Advance Directives: Declarations by patients, made in advance of a situation in which they may be incompetent to decide about their own care, stating their treatment preferences or authorizing a third party to make decisions for them. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Advance Directive Adherence: Compliance by health personnel or proxies with the stipulations of ADVANCE DIRECTIVES (or similar directives such as RESUSCITATION ORDERS) when patients are unable to direct their own care.Living Wills: Written, witnessed declarations in which persons request that if they become disabled beyond reasonable expectation of recovery, they be allowed to die rather than be kept alive by extraordinary means. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Advance Care Planning: Discussions with patients and/or their representatives about the goals and desired direction of the patient's care, particularly end-of-life care, in the event that the patient is or becomes incompetent to make decisions.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Life Support Care: Care provided patients requiring extraordinary therapeutic measures in order to sustain and prolong life.Withholding Treatment: Withholding or withdrawal of a particular treatment or treatments, often (but not necessarily) life-prolonging treatment, from a patient or from a research subject as part of a research protocol. The concept is differentiated from REFUSAL TO TREAT, where the emphasis is on the health professional's or health facility's refusal to treat a patient or group of patients when the patient or the patient's representative requests treatment. Withholding of life-prolonging treatment is usually indexed only with EUTHANASIA, PASSIVE, unless the distinction between withholding and withdrawing treatment, or the issue of withholding palliative rather than curative treatment, is discussed.Legal Guardians: A legal concept for individuals who are designated to act on behalf of persons who are considered incapable of acting in their own behalf, e.g., minors and persons found to be not mentally competent.Mental Competency: The ability to understand the nature and effect of the act in which the individual is engaged. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed).Proxy: A person authorized to decide or act for another person, for example, a person having durable power of attorney.Resuscitation Orders: Instructions issued by a physician pertaining to the institution, continuation, or withdrawal of life support measures. The concept includes policies, laws, statutes, decisions, guidelines, and discussions that may affect the issuance of such orders.Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Terminal Care: Medical and nursing care of patients in the terminal stage of an illness.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Patient Self-Determination Act: The purpose of this 1990 federal act is to assure that individuals receiving health care services will be given an opportunity to participate in and direct health care decisions affecting themselves. Under this act, hospitals, health care agencies, and health maintenance organizations are responsible for developing patient information for distribution. The information must include patients' rights, advance directives, living wills, ethics committees' consultation and education functions, limited medical treatment (support/comfort care only), mental health treatment, resuscitation, restraints, surrogate decision making and transfer of care. (from JCAHO, Lexicon, 1994)Euthanasia, Passive: Failing to prevent death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy by the withdrawal or withholding of life-prolonging treatment.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Judicial Role: The kind of action or activity proper to the judiciary, particularly its responsibility for decision making.Medical Futility: The absence of a useful purpose or useful result in a diagnostic procedure or therapeutic intervention. The situation of a patient whose condition will not be improved by treatment or instances in which treatment preserves permanent unconsciousness or cannot end dependence on intensive medical care. (From Ann Intern Med 1990 Jun 15;112(12):949)Right to Die: The right of the patient or the patient's representative to make decisions with regard to the patient's dying.Phorbol Esters: Tumor-promoting compounds obtained from CROTON OIL (Croton tiglium). Some of these are used in cell biological experiments as activators of protein kinase C.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Animal Rights: The moral and ethical bases of the protection of animals from cruelty and abuse. The rights are extended to domestic animals, laboratory animals, and wild animals.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Third-Party Consent: Informed consent given by someone other than the patient or research subject.Phorbol 12,13-Dibutyrate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL which, in addition to being a potent skin tumor promoter, is also an effective activator of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). Due to its activation of this enzyme, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate profoundly affects many different biological systems.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Euthanasia: The act or practice of killing or allowing death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)Patient Rights: Fundamental claims of patients, as expressed in statutes, declarations, or generally accepted moral principles. (Bioethics Thesaurus) The term is used for discussions of patient rights as a group of many rights, as in a hospital's posting of a list of patient rights.Animal Testing Alternatives: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Animal Experimentation: The use of animals as investigational subjects.Radiation, Nonionizing: ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or sonic radiation (SOUND WAVES) which does not produce IONS in matter through which it passes. The wavelengths of non-ionizing electromagentic radiation are generally longer than those of far ultraviolet radiation and range through the longest RADIO WAVES.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Personhood: The state or condition of being a human individual accorded moral and/or legal rights. Criteria to be used to determine this status are subject to debate, and range from the requirement of simply being a human organism to such requirements as that the individual be self-aware and capable of rational thought and moral agency.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Persistent Vegetative State: Vegetative state refers to the neurocognitive status of individuals with severe brain damage, in whom physiologic functions (sleep-wake cycles, autonomic control, and breathing) persist, but awareness (including all cognitive function and emotion) is abolished.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Records as Topic: The commitment in writing, as authentic evidence, of something having legal importance. The concept includes certificates of birth, death, etc., as well as hospital, medical, and other institutional records.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Attitude to Death: Conceptual response of the person to the various aspects of death, which are based on individual psychosocial and cultural experience.Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Phorbols: The parent alcohol of the tumor promoting compounds from CROTON OIL (Croton tiglium).Religion: A set of beliefs concerning the nature, cause, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency. It usually involves devotional and ritual observances and often a moral code for the conduct of human affairs. (Random House Collegiate Dictionary, rev. ed.)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Judaism: The religion of the Jews characterized by belief in one God and in the mission of the Jews to teach the Fatherhood of God as revealed in the Hebrew Scriptures. (Webster, 3d ed)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Patient Preference: Individual's expression of desirability or value of one course of action, outcome, or selection in contrast to others.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.EuropeBlotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Dissent and Disputes: Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Legislation, Medical: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Patient Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Double Effect Principle: Guideline for determining when it is morally permissible to perform an action to pursue a good end with knowledge that the action will also bring about bad results. It generally states that, in cases where a contemplated action has such double effect, the action is permissible only if: it is not wrong in itself; the bad result is not intended; the good result is not a direct causal result of the bad result; and the good result is "proportionate to" the bad result. (from Solomon, "Double Effect," in Becker, The Encyclopedia of Ethics, 1992)Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Hospice Care: Specialized health care, supportive in nature, provided to a dying person. A holistic approach is often taken, providing patients and their families with legal, financial, emotional, or spiritual counseling in addition to meeting patients' immediate physical needs. Care may be provided in the home, in the hospital, in specialized facilities (HOSPICES), or in specially designated areas of long-term care facilities. The concept also includes bereavement care for the family. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Commodification: The social process by which something or someone comes to be regarded and treated as an article of trade or commerce.Physician's Role: The expected function of a member of the medical profession.Forms and Records Control: A management function in which standards and guidelines are developed for the development, maintenance, and handling of forms and records.Water Quality: A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation: Human experimentation that is not intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed. Phase I drug studies (CLINICAL TRIALS, PHASE I AS TOPIC) and research involving healthy volunteers are examples of nontherapeutic human experimentation.Ethics Committees, Research: Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Treatment Refusal: Patient or client refusal of or resistance to medical, psychological, or psychiatric treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Contracts: Agreements between two or more parties, especially those that are written and enforceable by law (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). It is sometimes used to characterize the nature of the professional-patient relationship.Consumer Product SafetyEnvironmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Agrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Hospitals, Religious: Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Humanism: An ethical system which emphasizes human values and the personal worth of each individual, as well as concern for the dignity and freedom of humankind.Patient Participation: Patient involvement in the decision-making process in matters pertaining to health.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Forensic Psychiatry: Psychiatry in its legal aspects. This includes criminology, penology, commitment of mentally ill, the psychiatrist's role in compensation cases, the problems of releasing information to the court, and of expert testimony.Paternalism: Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Nursing Homes: Facilities which provide nursing supervision and limited medical care to persons who do not require hospitalization.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Enterococcaceae: A family of gram-positive bacteria in the order Lactobacillales, phylum Firmicutes.GermanyEnzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Principle-Based Ethics: An approach to ethics that focuses on theories of the importance of general principles such as respect for autonomy, beneficence/nonmaleficence, and justice.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Medical Staff, Hospital: Professional medical personnel approved to provide care to patients in a hospital.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Radiation Monitoring: The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.Mentally Ill Persons: Persons with psychiatric illnesses or diseases, particularly psychotic and severe mood disorders.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Catholicism: The Christian faith, practice, or system of the Catholic Church, specifically the Roman Catholic, the Christian church that is characterized by a hierarchic structure of bishops and priests in which doctrinal and disciplinary authority are dependent upon apostolic succession, with the pope as head of the episcopal college. (From Webster, 3d ed; American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)KansasEpidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Terminally Ill: Persons with an incurable or irreversible illness at the end stage that will result in death within a short time. (From O'Leary et al., Lexikon: Dictionary of Health Care Terms, Organizations, and Acronyms for the Era of Reform, 1994, p780)Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Consultants: Individuals referred to for expert or professional advice or services.Maintenance: The upkeep of property or equipment.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Animals, LaboratoryDNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Jurisprudence: The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.Sociology: A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Community Medicine: A branch of medicine concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community, and with the application of comprehensive care to the prevention and treatment of illness in the entire community.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hospital Bed Capacity, 500 and overProduct Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Beneficence: The state or quality of being kind, charitable, or beneficial. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). The ethical principle of BENEFICENCE requires producing net benefit over harm. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Euthanasia, Active: The act or practice of killing for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person or animal from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Denial (Psychology): Refusal to admit the truth or reality of a situation or experience.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Homes for the Aged: Geriatric long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Mice, Inbred C57BLComprehension: The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Ethics, Clinical: The identification, analysis, and resolution of moral problems that arise in the care of patients. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Communication Barriers: Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.United StatesOntario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Cultural Diversity: Coexistence of numerous distinct ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups within one social unit, organization, or population. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed., 1982, p955)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Hospitals, Military: Hospitals which provide care for the military personnel and usually for their dependents.PhosphoproteinsEthical Theory: A philosophically coherent set of propositions (for example, utilitarianism) which attempts to provide general norms for the guidance and evaluation of moral conduct. (from Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed)Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
5.2 Canadian regulations. *5.3 European Union directives on jam. *6 Jelly worldwide ... European Union directives on jam[edit]. In the European Union, the jam directive (Council Directive 79/693/EEC, 24 July 1979)[ ... Canadian regulations[edit]. Under the Processed Products Regulations (C.R.C., c. 291), jams, jellies, citrus marmalade and ... This definition continues to apply in the new directive, Council Directive 2001/113/EC of 20 December 2001 relating to fruit ...
"Airworthiness - Transport Canada". Airworthiness Directives. Transport Canada. "Airworthiness - CASA". Airworthiness Directives ... "ICAO regulations". ICAO. Retrieved May 5, 2012. "Annex 8 - ICAO" (PDF) (Press release). ICAO. Retrieved May 5, 2012. L. ... Improved noise regulations have forced designers to create quieter engines and airframes. Emissions from aircraft include ... They agree to comply with the regulations set by the regulatory bodies, understand the limitations of the aircraft as specified ...
Directives and regulations > Directive 70/220/EEC". Ec.europa.eu. 2010-08-31. Retrieved 2011-02-02. "91/441/EEC Council ... "Commission Regulation (EU) No 459/2012 of 29 May 2012 amending Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 of the European Parliament and of ... The Stage I/II was part of the 1997 directive (Directive 97/68/EC). It was implemented in two stages with Stage I implemented ... "Commission Directive 2001/116/EC of 20 December 2001 adapting to technical progress Council Directive 70/156/EEC on the ...
European Union directives on jamEdit. In the European Union, the jam directive (Council Directive 79/693/EEC, 24 July 1979)[29] ... Canadian regulationsEdit. Under the Processed Products Regulations (C.R.C., c. 291), jams, jellies, citrus marmalade and ... This definition continues to apply in the new directive, Council Directive 2001/113/EC of 20 December 2001 relating to fruit ... "Consolidated federal laws of canada, Food and Drug Regulations". laws.justice.gc.ca. Archived from the original on 13 July 2017 ...
European Drinking Water Directive. *Drinking Water Regulations: Overview - US EPA. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/ ... What is the purpose of drinking water quality guidelines/regulations?. Canada: Safe Drinking Water Foundation.. Pdf. Archived ... "Council Directive 98/83/EC of 3 November 1998 on the quality of water intended for human consumption, ANNEX I: PARAMETERS AND ... In Europe, this includes the European Drinking Water Directive[2] and in the United States the United States Environmental ...
"02-28111 Airworthiness Directives; Boeing Model 737 Series Airplanes". e-Regulations. Retrieved 19 December 2012. Olson, Walter ...
"Outlining the regulatory framework for petfoods in the EU". Rules, regulations and directives. Petfood Industry. Belluco, ... Article 7 and Annex IV of Regulation 999/2001) that bans the use of animal protein in animal feed. In July 2017 this regulation ... Due to AAFCO regulations, the diets that are available are not based out of the United States. Huis, A.V., Van Itterbeeck, J., ... To learn more about labelling and regulations of pet food, see Pet Food. In spite of all the advantages that insect protein are ...
"Social Assistance Directives". "Employment Supports: What it is". Ontario MCSS. Retrieved 21 December 2013. "ODSP Health ... The ODSP is defined by provincial legislation, the ODSP Act, and its supporting regulations. It is managed through policy ... "Ontario Disability Support Program Act, 1997 ONTARIO REGULATION 222/98". Ontario Gazette. Retrieved 21 December 2013. " ... directives. Unlike Ontario Works, ODSP does not require recipients to undertake employment-related activities like job ...
... "eIDAS from Directive to Regulation - Legal Aspects". Cryptomathic. Retrieved 18 March 2016. Bender, Jens. "eIDAS Regulation: ... The eIDAS Regulation evolved from Directive 1999/93/EC, which set a goal that EU member states were expected to achieve in ... "Regulations, Directives and other acts". Europa.eu. The European Union. Retrieved 18 March 2016. Articles 25 (1) and ... It was established in EU regulation № 910/2014 of 23 July 2014 on electronic identification and repeals directive 1999/93/EC ...
The directive was repealed by the eIDAS Regulation which became official on July 1, 2016. A regulation is a binding legislative ... Turner, Dawn M. "eIDAS from Directive to Regulation". Cryptomathic. Retrieved 29 June 2016. Bender, Jens. "eIDAS Regulation: ... ISBN 978-3-319-26894-1. "Regulations, Directives and other acts". Europa.eu. The European Union. Retrieved 18 March 2016. " ... The regulation provides guidance to EU member states on how trust service providers shall be regulated and recognized. A trust ...
... "eIDAS from Directive to Regulation - Legal Aspects". Cryptomathic. Retrieved 18 March 2016. "Regulations, Directives and other ... Regulation (EU) No 910/2014 (eIDAS) evolved from Directive 1999/93/EC. The intent of the Directive was to make EU Member States ... "Regulation (EU) No 910/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 July 2014 on electronic identification and ... The eIDAS Regulation required all Member States to follow its specifications for electronic signatures by its effective date of ...
Develops implementing directives and instructions. Reviews and approves agency implementing regulations. Maintains liaison ... Title 32 of the Code of Federal Regulations National Archives and Records Administration Public Interest Declassification Board ...
"FCA takes over regulation of consumer credit firms". FCA. "Mortgage Credit Directive". FCA. 22 August 2017. Heywood Fleisig, " ... under the same regulation, and to provide a harmonised approach to mortgage regulation across the EU. Following the ... On 21st March 2016 the FCA introduced The Mortgage Credit Directive which meant all regulated first charge and second charge ... of property value On 1st April 2014 the Financial Conduct Authority took over formal regulation of the consumer credit market ...
... dioxide Nitrogen dioxide The CAFE Directive was transposed into Irish legislation by the Air Quality Standards Regulations 2011 ... Regulations 1990. Under Section 6 it is an offence in these regulations for the home owner/occupier of any private dwelling to ... Daughter Directives 1, 2 and 3 were subsumed into CAFE, with daughter directive 4 to be subsumed at a later stage (EPA, 2016). ... directives for specified pollutants; however as shown in the Cleaner Air For Europe Directive (CAFE), 2008/50/EC below, ...
Under the directive the gallon could still be used - but only as a supplementary or secondary unit. One of the effects of this ... "NIST Handbook 44 - 2012 Edition Appendix C "General Tables of Units of Measurement"". p. C-5. Uniform Laws and Regulations in ... The gallon was removed from the list of legally defined primary units of measure catalogued in the EU directive 80/181/EEC for ... "Units of Measurement Directive". LACORS. 1995. Archived from the original on 24 April 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2011. " ...
8). EU Dublin III Council Regulation, par. (13), Article 6. 2011 Qualifications Directive, par. 18. 2008 Return Directive, par ... 22, Article 5. Brussels II Regulation 2003, pp.1-29. Finland, Child Welfare Act (417/2007), Chapter 1, Section 4(2). " ...
The directive does not imply consistent regulations across Member states. It does state the "Member States and the commission ... In 2010, the Audiovisual Media Services Directive[43] was created as a centre piece of the regulation of advertising unhealthy ... Each country implements a variation in the strength of their regulations, based on the framework is created from the directive ... The EU Audiovisual Media Services Directive,[58] due to replace the Television Without Frontiers Directive[59] in all member ...
Decisions, directives and regulations of the European Union. Parliament of England (13th century to 1707) Parliament of ...
The European Community Treaty ("EC Treaty") authorises the Council and the Commission to make regulations and issue directives. ... a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Areas excluded from VAT area by Article 6 of Council Directive 2006/112/EC of 28 November ... European Union VAT directive[edit]. The aim of the EU VAT directive (Council Directive 2006/112/EC of 28 November 2006 on the ... Recast Sixth Directive[edit]. The recast of the Sixth Directive retained all of the legal provisions of the Sixth Directive but ...
She maintains rehoming organisations need regulation.[42] Legal cases[edit]. In July 2014, the Animal Legal Defense Fund and ... EU Directive 2010/63/EU (EU). *EU Directive 1999/74/EC (EU) ... About the Bill , Lead The Way , Support the Animals (Regulation ... "Questions and Answers on Animal Care's Regulation of Commercial Animal Dealers" (PDF). Retrieved 14 May 2017.. ... Sydney Lord Mayor Clover Moore has responded to the problem of puppy mills in Australia by proposing the Animals Regulation of ...
EU Directive 2010/63/EU (EU). *Animal testing regulations. *Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 (UK) ... Talwar stated that the animal's "native intelligence" can stop it from performing some directives but with enough stimulation, ...
"Directive 2011/83/EU on Consumer Rights" (PDF). European Union. Retrieved 2011-11-11. BIS. "Consumer Rights Directive". ... This is eventually expected to result in 0870 numbers returning to revenue share and their regulation being aligned with that ... In any case, in 2013 the Consumer Rights Directive will soon make it illegal to use 084 and 087 numbers, indeed any number that ... In June 2014, the Consumer Rights Directive will make it illegal to use "numbers that cost more than the basic rate" for ...
Army Regulation 600-8-22 Archived 2011-07-22 at the Wayback Machine. Air Force Instruction 36-2803 Archived 2013-02-16 at the ... "NOAA Corps Directives, Chapter 12 PART 6 - Insignia, Medals, and Ribbon Bars" (PDF). Commissioned Corps Personnel Center. ... "NOAA Corps Directives Chapter 12 Part 7-Awards" (PDF). Commissioned Corps Personnel Center. Retrieved 1 July 2012. ... "Medals and Awards Manual COMDTINST M1650.25D" (PDF). United States Coast Guard CG-612 Directives and Publications Division. May ...
Council Regulation (EC) No 2157/2001 of 8 October 2001 on the Statute for a European company (SE). Council Directive 2001/86/EC ... "EU directives and other official acts on company law". "The European Public Limited-Liability Company Regulations 2004". www. ... The European Company Regulation is complemented by an Employee Involvement Directive that sets rules for participation by ... See also: Europa's collection of press releases, regulations, directives and FAQs on the European Company Statute. UK Statutory ...
The preparation was approved in July 2013 under the European Biocide Directive Program (Annex 1/1A BPD 98/8EEC) . It works by ... "EU approves powdered corn cob as biocidal active". Chemical Watch: Global Risk & Regulation News. 15 August 2013. Retrieved 22 ... Formulated and manufactured by Zea Sciences over 15 years, PCC was granted EU under the European Biocide Directive Program, ... European Union (2013-07-31). "Commission Directive 2013/44/EU of 30 July 2013". Official Journal of the European Union (204): ...
Regulation. Further information: Regulation of alternative medicine and Regulation and prevalence of homeopathy ... "Directive 2004/24/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council". Official Journal of the European Union. 2004-04-30.. ... Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine ranges widely from country to country, and state to state.[152] In Austria and ... Adequacy of regulation and CAM safety. Many of the claims regarding the safety and efficacy of alternative medicine are ...
... and its products are in compliance with all applicable European Union directives and regulations. ... Directive 1999/5/EC on Radio Equipment and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment (R&TTE Directive). The R&TTE Directive applies ... Directive 2012/19/EU on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE Directive). The WEEE Directive aims to encourage ... ErP Directive). Nintendos consoles are categorised as energy-related products under the ErP Directive. The ErP Directive does ...
The Hydrocarbons Licensing Directive Regulations 1995 (SI 1995/1434) is a UK Statutory Instrument that implements the ... Hydrocarbons Directive 94/22/EC. It is relevant for UK enterprise law by determining the procedural steps that ought to be ...
The Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations 2003 is a law in the United Kingdom which made it unlawful ... For this reason the regulations offer more consumer protection from direct marketing. The regulations can be enforced against ... The Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations 2003. ...
Commission Posts Draft of Key Falsified Medicines Directive Regulation The European Commission has released draft rules for the ... European Regulatory Roundup: Commission Posts Draft of Key Falsified Medicines Directive Regulation (20 August 2015). Posted 20 ... Commission Posts Draft of Key Falsified Medicines Directive Regulation ... ending the long wait for the adoption of requirements laid out in the directive, Securing Industry reports. ...
Agency Workers Directive may not hurt contractors Blair backs Directive that potentially excludes limited company contractors ... Agency Workers Regulations (AWR). The Agency Workers Regulations, "AWR", will come into force on 1 October 2011. ... Agency Workers Directive: New rights for temps would hurt UK IT Recruiter: full employment rights for agency workers will cut ... EU Agency Workers Directive may prove hard to enforce. Barry Roback warns that the latest proposed piece of Brussels ...
Home / CIS/1224/2007- Regulation 1408/71, Directive 2004/38/EC CIS/1224/2007- Regulation 1408/71, Directive 2004/38/EC Last ... 1. Whether Article 10a EC Regulation 1408/71 means that an EU national who is habitually resident in the UK has a right to ...
... ... Thank you for downloading Directive on Determination of Licensing Basis Regulations, Guides and Standards and Reference Plant ... Regulation on Construction Inspection of the Nuclear Power Plants. 30/09/16. A Guide on Owner and Authorization Applications ...
Biocidal Products Regulation, MSDS, SDS, REACH, Pre-registration, EINECS, ELINCS, CAS number, EC inventory ... EU Regulation, EU Legislation, Biocide Registration, R4BP, Brexit, GHS/CLP, Biocide, Cosmetics Registration, ... Critical European Union Regulations, Directives, and Decisions. EU REACH. Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (EU REACH) ... The Biocidal Products Regulation (BPR, Regulation (EU) 528/2012) concerns the placing on the market and use of biocidal ...
... import and export rules were later on also binding for homeopathic and anthroposophic medicinal products later Directive 92/73/ ... Expands general basis of Directive 65/65/EEC (The manufacture, control, supervision, ... Second Council Directive on the approximation of provisions laid down by Law, Regulation or Administrative Action relating to ... Second Council Directive on the approximation of provisions laid down by Law, Regulation or Administrative Action relating to ...
The tobacco industry accessed the highest levels of EU political and legal power to water down new tobacco products regulations ... Smart regulation?. The study is consistent with previously raised concerns that the Smart Regulation agenda enables corporate ... New tobacco directive the most lobbied dossier in EU history. The tobacco industry accessed the highest levels of EU ... Yet the Directive is weaker than the original proposals, according to the latest study. The process for revision took over five ...
Increasing regulation of remuneration is being introduced across the European Union, including the possibility of limits on the ... Alternative Investment Fund Manager › Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive (AIFMD) › Remuneration. + Follow x ... Regulation Round Up - May 2017. by Proskauer Rose LLP on 6/5/2017. ... Financial Conduct Authority Guidance on AIFM Directive Remuneration Provisions. by Dechert LLP on 10/17/2013. ...
The entry into force of AIFMD in Europe has resulted in a double layer of regulation, as we now have regulation and supervision ... Alternative Investment Fund Manager › Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive (AIFMD). + Follow x Following x Following ... Regulation Round Up - October 2017. by Proskauer Rose LLP on 11/6/2017. ... Regulation Round Up - May 2017. by Proskauer Rose LLP on 6/5/2017. ...
5.2 Canadian regulations. *5.3 European Union directives on jam. *6 Jelly worldwide ... European Union directives on jam[edit]. In the European Union, the jam directive (Council Directive 79/693/EEC, 24 July 1979)[ ... Canadian regulations[edit]. Under the Processed Products Regulations (C.R.C., c. 291), jams, jellies, citrus marmalade and ... This definition continues to apply in the new directive, Council Directive 2001/113/EC of 20 December 2001 relating to fruit ...
EU Clinical Trials Regulation. The new EU Clinical Trials Regulation, which came into effect in June 2014, contains law that ... Directive on medical MRI procedures and asking that the British government press for an amendment to the directive. Sense about ... Directive and what steps should be taken to assess and amend the Directive. Later in the year, two academic papers were ... Both concluded that the Directive had not taken into account evidence that MRI was a safe and effective way in which ...
... regulations and guidelines? Heres a handy compendium with summaries plus links to the full text of each law. ... European Union Data Protection Directive; Safe Harbor Act. Section 1: Broadly applicable laws and regulations. Sarbanes-Oxley ... The security laws, regulations and guidelines directory. Need to find and understand security and privacy laws, regulations and ... H.R. 2868: The Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards Regulation. What it covers: The CFATS regulation went into effect in ...
Directive. The PRN system is designed to enable the UK to meet its targets under Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging ... Regulations 2007. There have been a number of amendments to the regulations since 2007. ... The Regulations in the UK are enforced by:. • England - the Environment Agency (EA). • Wales - the Natural Resources Body for ... The Directive required that the UK recovered at least 60% of all packaging waste by December 31 2008 as well as meeting a ...
Offshore Safety Directive) (Safety Case etc.) Regulations 2015. For such matters you should use the pre-appeal and, if ... How to make a complaint about the Offshore Safety Directive Regulator (OSDR). If you are unhappy with how OSDR personnel have ...
... regulation or administrative action in Member States concerning (...) ... Directive 2010/13/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council. 10.05.2012 ... on the coordination of certain provisions laid down by law, regulation or administrative action in Member States concerning the ... Amending Decision No 220/2011 of the National Audiovisual Council on the Code for the regulation of audiovisual content ...
What are the e-commerce directive regulations?. Companies that do business in EU-member nations must ensure they comply with ... While the regulations are written to present strict guidelines, another goal is to expand e-commerce throughout the common ... Consult with an attorney to ensure you do your best to comply with all applicable laws and regulations. In the end, it will be ... The regulation dictates what information companies should provide to customers when they make an online transaction with the ...
Find end-of-life vehicle regulation articles , the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource. ... In Europe, several directives are likely to influence global product stewardship. Background Environmental regulation ... end-of-life vehicle regulation Articles. Related terms for "end-of-life vehicle regulation ": end-of-life vehicle articles ... 1992 or the Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations have the same meaning as in that Act or those Regulations, as the ...
Aifa warns FSA over timing of EU directives. Aifa has warned that the FSA needs to be more concerned with the timing of the ... Regulation Regulation. FCA to ask small advice firms how regulation impacts them. The FCA has announced a project to better ... Backing for home-reversion regulation. By System Administrator 18th February 2004 12:00 am The Treasury should extend the ... many upcoming EU directives rather than the precise wording of each document, saying taking on so many directives at once will ...
... regulation 1907/2006/EC (other than for registered substances). Substances covered by this directive which meet the criteria ... we can advise you about which directives and regulations are applicable for your products. We can also keep you informed of ... Biocides directive 98/8/EC. If your products use biocidal products, we prepare the notification report needed to apply for ... Detergents regulation 648/2004/EC. Our laboratories provide you with the necessary testing regime to determine the ...
European Union directives on jamEdit. In the European Union, the jam directive (Council Directive 79/693/EEC, 24 July 1979)[29] ... Canadian regulationsEdit. Under the Processed Products Regulations (C.R.C., c. 291), jams, jellies, citrus marmalade and ... This definition continues to apply in the new directive, Council Directive 2001/113/EC of 20 December 2001 relating to fruit ... "Consolidated federal laws of canada, Food and Drug Regulations". laws.justice.gc.ca. Archived from the original on 13 July 2017 ...
The decision therefore, unlike the regulation or directive, is of individual application, and is binding only upon the persons ... 5.3.2 Directives. A directive is a Community act which shall be binding, as to the result to be achieved, upon each Member ... 5.3.1 Regulations. A regulation is a Community act, which shall have general application. It shall be binding in its entirety ... EU secondary legislation, in the form of regulations, directives, decisions, recommendations and opinions ...
Law and Regulations * Open for Comment * Regulatory Agenda * Standard Interpretations * Training Requirements by Standard ...
  • articles in this section discuss which IT contractors are likely to be within the scope of this incoming legislation and the history of the Directive to date. (contractoruk.com)
  • This is particularly pertinent considering evidence that British American Tobacco, with other companies producing products damaging to health, were instrumental in pushing the Smart Regulation agenda in the EU, anticipating that it would make it more difficult to pass public health legislation. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Legislation relevant to the regulation of Money Transmission Services is listed below. (centralbank.ie)
  • The Directive on the Falsified Medicines was legislation passed by the European Union Parliament, which aimed to increase the security of the manufacturing and delivery of medicines in Europe and provide protection to patients from falsified medicines in the legal supply chain of pharmaceuticals. (abpi.org.uk)
  • On October 23, 2015, HM Treasury published a consultation paper on the proposed amendments to UK legislation required to implement the Undertakings for Collective Investments in Transferable Securities Directive V. UCITS V must be implemented by March 18, 2016. (mondaq.com)
  • Lamfalussy" Directives are split into two levels - the "level 1" Directive which establishes the guiding principles of the legislation agreed in co-decision by EP/Council and the "level 2" implementing measures (see question 3). (europa.eu)
  • In practical terms, since April 2004 Member States have been transposing the level 1 and preparing the transposition of the level 2 directives into their national legislation. (europa.eu)
  • The Environment Regulations team is responsible for so-called 'extended producer responsibility' regulations that derive from European legislation. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • The researchers took account of the impact of Article 5.3 of the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which seeks to curb the influence of the tobacco industry on public health policy, and European regulatory reforms known as 'Smart Regulation', which aim to reduce red tape and boost business competitiveness. (bath.ac.uk)
  • The Directive provides a legislative framework for the agreement on the prevention of sharps injuries in hospitals and the healthcare sector (signed in July 2009) by the Social Partners - the European Hospital and Healthcare Employers' Association (HOSPEEM) and the European Federation of Public Service Unions (EPSU). (hsa.ie)
  • The EU delegation responded that review of EU Regulation 868 is ongoing within the framework of the EU Aviation Strategy. (state.gov)
  • These Directives or Regulations contain framework principles . (europa.eu)
  • The Regulation does not require transposition, however a series of adaptations were necessary to both the national legislative and supervisory framework as well as in the way firms carry out the business to allow to the MiFID to produce its effect. (europa.eu)
  • These lessons justified amending the Basel agreement, and accordingly replacing the CRD with a new regulatory framework including a Regulation ( ii ) (CRR) and a Directive ( iii ) (CRD IV). (europa.eu)
  • The current EU bank capital framework is represented by the Capital Requirements Directive (CRD) comprising Directives 2006/48/EC and 2006/49/EC and reflecting the proposals of the Basel Committee for the Basel II Framework (Basel II) and Trading Book Review. (europa.eu)
  • The UK's Producer Responsibility Regulations deliver the legislative framework for meeting our EU obligations to recover and recycle a proportion of the waste batteries, packaging, electrical and electronic equipment ( EEE ) and vehicles placed on the UK market. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • Medicinal products which are not labelled as free samples but which are delivered free of charge to medical treatment institutions (as a gift or donation), as well as free samples of medicinal products to medical educational and scientific institutions (investigational medicinal products), shall be distributed in accordance the with laws and regulations regarding the procedures for the distribution and quality control of medicinal products. (likumi.lv)
  • In particular, you should be aware that laws and regulations might be different outside England. (legalzoom.com)
  • Under the Low Voltage Directive, electrical equipment must be made so as to protect people, domestic animals and property from injury which could otherwise occur from electrical contact, and from hazards caused by external influences, such as mechanical dangers, chemical dangers or health risks caused by noise, vibrations or ergonomic factors. (nintendo.co.uk)
  • Nintendo complies with the Low Voltage Directive in the manufacture and testing of its products. (nintendo.co.uk)
  • The WEEE Directive aims to encourage everyone to reuse and recycle electrical and electronic equipment. (nintendo.co.uk)
  • Under the WEEE Directive, producers are encouraged to design and produce equipment taking these considerations into account and are responsible for financing the management of waste from the electrical and electronic equipment that they put on the market. (nintendo.co.uk)
  • Like the WEEE Directive, the Batteries Directive aims to reduce the environmental impact of the manufacture, distribution, use, disposal and recycling of batteries and rechargeable batteries. (nintendo.co.uk)
  • The European Commission has released draft rules for the implementation of safety features as part of its preparations for the rollout of the Falsified Medicines Directive (FMD). (raps.org)
  • If everything goes to plan, the draft will be finalized early in 2016 and come into force three years later, ending the long wait for the adoption of requirements laid out in the directive, Securing Industry reports. (raps.org)
  • On the draft directive NBE had proposed that the general insurAance business be reduced, that is, the requirement to preserve 65 percent liquidity to 50 percent of the total asset of insurers and the balance for other businesses. (capitalethiopia.com)
  • The U.S. delegation presented its draft proposal for the negotiation of an agreement that would allow U.S. carriers to be treated as "Community air carriers" for purposes of EU Regulation 1008/2008. (state.gov)
  • Nintendo products are fully compliant with the RoHS Directive, and none of Nintendo's electrical and electronic equipment contains more than the legally accepted levels of lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls (PBB), or polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE). (nintendo.co.uk)
  • (www.gov.uk)
  • (www.gov.uk)
  • The new RoHS Directive has a different scope and obligations on those placing products on the market. (www.gov.uk)
  • As one of the leading providers of testing and inspection services for safety lighting systems and recognized by building code authorities, we hold your systems to high quality standards and work according to relevant regulations to make sure all your responsibilities are met and the lights come on. (tuv.com)
  • For the first time, principles of the EU leniency and settlement programmes have been incorporated into "hard law" within the Implementing Regulation. (lawfuel.com)
  • As a revised version of the 2001 Directive, this becomes national law next year and includes an increase in the size of graphic health warnings, a ban on certain flavourings, restrictions on the size and shape of cigarette packs, and regulation of e-cigarettes. (bath.ac.uk)
  • It replaces the Investment Services Directive (ISD) which was adopted in 1993. (europa.eu)
  • Delegated Regulation to the Falsified Medicines Directive (FMD) 2011/62/EU, published on the 9 February 2016, will come in to force by February 2019. (abpi.org.uk)
  • Changes have been made to the Implementing Regulation (Reg. (lawfuel.com)
  • Information obtained under the Implementing Regulation should only be used in proceedings related to the application of the EU antitrust rules. (lawfuel.com)
  • Community design - Invalidity proceedings - Registered Community design representing footwear - Earlier Community design - Grounds for invalidity - Duty to state reasons - Article 62 of Regulation (EC) No 6/2002 - Ground raised by the Board of Appeal of its own motion - Powers of the Board of Appeal - Article 63(1) of Regulation No 6/2002. (europa.eu)
  • of 29 April 2004 on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to carcinogens or mutagens at work (Sixth individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16(1) Directive 89/391/EEC) as last amended by Directive (EU) 2019/130 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 January 2019 (3rd amendment to the Directive). (europa.eu)
  • This process should not be used for appeals relating to regulatory decisions OSDR has made, as detailed within the appeals process within the Offshore Installations (Offshore Safety Directive) (Safety Case etc. (hse.gov.uk)
  • Directives or Regulations proposed by the Commission and then co-decided by the European Parliament (EP) and the Council. (europa.eu)
  • 1 This request for a preliminary ruling concerns the interpretation of Articles 10, 16, 18 and 19 of Council Regulation (EC) No 343/2003 of 18 February 2003 establishing the criteria and mechanisms for determining the Member State responsible for examining an asylum application lodged in one of the Member States by a third-country national (OJ 2003 L 50, p. 1). (europa.eu)
  • The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) within the U.S. Department of Labor is responsible for issuing and enforcing regulations covering workplace safety. (rug.nl)
  • USDA has travel policies for its employees which supplement the Federal Travel Regulation. (usda.gov)
  • Review and make recommendations on all CSUN policies, procedures, and practices related to the promotion, use, and regulation of alcohol. (csun.edu)
  • CSU Directive/Guideline: CSU Chancellor's Office Report of the Alcohol Policies and Prevention Programs Committee and Drug Free Campus Act. (csun.edu)
  • The previous URL of this page was https://www.gov.uk/government/policies/providing-regulation-and-licensing-of-energy-industries-and-infrastructure . (www.gov.uk)
  • The Office for Nuclear Regulation ( ONR ) regulates civil nuclear sites in line with our policies. (www.gov.uk)
  • A Memorandum of Understanding between the University and the Alumni Association, interpreted together with Title 5, Article 15 of the California Code of Regulations defines the nature and scope of the relationship between the University and the Alumni Association. (csun.edu)
  • NRMM that was previously unregulated, such as generators and snowmobile engines, could come under the scope of the directive. (euractiv.com)
  • Finally, as the Commission took a new legislative shift in focusing on delivering "less and better regulation", it is questionable to what extent a fragmented directive would fit this policy agenda. (fleishmanhillard.eu)
  • Based on a mix of research methods, this article describes how ecolabels, sustainability standards, and regulations might support the market uptake of bio-based car components. (mdpi.com)
  • 6. The U.S. delegation presented its Information Note which responds to the EU's Information Note of 22 January- 'Regulation on Noise Related Operating Restrictions at EU Airports" where it asserts that the conditions in Article 21(4) of the U.S-EU Air Transport Agreement (ATA) have been satisfied through Article 8 of the EU Regulation 598/2014. (state.gov)
  • This directive provides the terminology, responsibilities, and public notification procedures regarding the voluntary recall of FSIS-inspected meat and poultry products. (usda.gov)
  • Need to find and understand security and privacy laws, regulations and guidelines? (csoonline.com)
  • Potential Role of CDC*: Monitor policy enactment by others, enact regulation, publish guidelines and recommendations, enact procedures, administrative actions, incentives and voluntary practices. (cdc.gov)
  • To ensure that all National Team members are fully aware of, and abide by, the rules and regulations governing participation at the event, including doping control testing. (isteroids.com)
  • The IFBB is aware that some National Team members are attempting to circumvent the rules and regulations regarding IFBB Registration and Hotel Check-in by purposefully misrepresenting the number of officials, extra officials, competitors, and supporters. (isteroids.com)
  • Information about rules can be found under the Rules and Regulations tab. (casa.gov.au)
  • Go to the Rules and Regulations tab and select Current rules from the drop down menu. (casa.gov.au)
  • The set out standards and regulations regarding pressure vessels and boilers safety is also very close to the US standards defined by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). (wikipedia.org)
  • We start our journey through the manufacturing process at the steel mill, continue through to the welders and the procedures they use, and also help component manufacturers meet the correct codes, standards and regulations. (lr.org)
  • These courses use both theoretical and practical assessments to validate a candidate's core competencies in the areas of standard safety regulations and protocols. (ul.com)
  • Under the regulations, packaging producers can meet their recycling obligations by buying recycling evidence, known as Packaging Waste Recovery Notes (PRNs), or Packaging Waste Export Recovery Notes (P(E)RNs), from accredited reprocessors or exporters. (letsrecycle.com)
  • The repeal of the Directive shows that, armed with scientific reasoning, scientists were able to convince individuals in parliament and government, and eventually the Commission, that the problem needed to be sorted out. (senseaboutscience.org)
  • Providing a guide to the evolution, practice, benefits, and implementation of Solvency II, Executive′s Guide to Solvency II deftly covers this major European regulation which ensures that insurers can meet their risk-based liabilities over a one-year period to a 99.5% certainty. (wiley.com)
  • Executive′s Guide to Solvency II has as its aim an explanation for executives, practitioners, consultants, and others interested in the Solvency II process and the implications thereof, to understand how and why the directive originated, what its goals are, and what some of the complexities are. (wiley.com)