (reachingfordreams.com)
  • To enhance the functionality of biological molecules, cells attach carbohydrates to proteins and lipids. (reachingfordreams.com)
  • Carbohydrates are the most abundant of the four major classes of biomolecules , which also include proteins , lipids and nucleic acids . (bionity.com)
  • Dr. Edward Smith showed that muscles did not get their energy from proteins but from fats and carbohydrates ? (thefullwiki.org)
  • Proteins that have a carbohydrate chain attached to them. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • Trehalose is a low molecular weight disaccharide (.342 kDa) that crosses the blood brain barrier, stabilizes proteins, and importantly activates autophagy which is the process that clears material from cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Many propel you to cut out all intake of carbohydrates or fat from your system in a bid to improve your metabolism rate with increased consumption of proteins. (buzzle.com)
  • If necessary, humans can live without eating carbohydrates because the human body can change proteins into carbohydrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrates prevent proteins from being used as a source of energy. (hubpages.com)
  • Phage-display technology has been improved to enable the identification of peptides that bind to carbohydrate-binding proteins, such as lectins and antibodies, from a large repertoire of peptide sequences. (hindawi.com)
  • To investigate the biological roles of carbohydrates, sets of carbohydrates and their corresponding carbohydrate-binding proteins are required. (hindawi.com)
  • Carbohydrate-binding proteins such as plant lectins, bacterial toxins, and anticarbohydrate antibodies are available for studying carbohydrate-protein interactions [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • However, the repertoire of carbohydrate structures recognized by these proteins is limited and insufficient to cover the majority of structures. (hindawi.com)
  • This Course deals with the great groups of natural organic compounds (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, alkaloids) and with the main spectroscopic methods (IR, 1H NMR) to identify the molecular structure of organic compounds. (unige.it)
  • Understanding the molecular structure of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids and the chemical properties of monosaccharides. (unige.it)
  • Biomolecules include large macromolecules (or polyanions) such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, as well as small molecules such as primary metabolites, secondary metabolites and natural products. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3. The main organic compounds in cell are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. (bartleby.com)
  • 12. A solid material comprising proteins, including AHF, and at least one water soluble carbohydrate, the amount of carbohydrate being about from 1.6 to 7.5 times the amount by weight of protein in the material. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The four types of macromolecules are nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. (reference.com)
  • Examples of organic compounds include lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. (reference.com)
  • A pound of proteins like a pound of carbohydrates contain 1820 calories. (hypertextbook.com)
  • Unlike proteins and fats, carbohydrates are not considered essential nutrients. (hypertextbook.com)
  • Carbohydrates and proteins provide the body with 4 kilocalories per gram while fats provide the body with 9 kilocalories of energy. (hypertextbook.com)
  • The formation of a disaccharide molecule from two monosaccharide molecules proceeds by displacing a hydroxyl radical from one molecule and a hydrogen nucleus (a proton ) from the other, so that the now vacant bonds on the monosaccharides join the two monomers together. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maltose , another common disaccharide, is condensed from two glucose molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrates are a class of biological molecules that contain primarily carbon (C) atoms flanked by hydrogen (H) atoms and hydroxyl (OH) groups (H-C-OH). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Monosaccharides (mono- "one," saccharide- "sugar") are the monomers (small molecules that may bond chemically to form a polymer) out of which larger carbohydrates are constructed. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In carbohydrate molecules the ratio of carbon to hydrogen to oxygen is 1:2:1 . (reachingfordreams.com)
  • In other words, disaccharides are composed by 2 sugar molecules. (wikibooks.org)
  • Disaccharides are formed when two monosaccharides join together by the dehydration synthesis reaction resulting in a glycosidic bond between the two monosaccharide molecules. (wikibooks.org)
  • however, many molecules with formulae that differ slightly from this are still called carbohydrates and other compounds that possess formulae that agree with this general rule may not be in fact carbohydrates (eg formaldehyde). (bionity.com)
  • They are all carbohydrates, a group of organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen which range from very small individual molecules to very large macromolecules. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • Long-chain molecules, such as starches and dietary fibres, are known as complex carbohydrates. (eufic.org)
  • This book provides the "nuts and bolts" background for a successful study of carbohydrates - the essential molecules that not only give you energy, but are an integral part of many biological processes. (worldcat.org)
  • Carbohydrates are biological molecules made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. (hubpages.com)
  • Also known as biose and double sugar, a disaccharide is a class of sugar whose molecules contain two monosaccharide residues. (hubpages.com)
  • They are larger and more complex molecules that before being absorbed, they must be broken down in simple carbohydrates to be assimilated. (botanical-online.com)
  • This entails that, once we eat foods containing this type of carbohydrate, the glucose molecules are released slowly so that sugar levels in the blood are kept lower and more stable for much longer than when we eat simple carbohydrates . (botanical-online.com)
  • It is also known as malt sugar, is a disaccharide comprised of two glucose molecules. (weightlossforall.com)
  • In addition, because carbohydrates are ubiquitous components of cell membranes and bio(macro)molecules, the immune response stimulated by glycoconjugates is negligible [ 5 , 6 ], that is, high affinity carbohydrate-specific IgG-isotype antibodies are not easily obtained. (hindawi.com)
  • A complex carbohydrate is made up of chains of glucose molecules. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Your digestive system breaks a complex carbohydrate (starch) back down into its component glucose molecules so that the glucose can enter your bloodstream. (howstuffworks.com)
  • A carbohydrate made up of two monosaccharide molecules joined together. (alison.com)
  • Some carbohydrates are for structural purposes, such as cellulose (which composes plants' cell walls) and chitin (a major component of insect exoskeletons). (wikibooks.org)
  • Cellobiose is a disaccharide which results from the hydrolysis of cellulose. (dictionary.com)
  • FODMAP is an acronym for fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharide , monosaccharide and polyols, all of which are carbohydrates. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Despite the efficacy of a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAP) for patients with irritable bowel syndrome, many questions remain unanswered with respect to its clinical implementation. (nih.gov)
  • 2. The corrosion inhibiting composition of claim 1, wherein said the at least one organic compound suitable for nitric acid oxidation is selected from the group consisting of diols, triols, polyols, and carbohydrates. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Reduction Products: Carbohydrate Polyols. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • In yeast, carbohydrates are stored in glycogen (a multi-branched polysaccharide) and in trehalose (a disaccharide). (bio-protocol.org)
  • Glycogen is the energy storage carbohydrate in animals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Carbohydrate availability in the form of muscle and liver glycogen is an important determinant of performance during prolonged bouts of moderate- to high-intensity exercise. (mdpi.com)
  • Carbohydrate ingestion at a rate of ≥1.2 g carbohydrate per kg body mass per hour appears to maximise post-exercise muscle glycogen repletion rates. (mdpi.com)
  • In food science and in many informal contexts, the term "carbohydrate" often means any food that is particularly rich in the complex carbohydrate starch (such as cereals, bread and pasta) or simple carbohydrates, such as sugar (found in candy, jams , and desserts). (wikipedia.org)
  • Sources of glucose include starch, the major storage form of carbohydrate in plants. (sparknotes.com)
  • Dextrin is a low-molecular-weight polysaccharide (carbohydrate) that is formed as an intermediate product in the digestion of starch by the enzyme amylase. (daviddarling.info)
  • 13. Wholemeal bread consists of carbohydrate in the form of starch and cereals. (bartleby.com)
  • Often referred to as simple and complex carbohydrates, the three types of carbs - sugar, starch, and fiber - all have a place in your diet. (livestrong.com)
  • Many foods with starch contain more than one type of carbohydrates and some starches are available for energy sooner than others, according to an article in the March 2011 issue of "Nutrients. (livestrong.com)
  • Carbohydrates" are chemically defined as "polyhydroxy aldehyde or polyhydroxy ketones or complex substances which on hydrolysis yield polyhydroxy aldehyde or polyhydroxy ketone. (wikibooks.org)
  • Upon hydrolysis, disaccharides yield the corresponding monosaccharides. (daviddarling.info)
  • After digestion, disaccharides provide energy to muscles, fuel the central nervous system, metabolize fat and keep tissues from consuming protein for energy. (reference.com)
  • In this highly animated and colorful object, learners examine the steps of carbohydrate digestion. (wisc-online.com)
  • SUPPORTS DIGESTION: Digestive Enzymes Ultra supports enhanced protein, carbohydrate, fat, fiber and dairy digestion. (amazon.com)
  • Disaccharide is one of four groups of Carbohydrates (monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysaccharide, and oligosaccharide). (wikibooks.org)
  • X-ray and NMR experiments were performed with simple chitosan models based on glucosamine monosaccharides and disaccharides to understand the binding properties and structures of the complexes formed between this polysaccharide and platinum(II) metals. (dtu.dk)
  • [10] This includes chemical compounds such as acetic or lactic acid , which are not normally considered carbohydrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrates (from 'hydrates of carbon') or saccharides (Greek σάκχαρον meaning "sugar") are simple organic compounds that are aldehydes or ketones with many hydroxyl groups added, usually one on each carbon atom that is not part of the aldehyde or ketone functional group. (bionity.com)
  • Following this definition, some chemists considered formaldehyde CH 2 O to be the simplest carbohydrate, [ 3 ] while others claimed that title for glycolaldehyde [ 4 ] Today the term is generally understood in the biochemistry sense, which excludes compounds with only one or two carbons. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Carbohydrates are the most abundant class of organic compounds found in living organisms. (msu.edu)
  • Carbohydrates are among the most abundant compounds on earth. (sparknotes.com)
  • Carbohydrates form a large and important group of naturally occurring compounds, which can be divided into a number of smaller families. (daviddarling.info)
  • Carbohydrates are chemical compounds that contain only oxygen , hydrogen and carbon . (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrates are organic compounds that contains single, double or multiple (many) sugar units. (prezi.com)
  • Disaccharides can serve as functional groups by forming glycosidic bonds with other organic compounds, forming biosides. (wikipedia.org)
  • While carbohydrate synthons have received much attention in recent years, the potential pool of new compounds has gone largely untapped. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • This book removes the obstacles to using many carbohydrate products and derivatives and provides a broad introduction to implementing the organic synthesis of chiral compounds. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Unlike any other book on the subject, Carbohydrate Building Blocks features a compendium of compounds that can be prepared from inexpensive materials by following a few easy steps. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Often in lists of nutritional information , such as the USDA National Nutrient Database , the term "carbohydrate" (or "carbohydrate by difference") is used for everything other than water, protein, fat, ash, and ethanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alongside fat and protein, carbohydrates are one of the three macronutrients in our diet with their main function being to provide energy to the body. (eufic.org)
  • To slow down the absorption of carbohydrates , combine them with protein or fats. (healthline.com)
  • This was true regardless of whether protein was replacing carbohydrates or fats in the diet. (eurekalert.org)
  • Inhibitors of carbohydrate-protein interactions are potential antiviral drugs. (hindawi.com)
  • Such mimetic peptides are available as peptide inhibitors of carbohydrate-protein interactions and peptide mimotopes that are conjugated with adjuvant for vaccination. (hindawi.com)
  • Carbohydrate-protein interactions are the first cell surface events in cell-cell communication, following which processes such as infection and signal transduction occur. (hindawi.com)
  • To prevent exercise-related gut problems, Costa advised maintaining hydration throughout physical activity, and possibly consuming small amounts of carbohydrates and protein before and during exercise. (hon.ch)
  • 13. The material of claim 12 wherein the amount of carbohydrate is about from 2 to 5 times the amount by weight of protein. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 14. The material of claim 12 wherein the amount of carbohydrate is about 2 times the amount by weight of protein. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Carbohydrate Metabolism in Drosophila: Reliance on the Disaccharide Trehalose, Carbohydrates Chuan-Fa Chang, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/50633. (intechopen.com)
  • Carbohydrate metabolism. (unimi.it)
  • Faced with the rapid metabolism of simple carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, as its name suggests, do a more complex work. (botanical-online.com)
  • Moreover, by maintaining levels of blood sugar more stable, we can avoid periods of hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia, and prevent diseases such as diabetes and other conditions caused by poor metabolism of carbohydrates. (botanical-online.com)
  • Carbohydrates have a number of functions in the body, but the most important is to act as a ready source of energy for the cell's metabolism . (wikipedia.org)
  • Following this definition, some chemists considered formaldehyde (CH 2 O) to be the simplest carbohydrate, [11] while others claimed that title for glycolaldehyde . (wikipedia.org)
  • Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates in that they cannot be hydrolyzed to smaller carbohydrates. (bionity.com)
  • Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates with only one simple sugar. (wikipedia.org)
  • The simplest carbohydrate is glucose . (howstuffworks.com)
  • Disaccharides are composed of two monosaccharides joined together. (angelfire.com)
  • A carbohydrate containing more than two monosaccharides joined together. (alison.com)
  • The disaccharides are two monosaccharides joined together. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural saccharides are generally built of simple carbohydrates called monosaccharides with general formula (CH 2 O) n where n is three or more. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Also called saccharides, the come in two forms: monosaccharides and disaccharides. (csun.edu)
  • Carbohydrates, also known as saccharides, are the most abundant energy providing molecule on the planet. (hypertextbook.com)
  • Starches and fibers, sometimes called complex carbohydrates. (brainscape.com)
  • There are also complex carbohydrates , commonly known as 'starches. (howstuffworks.com)
  • One can come up with a number of complex carbohydrate recipes with the ingredients easily available in the kitchen. (buzzle.com)
  • Fiber is a non-digestible complex carbohydrate. (prezi.com)
  • is a complex carbohydrate and is a polymer of glucose produced by plants. (angelfire.com)
  • Sucrose and trehalose are examples of non-reducing disaccharides because their glycosidic bond is between their respective hemiacetal carbon atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The general chemical formula for carbohydrates, C(H 2 O), gives the relative proportions of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a monosaccharide (the proportion of these atoms are 1:2:1). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • This term persists even though a carbohydrate definitely is not a hydrated carbon atom . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Each carbon atom that supports a hydroxyl group (except for the first and last) is optically active, allowing a number of different carbohydrates with the same basic structure. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Carbohydrates that are acetals are not oxidized because both of its anomeric carbon atoms are fixed in a glycosidic bond. (wikibooks.org)
  • Non-reducing disaccharides, in which the sugar is an acetals (or ketals) that cannot readily oxidized because both anomeric carbon atoms are fixed in a glycosidic linkage in which the components bond through their anomeric centers. (wikibooks.org)
  • Due to the different hydroxyl groups that bond, along with the alpha(α) or beta(β) position of the anomeric carbon, there are resulting disaccharides that are diastereomers differing in chemical and physical properties, depending on the monosaccharide components. (wikibooks.org)
  • A carbohydrate is an organic compound with the general formula C m (H 2 O) n , that is, consisting only of carbon , hydrogen and oxygen , the last two in the 2:1 atom ratio. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Carbohydrates can be viewed as hydrates of carbon, hence their name. (thefullwiki.org)
  • As noted here, the formulas of many carbohydrates can be written as carbon hydrates, C n (H 2 O) n , hence their name. (msu.edu)
  • A carbohydrate is an organic compound consisting of a chain or ring of carbon atoms to which hydrogen and oxygen atoms are attached in the ratio of approximately 2:1. (daviddarling.info)
  • LpxB is the glycosyltransferase that forms the base glucosamine disaccharide of lipid A, catalyzing the formation of the glycosidic bond between the anomeric carbon of the UDP-DAG glucosamine and the 6-hydroxyl of lipid X to form lipid A disaccharide [56]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Pure carbohydrates consist of just three elements: carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the ratio of 1:2:1. (angelfire.com)
  • what is the ratio of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in a carbohydrate? (studystack.com)
  • Carbohydrates are macromolecules composed of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) and have the general formula of Cx(H2O)y. (news-medical.net)
  • The word 'carbohydrate' comes from the fact that glucose is made up of carbon and water. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Composed entirely of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, carbohydrates are literally hydrated carbon , as seen by their generalized formula, C x (H 2 O) y . (umass.edu)
  • sugar, compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen belonging to a class of substances called carbohydrates . (infoplease.com)
  • These fermentable short-chain carbohydrates are prevalent in the diet. (harvard.edu)
  • Some carbohydrates are small with molecular weights of less than one hundred, whereas others are true macromolecules with molecular weights in the hundreds of thousands. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Carbohydrates are one of the fundamental classes of macromolecules found in biology . (wikibooks.org)
  • Simple carbohydrates are also known as "Monosaccharides".The chemical formula for all the monosaccharides is CnH2nOn. (wikibooks.org)
  • Chemical and biochemical studies on carbohydrate esters. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The different names come from the fact that carbohydrates are classified depending on their chemical structure, but also based on their role, or source in our diet. (eufic.org)
  • Chemical modification studies indicate that tyrosine residues are important for the carbohydrate-binding and hemagglutinating activities of the lectin. (nih.gov)
  • From the energy of sunlight to the chemical energy of carbohydrates and to cell energy. (unige.it)
  • Less common disaccharides include: Biose on www.merriam-webster.org IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrates are classified according to their chemical structure. (livestrong.com)
  • By breaking the chemical bonds in carbohydrates, energy is released and can be used by the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disaccharides don't always initially have a taste, but you taste at least a little sweetness pretty quickly after drinking milk or consuming anything with table sugar in it. (hubpages.com)
  • Examples of carbohydrates based on the different classifications. (eufic.org)
  • Examples of foods that are rich in carbohydrates and cheaply available are cereal, rice, pasta, beans and bread. (hypertextbook.com)
  • Formerly the name "carbohydrate" was used in chemistry for any compound with the formula C m (H 2 O) n . (wikipedia.org)
  • Essentials of Carbohydrate Chemistry. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A question often asked is 'Why do carbohydrate chemistry? (worldcat.org)
  • Classics in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Glycobiology. (worldcat.org)
  • This book describes the basic chemistry and biology of carbohydrates. (worldcat.org)
  • A disaccharide is a type of carbohydrate made when two monosaccharides join and a molecule of water leaves the framework. (reference.com)
  • The disaccharides are formed by the union of two monosaccharides with the loss of one molecule of water. (infoplease.com)
  • The traditional general structure of carbohydrates is: Cx H2x Ox, but many important carbohydrates, like deoxyribose have more hydrogen. (angelfire.com)
  • In this article, we explore the variety of carbohydrates that occur in our diet and their functions. (eufic.org)
  • Simple carbohydrate diet is a healthy diet plan that allows you to consume complex carbohydrates for your well-being. (buzzle.com)
  • A consistent carbohydrate diet is proving to be a much better alternative to the numerous diabetic diets that have been proposed and followed. (buzzle.com)
  • There can be no debate about how important a role, carbohydrates play in our daily diet. (buzzle.com)
  • When you cut out carbohydrates, you always have a diet high in fat. (hubpages.com)
  • Hence, glucose from whole food carbohydrates is essential in diet but excess simple carbohydrates are harmful. (hubpages.com)
  • Carbohydrates are one of the most important food groups in the diet of all animals, including humans. (news-medical.net)
  • The names of carbohydrates often end in the suffix -ose. (bionity.com)
  • While the scientific nomenclature of carbohydrates is complex, the names of the monosaccharides and disaccharides very often end in the suffix -ose . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Here's a quick summary of the subunits of common disaccharides and how they are linked to each other. (wikibooks.org)
  • Disaccharides are joined using a simple condensation reaction which forms a bond between the two monosaccharide units known as a glycosidic bond. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • In carbohydrate science , Isomaltose is a glucan disaccharide (sugar) consisting of two glucose units in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • Monosaccharides and disaccharides are usually referred to as simple carbohydrates. (eufic.org)
  • Monosaccharides which are present in simple carbohydrates, are the building blocks of carbohydrates. (buzzle.com)
  • From a dietary point of view , many specialists have included disaccharides within the group of simple carbohydrates. (botanical-online.com)
  • Among carbohydrates (= glucides or carbohydrates) it is better to choose the complexes to the simple ones. (botanical-online.com)
  • Monosaccharides and disaccharides are called simple carbohydrates . (howstuffworks.com)
  • Many carbohydrates contain one or more modified monosaccharide units that have had one or more groups replaced or removed. (bionity.com)
  • Disaccharides are made up to two monosaccharide units joined together. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) defines oligosaccharides as carbohydrates with 3-9 sugar units, although other definitions allow for slightly longer chain lengths. (eufic.org)
  • CS chain is composed of 12-18 disaccharide repeating units, consisting of glucuronic acid and N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc), which may be sulphated either in position C4 or in C6 [7, 8]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Disaccharides - These contain two sugar units. (news-medical.net)
  • The carbohydrate is incorporated into the AHF composition in sufficient quantity to provide at least 2 weight units of carbohydrate (expressed in grams) per 100 volume units of AHF solution (expressed in milliliters). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Therefore in SI units carbohydrates provide the body with 16.7 mega joule of energy for each kilogram. (hypertextbook.com)
  • We all know that carbohydrates provide energy but, most fad diets aim at total elimination of carbohydrates and fats. (buzzle.com)
  • What do words like ' carbohydrates ' and 'fats' really mean (especially on those 'Nutrition Facts' labels you find on almost everything these days)? (howstuffworks.com)
  • Although it seems like fats provide more kilocalories per gram, it is better to consume carbohydrates for energy production purposes because they are abundantly available. (hypertextbook.com)
  • How many oxygen atoms are there in a disaccharide? (proprofs.com)
  • It also includes dietary fiber which is a carbohydrate but which does not contribute much in the way of food energy ( kilocalories ), even though it is often included in the calculation of total food energy just as though it were a sugar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dietary fibers are carbohydrates that the human body cannot digest. (hubpages.com)
  • Before going through any fast-acting carbs list, one should learn about the good and bad side of fast-acting carbohydrates. (buzzle.com)
  • Some of these terms, specially "carbohydrate" and "sugar", are also used with other meanings. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the strict sense, " sugar " is applied for sweet, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sugar is a form of Carbohydrates. (proprofs.com)
  • It could be sugar and refined carbohydrates that are dragging you into a slump. (proprofs.com)
  • A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or biose) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides are joined by glycosidic linkage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrates are commonly found in most organisms, and play important roles in organism structure, and are a primary energy source for animals and plants. (wikibooks.org)
  • Heparin is known as disaccharide anticoagulant, commonly referred to as blood thinner, which prevents formation of blood clots. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Depending on the monosaccharide constituents, disaccharides are sometimes crystalline, sometimes water-soluble, and sometimes sweet-tasting and sticky-feeling. (wikipedia.org)
  • This water-soluble crystalline carbohydrate is exemplified by sucrose and glucose. (hubpages.com)
  • The rate of solubility of a freeze-dried solid composition containing therapeutic amounts of anti-hemophilic factor (AHF) is greatly increased by carrying out the solubilization in the presence of at least a critical threshold amount of a water soluble carbohydrate. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1. A solid material comprising AHF, fibrinogen and a water soluble carbohydrate, said AHF being present in an amount sufficient to provide a therapeutically useful solution of AHF upon reconstitution in aqueous media and said carbohydrate being present in an amount sufficient to provide in said solution a carbohydrate concentration of at least about 2 grams per 100 milliliters. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 8. A solid material comprising AHF and an amount of at least one water soluble carbohydrate sufficient to solubilize the material in an aqueous medium within about 90 seconds, the AHF being present in an amount sufficient to form a therapeutically effective AHF concentration upon solubilization of the material. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 10. A lyophilized material comprising AHF, fibrinogen and an amount of water soluble carbohydrate sufficient to solubilize the material in an aqueous solution within about 65 seconds, the AHF being present in an amount sufficient to form a therapeutically effective AHF concentration upon solubilization of the material. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Carbohydrates are our body's primary energy source and carry out various functions in the human body. (buzzle.com)
  • Our body's preferred source of fuel is carbohydrate, and it is especially what the brain needs to function," says Kimberly Gomer MS, RD, LDN . (hubpages.com)
  • Carbohydrates are the body's primary source of energy. (livestrong.com)
  • Several classifications of carbohydrates have proven useful, and are outlined in the following table. (msu.edu)
  • It is obtained from cane as a transport form of carbohydrates. (wikibooks.org)
  • It is best to eat whole fruit juice, fruit, since the latter removes the pulp has a higher proportion of complex carbohydrates and fiber than the juice is squeezed once. (botanical-online.com)