An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
A family of the order DIPTERA with over 700 species. Important species that may be mechanical vectors of disease include Musca domesticus (HOUSEFLIES), Musca autumnalis (face fly), Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly), Haematobia irritans (horn fly) and Fannia spp.
Small, hairy, moth-like flies which are of considerable public health importance as vectors of certain pathogenic organisms. Important disease-related genera are PHLEBOTOMUS, Lutzomyia, and Sergentomyia.
A large family of fruit flies in the order DIPTERA, comprising over 4,500 species in about 100 genera. They have patterned wings and brightly colored bodies and are found predominantly in the tropical latitudes.
Several species of the genus Simulium (family Simuliidae) that act as intermediate hosts (vectors) for the parasitic disease ONCHOCERCIASIS.
A family of biting midges, in the order DIPTERA. It includes the genus Culicoides which transmits filarial parasites pathogenic to man and other primates.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A family of nonbiting midges, in the order DIPTERA. Salivary glands of the genus Chironomus are used in studies of cellular genetics and biochemistry.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
Disciplines that apply sciences to law. Forensic sciences include a wide range of disciplines, such as FORENSIC TOXICOLOGY; FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY; FORENSIC MEDICINE; FORENSIC DENTISTRY; and others.
An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
A family of the order DIPTERA. These flies are generally found around decaying vegetation and fruit. Several species, because of their short life span, giant salivary gland chromosomes, and ease of culturing, have been used extensively in studies of heredity.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
A yellowish fossil resin, the gum of several species of coniferous trees, found in the alluvial deposits of northeastern Germany. It is used in molecular biology in the analysis of organic matter fossilized in amber.
A genus of PSYCHODIDAE which functions as the vector of a number of pathogenic organisms, including LEISHMANIA DONOVANI; LEISHMANIA TROPICA; Bartonella bacilliformis, and the Pappataci fever virus (SANDFLY FEVER NAPLES VIRUS).
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Bloodsucking flies of the genus Glossina, found primarily in equatorial Africa. Several species are intermediate hosts of trypanosomes.
A species of fruit fly originating in sub-Saharan Africa but widely distributed worldwide. One of the most destructive fruit pests, its larvae feed and develop on many different fruits and some vegetables.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
A genus of mosquitoes in the family CULICIDAE. A large number of the species are found in the neotropical part of the Americas.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
Flies of the species Musca domestica (family MUSCIDAE), which infest human habitations throughout the world and often act as carriers of pathogenic organisms.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).
The capability of producing eggs (OVA) from which young are hatched outside the body. While mostly referring to nonmammalian species, this does include MAMMALS of the order MONOTREMATA.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
Geological formations consisting of underground enclosures with access from the surface.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common name of marigold is also used for CALENDULA.
Infection with nematodes of the genus MANSONELLA. Symptoms include pruritus, headache, and articular swelling.
The natural satellite of the planet Earth. It includes the lunar cycles or phases, the lunar month, lunar landscapes, geography, and soil.
Infection with larvae of the blow fly Cochliomyia hominivorax (Callitroga americanum), a common cause of disease in livestock in the southern and southwestern U.S.A.
A plant genus of the family BROMELIACEAE. Members contain karatasin and balansain (ENDOPEPTIDASES) and BROMELAINS.
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria in the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE. They exist only as primary endosymbionts of five species of TSETSE FLIES, found in specialized organelles called mycetomes. The bacteria supply crucial B vitamins (VITAMIN B COMPLEX) which the flies require for fertility.
An organothiophosphate insecticide.
The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.
Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)
A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
The dogbane family of the order Gentianales. Members of the family have milky, often poisonous juice, smooth-margined leaves, and flowers in clusters. Asclepiadacea (formerly the milkweed family) has been included since 1999 and before 1810.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.
A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE that bears an edible fruit and contains guavin B and quercetin glycosides.
A plant species of the genus GYMNEMA that contains gymnemic acid (triterpene SAPONINS) which affects blood sugar level, and gurmarin protein. The common name of Gurmar should not be confused with Guar (CYAMOPSIS).
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.
A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.
A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
Activities associated with the disposition of the dead. It excludes cultural practices such as funeral rites.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania viannia that infects man and animals. It causes cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS) depending on the subspecies of this organism. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, is the vector. The Leishmania braziliensis complex includes the subspecies braziliensis and peruviana. Uta, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World, is caused by the subspecies peruviana.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Lice of the genus Phthirus, family Pediculidae. Phthirus pubis, the crab louse, is usually acquired by sexual contact or contact with infected objects. It is found most frequently in the pubic hair, but also on eyebrows, eyelashes, or on the axillary hairs.
Traumatic or experimentally induced separation of the head from the body in an animal or human.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.
The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)
A genus of parasitic nematodes whose organisms are distributed in Central and South America. Characteristics include a smooth cuticle and an enlarged anterior end.
The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.
A suborder of monoflagellate parasitic protozoa that lives in the blood and tissues of man and animals. Representative genera include: Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, CRITHIDIA, Herpetomonas, LEISHMANIA, Phytomonas, and TRYPANOSOMA. Species of this suborder may exist in two or more morphologic stages formerly named after genera exemplifying these forms - amastigote (LEISHMANIA), choanomastigote (CRITHIDIA), promastigote (Leptomonas), opisthomastigote (Herpetomonas), epimastigote (Blastocrithidia), and trypomastigote (TRYPANOSOMA).
Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
SESQUITERPENES cyclized to one 10-carbon ring.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
An order of insects comprising two suborders: Caelifera and Ensifera. They consist of GRASSHOPPERS, locusts, and crickets (GRYLLIDAE).
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain wedelolactone.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A plant genus of the family ACANTHACEAE. Members contain andrographolide and other DITERPENES and androechin, a CHALCONE.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)
A genus of gram-negative, helical bacteria, in the family SPIROPLASMATACEAE, order Entomoplasmatales, causing disease in PLANTS. It has been isolated from TICKS; INSECTS; and PLANTS.
A plant family of the order Linales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida best known for the coca plant.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Systems that provide for the maintenance of life in an isolated living chamber through reutilization of the material available, in particular, by means of a cycle wherein exhaled carbon dioxide, urine, and other waste matter are converted chemically or by photosynthesis into oxygen, water, and food. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)

Ultrabithorax function in butterfly wings and the evolution of insect wing patterns. (1/1684)

BACKGROUND: . The morphological and functional evolution of appendages has played a critical role in animal evolution, but the developmental genetic mechanisms underlying appendage diversity are not understood. Given that homologous appendage development is controlled by the same Hox gene in different organisms, and that Hox genes are transcription factors, diversity may evolve from changes in the regulation of Hox target genes. Two impediments to understanding the role of Hox genes in morphological evolution have been the limited number of organisms in which Hox gene function can be studied and the paucity of known Hox-regulated target genes. We have therefore analyzed a butterfly homeotic mutant 'Hindsight', in which portions of the ventral hindwing pattern are transformed to ventral forewing identity, and we have compared the regulation of target genes by the Ultrabithorax (Ubx) gene product in Lepidopteran and Dipteran hindwings. RESULTS: . We show that Ubx gene expression is lost from patches of cells in developing Hindsight hindwings, correlating with changes in wing pigmentation, color pattern elements, and scale morphology. We use this mutant to study how regulation of target genes by Ubx protein differs between species. We find that several Ubx-regulated genes in the Drosophila haltere are not repressed by Ubx in butterfly hindwings, but that Distal-less (Dll) expression is regulated by Ubx in a unique manner in butterflies. CONCLUSIONS: . The morphological diversification of insect hindwings has involved the acquisition of different sets of target genes by Ubx in different lineages. Changes in Hox-regulated target gene sets are, in general, likely to underlie the morphological divergence of homologous structures between animals.  (+info)

Predicting insecticide resistance: mutagenesis, selection and response. (2/1684)

Strategies to manage resistance to a particular insecticide have usually been devised after resistance has evolved. If it were possible to predict likely resistance mechanisms to novel insecticides before they evolved in the field, it might be feasible to have programmes that manage susceptibility. With this approach in mind, single-gene variants of the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, resistant to dieldrin, diazinon and malathion, were selected in the laboratory after mutagenesis of susceptible strains. The genetic and molecular bases of resistance in these variants were identical to those that had previously evolved in natural populations. Given this predictive capacity for known resistances, the approach was extended to anticipate possible mechanisms of resistance to cyromazine, an insecticide to which L. cuprina populations remain susceptible after almost 20 years of exposure. Analysis of the laboratory-generated resistant variants provides an explanation for this observation. The variants show low levels of resistance and a selective advantage over susceptibles for only a limited concentration range. These results are discussed in the context of the choice of insecticides for control purposes and of delivery strategies to minimize the evolution of resistance.  (+info)

The putative bioactive surface of insect-selective scorpion excitatory neurotoxins. (3/1684)

Scorpion neurotoxins of the excitatory group show total specificity for insects and serve as invaluable probes for insect sodium channels. However, despite their significance and potential for application in insect-pest control, the structural basis for their bioactivity is still unknown. We isolated, characterized, and expressed an atypically long excitatory toxin, Bj-xtrIT, whose bioactive features resembled those of classical excitatory toxins, despite only 49% sequence identity. With the objective of clarifying the toxic site of this unique pharmacological group, Bj-xtrIT was employed in a genetic approach using point mutagenesis and biological and structural assays of the mutant products. A primary target for modification was the structurally unique C-terminal region. Sequential deletions of C-terminal residues suggested an inevitable significance of Ile73 and Ile74 for toxicity. Based on the bioactive role of the C-terminal region and a comparison of Bj-xtrIT with a Bj-xtrIT-based model of a classical excitatory toxin, AaHIT, a conserved surface comprising the C terminus is suggested to form the site of recognition with the sodium channel receptor.  (+info)

The development and evolution of bristle patterns in Diptera. (4/1684)

The spatial distribution of sensory bristles on the notum of different species of Diptera is compared. Species displaying ancestral features have a simple organization of randomly distributed, but uniformly spaced, bristles, whereas species thought to be more derived bear patterns in which the bristles are aligned into longitudinal rows. The number of rows of large bristles on the scutum was probably restricted to four early on in the evolution of cyclorraphous Brachyceran flies. Most species have stereotyped patterns based on modifications of these four rows. The possible constraints placed upon the patterning mechanisms due to growth and moulting within the Diptera are discussed, as well as within hemimetabolous insects. The holometabolic life cycle and the setting aside of groups of imaginal cells whose function is not required during the growth period, may have provided the freedom necessary for the evolution of elaborate bristle patterns. We briefly review the current state of knowledge concerning the complex genetic pathways regulating achaete-scute gene expression and bristle pattern in Drosophila melanogaster, and consider mechanisms for the genetic regulation of the bristle patterns of other species of Diptera.  (+info)

Variability in spike trains during constant and dynamic stimulation. (5/1684)

In a recent study, it was concluded that natural time-varying stimuli are represented more reliably in the brain than constant stimuli are. The results presented here disagree with this conclusion, although they were obtained from the same identified neuron (H1) in the fly's visual system. For large parts of the neuron's activity range, the variability of the responses was very similar for constant and time-varying stimuli and was considerably smaller than that in many visual interneurons of vertebrates.  (+info)

A novel egg-derived tyrosine phosphatase, EDTP, that participates in the embryogenesis of Sarcophaga peregrina (flesh fly). (6/1684)

We have previously reported that cathepsin L mRNA is present in unfertilized eggs of Sarcophaga peregrina (flesh fly) as a maternal mRNA, which suggests that cathepsin L is required for embryogenesis. Now we have identified an egg protein, with a molecular mass of 100 kDa, that is extremely susceptible to cathepsin L digestion and which disappears rapidly as the embryos develop. We purified this protein to homogeneity, cloned its cDNA, and found that it contained a consensus sequence for the active site of tyrosine phosphatase. In fact this protein showed tyrosine phosphatase activity, indicating that it is a novel tyrosine phosphatase. The expression and subsequent disappearance of this protein, which we have named egg-derived tyrosine phosphatase (EDTP), may be indispensable for embryogenesis of Sarcophaga.  (+info)

An aural myiasis case in a 54-year-old male farmer in Korea. (7/1684)

A 54-year-old male farmer residing in Chunchon, Korea, complaining of blood tinged discharge and tinnitus in the left ear for two days, was examined in August 16, 1996. Otoscopic examination revealed live maggots from the ear canal. The patient did not complain of any symptoms after removal of maggots. Five maggots recovered were identified as the third stage larvae of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae). This is the first record of aural myiasis in Korea.  (+info)

The planarian HOM/HOX homeobox genes (Plox) expressed along the anteroposterior axis. (8/1684)

In the freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica, five cDNAs for HOM/HOX homeobox genes were cloned and sequenced. Together with sequence data on HOM/HOX homeobox genes of platyhelminthes deposited in databases, comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that planarians have at least seven HOM/HOX homeobox genes, Plox1 to Plox7 (planarian HOM/HOX homeobox genes). Whole-mount in situ hybridization and RT-PCR revealed that Plox4 and Plox5 were increasingly expressed along a spatial gradient in the posterior region of intact animals. During regeneration, Plox5 was expressed only in the posterior region of regenerating body pieces, suggesting that the gene is involved in the anteroposterior patterning in planarians. Plox5 was not found to be expressed in a blastema-specific manner, which contradicts a previous report (J. R. Bayascas, E. Castillo, A. M. Munos-Marmol, and E. Salo. Development 124, 141-148, 1997). X-ray irradiation experiments showed that Plox5 was expressed at least in some cells other than neoblasts, but that the induction of Plox5 expression during regeneration might require neoblasts.  (+info)

Ectoparasitic Infestations can be caused by various factors such as poor hygiene, close contact with infected individuals, or exposure to areas where the parasites are present. They can be diagnosed through physical examination and medical tests, such as blood tests or skin scrapings.

Treatment for Ectoparasitic Infestations depends on the type of parasite and the severity of the infestation. Common treatments include insecticides, medicated shampoos, and topical creams or lotions. In some cases, oral medications may be prescribed to treat more severe infestations.

Prevention is key in avoiding Ectoparasitic Infestations. This includes practicing good hygiene, using protective clothing and gear when outdoors, and avoiding close contact with individuals who have known infestations. Regularly inspecting and cleaning living spaces can also help prevent the spread of these parasites.

In conclusion, Ectoparasitic Infestations are a common health issue that can cause a range of health problems. Diagnosis and treatment depend on the type of parasite and the severity of the infestation, while prevention involves practicing good hygiene and taking precautions to avoid close contact with individuals who have known infestations.

A parasitic disease caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania, which is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected sandfly. The most common form of the disease is characterized by skin lesions, which may be painful and disfiguring.

Other forms of leishmaniasis include:

1. Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar): A severe and potentially fatal form of the disease that affects several internal organs, including the spleen, liver, and bone marrow.
2. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis: A form of the disease characterized by skin lesions and mucosal involvement, such as nose ulcers and mouth sores.
3. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis: A form of the disease characterized by widespread skin involvement, often with a diffuse, papular rash.
4. Recidivans leishmaniasis: A form of the disease characterized by repeated episodes of skin lesions, often triggered by exposure to sandflies.

Symptoms of cutaneous leishmaniasis may include:

* Skin lesions, which may be painful and disfiguring
* Swelling of the affected limb
* Fever
* Fatigue
* Weight loss

Diagnosis is made by identifying the parasite in a skin scraping or biopsy specimen. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic medications, such as pentavalent antimonials or amphotericin B.

Preventive measures include avoiding sandfly bites, wearing protective clothing and insect repellents, and using screens on windows and doors to prevent sandflies from entering homes.

There are several different forms of leishmaniasis, including:

* Cutaneous leishmaniasis: This form of the disease causes skin sores, which can be painful and disfiguring.
* Visceral leishmaniasis: Also known as kala-azar, this form of the disease affects the internal organs and can be fatal if left untreated.
* Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis: This form of the disease causes sores on the skin and mucous membranes.
*Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis: This form of the disease causes widespread skin lesions.

Leishmaniasis can be diagnosed through a variety of methods, including:

* Physical examination and medical history: A doctor may look for signs of the disease, such as skin sores or swelling, and ask about the patient's travel history and exposure to sandflies.
* Laboratory tests: Blood and skin samples can be tested for the presence of the parasite using techniques such as microscopy, PCR, and serology.
* Imaging studies: X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans can be used to visualize the spread of the disease in the body.

Treatment for leishmaniasis typically involves antiparasitic drugs, such as pentavalent antimonials, miltefosine, and amphotericin B. The specific treatment regimen will depend on the severity and location of the disease, as well as the patient's age, health status, and other factors. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove affected tissue.

Prevention measures for leishmaniasis include:

* Avoiding sandfly bites: Using insecticides, wearing protective clothing, and staying in well-screened areas can help prevent sandfly bites.
* Eliminating sandfly breeding sites: Removing debris and vegetation, and using insecticides to kill sandflies and their eggs can help reduce the risk of infection.
* Vaccination: There is currently no effective vaccine against leishmaniasis, but research is ongoing to develop one.
* Public education: Raising awareness about the disease and how it is transmitted can help prevent infections and reduce the burden on healthcare systems.

Overall, early diagnosis and treatment are key to preventing complications and improving outcomes for patients with leishmaniasis. In addition, public health measures such as insecticide use and vaccination may help reduce the incidence of the disease.

Symptoms of mansonelliasis include fever, headache, joint pain, skin rashes, and swelling of the liver and spleen. These symptoms can be non-specific and may resemble those of other diseases, making diagnosis challenging.

The diagnosis of mansonelliasis is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests (such as blood smears and polymerase chain reaction), and the presence of characteristic skin lesions. Treatment of mansonelliasis typically involves the use of antiparasitic drugs such as diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and albendazole.

Preventive measures for mansonelliasis include using insecticides to control sandfly populations, wearing protective clothing and applying insect repellents when outdoors in areas where the parasites are common, and taking antiparasitic medications to prevent infection.

Symptoms of screw worm infection include fever, loss of appetite, lethargy, dehydration, and swelling around the site of infestation. If left untreated, the infection can lead to serious complications like abscesses, sepsis, and death. Diagnosis is typically made through physical examination, blood tests, and imaging studies like X-rays or ultrasound.

Treatment of screw worm infection involves removing the infested tissue or organ, as well as administering antibiotics to prevent secondary infections. Surgical debridement may also be necessary to remove dead tissue and promote healing. In severe cases, hospitalization and intensive care may be required to monitor and manage the infection.

Prevention of screw worm infection involves controlling the population of screw worm flies through regular fly control measures like spraying insecticides and using protective clothing and gear when handling animals. Vaccination is also available for horses and other equines to prevent AHS caused by screw worm infection.

Insects such as mosquitoes, wasps, bees, and hornets are common culprits of bites and stings that cause minor to severe reactions in humans. These reactions may cause pain, redness, swelling, itching, and burning sensations at the site of the bite or sting.

Most insect bites and stings can be treated with over-the-counter medications such as antihistamines, hydrocortisone creams, or calamine lotion. Severe allergic reactions may require medical attention and epinephrine injections to prevent anaphylaxis.

Early Postmortem Changes:

1. Cessation of metabolic processes: After death, the body's metabolic processes come to a standstill, leading to a decrease in body temperature, cellular respiration, and other physiological functions.
2. Decline in blood pressure: The heart stops pumping blood, causing a rapid decline in blood pressure.
3. Cardiac arrest: The heart stops beating, leading to a lack of oxygen supply to the body's tissues.
4. Brain death: The brain ceases to function, causing a loss of consciousness and reflexes.
5. Rigor mortis: The muscles become stiff and rigid due to the buildup of lactic acid and other metabolic byproducts.
6. Livor mortis: Blood settles in the dependent parts of the body, causing discoloration and swelling.
7. Algor mortis: The body's temperature cools, causing the skin to feel cool to the touch.

Late Postmortem Changes:

1. Decomposition: Bacteria and other microorganisms begin to break down the body's tissues, leading to putrefaction and decay.
2. Autolysis: Enzymes within the body's cells break down cellular components, causing self-digestion and softening of the tissues.
3. Lipid decomposition: Fats and oils in the body undergo oxidation, leading to the formation of offensive odors.
4. Coagulative necrosis: Blood pools in the body's tissues, causing damage to the cells and tissues.
5. Putrefaction: Bacteria in the gut and other parts of the body cause the breakdown of tissues, leading to the formation of gases and fluids.

It is important to note that postmortem changes can significantly impact the interpretation of autopsy findings and the determination of cause of death. Therefore, it is essential to consider these changes when performing an autopsy and interpreting the results.

The symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis can vary depending on the severity of the infection, but may include:

* Fever
* Fatigue
* Loss of appetite
* Weight loss
* Enlargement of the liver and spleen
* Pain in the abdomen
* Anemia
* Low blood platelet count
* Low white blood cell count

If left untreated, visceral leishmaniasis can be fatal. Treatment is typically with antiparasitic drugs, such as miltefosine or amphotericin B, and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

It is important to note that visceral leishmaniasis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition, and prompt medical attention is necessary for effective treatment and management.

In the medical field, decapitation is classified as a type of catastrophic injury, meaning it has a high mortality rate and can result in permanent damage to the brain and other vital organs. Treatment for decapitation typically involves immediate resuscitation and stabilization of the patient, followed by surgical intervention to repair any damage to the neck and head.

Decapitation can be caused by a variety of factors, including car accidents, gunshot wounds, blunt trauma, and other forms of violence. It is important for medical professionals to be familiar with the signs and symptoms of decapitation, as well as the appropriate treatment methods, in order to provide the best possible care for patients who have suffered this severe injury.

There are several different types of malaria, including:

1. Plasmodium falciparum: This is the most severe form of malaria, and it can be fatal if left untreated. It is found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
2. Plasmodium vivax: This type of malaria is less severe than P. falciparum, but it can still cause serious complications if left untreated. It is found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
3. Plasmodium ovale: This type of malaria is similar to P. vivax, but it can cause more severe symptoms in some people. It is found primarily in West Africa.
4. Plasmodium malariae: This type of malaria is less common than the other three types, and it tends to cause milder symptoms. It is found primarily in parts of Africa and Asia.

The symptoms of malaria can vary depending on the type of parasite that is causing the infection, but they typically include:

1. Fever
2. Chills
3. Headache
4. Muscle and joint pain
5. Fatigue
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Diarrhea
8. Anemia (low red blood cell count)

If malaria is not treated promptly, it can lead to more severe complications, such as:

1. Seizures
2. Coma
3. Respiratory failure
4. Kidney failure
5. Liver failure
6. Anemia (low red blood cell count)

Malaria is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood smears or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Treatment for malaria typically involves the use of antimalarial drugs, such as chloroquine or artemisinin-based combination therapies. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications and provide supportive care.

Prevention is an important aspect of managing malaria, and this can include:

1. Using insecticide-treated bed nets
2. Wearing protective clothing and applying insect repellent when outdoors
3. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities to reduce the number of mosquito breeding sites
4. Using indoor residual spraying (IRS) or insecticide-treated wall lining to kill mosquitoes
5. Implementing malaria control measures in areas where malaria is common, such as distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS)
6. Improving access to healthcare services, particularly in rural and remote areas
7. Providing education and awareness about malaria prevention and control
8. Encouraging the use of preventive medications, such as intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) for pregnant women and children under the age of five.

Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are critical in preventing the progression of malaria and reducing the risk of complications and death. In areas where malaria is common, it is essential to have access to reliable diagnostic tools and effective antimalarial drugs.

There are two varieties: Halesia diptera var. diptera Halesia diptera var. magniflora R.K.Godfrey IUCN SSC Global Tree ... Halesia diptera, the two-wing silverbell or two-winged snowdrop tree, is a species in the family Styracaceae, native to the ... BGCI) (2020). "Halesia diptera". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T152857713A152905527. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-1. ... "Halesia diptera". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department ...
... is a moth of the subfamily Arctiinae. It was described by Johan Christian Fabricius in 1775. It is found in ... "Ceryx diptera (Fabricius, 1775)". Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms. Retrieved November 18, 2018. Hampson, G. F. (1892). ...
... may refer to: Halesia diptera, a silverbell, a shrub native to southeast North America Hoya diptera (Seemann, 1896 ... 1807-1879 Diptera This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the same abbreviated species scientific name. If an ... a waxplant species in the genus Hoya native to the Fiji Islands Diptera Americae Septentrionalis indigena, a book written by ...
... is a member of the genus Tetragonia and is endemic to Australia. The annual or perennial herb has a ... "Tetragonia diptera F.Muell". Atlas of Living Australia. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Retrieved 20 January 2017. ( ... "Tetragonia diptera". FloraBase. Western Australian Government Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions. " ...
... is a moth of the family Erebidae. It was described by Francis Walker in 1854. It is found in Cameroon, the ... De Prins, J. & De Prins, W. (2017). "Melisa diptera (Walker, 1854)". Afromoths. Retrieved January 29, 2018. Pitkin, Brian & ...
"Psectra diptera". GBIF. Retrieved 2019-09-23. "Psectra diptera species Information". Retrieved 2019-09-23. Penny ... Psectra diptera is a species of brown lacewing in the family Hemerobiidae. It is found in Europe and Northern Asia (excluding ... Media related to Psectra diptera at Wikimedia Commons v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different ... "Psectra diptera Report". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2019-09-23. " ...
List of Eucalyptus species "Eucalyptus diptera". Australian Plant Census. Retrieved 31 May 2019. "Eucalyptus diptera". ... Eucalyptus diptera is a mallet that typically grows to a height of 3-8 m (9.8-26.2 ft) but can reach as high as 15 m (49 ft) ... Eucalyptus diptera, commonly known as the two-winged gimlet, is a mallet that is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia ... Eucalyptus diptera was first formally described by the Cecil Andrews from a specimen he collected "in flower north of Esperance ...
... is a seminal work of entomology by Francis Walker. The work spans three volumes; a fourth volume was ... Walker, Francis (1856). Insecta Britannica Diptera. Vol. 3. London: Reeve and Benham. Retrieved 10 April 2013. A digitized ... Walker, Francis (1851). Insecta Britannica Diptera. Vol. 1. London: Reeve and Benham. Retrieved 10 April 2013. ...
Tephritidae glossary Giancarlo Dessi Drawing Wing venation Aquatic Diptera of Mongolia MDFRC Aquatic Diptera of Australia La ... The Diptera is a very large and diverse order of mostly small to medium-sized insects. They have prominent compound eyes on a ... In higher Diptera between the alula and the thorax is the upper calyptra, also the tegula. The calyptra are just below the ... In Diptera are the wing-veins are costa, subcosta, radial, medial and cubital. In addition, there are two anal veins, of which ...
Diptera is an order of winged insects commonly known as flies. Diptera, which are one of the most successful groups of ... Many Diptera larvae are predatory, sometimes on the larvae of other Diptera. Many Agromyzidae are leaf miners. Some Tephritidae ... Diptera videos Database of Insects and their Food Plants The evolutionary diversification in the Order Diptera (Articles with ... Diptera are important pollinators and plant pests. Many Diptera are detritivores. Typical are Dryomyza anilis and, notably, ...
Families of Diptera found in Baltic Amber (Diptera families, Lists of Diptera). ... Sabrosky's Family Group Names in Diptera Palaeobiology database Diptera families of British Columbia Barraclough, D. A. & ... 1998 List of obsolete names in Diptera Pape, Thomas; Blagoderov, Vladimir; Mostovski, Michail B. (2011). "Order Diptera ... This is a list of the families of the order Diptera (true flies). The classification is based largely on Pape et al. (2011). ...
Diptera. Pipunculidae. R. L. Coe Vol 10 Part 3a. Diptera - Conopidae. Kenneth G. V. Smith Vol 10 Part 4a i. Diptera - ... Diptera - Tephritidae. I.M White Vol 10 Part 5g. Diptera - Agromyzidae. Kenneth A. Spencer Vol 10 Part 7. Diptera - ... Diptera Larvae, with notes on eggs, puparia and pupae. Figures Wikimedia Commons has media related to Diptera of Ireland. ( ... Diptera - Brachycera. Tabanoidea and Asiloidea. Harold Oldroyd Vol 9 Part 5. Diptera - Orthorrhapha Brachycera. Dolichopodidae ...
... is a series of books produced by the British Museum (Natural History) (now called the ... 1931). "Family Ephydridae". Diptera of Patagonia and South Chile. 6 (2): 85-116. (Articles with short description, Short ... Diptera of South America, Entomological literature, Fauna of Patagonia, Arthropods of Argentina, Arthropods of Chile, Natural ... Natural History Museum). The books detail the Diptera collected primarily by the museum's expeditions to Patagonia in 1926, ...
The Diptera Site Congruence and Controversy Phylogeny of Diptera (Lists of Diptera, Obsolete arthropod taxa). ... The higher-level classification of the insect order Diptera is in a constant state of flux, and over the last several decades, ... originally misidentified as Diptera +Protomphralidae - extinct (Middle Jurassic) Rachiceridae - rank in Xylophagidae + ... now in superfamily Tephritoidea Curtis Williams Sabrosky Family group names in the Diptera and Bibliography downloadable pdf [1 ...
... Part of List of ... An account of the Irish species of two-winged flies (Diptera) belonging to the families of Larger Brachycera (Tabanoidea and ... pdf Verrall, G. H., 1909 Stratiomyidae and succeeding families of the Diptera Brachycera of Great Britain- British flies (1909) ... Dublin Van Veen Key Illustrated Identification keys Harold Oldroyd, 1969 Diptera, Brachycera : section (a) : Tabanoidea and ...
Walker, F. (1850). Diptera. Part I, pp. 1-76, pls. 1-2. In [Saunders, W. W. (ed.)], Insecta Saundersiana: or characters of ... Lessard, B.D.; Yeates, D.K. (2012). "Anzomyia (Diptera: Tabanidae: Pangoniinae: Scionini): A new genus of Australian and New ... Taylor, F.H. (1917). "Australian Tabanidae (Diptera). No. iii". Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. 42: 513- ... Lessard, B.D. (2014). "Revision of the austral horse fly tribe Scionini (Diptera: Tabanidae)". Austral Entomology. 53: 203-239 ...
Fairchild, G.B.; Burger, J.F. (1994). "A catalog of the Tabanidae (Diptera) of the Americas south of the United States". ... Burger, J.F. (2002). "Description of five new species of Tabanidae (Diptera) from Costa Rica and revised keys to species for ... Fairchild, G.B. (1964). "Notes on Neotropical Tabanidae (Diptera). IV. Further new species and new records fro Panama". Journal ... Schiner, I.R. (1868). Diptera. vi In [Wullerstorf-Urbair, B. von (in charge)], Reise der osterreichischen Fregatte Novara. Zool ...
Diptera of Europe, Diptera of North America, Exoristinae, Tachinidae genera, Taxa named by Camillo Rondani, All stub articles, ... Die Fliegen (Diptera). Nach der analytischen Methode bearbeitet, mit der Characteristik sämmtlicher europäischer Gattungen, der ... ISBN 0-901546-82-8. O'Hara, James E.; Wood, D. Monty (28 January 2004). "Checklist Of The Tachinidae (Diptera) Of America North ... Chandler, Peter J. (1998). Checklists of Insects of the British Isles (New Series) Part 1: Diptera. Handbooks for the ...
Allen, E. J.; Foote, B. A. (17 July 1967). "Biology and Immature Stages of Three Species of Otitidae (Diptera) Which Have ... Brimley, Clement Samuel; Wray, David Lonzo (1938). "Diptera". The insects of North Carolina, being a list of the insects of ... Weems, Jr., H.V. (May 1970). "A Picture-winged Fly, Delphinia Picta (Fabricius) (Diptera: Otitidae)" (PDF). Division of Plant ... Steyskal, George C. (17 December 1971). Marsh, Paul M. (ed.). "Delphinia picta (Fabricius) in Central America-(Diptera-Otitidea ...
Walker, F. (1850). Diptera. Part I, pp. 1-76, pls. 1-2. In [Saunders, W. W. (ed.)], Insecta Saundersiana: or characters of ... Fairchild, G.B.; Burger, J.F. (1994). "A catalog of the Tabanidae (Diptera) of the Americas south of the United States". ... Moucha, J. (1976). "Horse-flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of the World. Synoptic Catalogue" (PDF). Acta Entomologica Musei ... Diptera of South America, Insects described in 1828, All stub articles, Tabanoidea stubs). ...
Diptera of Australasia, Diptera of Africa, Diptera of South America, Taxa named by Christian Rudolph Wilhelm Wiedemann). ... Walker, F. (1850). Diptera. Part I, pp. 1-76, pls. 1-2. In [Saunders, W. W. (ed.)], Insecta Saundersiana: or characters of ... Blood-sucking Diptera from Port Darwin, Australia". Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 10 (8): 222-228. Retrieved 18 ... Fairchild, G.B.; Burger, J.F. (1994). "A catalog of the Tabanidae (Diptera) of the Americas south of the United States". ...
Knutson, Lloyd V.; Thompson, F. Christian; Vockeroth, J. Richard (1975). "Family Syrphidae". A Catalog of the Diptera of the ... Brunetti, Enrico Adelelmo (1923). Diptera. Pipunculidae, Syrphidae, Conopidae, Oestridae. In: [Shipley, A.E., ed.], Fauna of ... Diptera of Asia, All stub articles, Syrphidae stubs). ...
Schiner, I.R. (1868). Diptera. vi In [Wullerstorf-Urbair, B. von (in charge)], Reise der osterreichischen Fregatte Novara. Zool ... ISBN 1-899935-04-5. Mikuška, A.; S. Krcmar; J. Mikuska† (2008). "Horseflies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of south-east Herzegovina ( ... Moucha, J. (1976). "Horse-flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of the World. Synoptic Catalogue" (PDF). Acta Entomologica Musei ... Chvála, Milan; Lyneborg, Leif; Moucha, Josef (1972). The Horse Flies of Europe (Diptera, Tabanidae). Copenhagen: Entomological ...
Rondani, C. (1863). Diptera exotica revisa et annotata. Novis non nullis descriptis. Modena: E. Soliani. pp. 1-99 pp., 1 pl. ... Schiner, I.R. (1868). Diptera. vi In [Wullerstorf-Urbair, B. von (in charge)], Reise der osterreichischen Fregatte Novara. Zool ... A catalogue of the Diptera of Americas South of the United States. Sao Paulo: Museum of Zoology of the University of Sao Paulo ... Diptera of South America, Taxa named by Camillo Rondani, All stub articles, Syrphidae stubs). ...
Diptera. 2: 89-112. Townsend, Charles Henry Tyler (1919). "New muscoid genera, species and synonymy (Diptera)". Insecutor ... Diptera of North America, Diptera of South America, Dexiinae, Tachinidae genera, Taxa named by Frederik Maurits van der Wulp, ...
n. and Tylotrypes (Diptera, Pyrgotidae)" (PDF). Vestnik Zoologii. 49 (1): 25-40. doi:10.1515/vzoo-2015-0003.[permanent dead ... I. New species and synonyms in Eupyrgota (s. str.) (Diptera, Pyrgotidae), with the description of a new subgenus" (PDF). ... Hendel, F. (1909). "Diptera. Fam. Muscaridae. Subfam. Pyrgotinae". Genera Insectorum. 79: 1-33. Enderlein, G. (1942). " ... New synonyms in Eupyrgota (subgenus Taeniomastix) (Diptera, Pyrgotidae), with key to subgenera and species" (PDF). Vestnik ...
2019). "Diptera of Canada. In: Langor DW, Sheffield CS (Eds) The Biota of Canada - A Biodiversity Assessment. Part 1: The ... CRC Press, Boca Raton, Londres,New York, Washington, D. C. ISBN 0-8493-0212-9 Image Gallery from Gnats (Nematocera ... Schiner, I.R. (1868). Diptera. vi In [Wullerstorf-Urbair, B. von (in charge)], Reise der osterreichischen Fregatte Novara. Zool ... Pape, Thomas; Blagoderov, Vladimir; Mostovski, Mikhail B. (2011). Zhang, Zhi-Qiang (ed.). "Order Diptera Linnaeus, 1758. In: ...
Diptera of South America, Diptera of North America, Taxa named by Adolfo Lutz). ... Walker, F. (1850). Diptera. Part I, pp. 1-76, pls. 1-2. In [Saunders, W. W. (ed.)], Insecta Saundersiana: or characters of ... Fairchild, G.B.; Burger, J.F. (1994). "A catalog of the Tabanidae (Diptera) of the Americas south of the United States". ... Burger, J.F. (1999). "Notes on and descriptions of new and little-known species of Neotropical Tabanidae (Diptera)". Memoirs of ...
Melander, Axel Leonard (1928). Diptera. Fam. Empididae. In Wytsman, P., ed. Bruxelles. 185: Genera insectorum. pp. 1-434.{{cite ...
Walker, Frances (1853). Diptera. Part IV, pp. 253-474, pls. 7-8. In [Saunders, W. W. (ed.)], Insecta Saundersiana: or ... Diptera of Africa, All stub articles, Tephritinae stubs). ...
Portal to information on the insect order Diptera (flies and midges) and a forum for researchers on the insect group. The site ... Thread subject: :: Tephritidae II - Tephritis bardanae. Posted by Morten A Mjelde on 10-09-2022 20:29 ...
Portal to information on the insect order Diptera (flies and midges) and a forum for researchers on the insect group. The site ... Thread subject: :: Could it be Eupeodes corollae?. Posted by Andre on 10-11-2005 12:13 ...
... Dataset homepage. Citation. Dikow T (2020). Occurrence ... Occurrence data of 2,060 Afrotropical Mydidae (Insecta: Diptera) specimens representing 208 species based on specimens studied ... Purpose. The occurrence data are made ... Data gathered for chapter on Mydidae in the Manual of Afrotropical Diptera (download it here: https:// ...
Three new species of the genus Neophyllomyza Melander (Diptera, Milichiidae) from China, with a revised key to the Chinese ... Saproxylic Diptera assemblages in a temperate deciduous forest: implications for community assembly. PeerJ, Vol. 6, Issue. , p ... Neophyllomyza(Diptera: Milichiidae) Recorded from China with Descriptions of Three New Species. Florida Entomologist, Vol. 97, ... A review of species and new rearing habitats of the family Milichiidae (Diptera) in Norway. Fauna norvegica, Series B, 45: 121- ...
New records of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae) from Mallorca, Spain Article Sidebar. ... Baranov, V., & Kvifte, G. M. (2016). New records of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae) from Mallorca, ...
Northern House Mosquito Culex pipiens Linnaeus, 1758 (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae). Abdullah A. Alomar, Nathan D. Burkett- ... Experimental vertical transmission of West Nile virus by Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 39(4 ... The Mosquitoes of Canada (Diptera: Culicidae) Part 6. The Insects and Arachnids of Canada. Research Branch. Canada Department ... Microsatellite characterization of subspecies and their hybrids in Culex pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes along ...
Diptera: Syrphidae [Chinese] (9787030334244): NHBS - Huang Chunmei, Cheng Xinyue, Science Press ... Academic & Professional Books Insects & other Invertebrates Insects Flies (Diptera) Fauna Sinica: Insecta, Volume 50: Diptera: ... Syrphidae is a large family of Diptera up to now. About 6000 species are known in the world. The syrphids larvae and adults are ... RES Handbook, Volume 10, Part 16: Blow Flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Polleniidae, Rhiniidae) ...
Usutu Virus Sequences in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(5):861-863. doi: ... Usutu Virus Sequences in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), Spain On This Page ... Busquets, N., Alba, A., Allepuz, A., Aranda, C., & Nuñez, J. I. (2008). Usutu Virus Sequences in Culex pipiens (Diptera: ... Usutu Virus Sequences in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), Spain. Volume 14, Number 5-May 2008 ...
The recovery in Canada of the brown-tail moth parasite Compsilura concinnata (Diptera: Tachinidae) 1919. Tothill, J.D.; McLaine ...
Diptera: Syrphidae) is described from Early Miocene lake sediments of the Randeck Maar (Swabian Alb, south-west Germany) and ... Article: A new fossil hoverfly (Insecta, Diptera: Syrphidae) from the Randeck Maar (early Miocene, South-West Germany). ... A new fossil hoverfly (Insecta, Diptera: Syrphidae) from the Randeck Maar (early Miocene, South-West Germany). Palaeontology, ...
Belgica antarctica (Diptera: Chironomidae): A natural model organism for extreme environments. Belgica antarctica (Diptera: ... BAS , Data , Explore polar data , Our publications , Belgica antarctica (Diptera: Chironomidae): A natural model organism for ...
Phylogenetics and taxonomy of Ventrops - the largest genus of Afrotropical Rhinophoridae (Diptera). Research output: ...
Biology of the snail-killing fly, Ilione albiseta Scopoli (Diptera: Sciomyzidae). Title. Biology of the snail-killing fly, ... Biology of the snail-killing fly, Ilione albiseta Scopoli (Diptera: Sciomyzidae). ...
Six new species of microsporidia of the genus Amblyospora (Microspora: Amblyosporidae) from blood sucking mosquitoes (Diptera: ... Ecological aspects of Microsporidia parasitizing in natural populations of the Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) blood-suking ... Diptera: Culicidae) from the west Siberia].}, author={A V Simakova and T F Pankova}, journal={Parazitologiia}, year={2005}, ...
... 2 more authors) (2019) Peptidergic control of the crop of the cabbage root fly, Delia radicum (L.) Diptera: Anthomyiidae): a ...
2009)‎. A novel method of controlling a dengue mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti (‎Diptera: Culicidae)‎ using an aquatic mosquito ... A novel method of controlling a dengue mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti (‎Diptera: Culicidae)‎ using an aquatic mosquito predator ...
Impact of Irradiation on Vector Competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) for Dengue and ... Impact of Irradiation on Vector Competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) for Dengue and ...
Diptera: Muscidae), previously unknown from the Balkans, but collected from Bulgaria already in the 20th century -- Article ... Pont A.C., Lole M.J., Leblanc H.N., Cole J.H. 2007 The American black dump fly Hydrotaea aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera, ... Zielke E. In press Update of distribution records of Helina R.-D. and other genera of the subfamily of Phaoniinae (Diptera: ... Kutty S.N., Pont A.C., Meier R., Pape T. 2014 Complete tribal sampling reveals basal split in Muscidae (Diptera), confirms ...
Diurnal activity patterns of Glossina brevipalpis and G. austeni (Diptera: Glossinidae) in South Africa, with reference to ... Diurnal activity patterns of Glossina brevipalpis and G. austeni (Diptera: Glossinidae) in South Africa, with reference to ... Kappmeier, K 2000, Diurnal activity patterns of Glossina brevipalpis and G. austeni (Diptera: Glossinidae) in South Africa, ...
Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) with notes on their biology (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae). ZooKeys 754: 113-125. ...
Diptera: Simuliidae) of Vietnam", Zenodo, doi: 10.5281/zenodo.571644 ...
In the mornings, I am always sleepily waiting on the coffee pot to finish brewing that first cup of coffee to get my day started. That first morning sip of wonderful, warm, steamy, caffeine laden liquid is much anticipated. Until you see something small floating in your dark wonderful liquid and discover a nasty little fruit fly has decided to take a death bath in your morning coffee. Gross 🤢 ...
Family: The head is distinct and conspicuous; there are no segmented legs; the body has many transverse ridges or rows of small setae; the first 3 abdominal segments each has a pair of small fleshy prolegs, each with a single, slender, curved claw ...
Glime, Janice M., "Volume 2, Chapter 12-19: Terrestrial Insects: Holometabola - Diptera Nematocera 2" (2016). Bryophyte Ecology ...
When you decide to start a collection, you will develop "bug vision" almost overnight. I once stopped in the middle of a crosswalk to pick up a dead dragonfly that was in mint condition. A friend was dumbfounded, "How did you even see that??" she asked. That was when it started. Supplies Needed: Case, net, […]. Finish reading: Create Your First Bug Collection!Bugs in Your Garden ...
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The paper presents new faunistic data for 28 species of Rhaphium from Russia and supplements the previous data on species distribution. New faunistic data is given for the following species: Rhaphium albifrons Zetterstedt, 1843, Rh. antennatum (Carlier, 1835), Rh. appendiculatum Zetterstedt, 1849, Rh. basale Loew, 1850, Rh. boreale Van Duzee, 1923, Rh. caliginosum Meigen, 1824, Rh. commune (Meigen, 1824), Rh. confine Zetterstedt, 1843, Rh. dichromum Negrobov, 1976, Rh. discolor Zetterstedt 1838, Rh. dispar Coquillett 1898, Rh. elegantulum Meigen, 1824, Rh. fasciatum Meigen, 1824, Rh. fascipes (Meigen, 1824), Rh. flavilabre Negrobov, 1979, Rh. glaciale Ringdahl, 1920, Rh. latimanum Kahanpää 2007, Rh. longicorne (Fallen, 1823), Rh. monotrichum Loew 1850, Rh. nasutum (Fallen, 1823), Rh. nigribarbatum Becker, 1900, Rh. patellitarse Becker, 1900, Rh. richterae Negrobov, 1977, Rh. riparium (Meigen 1824), Rh. rivale Loew, 1869, Rh. suavis Loew, 1859, Rh. tripartitum Frey 1913, and Rh. umbripenne (Frey, 1915)
Lespesia archippivora (Diptera: Tachinidae) Survival and Sex Ratios within Monarch Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) Hosts. ... Dive into the research topics of Lespesia archippivora (Diptera: Tachinidae) Survival and Sex Ratios within Monarch Butterfly ...
  • Six new species of microsporidia of the genus Amblyospora (Microspora: Amblyosporidae) from blood sucking mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from the west Siberia]. (
  • Occurrence data of 2,060 Afrotropical Mydidae (Insecta: Diptera) specimens representing 208 species based on specimens studied in numerous natural history collections. (
  • Belgica antarctica (Diptera: Chironomidae), a brachypterous midge endemic to the maritime Antarctic, was first described in 1900. (
  • Peptidergic control of the crop of the cabbage root fly, Delia radicum (L.) Diptera: Anthomyiidae): a role for myosuppressin. (
  • Oliveira S.J. de 1941 Sôbre Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae). (
  • Diptera: Syrphidae) is described from Early Miocene lake sediments of the Randeck Maar (Swabian Alb, south-west Germany) and compared to other fossil species of the genus. (
  • Vikhrev N. 2008 New data on the distribution and biology of the invasive species Hydrotaea aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera, Muscidae). (
  • Zielke E. 2016 Update of distribution records of Phaonia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Muscidae) from Bulgaria with the description of a new species. (
  • Zielke E. 2017 Description of a new Limnophora species from Bulgaria (Diptera: Muscidae). (
  • Lin X, Shih C, Dong R (2015) Revision of the genus Epimesoplecia Zhang, 2007 (Diptera, Nematocera, Protopleciidae) with five new species. (
  • The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA). (
  • The Diptera are commonly known as (true) flies and include many familiar insects such as mosquitoes, black flies, midges, fruit flies, blow flies and house flies. (
  • Thus adult flies have only one pair of functional wings, hence their scientific name-- Diptera (di - two, pteron - wing). (
  • FIGURE 36 in The black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Vietnam" by Peter H. Adler, Hiroyuki Takaoka et al. (
  • Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. (
  • Gregor F., Rozkošny R., Barták M., Vaňhara J. 2016 Manual of Central European Muscidae (Diptera). (
  • Kutty S.N., Pont A.C., Meier R., Pape T. 2014 Complete tribal sampling reveals basal split in Muscidae (Diptera), confirms saprophagy as ancestral feeding mode, and reveals an evolutionary correlation between instar numbers and carnivory. (
  • Diptera: Fannidae, Muscidae, Stomoxydidae. (
  • Müller P. 1982 Zur Bedeutung des Musca domestica-Antagonisten Ophyra aenescens (Diptera, Muscidae) III. (
  • Pont A.C., Lole M.J., Leblanc H.N., Cole J.H. 2007 The American black dump fly Hydrotaea aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera, Muscidae) in Britain and Ireland. (
  • Schumann H. 1982 Zur Bedeutung des Musca domestica-Antagonisten Ophyra aenescens (Diptera: Muscidae). (
  • Sorokina V.S., Pont C.A. 2010 An annotated catalogue of the Muscidae (Diptera) of Siberia. (
  • Zielke E. 2016 Update of distribution records of Mydaeinae (Diptera: Muscidae) from Bulgaria. (
  • Zielke E. In press Update of distribution records of Helina R.-D. and other genera of the subfamily of Phaoniinae (Diptera: Muscidae) from Bulgaria. (
  • Ultrastructural studies of some character of Diptera (Muscidae) of forensically importance. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Bacterial flora of Sandfly gut (Diptera: Psychodidae). (
  • Larval Diptera are typically small, pale and soft-bodied. (
  • For a review of phylogenetic research on Diptera see Yeates and Wiegmann 1999, Yeates et al. (
  • Syrphidae is a large family of Diptera up to now. (
  • The Diptera are divided into two suborders, the Nematocera and Brachycera. (
  • In: Pape T., Beuk P. (eds) Fauna Europaea: Diptera Brachycera. (
  • Nel A ( 2017 ) Peer Review #1 of 'Lygistorrhinidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha: Sciaroidea) in early Eocene Cambay amber (v0.1)' . (
  • Results of search for 'su:{Diptera. (
  • Impact of Background Fruit Odors on Attraction of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to Its Symbiotic Yeast. (