Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Muscidae: A family of the order DIPTERA with over 700 species. Important species that may be mechanical vectors of disease include Musca domesticus (HOUSEFLIES), Musca autumnalis (face fly), Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly), Haematobia irritans (horn fly) and Fannia spp.Psychodidae: Small, hairy, moth-like flies which are of considerable public health importance as vectors of certain pathogenic organisms. Important disease-related genera are PHLEBOTOMUS, Lutzomyia, and Sergentomyia.Tephritidae: A large family of fruit flies in the order DIPTERA, comprising over 4,500 species in about 100 genera. They have patterned wings and brightly colored bodies and are found predominantly in the tropical latitudes.Simuliidae: Several species of the genus Simulium (family Simuliidae) that act as intermediate hosts (vectors) for the parasitic disease ONCHOCERCIASIS.Ceratopogonidae: A family of biting midges, in the order DIPTERA. It includes the genus Culicoides which transmits filarial parasites pathogenic to man and other primates.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Entomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Chironomidae: A family of nonbiting midges, in the order DIPTERA. Salivary glands of the genus Chironomus are used in studies of cellular genetics and biochemistry.Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Culex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.Forensic Sciences: Disciplines that apply sciences to law. Forensic sciences include a wide range of disciplines, such as FORENSIC TOXICOLOGY; FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY; FORENSIC MEDICINE; FORENSIC DENTISTRY; and others.BrazilHymenoptera: An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Drosophilidae: A family of the order DIPTERA. These flies are generally found around decaying vegetation and fruit. Several species, because of their short life span, giant salivary gland chromosomes, and ease of culturing, have been used extensively in studies of heredity.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Amber: A yellowish fossil resin, the gum of several species of coniferous trees, found in the alluvial deposits of northeastern Germany. It is used in molecular biology in the analysis of organic matter fossilized in amber.Phlebotomus: A genus of PSYCHODIDAE which functions as the vector of a number of pathogenic organisms, including LEISHMANIA DONOVANI; LEISHMANIA TROPICA; Bartonella bacilliformis, and the Pappataci fever virus (SANDFLY FEVER NAPLES VIRUS).Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tsetse Flies: Bloodsucking flies of the genus Glossina, found primarily in equatorial Africa. Several species are intermediate hosts of trypanosomes.ArgentinaCeratitis capitata: A species of fruit fly originating in sub-Saharan Africa but widely distributed worldwide. One of the most destructive fruit pests, its larvae feed and develop on many different fruits and some vegetables.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Ochlerotatus: A genus of mosquitoes in the family CULICIDAE. A large number of the species are found in the neotropical part of the Americas.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Houseflies: Flies of the species Musca domestica (family MUSCIDAE), which infest human habitations throughout the world and often act as carriers of pathogenic organisms.ColombiaPopulation Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Ectoparasitic Infestations: Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous: An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Leishmaniasis: A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).Oviparity: The capability of producing eggs (OVA) from which young are hatched outside the body. While mostly referring to nonmammalian species, this does include MAMMALS of the order MONOTREMATA.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)VenezuelaCaves: Geological formations consisting of underground enclosures with access from the surface.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Animal Structures: Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Tagetes: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common name of marigold is also used for CALENDULA.Mansonelliasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus MANSONELLA. Symptoms include pruritus, headache, and articular swelling.Moon: The natural satellite of the planet Earth. It includes the lunar cycles or phases, the lunar month, lunar landscapes, geography, and soil.Screw Worm Infection: Infection with larvae of the blow fly Cochliomyia hominivorax (Callitroga americanum), a common cause of disease in livestock in the southern and southwestern U.S.A.Bromelia: A plant genus of the family BROMELIACEAE. Members contain karatasin and balansain (ENDOPEPTIDASES) and BROMELAINS.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Forensic Medicine: The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.Wigglesworthia: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria in the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE. They exist only as primary endosymbionts of five species of TSETSE FLIES, found in specialized organelles called mycetomes. The bacteria supply crucial B vitamins (VITAMIN B COMPLEX) which the flies require for fertility.Temefos: An organothiophosphate insecticide.PanamaPyrethrins: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.Malpighian Tubules: Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).French Guiana: A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Apocynaceae: The dogbane family of the order Gentianales. Members of the family have milky, often poisonous juice, smooth-margined leaves, and flowers in clusters. Asclepiadacea (formerly the milkweed family) has been included since 1999 and before 1810.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Insect Repellents: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.Psidium: A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE that bears an edible fruit and contains guavin B and quercetin glycosides.Gymnema sylvestre: A plant species of the genus GYMNEMA that contains gymnemic acid (triterpene SAPONINS) which affects blood sugar level, and gurmarin protein. The common name of Gurmar should not be confused with Guar (CYAMOPSIS).Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Postmortem Changes: Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Bacillus thuringiensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Leishmaniasis, Visceral: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Mortuary Practice: Activities associated with the disposition of the dead. It excludes cultural practices such as funeral rites.Leishmania braziliensis: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania viannia that infects man and animals. It causes cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS) depending on the subspecies of this organism. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, is the vector. The Leishmania braziliensis complex includes the subspecies braziliensis and peruviana. Uta, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World, is caused by the subspecies peruviana.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Phthirus: Lice of the genus Phthirus, family Pediculidae. Phthirus pubis, the crab louse, is usually acquired by sexual contact or contact with infected objects. It is found most frequently in the pubic hair, but also on eyebrows, eyelashes, or on the axillary hairs.Decapitation: Traumatic or experimentally induced separation of the head from the body in an animal or human.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Copulation: Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Leishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.Gastrointestinal Contents: The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Wolbachia: A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)Mansonella: A genus of parasitic nematodes whose organisms are distributed in Central and South America. Characteristics include a smooth cuticle and an enlarged anterior end.Insemination: The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Trypanosomatina: A suborder of monoflagellate parasitic protozoa that lives in the blood and tissues of man and animals. Representative genera include: Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, CRITHIDIA, Herpetomonas, LEISHMANIA, Phytomonas, and TRYPANOSOMA. Species of this suborder may exist in two or more morphologic stages formerly named after genera exemplifying these forms - amastigote (LEISHMANIA), choanomastigote (CRITHIDIA), promastigote (Leptomonas), opisthomastigote (Herpetomonas), epimastigote (Blastocrithidia), and trypomastigote (TRYPANOSOMA).Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Sesquiterpenes, Germacrane: SESQUITERPENES cyclized to one 10-carbon ring.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Hemolymph: The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Orthoptera: An order of insects comprising two suborders: Caelifera and Ensifera. They consist of GRASSHOPPERS, locusts, and crickets (GRYLLIDAE).Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.EcuadorEclipta: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain wedelolactone.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Andrographis: A plant genus of the family ACANTHACEAE. Members contain andrographolide and other DITERPENES and androechin, a CHALCONE.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Spiroplasma: A genus of gram-negative, helical bacteria, in the family SPIROPLASMATACEAE, order Entomoplasmatales, causing disease in PLANTS. It has been isolated from TICKS; INSECTS; and PLANTS.Erythroxylaceae: A plant family of the order Linales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida best known for the coca plant.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Ecological Systems, Closed: Systems that provide for the maintenance of life in an isolated living chamber through reutilization of the material available, in particular, by means of a cycle wherein exhaled carbon dioxide, urine, and other waste matter are converted chemically or by photosynthesis into oxygen, water, and food. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)

Ultrabithorax function in butterfly wings and the evolution of insect wing patterns. (1/1684)

BACKGROUND: . The morphological and functional evolution of appendages has played a critical role in animal evolution, but the developmental genetic mechanisms underlying appendage diversity are not understood. Given that homologous appendage development is controlled by the same Hox gene in different organisms, and that Hox genes are transcription factors, diversity may evolve from changes in the regulation of Hox target genes. Two impediments to understanding the role of Hox genes in morphological evolution have been the limited number of organisms in which Hox gene function can be studied and the paucity of known Hox-regulated target genes. We have therefore analyzed a butterfly homeotic mutant 'Hindsight', in which portions of the ventral hindwing pattern are transformed to ventral forewing identity, and we have compared the regulation of target genes by the Ultrabithorax (Ubx) gene product in Lepidopteran and Dipteran hindwings. RESULTS: . We show that Ubx gene expression is lost from patches of cells in developing Hindsight hindwings, correlating with changes in wing pigmentation, color pattern elements, and scale morphology. We use this mutant to study how regulation of target genes by Ubx protein differs between species. We find that several Ubx-regulated genes in the Drosophila haltere are not repressed by Ubx in butterfly hindwings, but that Distal-less (Dll) expression is regulated by Ubx in a unique manner in butterflies. CONCLUSIONS: . The morphological diversification of insect hindwings has involved the acquisition of different sets of target genes by Ubx in different lineages. Changes in Hox-regulated target gene sets are, in general, likely to underlie the morphological divergence of homologous structures between animals.  (+info)

Predicting insecticide resistance: mutagenesis, selection and response. (2/1684)

Strategies to manage resistance to a particular insecticide have usually been devised after resistance has evolved. If it were possible to predict likely resistance mechanisms to novel insecticides before they evolved in the field, it might be feasible to have programmes that manage susceptibility. With this approach in mind, single-gene variants of the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, resistant to dieldrin, diazinon and malathion, were selected in the laboratory after mutagenesis of susceptible strains. The genetic and molecular bases of resistance in these variants were identical to those that had previously evolved in natural populations. Given this predictive capacity for known resistances, the approach was extended to anticipate possible mechanisms of resistance to cyromazine, an insecticide to which L. cuprina populations remain susceptible after almost 20 years of exposure. Analysis of the laboratory-generated resistant variants provides an explanation for this observation. The variants show low levels of resistance and a selective advantage over susceptibles for only a limited concentration range. These results are discussed in the context of the choice of insecticides for control purposes and of delivery strategies to minimize the evolution of resistance.  (+info)

The putative bioactive surface of insect-selective scorpion excitatory neurotoxins. (3/1684)

Scorpion neurotoxins of the excitatory group show total specificity for insects and serve as invaluable probes for insect sodium channels. However, despite their significance and potential for application in insect-pest control, the structural basis for their bioactivity is still unknown. We isolated, characterized, and expressed an atypically long excitatory toxin, Bj-xtrIT, whose bioactive features resembled those of classical excitatory toxins, despite only 49% sequence identity. With the objective of clarifying the toxic site of this unique pharmacological group, Bj-xtrIT was employed in a genetic approach using point mutagenesis and biological and structural assays of the mutant products. A primary target for modification was the structurally unique C-terminal region. Sequential deletions of C-terminal residues suggested an inevitable significance of Ile73 and Ile74 for toxicity. Based on the bioactive role of the C-terminal region and a comparison of Bj-xtrIT with a Bj-xtrIT-based model of a classical excitatory toxin, AaHIT, a conserved surface comprising the C terminus is suggested to form the site of recognition with the sodium channel receptor.  (+info)

The development and evolution of bristle patterns in Diptera. (4/1684)

The spatial distribution of sensory bristles on the notum of different species of Diptera is compared. Species displaying ancestral features have a simple organization of randomly distributed, but uniformly spaced, bristles, whereas species thought to be more derived bear patterns in which the bristles are aligned into longitudinal rows. The number of rows of large bristles on the scutum was probably restricted to four early on in the evolution of cyclorraphous Brachyceran flies. Most species have stereotyped patterns based on modifications of these four rows. The possible constraints placed upon the patterning mechanisms due to growth and moulting within the Diptera are discussed, as well as within hemimetabolous insects. The holometabolic life cycle and the setting aside of groups of imaginal cells whose function is not required during the growth period, may have provided the freedom necessary for the evolution of elaborate bristle patterns. We briefly review the current state of knowledge concerning the complex genetic pathways regulating achaete-scute gene expression and bristle pattern in Drosophila melanogaster, and consider mechanisms for the genetic regulation of the bristle patterns of other species of Diptera.  (+info)

Variability in spike trains during constant and dynamic stimulation. (5/1684)

In a recent study, it was concluded that natural time-varying stimuli are represented more reliably in the brain than constant stimuli are. The results presented here disagree with this conclusion, although they were obtained from the same identified neuron (H1) in the fly's visual system. For large parts of the neuron's activity range, the variability of the responses was very similar for constant and time-varying stimuli and was considerably smaller than that in many visual interneurons of vertebrates.  (+info)

A novel egg-derived tyrosine phosphatase, EDTP, that participates in the embryogenesis of Sarcophaga peregrina (flesh fly). (6/1684)

We have previously reported that cathepsin L mRNA is present in unfertilized eggs of Sarcophaga peregrina (flesh fly) as a maternal mRNA, which suggests that cathepsin L is required for embryogenesis. Now we have identified an egg protein, with a molecular mass of 100 kDa, that is extremely susceptible to cathepsin L digestion and which disappears rapidly as the embryos develop. We purified this protein to homogeneity, cloned its cDNA, and found that it contained a consensus sequence for the active site of tyrosine phosphatase. In fact this protein showed tyrosine phosphatase activity, indicating that it is a novel tyrosine phosphatase. The expression and subsequent disappearance of this protein, which we have named egg-derived tyrosine phosphatase (EDTP), may be indispensable for embryogenesis of Sarcophaga.  (+info)

An aural myiasis case in a 54-year-old male farmer in Korea. (7/1684)

A 54-year-old male farmer residing in Chunchon, Korea, complaining of blood tinged discharge and tinnitus in the left ear for two days, was examined in August 16, 1996. Otoscopic examination revealed live maggots from the ear canal. The patient did not complain of any symptoms after removal of maggots. Five maggots recovered were identified as the third stage larvae of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae). This is the first record of aural myiasis in Korea.  (+info)

The planarian HOM/HOX homeobox genes (Plox) expressed along the anteroposterior axis. (8/1684)

In the freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica, five cDNAs for HOM/HOX homeobox genes were cloned and sequenced. Together with sequence data on HOM/HOX homeobox genes of platyhelminthes deposited in databases, comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that planarians have at least seven HOM/HOX homeobox genes, Plox1 to Plox7 (planarian HOM/HOX homeobox genes). Whole-mount in situ hybridization and RT-PCR revealed that Plox4 and Plox5 were increasingly expressed along a spatial gradient in the posterior region of intact animals. During regeneration, Plox5 was expressed only in the posterior region of regenerating body pieces, suggesting that the gene is involved in the anteroposterior patterning in planarians. Plox5 was not found to be expressed in a blastema-specific manner, which contradicts a previous report (J. R. Bayascas, E. Castillo, A. M. Munos-Marmol, and E. Salo. Development 124, 141-148, 1997). X-ray irradiation experiments showed that Plox5 was expressed at least in some cells other than neoblasts, but that the induction of Plox5 expression during regeneration might require neoblasts.  (+info)

  • Os dípteros son os insectos da orde Diptera (en grego 'dúas ás'), ao que pertencen as moscas , mosquitos , tabáns ou típulas , entre outros. (wikipedia.org)
  • As moscas do vinagre son utilizadas como organismos modelo en investigación, pero outros son menos benignos, como algúns mosquitos , que son vectores de doenzas como a malaria , dengue , febre do Nilo Occidental , febre amarela , encefalite , e outras doenzas infecciosas , e as moscas domésticas espallan doenzas transmitidas polos alimentos. (wikipedia.org)
  • T. J. Lysyk and R. D. Moon "Diapause Recruitment and Survival of Overwintering Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae)," Environmental Entomology 30(6), 1090-1097, (1 December 2001). (bioone.org)
  • A revison of Cyrtoneurina Giglio-Tos, with notes on related genera (Diptera, Muscidae). (scielo.br)
  • Toxicity and Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Determination of the Genetic and Synergistic Suppression of a Methoxyfenozide-Resistant Strain of the House Fly Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Musca domestica Linnaeus (house fly, Diptera: Muscidae) is a major veterinary and medical important pest all over the world. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae) is an important cosmopolitan pest with potential forensic value. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Mortality of the House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) After Exposure to Combinations of Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) With the Polyol Sweeteners Erythritol and Xylitol. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Documented resistance to traditional insecticides in the house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), has expedited a need for alternative forms of control. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Thus adult flies have only one pair of functional wings, hence their scientific name-- Diptera (di - two, pteron - wing). (tolweb.org)
  • I thought you might be interested in this item at http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/973272433 Title: The horse flies and deer flies of Canada and Alaska : Diptera--Tabanidae Author: H J Teskey Publisher: Ottawa : Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, 1990. (worldcat.org)
  • Syrphidae, commonly called hover or flower flies, is one of the most diverse families of Diptera very attractive for citizen-scientists. (zfmk.de)
  • DNA barcoding and taxonomy in Diptera: a tale of high intraspecific variability and low identification success. (psu.edu)
  • MISC{Meier06dnabarcoding, author = {Rudolf Meier and Kwong Shiyang and Gaurav Vaidya and Peter K. L. Ng}, title = {DNA barcoding and taxonomy in Diptera: a tale of high intraspecific variability and low identification success. (psu.edu)
  • A revision of the neotropical genus Dagus Cresson (Diptera, Ephydridae). (amnh.org)
  • The type catalogue »The Black Fungus Gnats (Diptera: Sciaridae) of the World. (senckenberg.de)
  • Revision of Black Fungus Gnats (Diptera: Sciaridae) of North America - MOHRIG et al. (senckenberg.de)
  • Heat shock regulatory elements are present in telomeric repeats of Chironomus thummi As in other Diptera , the telomeres of Chironomus thummi lack canonical short telomerase-specified repeats and instead contain complex sequences. (tripdatabase.com)
  • There are two varieties: Halesia diptera var. (wikipedia.org)
  • Halesia diptera , commonly known as two-winged silverbell, is a small deciduous tree or large shrub that is native to floodplains, stream banks, wet woods and swampy areas primarily along the Gulf Coast from South Carolina and northern Florida west to Texas. (missouribotanicalgarden.org)
  • Cuticular hydrocarbon variation in the Glossina (Diptera: Glossinidae): The subgenus Austenina. (fsca-dpi.org)
  • 1995). Alternatively, Diptera are considered descendants from the more generalised scorpionfly family, Permochoristidae (Novokshonov & Sukatsheva 2001). (palaeoentomolog.ru)
  • Such characters also distinguish the Diptera from the few other insects (some Ephemeroptera, some Derbidae, male Coccoidea) that have only two wings. (ento.csiro.au)
  • We show, we believe for the first time, that adult feeding site and related adult performance may explain most of the variation in adult feeding and oviposition site selection of an oligophagous grass miner, Chromatomyia nigra ( Diptera ). (tripdatabase.com)
  • The investigation of crane flies (Diptera: Tipulidae) in the current territory of Mongolia started in 1880 with specimens collected by G. N. Potanin in north-central Mongolia. (bioone.org)
  • This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Whitworth, Terry (2010): Keys to the genera and species of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) of the West Indies and description of a new species of Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy. (gbif.org)
  • (tolweb.org)
  • Thus adult flies have only one pair of functional wings, hence their scientific name-- Diptera (di - two, pteron - wing). (tolweb.org)
  • The order Diptera consists of the true flies, mosquitos, gnats and midges. (margygreen.com)
  • We review the taxonomy and ecology of Chloropidae (Diptera) associated with pitcher plants (Sarraceniaceae) in North America. (peerj.com)
  • For a review of phylogenetic research on Diptera see Yeates and Wiegmann 1999, Yeates et al. (tolweb.org)
Diptera Movies
Diptera Movies (tolweb.org)
True Flies - Order Diptera
True Flies - Order Diptera (angelfire.com)
Dipteran Larvae
Dipteran Larvae (tolweb.org)
Ptychopteromorpha
Ptychopteromorpha (tolweb.org)
Fruit Fly Genetics
Fruit Fly Genetics (tolweb.org)
Three Green Fly Group's Investigation
Three Green Fly Group's Investigation (tolweb.org)
Fruit Fly Investigation
Fruit Fly Investigation (tolweb.org)
The ultimate show down of flies!
The ultimate show down of flies! (tolweb.org)
Predators and parasitoids of the harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis , in its native range and invaded areas | SpringerLink
Predators and parasitoids of the harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis , in its native range and invaded areas | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
1Blue Vestigial Wings
1Blue Vestigial Wings (tolweb.org)
Ecology of Heard Island Diptera | SpringerLink
Ecology of Heard Island Diptera | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Backyard Insects of Tucson
Backyard Insects of Tucson (tolweb.org)
Frontiers | Bee Viruses: Routes of Infection in Hymenoptera | Microbiology
Frontiers | Bee Viruses: Routes of Infection in Hymenoptera | Microbiology (frontiersin.org)
The hemoglobin concentration of Chironomus cf. Plumosus l. (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae from two lentic habitats |...
The hemoglobin concentration of Chironomus cf. Plumosus l. (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae from two lentic habitats |... (link.springer.com)
Diptera (Two-Winged or True Flies) | SpringerLink
Diptera (Two-Winged or True Flies) | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Insect wing - Wikipedia
Insect wing - Wikipedia (en.m.wikipedia.org)
Description and Morphology of the Immature Stages of Three Closely Related Species of Contarinia Rond. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)...
Description and Morphology of the Immature Stages of Three Closely Related Species of Contarinia Rond. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)... (cambridge.org)
Taxonomy of Corynoneura Winnertz (Diptera: Chironomidae) by Yue Fu, Xiangling Fang | Waterstones
Taxonomy of Corynoneura Winnertz (Diptera: Chironomidae) by Yue Fu, Xiangling Fang | Waterstones (waterstones.com)
Pond Life Video Gallery | MicroscopyU
Pond Life Video Gallery | MicroscopyU (microscopyu.com)
Applied biological control with Tachinid flies (Diptera, Tachinidae): A review | SpringerLink
Applied biological control with Tachinid flies (Diptera, Tachinidae): A review | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Peterson, Alvah | Open Library
Peterson, Alvah | Open Library (openlibrary.org)
The larvicide pyriproxyfen blamed during the Zika virus outbreak does not cause microcephaly in zebrafish embryos | Scientific...
The larvicide pyriproxyfen blamed during the Zika virus outbreak does not cause microcephaly in zebrafish embryos | Scientific... (nature.com)
Zeitschrift für Naturforschung B
Zeitschrift für Naturforschung B (degruyter.com)
Genetic Diversity and Population Genetics of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae: Culex spp.) from the Sonoran Desert of North...
Genetic Diversity and Population Genetics of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae: Culex spp.) from the Sonoran Desert of North... (hindawi.com)
Syrphus vitripennis - Wikipedia
Syrphus vitripennis - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
Loa loa filariasis - Wikipedia
Loa loa filariasis - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
Stratiomyidae - Wikipedia
Stratiomyidae - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
Sciaridae - Wikipedia
Sciaridae - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
Hoverfly - Wikipedia
Hoverfly - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
Cochliomyia - Wikipedia
Cochliomyia - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
Episyrphus balteatus - Wikipedia
Episyrphus balteatus - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
Eupeodes corollae - Wikipedia
Eupeodes corollae - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
Cecidomyiidae - Wikipedia
Cecidomyiidae - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
Thaumaleidae - Wikipedia
Thaumaleidae - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
Cordylobia anthropophaga - Wikipedia
Cordylobia anthropophaga - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)