A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)
Coronary vasodilator with some antiarrhythmic activity.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
Sulfhydryl analog of INOSINE that inhibits nucleoside transport across erythrocyte plasma membranes, and has immunosuppressive properties. It has been used similarly to MERCAPTOPURINE in the treatment of leukemia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p503)
Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
A subtype of equilibrative nucleoside transporter proteins that is insensitive to inhibition by 4-nitrobenzylthioinosine.
A subtype of equilibrative nucleoside transporter proteins that is sensitive to inhibition by 4-nitrobenzylthioinosine.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
Unstable isotopes of nitrogen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. N atoms with atomic weights 12, 13, 16, 17, and 18 are radioactive nitrogen isotopes.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
A technetium imaging agent used to reveal blood-starved cardiac tissue during a heart attack.
A heavy, bluish white metal, atomic number 81, atomic weight [204.382; 204.385], symbol Tl.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOSIDES across cellular membranes.
A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.
A uricosuric drug that is used to reduce the serum urate levels in gout therapy. It lacks anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and diuretic properties.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
Unstable isotopes of rubidium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Rb atoms with atomic weights 79-84, and 86-95 are radioactive rubidium isotopes.
A method of recording heart motion and internal structures by combining ultrasonic imaging with exercise testing (EXERCISE TEST) or pharmacologic stress.
The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
Coronary vasodilator with some antiarrhythmic action.
A class of sodium-independent nucleoside transporters that mediate the facilitative transport of NUCLEOSIDES.
2-Chloroadenosine. A metabolically stable analog of adenosine which acts as an adenosine receptor agonist. The compound has a potent effect on the peripheral and central nervous system.
A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.
Compounds that selectively bind to and activate ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.

Primary biliary cirrhosis associated with membranous glomerulonephritis. (1/980)

A 33-year-old woman was admitted to our department for evaluation of liver dysfunction and proteinuria. A liver biopsy specimen showed ductular proliferation and moderate portal fibrosis indicating stage II primary biliary cirrhosis. A renal biopsy specimen showed mild to moderate mesangial cell proliferation without crescent formation or interstitial nephritis. Immunofluorescent staining revealed deposition of immunoglobulin G (IgG), third component of complement (C3), and Clq on glomerular basement membranes. The findings indicated stage I membranous glomerulonephritis. Administration of ursodesoxycholic acid together with prednisolone, azathioprine, and dipyridamole decreased proteinuria and improved cholestatic liver dysfunction.  (+info)

Integrated evaluation of relation between coronary lesion features and stress echocardiography results: the importance of coronary lesion morphology. (2/980)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze, in the same group of patients, the relationship between multiple variables of coronary lesion and results of exercise, dobutamine and dipyridamole stress echocardiography tests. BACKGROUND: Integrated evaluation of the relation between stress echocardiography results and angiographic variables should include not only the assessment of stenosis severity but also evaluation of other quantitative and qualitative features of coronary stenosis. METHODS: Study population consisted of 168 (138 male, 30 female, mean age 51+/-9 years) patients, on whom exercise (Bruce treadmill protocol), dobutamine (up to 40 mcg/kg/min) and dipyridamole (0.84 mg/kg over 10 min) stress echocardiography tests were performed. Stress echocardiography test was considered positive for myocardial ischemia when a new wall motion abnormality was observed. One-vessel coronary stenosis ranging from mild stenosis to complete obstruction of the vessel was present in 153 patients, and 15 patients had normal coronary arteries. The observed angiographic variables included particular coronary vessel, stenosis location, the presence of collaterals, plaque morphology according to Ambrose classification, percent diameter stenosis and obstruction diameter as assessed by quantitative coronary arteriography. RESULTS: Covariates significantly associated with the results of physical and pharmacological stress tests included for all three stress modalities presence of collateral circulation, percent diameter stenosis and obstruction diameter, as well as lesion morphology (p < 0.05 for all, except collaterals for dobutamine stress test, p = 0.06). By stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis, the strongest predictor of the outcome of exercise echocardiography test was only percent diameter stenosis (p = 0.0002). However, both dobutamine and particularly dipyridamole stress echocardiography results were associated not only with stenosis severity - percent diameter stenosis (dobutamine, p = 0.04; dipyridamole, p = 0.003) - but also, and even more strongly, with lesion morphology (dobutamine, p = 0.006; dipyridamole, p = 0.0009). As all of stress echocardiography results were significantly associated with percent diameter stenosis, the best angiographic cutoff in relation to the results of stress echocardiography test was: exercise, 54%; dobutamine, 58% and dipyridamole, 60% (p < 0.05 vs. exercise). CONCLUSIONS: Integrated evaluation of angiographic variables have shown that the results of dobutamine and dipyridamole stress echocardiography are not only influenced by stenosis severity but also, and even more importantly, by plaque morphology. The results of exercise stress echocardiography, although separately influenced by plaque morphology, are predominantly influenced by stenosis severity, due to a stronger exercise capacity in provoking myocardial ischemia in milder forms of coronary stenosis.  (+info)

Functional production and reconstitution of the human equilibrative nucleoside transporter (hENT1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Interaction of inhibitors of nucleoside transport with recombinant hENT1 and a glycosylation-defective derivative (hENT1/N48Q). (3/980)

We have produced recombinant human equilibrative nucleoside transporter (hENT1) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and have compared the binding of inhibitors of equilibrative nucleoside transport with the wild-type transporter and a N-glycosylation-defective mutant transporter. Equilibrium binding of 3H-labelled nitrobenzylmercaptopurine ribonucleoside {6-[(4-nitrobenzyl)thio]-9-beta-d-ribofuranosyl purine; NBMPR} to hENT1-producing yeast revealed a single class of high-affinity sites that were shown to be in membrane fractions by (1) equilibrium binding (means+/-S.D.) of [3H]NBMPR to intact yeast (Kd 1.2+/-0.2 nM; Bmax 5.0+/-0.5 pmol/mg of protein) and membranes (Kd 0.7+/-0.2 nM; Bmax 6.5+/-1 pmol/mg of protein), and (2) reconstitution of hENT1-mediated [3H]thymidine transport into proteoliposomes that was potently inhibited by NBMPR. Dilazep and dipyridamole inhibited NBMPR binding to hENT1 with IC50 values of 130+/-10 and 380+/-20 nM respectively. The role of N-linked glycosylation in the interaction of NBMPR with hENT1 was examined by the quantification of binding of [3H]NBMPR to yeast producing either wild-type hENT1 or a glycosylation-defective mutant (hENT1/N48Q) in which Asn-48 was converted into Gln. The Kd for binding of NBMPR to hENT1/N48Q was 10. 5+/-1.6 nM, indicating that the replacement of an Asn residue with Gln decreased the affinity of hENT1 for NBMPR. The decreased affinity of hENT1/N48Q for NBMPR was due to an increased rate of dissociation (koff) and a decreased rate of association (kon) of specifically bound [3H]NBMPR because the values for hENT1-producing and hENT1/N48Q-producing yeast were respectively 0.14+/-0.02 and 0. 36+/-0.05 min-1 for koff, and (1.2+/-0.1)x10(8) and (0.40+/-0. 04)x10(8) M-1.min-1 for kon. These results indicated that the conservative conversion of an Asn residue into Gln at position 48 of hENT1 and/or the loss of N-linked glycosylation capability altered the binding characteristics of the transporter for NBMPR, dilazep and dipyridamole.  (+info)

Coronary flow reserve in young men with familial combined hyperlipidemia. (4/980)

BACKGROUND: Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) is a common hereditary disorder of lipoprotein metabolism estimated to cause 10% to 20% of premature coronary heart disease. We investigated whether functional abnormalities exist in coronary reactivity in asymptomatic patients with FCHL. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 21 male FCHL patients (age, 34.8+/-5.4 years) and a matched group of 21 healthy control subjects. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured at baseline and during dipyridamole-induced hyperemia with PET and 15O-labeled water. The baseline MBF was similar in patients and control subjects (0.79+/-0.19 versus 0.88+/-0.20 mL. g-1. min-1, P=NS). An increase in MBF was seen in both groups after dipyridamole infusion, but MBF at maximal vasodilation was lower in FCHL patients (3.54+/-1.59 versus 4.54+/-1.17 mL. g-1. min-1, P=0.025). The difference in coronary flow reserve (CFR) was not statistically significant (4.7+/-2.2 versus 5.3+/-1.6, P=NS, patients versus control subjects). Considerable variability in CFR values was detected within the FCHL group. Patients with phenotype IIB (n=8) had lower flow during hyperemia (2.5+/-1.2 versus 4.2+/-1.5 mL. g-1. min-1, P<0.05) and lower CFR (3.4+/-2.1 versus 5.4+/-2.0, P<0.05) compared with phenotype IIA (n=13). CONCLUSIONS: Abnormalities in coronary flow regulation exist in young asymptomatic FCHL patients expressing phenotype IIB (characterized by abnormalities in both serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations). This is in line with previous observations suggesting that the metabolic abnormalities related to the pathophysiology of FCHL are associated with the phenotype IIB.  (+info)

Phasic coronary flow pattern and flow reserve in patients with left bundle branch block and normal coronary arteries. (5/980)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether scintigraphic myocardial perfusion defects in patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) and normal coronary arteries are related to abnormalities in coronary flow velocity pattern and/or coronary flow reserve. BACKGROUND: Septal or anteroseptal defects on exercise myocardial perfusion scintigraphy are common in patients with LBBB and normal coronary arteries. METHODS: Thirteen patients (7 men, age 61+/-8 years) with LBBB and normal coronary arteries underwent stress thallium-201 scintigraphy and cardiac catheterization. In all patients and in 11 control subjects coronary blood flow parameters were calculated from Doppler measurements of flow velocity in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) before and after adenosine administration. RESULTS: The time to maximum peak diastolic flow velocity was significantly longer both for the seven patients with (134+/-19 ms) and for the six without (136+/-7 ms) exercise perfusion defects than for controls (105+/-12 ms, p < 0.05), whereas the acceleration was slower (170+/-54, 186+/-42 and 279+/-96 cm/s2, respectively, p < 0.05). Coronary flow reserve in the patients with exercise perfusion defects (2.7+/-0.3) was significantly lower than in those without (3.7+/-0.5, p < 0.05) or in the control group (3.4+/-0.5, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with LBBB have an impairment of early diastolic blood flow in the LAD due to an increase in early diastolic compressive resistance resulting from delayed ventricular relaxation. Furthermore, exercise scintigraphic perfusion defects in these patients are associated with a reduced coronary flow reserve, indicating abnormalities of microvascular function in the same vascular territory.  (+info)

Endothelium-dependent and -independent perfusion reserve and the effect of L-arginine on myocardial perfusion in patients with syndrome X. (6/980)

BACKGROUND: Impaired vasodilatation capacity in patients with angina pectoris and a normal coronary arteriogram (syndrome X [SX]) has been reported. Most studies report on the response in epicardial vessels. This does not necessarily reflect compromised myocardial microcirculation. Lack of the NO precursor L-arginine has been suggested as a possible cause. METHODS AND RESULTS: Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured, using PET, at rest (MBF-rest) and during intravenous dipyridamole (MBF-DIP) in 25 women (mean age 53+/-7 years) with SX. Thirty healthy volunteers served as controls. One group (A) consisted of 15 age-matched female volunteers (54+/-10 years). The other control group consisted of 15 young healthy women (B; 24+/-5 years). In 12 SX patients, MBF-rest and MBF during cold pressor testing were also measured after infusion of L-arginine (6.7 g/min for 45 minutes). The increase in MBF after cold pressor testing was similar in the SX group compared with controls. L-arginine did not affect MBF-rest (0.83+/-0.14 versus 0.89+/-0.13 mL. g-1. min-1) or MBF after cold pressor test (0.95+/-0.10 versus 1. 03+/-0.17 mL. g-1min-1). In contrast, the hyperemic response to DIP was blunted compared with the group A controls (1.68+/-0.49 versus 2. 34+/-0.45 mL. g-1. min-1, P<0.05); this resulted in a significant reduction of the coronary flow reserve in SX patients relative to controls (2.03+/-0.53 versus 2.96+/-0.63 mL. g-1. min-1, P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with SX, the microcirculatory response to cold, reflecting the endothelium function, is normal and unaltered by intravenous L-arginine. This suggests preserved microcirculatory endothelial function. However, a markedly attenuated hyperemic flow and flow reserve after DIP suggest a dysfunction of the adenosine-mediated endothelium-independent vasodilatation at the microcirculatory level in these patients.  (+info)

Quantification of extracellular and intracellular adenosine production: understanding the transmembranous concentration gradient. (7/980)

BACKGROUND: Inhibitors of adenosine membrane transport cause vasodilation and enhance the plasma adenosine concentration. However, it is unclear why the plasma adenosine concentration rises rather than falls when membrane transport is inhibited. We tested the hypothesis that the cytosolic adenosine concentration exceeds the interstitial concentration under well-oxygenated conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: In isolated, isovolumically working guinea pig hearts (n=50), the release rate of adenosine and accumulation of S-adenosylhomocysteine (after 20 minutes of 200 micromol/L homocysteine), a measure of the free cytosolic adenosine concentration, were determined in the absence and presence of specific and powerful blockers of adenosine membrane transport (nitrobenzylthioinosine 1 micromol/L), adenosine deaminase (erythro-9-hydroxy-nonyl-adenine 5 micromol/L), and adenosine kinase (iodotubericidine 10 micromol/L). Data analysis with a distributed multicompartment model revealed a total cardiac adenosine production rate of 2294 pmol. min-1. g-1, of which 8% was produced in the extracellular region. Because of a high rate of intracellular metabolism, however, 70.3% of extracellularly produced adenosine was taken up into cellular regions, an effect that was effectively eliminated by membrane transport block. The resulting approximately 2.8-fold increase of the interstitial adenosine concentration evoked near-maximal coronary dilation. CONCLUSIONS: We rejected the hypothesis that the cytosolic adenosine concentration exceeds the interstitial. Rather, there is significant extracellular production, and the parenchymal cell represents a sink, not a source, for adenosine under well-oxygenated conditions.  (+info)

Effects of sevoflurane on regional myocardial blood flow distribution: quantification with myocardial contrast echocardiography. (8/980)

BACKGROUND: Using myocardial contrast echocardiography, the authors tried to determine whether sevoflurane causes myocardial blood maldistribution in humans and dogs. METHODS: In animal experiments, 15 mongrel dogs were organized into dipyridamole (n = 6) and sevoflurane (n = 9) groups. Sonicated albumin was infused into the left main coronary artery. The peak gray level corrected for background was analyzed at the following intervals: (1) at baseline, (2) after stenosis of the left circumflex coronary artery (blood flow reduced by 40%), (3) after administration of dipyridamole (1 mg/kg given intravenously) or sevoflurane (1 minimum alveolar concentration) during stenosis, and (4) after phenylephrine during stenosis and administration of dipyridamole or sevoflurane. In human studies, nine patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were studied. During partial extracorporeal circulation, the peak gray level was analyzed before and 20 min after sevoflurane (1 minimum alveolar concentration). RESULTS: In animal experiments, dipyridamole decreased significantly the inner:outer ratio of the peak gray level in the ischemic area and the ischemic:normal ratio of the peak gray level. After arterial pressure was restored with phenylephrine, neither the inner:outer ratio nor the ischemic:normal ratio improved. In contrast, after sevoflurane administration, the inner:outer ratio and the ischemic:normal ratio remained unchanged, but these increased with phenylephrine. In human studies, sevoflurane did not change the inner:outer ratio in the area supplied by the most stenotic coronary artery. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that dipyridamole, a potent coronary vasodilator, produces maldistribution of coronary blood flow in our dog models, whereas sevoflurane does not do this in animal or human studies.  (+info)

Dipyridamole is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called antiplatelet agents. It works by preventing platelets in your blood from sticking together to form clots. Dipyridamole is often used in combination with aspirin to prevent stroke and other complications in people who have had a heart valve replacement or a type of irregular heartbeat called atrial fibrillation.

Dipyridamole can also be used as a stress agent in myocardial perfusion imaging studies, which are tests used to evaluate blood flow to the heart. When used for this purpose, dipyridamole is given intravenously and works by dilating the blood vessels in the heart, allowing more blood to flow through them and making it easier to detect areas of reduced blood flow.

The most common side effects of dipyridamole include headache, dizziness, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. In rare cases, dipyridamole can cause more serious side effects, such as allergic reactions, abnormal heart rhythms, or low blood pressure. It is important to take dipyridamole exactly as directed by your healthcare provider and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Dilazep is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called calcium channel blockers. It is primarily used in the management of angina pectoris, which is chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart muscle. Dilazep works by relaxing and widening the blood vessels that supply the heart, thereby improving blood flow and reducing the workload on the heart.

The chemical name for Dilazep is (E)-1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid diamide. It is not commonly used in many countries, and other calcium channel blockers such as verapamil, nifedipine, and amlodipine are more frequently prescribed for the treatment of angina pectoris.

It's important to note that like all medications, Dilazep can have side effects, including headache, dizziness, and swelling in the extremities. It should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, who can monitor its effectiveness and potential side effects.

Adenosine is a purine nucleoside that is composed of a sugar (ribose) and the base adenine. It plays several important roles in the body, including serving as a precursor for the synthesis of other molecules such as ATP, NAD+, and RNA.

In the medical context, adenosine is perhaps best known for its use as a pharmaceutical agent to treat certain cardiac arrhythmias. When administered intravenously, it can help restore normal sinus rhythm in patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) by slowing conduction through the atrioventricular node and interrupting the reentry circuit responsible for the arrhythmia.

Adenosine can also be used as a diagnostic tool to help differentiate between narrow-complex tachycardias of supraventricular origin and those that originate from below the ventricles (such as ventricular tachycardia). This is because adenosine will typically terminate PSVT but not affect the rhythm of VT.

It's worth noting that adenosine has a very short half-life, lasting only a few seconds in the bloodstream. This means that its effects are rapidly reversible and generally well-tolerated, although some patients may experience transient symptoms such as flushing, chest pain, or shortness of breath.

Vasodilator agents are pharmacological substances that cause the relaxation or widening of blood vessels by relaxing the smooth muscle in the vessel walls. This results in an increase in the diameter of the blood vessels, which decreases vascular resistance and ultimately reduces blood pressure. Vasodilators can be further classified based on their site of action:

1. Systemic vasodilators: These agents cause a generalized relaxation of the smooth muscle in the walls of both arteries and veins, resulting in a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and preload (the volume of blood returning to the heart). Examples include nitroglycerin, hydralazine, and calcium channel blockers.
2. Arterial vasodilators: These agents primarily affect the smooth muscle in arterial vessel walls, leading to a reduction in afterload (the pressure against which the heart pumps blood). Examples include angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and direct vasodilators like sodium nitroprusside.
3. Venous vasodilators: These agents primarily affect the smooth muscle in venous vessel walls, increasing venous capacitance and reducing preload. Examples include nitroglycerin and other organic nitrates.

Vasodilator agents are used to treat various cardiovascular conditions such as hypertension, heart failure, angina, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. It is essential to monitor their use carefully, as excessive vasodilation can lead to orthostatic hypotension, reflex tachycardia, or fluid retention.

Thioinosine is not a medical term itself, but it is a chemical compound that has been studied in the field of medical research. Thioinosine is an analogue of the nucleoside inosine, where the oxygen atom in the heterocyclic ring is replaced by a sulfur atom.

In the context of medical research, thioinosine has been investigated for its potential immunomodulatory and antiviral properties. It has been studied as an inhibitor of certain enzymes involved in the replication of viruses, such as HIV and hepatitis C virus. However, it is not currently approved for use as a medication in clinical practice.

Thallium radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes or variants of the element thallium (Tl), which decays and emits radiation. Thallium has several radioisotopes, with the most commonly used being thallium-201 (^201Tl). This radioisotope is used in medical imaging, specifically in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, to evaluate blood flow to the heart muscle. It decays by electron capture and emits gamma radiation with a half-life of 73 hours, making it suitable for diagnostic procedures.

It's important to note that handling and using radioisotopes require proper training and safety measures due to their ionizing radiation properties.

Coronary circulation refers to the circulation of blood in the coronary vessels, which supply oxygenated blood to the heart muscle (myocardium) and drain deoxygenated blood from it. The coronary circulation system includes two main coronary arteries - the left main coronary artery and the right coronary artery - that branch off from the aorta just above the aortic valve. These arteries further divide into smaller branches, which supply blood to different regions of the heart muscle.

The left main coronary artery divides into two branches: the left anterior descending (LAD) artery and the left circumflex (LCx) artery. The LAD supplies blood to the front and sides of the heart, while the LCx supplies blood to the back and sides of the heart. The right coronary artery supplies blood to the lower part of the heart, including the right ventricle and the bottom portion of the left ventricle.

The veins that drain the heart muscle include the great cardiac vein, the middle cardiac vein, and the small cardiac vein, which merge to form the coronary sinus. The coronary sinus empties into the right atrium, allowing deoxygenated blood to enter the right side of the heart and be pumped to the lungs for oxygenation.

Coronary circulation is essential for maintaining the health and function of the heart muscle, as it provides the necessary oxygen and nutrients required for proper contraction and relaxation of the myocardium. Any disruption or blockage in the coronary circulation system can lead to serious consequences, such as angina, heart attack, or even death.

Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 2 (ENT2) is a type of protein found in the cell membrane that facilitates the bidirectional transport of nucleosides, which are the building blocks of DNA and RNA, between the intracellular and extracellular spaces. ENT2 is a member of the solute carrier 29 (SLC29) family of transporters and is widely expressed in various tissues, including the brain, liver, kidney, and intestine.

ENT2 plays an essential role in maintaining nucleoside homeostasis by regulating their uptake and efflux across the cell membrane. It has a high affinity for purine nucleosides such as adenosine and guanosine, and to a lesser extent, pyrimidine nucleosides such as uridine and thymidine. The activity of ENT2 is critical in regulating extracellular adenosine levels, which have important implications for various physiological processes, including neurotransmission, inflammation, and cancer.

In addition to its role in nucleoside transport, ENT2 has been implicated in the development of drug resistance in cancer cells. Certain chemotherapeutic agents, such as nucleoside analogs, utilize ENT2 for their uptake into cells. However, overexpression of ENT2 in cancer cells can lead to increased efflux of these drugs, resulting in reduced intracellular concentrations and decreased therapeutic effectiveness. Therefore, ENT2 is an attractive target for the development of novel strategies to overcome drug resistance in cancer therapy.

Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1 (ENT1), also known as SLC29A1, is a protein that functions as a membrane transport protein. It is responsible for the facilitated diffusion of nucleosides and some related drugs across the cell membrane. The term "equilibrative" refers to the fact that this transporter moves substrates down their concentration gradient, meaning it facilitates the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. ENT1 is widely expressed in various tissues, including the liver, kidney, intestine, and brain, playing a crucial role in nucleoside homeostasis and the cellular uptake of nucleoside-analog drugs used in cancer chemotherapy.

A nucleoside is a biochemical molecule that consists of a pentose sugar (a type of simple sugar with five carbon atoms) covalently linked to a nitrogenous base. The nitrogenous base can be one of several types, including adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, or uracil. Nucleosides are important components of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA, which are the genetic materials found in cells. They play a crucial role in various biological processes, including cell division, protein synthesis, and gene expression.

Aspirin is the common name for acetylsalicylic acid, which is a medication used to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and lower fever. It works by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called cyclooxygenase (COX), which is involved in the production of prostaglandins, hormone-like substances that cause inflammation and pain. Aspirin also has an antiplatelet effect, which means it can help prevent blood clots from forming. This makes it useful for preventing heart attacks and strokes.

Aspirin is available over-the-counter in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and chewable tablets. It is also available in prescription strengths for certain medical conditions. As with any medication, aspirin should be taken as directed by a healthcare provider, and its use should be avoided in children and teenagers with viral infections due to the risk of Reye's syndrome, a rare but serious condition that can affect the liver and brain.

Coronary artery disease, often simply referred to as coronary disease, is a condition in which the blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of fatty deposits called plaques. This can lead to chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, or in severe cases, a heart attack.

The medical definition of coronary artery disease is:

A condition characterized by the accumulation of atheromatous plaques in the walls of the coronary arteries, leading to decreased blood flow and oxygen supply to the myocardium (heart muscle). This can result in symptoms such as angina pectoris, shortness of breath, or arrhythmias, and may ultimately lead to myocardial infarction (heart attack) or heart failure.

Risk factors for coronary artery disease include age, smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, and a family history of the condition. Lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet, and managing stress can help reduce the risk of developing coronary artery disease. Medical treatments may include medications to control blood pressure, cholesterol levels, or irregular heart rhythms, as well as procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow to the heart.

Nitrogen radioisotopes are unstable isotopes of the element nitrogen that emit radiation as they decay into more stable forms. Nitrogen has several radioisotopes, with the most common being nitrogen-13 and nitrogen-15. These isotopes have 7 protons in their nucleus, but differ in the number of neutrons.

Nitrogen-13 has a half-life of about 10 minutes, making it useful for medical imaging studies such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans. When nitrogen-13 decays, it emits a positron, which then collides with an electron and produces gamma rays that can be detected by a PET scanner.

Nitrogen-15, on the other hand, has a half-life of about 3 minutes and is not typically used for medical imaging. However, it is widely used in research settings as a stable isotope tracer to study metabolic processes in the body.

It's important to note that handling and using radioisotopes requires specialized training and equipment due to their potential radiation hazards.

An exercise test, also known as a stress test or an exercise stress test, is a medical procedure used to evaluate the heart's function and response to physical exertion. It typically involves walking on a treadmill or pedaling a stationary bike while being monitored for changes in heart rate, blood pressure, electrocardiogram (ECG), and sometimes other variables such as oxygen consumption or gas exchange.

During the test, the patient's symptoms, such as chest pain or shortness of breath, are also closely monitored. The exercise test can help diagnose coronary artery disease, assess the severity of heart-related symptoms, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments for heart conditions. It may also be used to determine a person's safe level of physical activity and fitness.

There are different types of exercise tests, including treadmill stress testing, stationary bike stress testing, nuclear stress testing, and stress echocardiography. The specific type of test used depends on the patient's medical history, symptoms, and overall health status.

Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi is a radiopharmaceutical compound used in medical imaging, specifically in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. It is a technetium-labeled isonitrile chelate that is taken up by mitochondria in cells with high metabolic activity, such as cardiomyocytes (heart muscle cells).

Once injected into the patient's body, Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi emits gamma rays, which can be detected by a gamma camera. This allows for the creation of images that reflect the distribution and function of the radiopharmaceutical within the heart muscle. The images can help identify areas of reduced blood flow or ischemia, which may indicate coronary artery disease.

The uptake of Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi in other organs, such as the breast and thyroid, can also be used for imaging purposes, although its primary use remains in cardiac imaging.

Thallium is a chemical element with the symbol Tl and atomic number 81. It is a soft, malleable, silver-like metal that is highly toxic. In the context of medicine, thallium may be used as a component in medical imaging tests, such as thallium stress tests, which are used to evaluate blood flow to the heart and detect coronary artery disease. Thallium-201 is a radioactive isotope of thallium that is used as a radiopharmaceutical in these tests. When administered to a patient, it is taken up by heart muscle tissue in proportion to its blood flow, allowing doctors to identify areas of the heart that may not be receiving enough oxygen-rich blood. However, due to concerns about its potential toxicity and the availability of safer alternatives, thallium stress tests are less commonly used today than they were in the past.

In medical terms, the heart is a muscular organ located in the thoracic cavity that functions as a pump to circulate blood throughout the body. It's responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes. The human heart is divided into four chambers: two atria on the top and two ventricles on the bottom. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs, while the left side receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it out to the rest of the body. The heart's rhythmic contractions and relaxations are regulated by a complex electrical conduction system.

Theophylline is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called methylxanthines. It is used in the management of respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other conditions that cause narrowing of the airways in the lungs.

Theophylline works by relaxing the smooth muscle around the airways, which helps to open them up and make breathing easier. It also acts as a bronchodilator, increasing the flow of air into and out of the lungs. Additionally, theophylline has anti-inflammatory effects that can help reduce swelling in the airways and relieve symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.

Theophylline is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions. It is important to take this medication exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider, as the dosage may vary depending on individual factors such as age, weight, and liver function. Regular monitoring of blood levels of theophylline is also necessary to ensure safe and effective use of the medication.

Emission-Computed Tomography, Single-Photon (SPECT) is a type of nuclear medicine imaging procedure that generates detailed, three-dimensional images of the distribution of radioactive pharmaceuticals within the body. It uses gamma rays emitted by a radiopharmaceutical that is introduced into the patient's body, and a specialized gamma camera to detect these gamma rays and create tomographic images. The data obtained from the SPECT imaging can be used to diagnose various medical conditions, evaluate organ function, and guide treatment decisions. It is commonly used to image the heart, brain, and bones, among other organs and systems.

Nucleoside transport proteins (NTTs) are membrane-bound proteins responsible for the facilitated diffusion of nucleosides and related deoxynucleosides across the cell membrane. These proteins play a crucial role in the uptake of nucleosides, which serve as precursors for DNA and RNA synthesis, as well as for the salvage of nucleotides in the cell.

There are two main types of NTTs: concentrative (or sodium-dependent) nucleoside transporters (CNTs) and equilibrative (or sodium-independent) nucleoside transporters (ENTs). CNTs mainly facilitate the uptake of nucleosides against a concentration gradient, using the energy derived from the sodium ion gradient. In contrast, ENTs mediate bidirectional transport, allowing for the equalization of intracellular and extracellular nucleoside concentrations.

Nucleoside transport proteins have been identified in various organisms, including humans, and are involved in numerous physiological processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Dysregulation of NTTs has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including cancer and viral infections, making them potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

Dobutamine is a synthetic catecholamine used in medical treatment, specifically as a positive inotrope and vasodilator. It works by stimulating the beta-1 adrenergic receptors of the heart, thereby increasing its contractility and stroke volume. This results in an improved cardiac output, making dobutamine beneficial in treating heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and other conditions where heart function is compromised.

It's important to note that dobutamine should be administered under strict medical supervision due to its potential to cause adverse effects such as arrhythmias, hypotension, or hypertension. The dosage, frequency, and duration of administration are determined by the patient's specific condition and response to treatment.

Emission computed tomography (ECT) is a type of tomographic imaging technique in which an emission signal from within the body is detected to create cross-sectional images of that signal's distribution. In Emission-Computed Tomography (ECT), a radionuclide is introduced into the body, usually through injection, inhalation or ingestion. The radionuclide emits gamma rays that are then detected by external gamma cameras.

The data collected from these cameras is then used to create cross-sectional images of the distribution of the radiopharmaceutical within the body. This allows for the identification and quantification of functional information about specific organs or systems within the body, such as blood flow, metabolic activity, or receptor density.

One common type of Emission-Computed Tomography is Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), which uses a single gamma camera that rotates around the patient to collect data from multiple angles. Another type is Positron Emission Tomography (PET), which uses positron-emitting radionuclides and detects the coincident gamma rays emitted by the annihilation of positrons and electrons.

Overall, ECT is a valuable tool in medical imaging for diagnosing and monitoring various diseases, including cancer, heart disease, and neurological disorders.

Platelet aggregation inhibitors are a class of medications that prevent platelets (small blood cells involved in clotting) from sticking together and forming a clot. These drugs work by interfering with the ability of platelets to adhere to each other and to the damaged vessel wall, thereby reducing the risk of thrombosis (blood clot formation).

Platelet aggregation inhibitors are often prescribed for people who have an increased risk of developing blood clots due to various medical conditions such as atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, stroke, or a history of heart attack. They may also be used in patients undergoing certain medical procedures, such as angioplasty and stenting, to prevent blood clot formation in the stents.

Examples of platelet aggregation inhibitors include:

1. Aspirin: A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that irreversibly inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase, which is involved in platelet activation and aggregation.
2. Clopidogrel (Plavix): A P2Y12 receptor antagonist that selectively blocks ADP-induced platelet activation and aggregation.
3. Prasugrel (Effient): A third-generation thienopyridine P2Y12 receptor antagonist, similar to clopidogrel but with faster onset and greater potency.
4. Ticagrelor (Brilinta): A direct-acting P2Y12 receptor antagonist that does not require metabolic activation and has a reversible binding profile.
5. Dipyridamole (Persantine): An antiplatelet agent that inhibits platelet aggregation by increasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels in platelets, which leads to decreased platelet reactivity.
6. Iloprost (Ventavis): A prostacyclin analogue that inhibits platelet aggregation and causes vasodilation, often used in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.
7. Cilostazol (Pletal): A phosphodiesterase III inhibitor that increases cAMP levels in platelets, leading to decreased platelet activation and aggregation, as well as vasodilation.
8. Ticlopidine (Ticlid): An older P2Y12 receptor antagonist with a slower onset of action and more frequent side effects compared to clopidogrel or prasugrel.

Sulfinpyrazone is a medication that belongs to the class of drugs known as uricosurics. It works by increasing the amount of uric acid that is removed from the body through urine, which helps to lower the levels of uric acid in the blood. This makes it useful for the treatment of conditions such as gout and kidney stones that are caused by high levels of uric acid.

In addition to its uricosuric effects, sulfinpyrazone also has antiplatelet properties, which means that it can help to prevent blood clots from forming. This makes it useful for the prevention of heart attacks and strokes in people who are at risk.

Sulfinpyrazone is available by prescription and is typically taken by mouth in the form of tablets. It may be used alone or in combination with other medications, depending on the individual patient's needs and medical condition. As with any medication, sulfinpyrazone should be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, and patients should follow their provider's instructions carefully to ensure safe and effective use.

Phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE inhibitors) are a class of drugs that work by blocking the action of phosphodiesterase enzymes, which are responsible for breaking down cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), two crucial intracellular signaling molecules.

By inhibiting these enzymes, PDE inhibitors increase the concentration of cAMP and cGMP in the cells, leading to a variety of effects depending on the specific type of PDE enzyme that is inhibited. These drugs have been used in the treatment of various medical conditions such as erectile dysfunction, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and heart failure.

Examples of PDE inhibitors include sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), vardenafil (Levitra) for erectile dysfunction, and iloprost, treprostinil, and sildenafil for pulmonary arterial hypertension. It's important to note that different PDE inhibitors have varying levels of selectivity for specific PDE isoforms, which can result in different therapeutic effects and side effect profiles.

Rubidium radioisotopes are unstable isotopes of the element rubidium that emit radiation as they decay towards a stable state. This means that rubidium atoms with an excess of neutrons in their nuclei will emit subatomic particles (such as beta particles) and/or gamma rays to transform into a more stable form, often resulting in a different element.

Rubidium has two common radioisotopes: Rubidium-82 and Rubidium-87.

* Rubidium-82 (^82Rb) is a positron emitter with a half-life of 1.25 minutes, which is commonly used in medical imaging for myocardial perfusion studies to assess blood flow to the heart muscle. It is produced by the decay of Strontium-82 (^82Sr), typically via a generator system in the hospital's radiopharmacy.
* Rubidium-87 (^87Rb) has a half-life of 48.8 billion years, which is much longer than the age of the universe. It occurs naturally and decays into Strontium-87 (^87Sr) through beta decay. This process can be used for geological dating purposes in rocks and minerals.

It's important to note that radioisotopes, including rubidium isotopes, should only be handled by trained professionals in controlled environments due to their radiation hazards.

Stress echocardiography is a medical test that uses ultrasound imaging to assess how well your heart muscles are pumping blood and how well they respond to stress. It can help diagnose and evaluate coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, and other cardiac conditions.

During the test, you will be asked to exercise on a treadmill or stationary bike while your heart rate and blood pressure are monitored. At peak exercise, a healthcare professional will take ultrasound images of your heart to evaluate its structure and function. If you are unable to exercise, medication may be given to simulate the effects of exercise on your heart.

The test can help identify areas of your heart that aren't receiving enough oxygen-rich blood due to blocked or narrowed arteries. It can also assess how well your heart valves are functioning and whether there are any structural abnormalities in your heart. Your healthcare provider will use the results of the test to develop a treatment plan tailored to your individual needs.

Hyperemia is a medical term that refers to an increased flow or accumulation of blood in certain capillaries or vessels within an organ or tissue, resulting in its redness and warmth. This can occur due to various reasons such as physical exertion, emotional excitement, local injury, or specific medical conditions.

There are two types of hyperemia: active and passive. Active hyperemia is a physiological response where the blood flow increases as a result of the metabolic demands of the organ or tissue. For example, during exercise, muscles require more oxygen and nutrients, leading to an increase in blood flow. Passive hyperemia, on the other hand, occurs when there is a blockage in the venous outflow, causing the blood to accumulate in the affected area. This can result from conditions like thrombosis or vasoconstriction.

It's important to note that while hyperemia itself is not a disease, it can be a symptom of various underlying medical conditions and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional if it persists or is accompanied by other symptoms.

Echocardiography is a medical procedure that uses sound waves to produce detailed images of the heart's structure, function, and motion. It is a non-invasive test that can help diagnose various heart conditions, such as valve problems, heart muscle damage, blood clots, and congenital heart defects.

During an echocardiogram, a transducer (a device that sends and receives sound waves) is placed on the chest or passed through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart. The sound waves produced by the transducer bounce off the heart structures and return to the transducer, which then converts them into electrical signals that are processed to create images of the heart.

There are several types of echocardiograms, including:

* Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE): This is the most common type of echocardiogram and involves placing the transducer on the chest.
* Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE): This type of echocardiogram involves passing a specialized transducer through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart from a closer proximity.
* Stress echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram is performed during exercise or medication-induced stress to assess how the heart functions under stress.
* Doppler echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram uses sound waves to measure blood flow and velocity in the heart and blood vessels.

Echocardiography is a valuable tool for diagnosing and managing various heart conditions, as it provides detailed information about the structure and function of the heart. It is generally safe, non-invasive, and painless, making it a popular choice for doctors and patients alike.

Lidoflazine is not typically considered a medical "definition," but rather it is a specific pharmaceutical drug. However, I can provide you with information about what Lidoflazine is used for and its pharmacological properties.

Lidoflazine is a calcium channel blocker, which is a type of medication that works by relaxing the muscles of your blood vessels. This helps to lower your blood pressure and improve the flow of blood in your body. It is primarily used to treat chronic stable angina pectoris, a condition characterized by chest pain due to reduced blood flow and oxygen supply to the heart muscle.

The drug's mechanism of action involves inhibiting the influx of calcium ions into cardiac and vascular smooth muscle cells, which leads to vasodilation (relaxation of blood vessels) and decreased peripheral resistance. This results in reduced afterload on the heart and improved oxygen supply to the myocardium, ultimately alleviating symptoms of angina pectoris.

Common side effects associated with Lidoflazine include dizziness, headache, nausea, and constipation. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for personalized medical advice regarding drug indications, interactions, dosages, and potential adverse effects.

Equilibrative nucleoside transport proteins (ENTs) are a type of membrane transporter that regulate the bidirectional movement of nucleosides across the cell membrane. They facilitate the diffusion of nucleosides down their concentration gradient, hence the term "equilibrative." These transport proteins play a crucial role in maintaining intracellular nucleoside concentrations and ensuring proper nucleotide synthesis for various cellular processes, including DNA replication, repair, and gene expression. There are two major families of ENTs: the human equilibrative nucleoside transporters (hENTs) and the concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs). The hENT family includes four members (hENT1-4), while the CNT family consists of three members (CNT1-3). These transport proteins have been identified as potential targets for cancer therapy, as inhibiting their function can selectively sensitize tumor cells to nucleoside analog-based chemotherapies.

2-Chloroadenosine is a synthetic, chlorinated analog of adenosine, which is a naturally occurring purine nucleoside. It acts as an antagonist at adenosine receptors and has been studied for its potential effects on the cardiovascular system, including its ability to reduce heart rate and blood pressure. It may also have anti-cancer properties and has been investigated as a potential therapeutic agent in cancer treatment. However, further research is needed to establish its safety and efficacy in clinical settings.

Inosine is not a medical condition but a naturally occurring compound called a nucleoside, which is formed from the combination of hypoxanthine and ribose. It is an intermediate in the metabolic pathways of purine nucleotides, which are essential components of DNA and RNA. Inosine has been studied for its potential therapeutic benefits in various medical conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand its mechanisms and clinical applications.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Platelet aggregation is the clumping together of platelets (thrombocytes) in the blood, which is an essential step in the process of hemostasis (the stopping of bleeding) after injury to a blood vessel. When the inner lining of a blood vessel is damaged, exposure of subendothelial collagen and tissue factor triggers platelet activation. Activated platelets change shape, become sticky, and release the contents of their granules, which include ADP (adenosine diphosphate).

ADP then acts as a chemical mediator to attract and bind additional platelets to the site of injury, leading to platelet aggregation. This forms a plug that seals the damaged vessel and prevents further blood loss. Platelet aggregation is also a crucial component in the formation of blood clots (thrombosis) within blood vessels, which can have pathological consequences such as heart attacks and strokes if they obstruct blood flow to vital organs.

Blood platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are small, colorless cell fragments in our blood that play an essential role in normal blood clotting. They are formed in the bone marrow from large cells called megakaryocytes and circulate in the blood in an inactive state until they are needed to help stop bleeding. When a blood vessel is damaged, platelets become activated and change shape, releasing chemicals that attract more platelets to the site of injury. These activated platelets then stick together to form a plug, or clot, that seals the wound and prevents further blood loss. In addition to their role in clotting, platelets also help to promote healing by releasing growth factors that stimulate the growth of new tissue.

Vasodilation is the widening or increase in diameter of blood vessels, particularly the involuntary relaxation of the smooth muscle in the tunica media (middle layer) of the arteriole walls. This results in an increase in blood flow and a decrease in vascular resistance. Vasodilation can occur due to various physiological and pathophysiological stimuli, such as local metabolic demands, neural signals, or pharmacological agents. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood pressure, tissue perfusion, and thermoregulation.

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a medical condition in which the coronary arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle, become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of cholesterol, fatty deposits, and other substances, known as plaque. Over time, this buildup can cause the arteries to harden and narrow (a process called atherosclerosis), reducing blood flow to the heart muscle.

The reduction in blood flow can lead to various symptoms and complications, including:

1. Angina (chest pain or discomfort) - This occurs when the heart muscle doesn't receive enough oxygen-rich blood, causing pain, pressure, or discomfort in the chest, arms, neck, jaw, or back.
2. Shortness of breath - When the heart isn't receiving adequate blood flow, it can't pump blood efficiently to meet the body's demands, leading to shortness of breath during physical activities or at rest.
3. Heart attack - If a piece of plaque ruptures or breaks off in a coronary artery, a blood clot can form and block the artery, causing a heart attack (myocardial infarction). This can damage or destroy part of the heart muscle.
4. Heart failure - Chronic reduced blood flow to the heart muscle can weaken it over time, leading to heart failure, a condition in which the heart can't pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs.
5. Arrhythmias - Reduced blood flow and damage to the heart muscle can lead to abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

Coronary artery disease is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress testing, cardiac catheterization, and imaging studies like coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Treatment options for CAD include lifestyle modifications, medications, medical procedures, and surgery.

Adenosine A2 receptor agonists are pharmaceutical agents that bind to and activate the A2 subtype of adenosine receptors, which are G-protein coupled receptors found in various tissues throughout the body. Activation of these receptors leads to a variety of physiological effects, including vasodilation, increased coronary blood flow, and inhibition of platelet aggregation.

A2 receptor agonists have been studied for their potential therapeutic benefits in several medical conditions, such as:

1. Heart failure: A2 receptor agonists can improve cardiac function and reduce symptoms in patients with heart failure by increasing coronary blood flow and reducing oxygen demand.
2. Atrial fibrillation: These agents have been shown to terminate or prevent atrial fibrillation, a common abnormal heart rhythm disorder, through their effects on the electrical properties of cardiac cells.
3. Asthma and COPD: A2 receptor agonists can help relax airway smooth muscle and reduce inflammation in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
4. Pain management: Some A2 receptor agonists have been found to have analgesic properties, making them potential candidates for pain relief in various clinical settings.

Examples of A2 receptor agonists include regadenoson, which is used as a pharmacological stress agent during myocardial perfusion imaging, and dipyridamole, which is used to prevent blood clots in patients with certain heart conditions. However, it's important to note that these agents can have side effects, such as hypotension, bradycardia, and bronchoconstriction, so their use must be carefully monitored and managed by healthcare professionals.

Purines are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds that consist of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring. They are fundamental components of nucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA and RNA. In the body, purines can be synthesized endogenously or obtained through dietary sources such as meat, seafood, and certain vegetables.

Once purines are metabolized, they are broken down into uric acid, which is excreted by the kidneys. Elevated levels of uric acid in the body can lead to the formation of uric acid crystals, resulting in conditions such as gout or kidney stones. Therefore, maintaining a balanced intake of purine-rich foods and ensuring proper kidney function are essential for overall health.

Adenosine A2 receptor antagonists are a class of pharmaceutical compounds that block the action of adenosine at A2 receptors. Adenosine is a naturally occurring molecule in the body that acts as a neurotransmitter and has various physiological effects, including vasodilation and inhibition of heart rate.

Adenosine A2 receptor antagonists work by binding to A2 receptors and preventing adenosine from activating them. This results in the opposite effect of adenosine, leading to vasoconstriction and increased heart rate. These drugs are used for a variety of medical conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and heart failure.

Examples of Adenosine A2 receptor antagonists include theophylline, caffeine, and some newer drugs such asistradefylline and tozadenant. These drugs have different pharmacological properties and are used for specific medical conditions. It is important to note that adenosine A2 receptor antagonists can have side effects, including restlessness, insomnia, and gastrointestinal symptoms, and should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Heart rate is the number of heartbeats per unit of time, often expressed as beats per minute (bpm). It can vary significantly depending on factors such as age, physical fitness, emotions, and overall health status. A resting heart rate between 60-100 bpm is generally considered normal for adults, but athletes and individuals with high levels of physical fitness may have a resting heart rate below 60 bpm due to their enhanced cardiovascular efficiency. Monitoring heart rate can provide valuable insights into an individual's health status, exercise intensity, and response to various treatments or interventions.

Pyrazoles are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds that contain a six-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 2. The chemical structure of pyrazoles consists of a pair of nitrogen atoms adjacent to each other in the ring, which makes them unique from other azole heterocycles such as imidazoles or triazoles.

Pyrazoles have significant biological activities and are found in various pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and natural products. Some pyrazole derivatives exhibit anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal, and anticancer properties.

In the medical field, pyrazoles are used in various drugs to treat different conditions. For example, celecoxib (Celebrex) is a selective COX-2 inhibitor used for pain relief and inflammation reduction in arthritis patients. It contains a pyrazole ring as its core structure. Similarly, febuxostat (Uloric) is a medication used to treat gout, which also has a pyrazole moiety.

Overall, pyrazoles are essential compounds with significant medical applications and potential for further development in drug discovery and design.

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"Dipyridamole Monograph for Professionals". Retrieved 2016-12-29. Zareba P, Wu C, Agzarian J, Rodriguez D, Kearon C (August 2014 ... "Dipyridamole" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary "Recommended Use of Aspirin and Other Antiplatelet Medications Among Adults, ...
Dipyridamole also inhibits PDE5. This results in added benefit when given together with nitric oxide or statins. Recent studies ...
There is no specific treatment for a Mengovirus infection; although dipyridamole has been shown to inhibit its replication. The ... doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(48)90652-7. Fata-Hartley, Cori L.; Palmenberg, Ann C. (2005). "Dipyridamole Reversibly Inhibits ... Fata-Hartley, Cori L.; Palmenberg, Ann C. (2005). "Dipyridamole Reversibly Inhibits Mengovirus RNA Replication". Journal of ...
Adenosine and dipyridamole can cause mild hypotension. As the tracers used for this test are carcinogenic, frequent use of ... Pharmacologic agents such as adenosine, Lexiscan (regadenoson), or dipyridamole is generally used when a patient cannot achieve ... Commonly used agents include: Vasodilators acting as adenosine receptor agonists, such as adenosine itself, and dipyridamole ( ... Pharmacological stimulation from vasodilators such as dipyridamole or adenosine, or positive chronotropic agents such as ...
It is associated with dipyridamole. Hence, dipyridamole is a pharmacological success diagnostically, but a therapeutic failure ...
Dipyridamole inhibits PDE-3 and PDE-5. This leads to intraplatelet accumulation of cAMP and/or cGMP, inhibiting platelet ...
Exercise or dipyridamole induces widening (vasodilation) of normal coronary arteries. This produces coronary steal from areas ...
Anti-platelet agents include aspirin, dipyridamole, ticlopidine, clopidogrel, ticagrelor and prasugrel; the parenteral ...
Exercise or dipyridamole induces widening (vasodilation) of arteries in the body. This produces coronary steal by areas where ...
Antiplatelet agents such as aspirin, dipyridamole, or clopidogrel might help prevent strokes; however, anticoagulation may be ...
Dipyridamole potentiates the action of adenosine, requiring the use of lower doses. Methylxanthines (e.g. caffeine found in ... Dipyridamole, an inhibitor of adenosine nucleoside transporter, allows adenosine to accumulate in the blood stream. This causes ... The dose is often decreased in patients on dipyridamole (Persantine) and diazepam (Valium) because adenosine potentiates the ...
Aminophylline can be used to reverse the effects of dipyridamole and regadenoson). Scanning may then be performed with a ... dobutamine or dipyridamole(Persantine), which increase the heart rate or by regadenoson(Lexiscan), a vasodilator. ( ...
Dipyridamole inhibits reuptake of adenosine, resulting in greater extracellular concentrations of adenosine. Dipyridamole also ...
Anticoagulants (such as aspirin, dipyridamole, and warfarin) are used to prevent clot formation. Dietary modifications may ...
"Effect of dipyridamole and aspirin on late vein-graft patency after coronary bypass operations". The New England Journal of ...
Dipyridamole is an alternative to dobutamine but it is less effective in detecting abnormalities. While exercise ...
Dipyridamole antagonizes this receptor too, but has various other mechanisms of antiplatelet activity as well. High-dose ...
Stein MB, Black B, Brown TM, Uhde TW (1993). "Lack of efficacy of the adenosine reuptake inhibitor dipyridamole in the ... Gresele P, Arnout J, Deckmyn H, Vermylen J (1986). "Mechanism of the antiplatelet action of dipyridamole in whole blood: ... dipyridamole, and dilazep". Biochem Pharmacol. 67 (3): 453-458. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2003.09.018. PMID 15037197. Endres CJ, ... Benzodiazepines Calcium channel blockers Carbamazepine Carisoprodol Cilostazol Cyclobenzaprine Dilazep Dipyridamole Estradiol ...
Takenaka F, Umeda T (July 1976). "Effects of propranolo, itramin tosylate and dipyridamole on myocardial phosphate metabolism ...
... is used to reverse regadenoson, dipyridamole or adenosine based infusions during nuclear cardiology stress ...
Both adenosine and dipyridamole, which act on the A2A receptor, are used in myocardial perfusion imaging. Purinergic signalling ...
... rat and guinea-pig and its inhibition by hexobendine and dipyridamole". Biochemical Pharmacology. 24 (1): 154-6. doi:10.1016/ ...
The anticoagulant dipyridamole is proposed as a treatment for COVID-19, and a clinical trial is underway. Many antidepressants ...
They are blocked by adenosine reuptake inhibitors like dipyridamole and dilazep, drugs used clinically for their vasodilatory ...
... a combination of aspirin plus extended-release dipyridamole, or clopidogrel alone. Clopidogrel and aspirin have similar ...
This is compatible with recent data which indicate a carrier mediated transport partially blockable by dipyridamole and cold ...
2005). "Identification and mutational analysis of amino acid residues involved in dipyridamole interactions with human and ... "Residue 33 of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 2 is a functionally important component of both the dipyridamole and ...
Nitroglycerin and dipyridamole on cardiac metabolism and dynamics in a new experimental model of angina pectoris. J Pharmacol ...
... cyclophosphamide and dipyridamole followed by prednisone. Other regimens include steroids/azathioprine, and steroids/ ...
Since dipyridamole is highly protein bound, dialysis is not likely to be of benefit. Dipyridamole has two known effects, acting ... A combination of dipyridamole and aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid/dipyridamole) is FDA-approved for the secondary prevention of ... Dipyridamole in the laboratory: Fata-Hartley CL, Palmenberg AC (September 2005). "Dipyridamole reversibly inhibits mengovirus ... Dipyridamole also has non-medicinal uses in a laboratory context, such as the inhibition of cardiovirus growth in cell culture ...
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  • Dipyridamole (trademarked as Persantine and others) is a nucleoside transport inhibitor and a PDE3 inhibitor medication that inhibits blood clot formation when given chronically and causes blood vessel dilation when given at high doses over a short time. (wikipedia.org)
  • PERSANTINE (dipyridamole) is a platelet inhibitor used to prevent clot formation in the blood. (blueskydrugs.com)
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  • One of the medications available for the treatment of angina pectoris is the drug that goes by the generic name "dipyridamole" (known by the brand name Persantine of Boehringer-Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals). (charlesandsamwyly.com)
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  • The present report examines the utility of dipyridamole thallium scintigraphy in the prediction of late cardiac death or recurrent myocardial infarction in patients who have received thrombolytic therapy. (karger.com)
  • Relationship between regional myocardial blood flow and thallium-201 distribution in the presence of coronary artery stenosis and dipyridamole-induced vasodilation. (jci.org)
  • This study assesses the relationship between the distribution of thallium-201 and myocardial blood flow during coronary vasodilation induced by intravenous dipyridamole in canine models of partial and complete coronary artery stenosis. (jci.org)
  • Curvilinear regression analyses between thallium-201 localization and myocardial blood flow during dipyridamole infusion demonstrated a slightly better fit to a second- as compared with a first-order model, indicating a slight roll-off of thallium activity as myocardial blood flow increases. (jci.org)
  • During the dipyridamole infusion, the increases in phasic blood flow, the distributions of regional myocardial blood flow, and the relationships between thallium-201 localization and regional blood flow were comparable to values previously observed in exercising dogs with similar occlusions. (jci.org)
  • These data provide basic validation that supports the use of intravenous dipyridamole and thallium-201 as an alternative to exercise stress and thallium-201 for evaluating the effects of coronary occlusive lesions on the distribution of regional myocardial blood flow. (jci.org)
  • Dipyridamole is also used in myocardial perfusion imaging, as an antiplatelet agent, and in combination with aspirin for stroke prophylaxis. (pharmacycode.com)
  • The combination of extended-release dipyridamole and aspirin reduces the relative risk of stroke, death, and myocardial infarction (MI). (medscape.com)
  • Assessment of the physiologic significance of coronary disease with dipyridamole real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography. (bvsalud.org)
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  • The direct current polarographic behaviour of dipyridamole, a coronary vasodilator, in the supporting electrolyte consisting of 0.2 M KCl, 20% (v/v) ethanol and buffer solutions is described in this study. (anadolu.edu.tr)
  • Dipyridamole is used for evaluating coronary artery disease in patients who cannot exercise adequately before thallium imaging (cardiac blood flow scan). (qxmeds.com)
  • A triple therapy of aspirin, clopidogrel, and dipyridamole has been investigated, but this combination led to an increase in adverse bleeding events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Take dipyridamole exactly as directed. (medlineplus.gov)
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  • citation needed] Due to its action as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, dipyridamole is likely to potentiate the effects of adenosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dipyridamole inhibits the cellular reuptake of adenosine into platelets, red blood cells, and endothelial cells, leading to increased extracellular concentrations of adenosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • and adenosine response curves were obtained with and without the adenosine uptake blocker, dipyridamole, and the adenosine-deaminase inhibitor, erythro-9,2-hydroxyl-3-nonyl-adenine (EHNA), in the incubation medium. (cdc.gov)
  • Adenosine effects were comparable in intact and epithelium stripped preparations in the absence of dipyridamole and EHNA. (cdc.gov)
  • Dipyridamole absorption is pH-dependent and concomitant treatment with gastric acid suppressors (such as a proton pump inhibitor) will inhibit the absorption of liquid and plain tablets. (wikipedia.org)
  • DP polarography was used among the modes for the determination of dipyridamole in the tablets. (anadolu.edu.tr)
  • Dipyridamole has two known effects, acting via different mechanisms of action: Dipyridamole inhibits the phosphodiesterase enzymes that normally break down cAMP (increasing cellular cAMP levels and blocking the platelet aggregation, response to ADP) and/or cGMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to dipyridamole or any other drugs. (medlineplus.gov)
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  • However, it is not licensed as monotherapy for stroke prophylaxis, although a Cochrane review suggested that dipyridamole may reduce the risk of further vascular events in patients presenting after cerebral ischemia. (wikipedia.org)
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  • A catheter mounted hydrogen ion sensitive electrode was introduced into the coronary sinus and pH monitored continuously during dipyridamole infusion (0.56 mg/kg over four min). (nih.gov)
  • In patients with HCM there was a correlation between maximum pH change and maximum heart rate during dipyridamole infusion (r = 0.70, P = 0.02). (nih.gov)
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  • Dipyridamole is used to dilate blood vessels in people with peripheral arterial disease and coronary artery disease Dipyridamole has been shown to lower pulmonary hypertension without significant drop of systemic blood pressure It inhibits formation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, MMP-9) in vitro and results in reduction of hsCRP[clarification needed] in patients. (wikipedia.org)
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  • Dipyridamole also has non-medicinal uses in a laboratory context, such as the inhibition of cardiovirus growth in cell culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anticholinesterases (eg, pyridostigmine) because their effectiveness may be decreased by Dipyridamole. (qxmeds.com)
  • Among other branches that therapy is is a costs Of Aspirin and Dipyridamole Canada precedence arteries and access should keep the the heart. (agnc-music.com)
  • However, it can increase use cost Of Aspirin and Dipyridamole Canada in leukocyte which is Hidalgo A, you were, Cost Of Aspirin and Dipyridamole Canada . (agnc-music.com)
  • Patient Resources woman who lipophilic nature means they Heart Institute, in a in only should cost Of Aspirin and Dipyridamole Canada of paracetamol. (agnc-music.com)
  • In addition to this, dipyridamole may be prescribed for the treatment of cerebrovascular accident (stroke). (charlesandsamwyly.com)
  • The maximal change in coronary sinus pH during dipyridamole stress was greater in patients with HCM than in controls (0.082 (0.083) (0 to -0.275) v 0.005 (0.006) (0 to -0.012), P = 0.02). (nih.gov)
  • However, few data are available on the diagnostic value of the systolic dysfunction induced by dipyridamole. (redheracles.net)