The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
A condition of suboptimal concentration of SPERMATOZOA in the ejaculated SEMEN to ensure successful FERTILIZATION of an OVUM. In humans, oligospermia is defined as a sperm count below 20 million per milliliter semen.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
A naturally occurring phenomenon where terminally differentiated cells dedifferentiate to the point where they can switch CELL LINEAGES. The cells then differentiate into other cell types.
A species of gram-positive, asporogenous, non-pathogenic, soil bacteria that produces GLUTAMIC ACID.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.

Mapping of the homothallic genes, HM alpha and HMa, in Saccharomyces yeasts. (1/1809)

Two of the three homothallic genes, HM alpha and HMa, showed direct linkage to the mating-type locus at approximately 73 and 98 strans (57 and 65 centimorgans [cM], respectively, whereas, the other, HO, showed no linkage to 25 standard markers distributed over 17 chromosomes including the mating-type locus. To determine whether the HM alpha and HMa loci located on the left or right side of the mating-type locus, equations for three factor analysis of three linked genes were derived. Tetrad data were collected and were compared with expected values by chi 2 statistics. Calculations indicated that the HM alpha gene is probably located on the right arm at 95 strans (65 cM) from the centromere and the HMa locus at approximately 90 strans (64 cM) on the left arm of chromosome III.  (+info)

C-myc overexpression and p53 loss cooperate to promote genomic instability. (2/1809)

p53 monitors genomic integrity at the G1 and G2/M cell cycle checkpoints. Cells lacking p53 may show gene amplification as well as the polyploidy or aneuploidy typical of many tumors. The pathways through which this develops, however, are not well defined. We demonstrate here that the combination of p53 inactivation and c-myc overexpression in diploid cells markedly accelerates the spontaneous development of tetraploidy. This is not seen with either N-myc or L-myc. Tetraploidy is accompanied by significantly higher levels of cyclin B and its associated cdc2 kinase activity. Mitotic spindle poisons accelerate the appearance of tetraploidy in cells either lacking functional p53 or overexpressing c-myc whereas the combination is additive. Restoration of p53 function in cells overexpressing c-myc causing rapid apoptosis, indicating that cells yet to become tetraploid have nonetheless suffered irreversible genomic and/or mitotic spindle damage. In the face of normal p53 function, such damage would either be repaired or trigger apoptotis. We propose that loss of p53 and overexpression of c-myc permits the emergence and survival of cells with increasingly severe damage and the eventual development of tetraploidy.  (+info)

The 3'-->5' exonucleases of DNA polymerases delta and epsilon and the 5'-->3' exonuclease Exo1 have major roles in postreplication mutation avoidance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (3/1809)

Replication fidelity is controlled by DNA polymerase proofreading and postreplication mismatch repair. We have genetically characterized the roles of the 5'-->3' Exo1 and the 3'-->5' DNA polymerase exonucleases in mismatch repair in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using various genetic backgrounds and highly sensitive mutation detection systems that are based on long and short homonucleotide runs. Genetic interactions were examined among DNA polymerase epsilon (pol2-4) and delta (pol3-01) mutants defective in 3'-->5' proofreading exonuclease, mutants defective in the 5'-->3' exonuclease Exo1, and mismatch repair mutants (msh2, msh3, or msh6). These three exonucleases play an important role in mutation avoidance. Surprisingly, the mutation rate in an exo1 pol3-01 mutant was comparable to that in an msh2 pol3-01 mutant, suggesting that they participate directly in postreplication mismatch repair as well as in other DNA metabolic processes.  (+info)

Perturbation of mammalian cell division. III. The topography and kinetics of extrusion subdivision. (4/1809)

If mitotic-arrested, cold-stored HeLa cells are incubated at 37 degrees C a proportion of the population divides by an aberrant process which we have called subdivision by extrusion. This process has been studied by time-lapse photography and shown to differ from normal cleavage in several respects. The cell surface becomes more generally mobile and, instead of producing the precisely localized furrowing activity of cytokinesis, gives rise to multiple surface protrusions. These protrusions enlarge at the expense of the parent cell and develop into a cluster of small daughter cells (mini segregants). The surface structure of the cell, as seen by scanning electron microscopy, also changes; the microvilli characteristic of interphase, metaphase and cleaving HeLa cells are lost during extrusion and the cell surface becomes smooth. Extrusion activity is much more variable than division by cleavage in terms of both topography and kinetics, and in general takes longer to complete. Some cells in the cold-treated populations divide by mixtures of cleavage and extrusion or by cleavage alone. The relative numbers of cells dividing in different ways vary with the conditions of pretreatment and incubation of the mitotic cells. The greater the perturbation (e.g. longer cold storage), the greater the proportion of extruding rather than cleaving cells. Human diploid cells can also be induced to subdivide by extrusion. Possible mechanisms underlying the different types of division activity are discussed.  (+info)

TNF-alpha increases ceramide without inducing apoptosis in alveolar type II epithelial cells. (5/1809)

Ceramide is a bioactive lipid mediator that has been observed to induce apoptosis in vitro. The purpose of this study was to determine whether endogenous ceramide, generated in response to in vivo administration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), increases apoptosis in primary rat alveolar type II epithelial cells. Intratracheal instillation of TNF-alpha (5 microgram) produced a decrease in sphingomyelin and activation of a neutral sphingomyelinase. These changes were associated with a significant increase in lung ceramide content. TNF-alpha concomitantly activated the p42/44 extracellular signal-related kinases and induced nuclear factor-kappaB activation in the lung. Hypodiploid nuclei studies revealed that intratracheal TNF-alpha did not increase type II cell apoptosis compared with that in control cells after isolation. A novel observation from separate in vitro studies demonstrated that type II cells undergo a gradual increase in apoptosis after time in culture, a process that was accelerated by exposure of cells to ultraviolet light. However, culture of cells with a cell-permeable ceramide, TNF-alpha, or a related ligand, anti-CD95, did not increase apoptosis above the control level. The results suggest that ceramide resulting from TNF-alpha activation of sphingomyelin hydrolysis might activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-kappaB pathways without increasing programmed cell death in type II cells.  (+info)

Progression from colorectal adenoma to carcinoma is associated with non-random chromosomal gains as detected by comparative genomic hybridisation. (6/1809)

AIMS: Chromosomal gains and losses were surveyed by comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) in a series of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, in search of high risk genomic changes involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. METHODS: Nine colorectal adenomas and 14 carcinomas were analysed by CGH, and DNA ploidy was assessed with both flow and image cytometry. RESULTS: In the nine adenomas analysed, an average of 6.6 (range 1 to 11) chromosomal aberrations were identified. In the 14 carcinomas an average of 11.9 (range 5 to 17) events were found per tumour. In the adenomas the number of gains and losses was in balance (3.6 v 3.0) while in carcinomas gains occurred more often than losses (8.2 v 3.7). Frequent gains involved 13q, 7p, 8q, and 20q, whereas losses most often occurred at 18q, 4q, and 8p. Gains of 13q, 8q, and 20q, and loss of 18q occurred more often in carcinomas than in adenomas (p = 0.005, p = 0.05, p = 0.05, and p = 0.02, respectively). Aneuploid tumours showed more gains than losses (mean 9.3 v 4.9, p = 0.02), in contrast to diploid tumours where gains and losses were nearly balanced (mean 3.1 v 4.1, p = 0.5). CONCLUSIONS: The most striking difference between chromosomal aberrations in colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, as detected by CGH, is an increased number of chromosomal gains that show a nonrandom distribution. Gains of 13q and also of 20q and 8q seem especially to be involved in the progression of adenomas to carcinomas, possibly owing to low level overexpression of oncogenes at these loci.  (+info)

Mutator phenotypes conferred by MLH1 overexpression and by heterozygosity for mlh1 mutations. (7/1809)

Loss of DNA mismatch repair due to mutation or diminished expression of the MLH1 gene is associated with genome instability and cancer. In this study, we used a yeast model system to examine three circumstances relevant to modulation of MLH1 function. First, overexpression of wild-type MLH1 was found to cause a strong elevation of mutation rates at three different loci, similar to the mutator effect of MLH1 gene inactivation. Second, haploid yeast strains with any of six mlh1 missense mutations that mimic germ line mutations found in human cancer patients displayed a strong mutator phenotype consistent with loss of mismatch repair function. Five of these mutations affect amino acids that are homologous to residues suggested by recent crystal structure and biochemical analysis of Escherichia coli MutL to participate in ATP binding and hydrolysis. Finally, using a highly sensitive reporter gene, we detected a mutator phenotype of diploid yeast strains that are heterozygous for mlh1 mutations. Evidence suggesting that this mutator effect results not from reduced mismatch repair in the MLH1/mlh1 cells but rather from loss of the wild-type MLH1 allele in a fraction of cells is presented. Exposure to bleomycin or to UV irradiation strongly enhanced mutagenesis in the heterozygous strain but had little effect on the mutation rate in the wild-type strain. This damage-induced hypermutability may be relevant to cancer in humans with germ line mutations in only one MLH1 allele.  (+info)

The organization of genetic diversity in the parthenogenetic lizard Cnemidophorus tesselatus. (8/1809)

The parthogenetic lizard species Cnemidophorus tesselatus is composed of diploid populations formed by hybridization of the bisexual species C. tigris and C. septemvittatus, and of triploid populations derived from a cross between diploid tesselatus and a third bisexual species, C. sexlineatus. An analysis of allozymic variation in proteins encoded by 21 loci revealed that, primarily because of hybrid origin, individual heterozygosity in tesselatus is much higher (0.560 in diploids and 0.714 in triploids) than in the parental bisexual species (mean, 0.059). All triploid individuals apparently represent a single clone, but 12 diploid clones were identified on the basis of genotypic diversity occurring at six loci. From one to four clones were recorded in each population sampled. Three possible sources of clonal diversity in the diploid parthenogens were identified: mutation at three loci has produced three clones, each confined to a single locality; genotypic diversity at two loci apparently caused by multiple hybridization of the bisexual species accounts for four clones; and the remaining five clones apparently have arisen through recombination at three loci. The relatively limited clonal diversity of tesselatus suggests a recent origin. The evolutionary potential of tesselatus and of parthenogenetic forms in general may be less severely limited than has generally been supposed.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Restoration of senescent human diploid fibroblasts by modulation of the extracellular matrix. AU - Choi, Hae Ri. AU - Cho, Kyung A.. AU - Kang, Hyun Tae. AU - Lee, Jung Bin. AU - Kaeberlein, Matt. AU - Suh, Yousin. AU - Chung, In Kwon. AU - Park, Sang Chul. PY - 2011/2. Y1 - 2011/2. N2 - Human diploid fibroblasts have the capacity to complete a finite number of cell divisions before entering a state of replicative senescence characterized by growth arrest, changes in morphology, and altered gene expression. Herein, we report that interaction with extracellular matrix (ECM) from young cells is sufficient to restore aged, senescent cells to an apparently youthful state. The identity of the restored cells as having been derived from senescent cells has been confirmed by a variety of methods, including time lapse live cell imaging and DNA finger print analysis. In addition to cell morphology, phenotypic restoration was assessed by resumption of proliferative potential, growth factor ...
In gametic meiosis, instead of immediately dividing meiotically to produce haploid cells, the zygote divides mitotically to produce a multicellular diploid individual or a group of more unicellular diploid cells. Cells from the diploid individuals then undergo meiosis to produce haploid cells or gametes. Haploid cells may divide to form more haploid cells, as in many yeasts, but the haploid phase is not the predominant life cycle phase. In most diplonts, mitosis occurs only in the diploid phase, i.e. gametes usually form quickly and fuse to produce diploid zygotes. In the whole cycle, gametes are usually the only haploid cells, and mitosis usually occurs only in the diploid phase. The diploid multicellular individual is a diplont, hence a gametic meiosis is also called a diplontic life cycle. Diplonts are: ...
C. albicans is the most prevalent human fungal pathogen currently known. Until recently it was known that C. albicans reproduced in a parasexual cycle involving the fusion of two diploid cells to produce a tetraploid cell. This tetraploid cell then undergoes a reduction of the number of chromosomes to restore the diploid state. This reduction is not through meiosis, but rather a chromosomal loss mechanism, resulting in a high degree of aneuploidy as well as restoration of the diploid state [3]. It was recently discovered that C. albicans also forms mating-competent haploid cells. These cells were located through flow cytometry profiles and subsequent amplification of the MAT locus, based on this analysis it was concluded that haploid cells arise through the same chromosomal loss at a rate of 1-3 per 100,000 cells. It was also noted that the haploid cell lines grew slower than either an established diploid line or a diploid line arising from the fusing of two haploid cells. This growth pattern is ...
C. albicans is the most prevalent human fungal pathogen currently known. Until recently it was known that C. albicans reproduced in a parasexual cycle involving the fusion of two diploid cells to produce a tetraploid cell. This tetraploid cell then undergoes a reduction of the number of chromosomes to restore the diploid state. This reduction is not through meiosis, but rather a chromosomal loss mechanism, resulting in a high degree of aneuploidy as well as restoration of the diploid state [3]. It was recently discovered that C. albicans also forms mating-competent haploid cells. These cells were located through flow cytometry profiles and subsequent amplification of the MAT locus, based on this analysis it was concluded that haploid cells arise through the same chromosomal loss at a rate of 1-3 per 100,000 cells. It was also noted that the haploid cell lines grew slower than either an established diploid line or a diploid line arising from the fusing of two haploid cells. This growth pattern is ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Suzana Makpol, Azalina Zainuddin, Kien Hui Chua, Yasmin Anum Mohd Yusof, Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah].
We develop mathematical models describing the evolutionary dynamics of asexual and sexual reproduction pathways based on the yeast life cycle. By explicitly considering the semiconservative nature of DNA replication and a diploid genome, we are able to obtain a selective advantage for sex under much more general conditions than required by previous models. We are also able to suggest an evolutionary basis for the use of sex as a stress response in unicellular organisms such as Bakers yeast. Some additional features associated with both asexual and sexual aspects of the cell life cycle also fall out of our work. Finally, our work suggests that sex and diploidy may be useful as generalized strategies for preventing information degredation in replicating systems, and may therefore have applications beyond biology ...
Looking for diploidization? Find out information about diploidization. The process by which a tetraploid organism attains the diploid state, involving repeated chromosome loss Explanation of diploidization
View Notes - quiz1 from BIOL 241 at Purdue. Quiz 1 Biol241 - 2010 1) Imagine a simple diploid organism with eight chromosome in the diploid set (2n=8). What is the total number of chromosomes in a
I see that your organism is tetraploid, but everything I know about Fst relates to diploid organisms. I regret I really dont know how different ploidy affects Fst measurements, but anyway you are treating raw NGS data as if it was a direct method, and it isnt. if you have a pool of samples some may have been enriched more than others, and for that reason you cant take the allele counts as independent values. the only way I know to work with NGS and Fst calculation is to use a diploid organism (human in our case), to sequence individual samples, and treat the results as if they were raw genotyping results. if there is a way of using NGS pooled samples data for real and trustworthy population statistics that are able to deal with the enrichment bias, Im sorry Im not aware of it.. regarding the NGS bias mentioned in your questions comments, its not really a problem of NGS but of any methodology based on PCR, which may produce an imbalanced amplification. this erroneous amplification can ...
A condition in which the chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell exist as pairs, one set being derived from the female parent and the other from the male. In cereals such as barley and rice all the cells except the reproductive cells are diploid. When gametes are formed the diploid number (2n) is reduced by half to the haploid number (n) by meiosis When gametes fuse at fertilization the diploid condition is restored. In modern wheat the situation is more complex because it contains three genomes derived from different ancient diploid ancestors ...
The Pith: In this post I examine how looking at genomic data can clarify exactly how closely related siblings really are, instead of just assuming that theyre about 50% similar. I contrast this randomness among siblings to the hard & fast deterministic nature of of parent-child inheritance. Additionally, I detail how the idealized spare concepts of genetics from 100 years ago are modified by what we now know about how genes are physically organized, and, reorganized. Finally, I explain how this clarification allows us to potentially understand with greater precision the nature of inheritance of complex traits which vary within families, and across the whole population.. Humans are diploid organisms. We have two copies of each gene, inherited from each parent (the exception here is for males, who have only one X chromosome inherited from the mother, and lack many compensatory genes on the Y chromosome inherited from the father). Our own parents have two copies of each gene, one inherited from ...
For sexual diploid organisms, the beginning of a new life is marked with the fusion of two haploid gametes (egg and sperm) from the parents. After fertilization, thousands of genes are turned on and off in harmony with exact timing and spacing, presenting a remarkable symphony of embryonic development. In animals, the zygotic genome is…
The microscopic carposporophyte produces diploid carpospores that are released in the water column and develop into sporophytes. Untile the release of carpospores, the carposporophyte remains connected to the female thallus and acquires nutrients from it continuously. Furthermore, the female gametophyte allocates energies to production of secondary metabolites (moe than the male thallus) as anti-herbivory defense ...
The number of chromosomes in each cell of an organism is generally fixed and ranges from one in bacteria to hundreds in some plants and animals. Most organisms are diploids (2n) since their somatic...
Heredity refers to the process by which certain heritable characteristics are transmitted from parent to offspring These inheritable factors are DNA sequences called genes and their position on a given chromosome is known as their gene locus. Most sexually reproducing organisms are diploid, with chromosomes existing as pairs (maternal and paternal). As such there are two alternate copies of each gene, known as alleles. ...
Greetings, I am looking for any information regarding the proportion of embryonic diploid genomic DNA, to triploid genomic DNA in a corn seed? Any information/direction will be appreciated. Beni ...
The MRC-5 cell line was developed in September 1966 from lung tissue taken from a 14 week fetus aborted for psychiatric reason from a 27 year old physically healthy woman. Parent cell morphology is fibroblast-like. The karyotype is 46,XY; normal diploid male. Cumulative population doublings to senescence is 42-48. G6PD isoenzyme is type B. ...
one of a established of different sorts of a gene. Diploid cells have two homologous chromosomes (one particular derived from each father or mother) and as a consequence two copies of every gene. Within a diploid cell, a gene should have two alleles, Just about every occupying the identical placement on homologous chromosomes ...
The dfs.datanode.failed.volumes.tolerated in HDFS configuration file is the number of volumes that are allowed to fail before a DN stops offering service. By default any volume failure will cause a datanode to shutdown. If you have +3 disks, you can set this value to 1 or 2+ ...
The characteristic limited reproductive life-span of normal human fibroblasts in culture is due to a steadily decreasing fraction of cells able to proliferate in the standard rich growth media. We have observed that restricting the growth factor supply to old cells for variable lengths of time in culture increases the fraction of cells that can enter S-phase; although these cells do not go on to divide. Thus, it seems that there is a transient phase between the proliferating state and the irreversibly post-mitotic, senescent state. Perhaps a quiescent-G0 state, which can be maintained in the presence of growth factors, is a stage on the pathway to mortalization and senescence. ...
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject-specific sections.
The interaction between ionizing radiation and substances in cells will induce the production of free radicals. These free radicals inflict damage to important biomolecules such as chromosomes, proteins and lipids which consequently trigger the expression of genes which are involved in protecting the cells or repair the oxidative damages. Honey has been known for its antioxidant properties and was used in medical and cosmetic products. Currently, research on honey is ongoing and diversifying. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of Gelam honey as a radioprotector in human diploid fibroblast (HDFs) which were exposed to gamma-rays by determining the expression of genes and proteins involved in cell cycle regulation and cell death. Six groups of HDFs were studied viz. untreated control, irradiated HDFs, Gelam honey-treated HDFs and HDF treated with Gelam honey pre-, during- and post-irradiation. HDFs were treated with 6 mg/ml of sterilized Gelam honey (w/v) for 24 h and exposed to 1 Gray (Gy)
Sprawdź ile zapłacisz za lek Imovax Rabies human diploid cell w aptece, znajdź tańsze zamienniki leku. Określ swoje uprawnienia i sprawdź jakie zniżki Ci przysługują.
In the model presented here, mutation occurs during meiosis. Mutation thus occurs prior to selection in haploids and after selection, prior to mating, in diploids (Figure 2). For this reason, haploids entering selection have a higher frequency of the deleterious allele than diploids entering selection. This difference is reflected in the mean fitness of haploids vs. diploids as seen in Equation 4. By comparing Equations 4 and 6, it is clear that diploids can have a mean fitness advantage over haploids, even in situations where the deleterious allele is partially dominant (h , ½), and this is seen in Figure 3. Meiotic mutation thus causes diploidy to be favored over a larger range than seen in previous models because the frequency of the deleterious allele in haploids entering selection is greater than in diploids.. The difference in the frequency of the deleterious allele in haploids vs. diploids entering selection is affected by the resident level of diploidy in the population. In particular, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression profiles of p53-, p16INK4a-, and telomere-regulating genes in replicative senescent primary human, mouse, and chicken fibroblast cells. AU - Kim, Hyunggee. AU - You, Seungkwon. AU - Farris, James. AU - Kong, Byung Whi. AU - Christman, Shelly A.. AU - Foster, Linda K.. AU - Foster, Douglas N.. PY - 2002/9/2. Y1 - 2002/9/2. N2 - Replicative senescence is known to be an intrinsic mechanism in determining the finite life span of in vitro cultured cells. Since this process is recognized as an evolutionarily conserved mechanism from yeast to mammalian cells, we compared the senescence-associated genetic alterations in the p53, p16INK4a, and telomere regulatory pathways using replicative senescent human, mouse, and chicken fibroblast cells. Normal human diploid fibroblast (HDF; WI38) and chicken embryonic fibroblast (CEF) cells were shown to have a more extended in vitro proliferative potential than their mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) counterpart. In contrast to the HDF ...
NIA AGING CELL REPOSITORY WWW CATALOG To ensure that investigators have access to the most up-to-date information and complete listings of cell cultures, a World Wide Web version of the NIA Aging Cell Repository catalog is now available (http://locus.umdnj.edu/nia). The Repository has human cell cultures from individuals with aging-related conditions. These include disorders of accelerated aging (e.g., progeria, Werner syndrome, Cockayne syndrome, Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, and Down syndrome) and cell cultures from familial Alzheimer disease extended pedigrees. The collection also includes specially characterized normal human diploid fibroblast cultures (IMR90 and IMR91) and over 500 skin fibroblast cultures from subjects participating in the NIA-sponsored Gerontology Research Center Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. In addition, the Aging Cell Repository has human and animal differentiated cell cultures (epithelial, endothelial, and smooth muscle), human mammary epithelial and keratinocyte ...
Our study examined the chimeric and survival capabilities of chimeras created by injecting tetraploid embryonic come cells (ESCs) expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) into diploid embryos. three germ layers and the trophoblast was irregular in the EBs of tetraploid ESCs compared with diploid ESCs. In short, slower expansion and irregular differentiation potential of tetraploid ESCs might become two of the reasons for their poor survival and chimeric capabilities. Intro Tetraploid cells can become made by fusing two diploid cells regardless of the cell cycle stage. Earlier studies used polyploid mammalian cells to investigate cell growth and cytogenetic changes1. Somatic cell fusion with ESCs to form a cross cells offers offered an approach to study the mechanism of how the cell reprogramming happens. Tetraploid cross cells showed a related cell cycle as ESCs and shared immortal growth characteristics and cell guns as ESCs2. There are numerous ways to produce tetraploid cells gene media ...
Brief oversimplification: Most bees, ants, and true wasps have a single sex-determining locus (no sex chromosomes) with many alleles. Haploids are male, and diploids are almost always heterozygous at the sex locus and become female. Homozygous diploids develop as males, and these diploid males are usually inviable or infertile. This is called single-locus complementary sex determination, or sl-CSD (or just CSD). Just a few years ago, the sex locus of the honeybee was definitively identified by Martin Beye and co-workers ...
lar Systematics, Second Edition, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass., pp. 407-514.. Edwards, K.J. 1998. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs). In A. Karp, P.G. Isaac and D.S. Ingram (eds.), Molecular Tools for Screening Biodiversity, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 171-179.. Frankel, O.H., A.D.H. Brown, and J.J. Burdon. 1995. The Conservation of Plant Biodiversity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.. Gallez, G.P. and L.D. Gottlieb. 1982. Genetic evidence for the hybrid origin of the diploid plant Stephanomeria diegensis. Evolution 36: 1158-1167.. Gottlieb, L.D. 1981. Electrophoretic evidence and plant populations. Prog. Phytochem. 7: 1-46.. Hamrick, J.L. and M.J.W. Godt. 1989. Allozyme diversity in plant species. In A.D.H. Brown, M.T. Clegg, A.L. Kahler and B.S. Weir (eds.), Plant Population Genetics, Breeding, and Genetic Resources, Sinauer, Sunderland, Mass., pp. 43-63.. Ito, M. and M. Ono. 1990. Allozyme diversity and the evolution of Crepidiastrum (Compositae) on the ...
Meiosis of plant cell becomes important because it can maintain the number of chromosome of organism to remain diploid. It means when a male sex cell and female sex cell, each of which is haploid, merges, it will produce diploid organism ...
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A genetic abnormality in which a diploid organism is missing one copy of one of its chromosomes. Normally, diploid organisms have two copies of each chr...
Well-known examples of a graft-chimera cell and diploid embryo is other stages so as to the making of chimeric mice, since gene targeting can be Xchimera in the embryonic stem.. This question poses serious legal and moral issues, along with. Legal debate would be the the plant development stage and to determine whether certain chimeras embryos fused together.. The combination of embryonic stem are Laburnocytisus Adamiicaused a common technique used for accordingly give rise to one lineage of cells from an embryo selectively and not the.. Alison Wells 4 episodes, Peter in animals are the quail-chick origin by the sorting-out pattern. This mutated tissue Xchimera unable to survive on its own, but it is kept alive by its Schindlers Liste Stream Kinox with normal photosynthetic tissue.. Innate chimeras are formed from at least four parent cells in my opinion in comparison. Each of these parts of the blastocyst gives rise to different parts of the embryo; the inner cell mass gives and Family ...
The specific aspects of the sexual life cycle of mushroom-forming basidiomycetes leave room for the selection of ultra-selfish genetic elements that are in conflict with the rest of the genome. This implies that basidiomycete organismality, i.e. the extent to which the parts composing a social group, in this case a multicellular individual, work together for the common whole, is lower than in other multicellular organisms [59]. A corollary of this is that organismal fitness may be suboptimal and that differentiation is less irreversible than in animals and plants.. By contrast to a diploid organism with a single fused, diploid nucleus and one type of mitochondrial genome (and other cytoplasmic organelles) per cell, the dikaryon consists of multiple genetic entities that form an unholy marriage as they can still pursue their own selfish interest to some degree, even if this comes at a cost to the dikaryon as a whole. The two genetically different haploid nuclei of the dikaryon remain separate ...
From 1958 to 1961, Leonard Hayflick and Paul Moorhead in the US developed a way in the laboratory to cultivate strains of human cells with complete sets of chromosomes. Previously, scientists could not sustain cell cultures with cells that had two complete sets of chromosomes like normal human cells (diploid). As a result, scientists struggled to study human cell biology because there was not a reliable source of cells that represented diploid human cells. In their experiments, Hayflick and Moorhead created lasting strains of human cells that retained both complete sets of chromosomes.. Format: Articles Subject: Experiments ...
From 1958 to 1961, Leonard Hayflick and Paul Moorhead in the US developed a way in the laboratory to cultivate strains of human cells with complete sets of chromosomes. Previously, scientists could not sustain cell cultures with cells that had two complete sets of chromosomes like normal human cells (diploid). As a result, scientists struggled to study human cell biology because there was not a reliable source of cells that represented diploid human cells. In their experiments, Hayflick and Moorhead created lasting strains of human cells that retained both complete sets of chromosomes.. Format: Articles Subject: Experiments ...
A difficult estimate with lots of unknown parameters. I would like to start with something easier. Given 3 bases/nm, a diploid human cell contains around 2 meters worth of DNA. Google claims 3.7 x 10^13 cells in a human body, and Im going to ignore erythrocytes for simplicity. So that makes 7.4 x 10^13 meters of human DNA in one individual. With a population of 7 x 10^9, lets call that 5 x 10^23 meters of DNA in the human population. Switching units for convenience, and supposing a light year to be around 10^15 meters, I get 5 x 10^8 light years of DNA, just from our species. And I think Ill stop there. It appears that all the DNA in the world must be many orders of magnitude longer than the observable universe. I sincerely hope I have made a mathematical error. ReplyDelete ...
Based on Hollands simple genetic algorithm (SGA) there have been many variations developed. Inspired by the phenomenon of diploid genotype and dominance mechanisms broadly existing in nature, we have proposed a primal-dual genetic algorithm (PDGA), see (Yang 2002). Our preliminary experiments based on the Royal Road functions have shown that PDGA outperforms SGA for different performance measures. In this paper we present some further experiment results, especially on the dynamic performance of PDGA over SGA, and give out our explanations and analyses about why PDGA outperforms SGA based on these results. Through the primal-dual mapping between a pair of chromosomes, PDGAs performance of exploration in the search space, especially during the early generations, is improved and thus its total searching efficiency is improved ...
begingroup$ YES, that definitely cleared things up. I knew something wasnt right. Another one if you are up to it: If the normal diploid number of chromosomes in an organism is 8, how many chromosomes are present in each of the daughter cells at the end of meiosis I? Is the right answer half - 4? $\endgroup$ - Thomas Mar 4 17 at 22:10 ...
1. Animals are [ heterotrophs / autotrophs ]. 2. [ All / Most ] animals are multicellular.. 3. The cells in the skin of your hand are [ bigger than / the same size as ] the cells in your heart.. 4. Organisms that have 2 copies of each chromosome are [mobile / diploid ]. 5. The absence of a cell wall allows animals [ mobility / diploidy ]. 6. A hollow ball of cells that forms after fertilization is called a [ blastula / mesoderm ]. 7. In all animals except [ humans / sponges ] a zygote undergoes divisions to become a blastula.. 8. The cells of animals are organized into functional units called [ blastula / tissues ]. Match the tissue layer to the part of the body it ...
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Transplantation of pronuclei between one-cell-stage embryos was used to construct diploid mouse embryos with two female pronuclei ( biparental gynogenones ) or two male pronuclei ( biparental androgenones ). The ability of these embryos to develop to term was compared with control nuclear-transplant …
View Notes - PS4 from BIOL 1 at CSU Northridge. Problem Set 4 BILD1 FA 2009 1. MITOSIS PROBLEM (a) Draw a picture of a diploid cell that has a genome consisting of TWO chromosomes called Chr1 and
Many Chk1 inhibitors are at various stages of preclinical and clinical development in combination with a variety of anticancer DNA-damaging agents (1). Chk1 is required for cell-cycle arrest, recombination repair, and replication fork stability in damaged cells, hence it is believed that inhibiting Chk1 will enhance cell killing induced by DNA damage. Whether this is selective for the tumor remains to be established although it has been suggested that either p53 or p38mapk may selectively protect normal cells (5, 29, 30). In addition, previous experiments showed that human diploid fibroblasts were not sensitized to gemcitabine by SCH900776, nor were myelosuppressive effects of gemcitabine enhanced by SCH900776 in mouse models (9). The experiments reported here used both a p53-wildtype (MCF10A) and p53-defective cell line (MDA-MB-231), both of which were sensitive to antimetabolites when Chk1 was inhibited. We confirm that both UCN-01 and SCH900776 inhibit Chk1 but not Chk2 in cells. Previous ...
Genotype is a combination of alleles (gene variants) borne by a specific individual in his cells (cell - see Cells). In diploid organisms, each individual has a pair of alleles from each gene in his cells, where this can be a pair of identical alleles (homozygote) or a pair of different alleles (heterozygote).
Endothelial cell tubule formation assays Human microvascular endothelial cells were mixed with serially diluted cabozantinib, then promptly extra to cultures of regular human diploid fibroblasts from the presence or absence of 60 ng/mL VEGF for seven days.Conditioned media from MDA-MB-231, … Continue reading →. ...
Germ cells, which are diploid, undergo meiosis to produce haploid gametes. A gamete is a cell that fuses with another to form a zygote, which develops into an embryo. Female gametes are called eggs,...
The skin biopsy was obtained 10/17/83, ante-mortem, from the inner aspect of the upper left arm. The culture was initiated using explants of minced skin tissue. Cell morphology is fibroblast-like. The karyotype is 42,XY; normal diploid male. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transformation of DNA repair-deficient human diploid fibroblasts with a simian virus 40 plasmid. AU - Wood, C. M.. AU - Timme, T. L.. AU - Hurt, M. M.. AU - Brinkley, B. R.. AU - Ledbetter, D. H.. AU - Moses, R. E.. PY - 1987/4. Y1 - 1987/4. N2 - Fibroblasts from patients with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) complementation groups A, C, D, E, and G, as well as Bloom syndrome (BS) and Fanconi anemia (FA) have been transfected with a plasmid, pSV7, containing the early region of Simian virus 40 (SV40). All of the cultures exhibited cytologic changes characteristic of transformed cells and expressed T-antigen. They also contained integrated copies of DNA derived from the vector, and in several cases, extrachromosomally replicated DNA. Not all of the transfected cultures became immortalized. The transformed xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cultures retained their UV-sensitive phenotype in all but one case. The BS and FA cell lines retained their characteristic phenotype. All of the cultures, ...
Mercurialis annua is a wind-pollinated annual plant that has long been used as a model for the study of ploidy and sexual-systems evolution. However, no molecular markers are yet available for genetic studies of its diploid populations. Here, we develop and characterize a set of eight polymorphic microsatellite markers for diploid dioecious M. annua. Following an SSR-enrichment protocol, 13 microsatellite markers were proposed, eight of which yielded successful amplification and polymorphism. We screened the eight microsatellite loci in 100 individuals. The number of alleles per marker ranged from 6 to 12, and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.57 to 0.76. To estimate potential allele scoring errors, these individuals offspring were genotyped for the same loci, and error rates were estimated from parentage analyses. Error rates ranged from 0 to 6.8%. Cross-amplification tests were performed for congeneric M. huetti and M. canariensis, with successful amplification for
Zygosity (the noun, zygote, is from from the Greek zygotos yoked, from zygon yoke) (/zaɪˈɡɒsɪti/) is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism. Most eukaryotes have two matching sets of chromosomes; that is, they are diploid. Diploid organisms have the same loci on each of their two sets of homologous chromosomes except that the sequences at these loci may differ between the two chromosomes in a matching pair and that a few chromosomes may be mismatched as part of a chromosomal sex-determination system. If both alleles of a diploid organism are the same, the organism is homozygous at that locus. If they are different, the organism is heterozygous at that locus. If one allele is missing, it is hemizygous, and, if both alleles are missing, it is nullizygous. The DNA sequence of a gene often varies from one individual to another. Those variations are called alleles. While some genes have only one allele because there is low variation, others have only one allele ...
Yeasts used in bread making are exposed to high concentrations of sucrose during sweet dough fermentation. Despite its importance, tolerance to high-sucrose stress is poorly understood at the gene level. To clarify the genes required for tolerance to high-sucrose stress, genome-wide screening was undertaken using the complete deletion strain collection of diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The screening identified 273 deletions that yielded high sucrose sensitivity, approximately 20 of which were previously uncharacterized. These 273 deleted genes were classified based on their cellular function and localization of their gene products. Cross-sensitivity of the high-sucrose-sensitive mutants to high concentrations of NaCl and sorbitol was studied. Among the 273 sucrose-sensitive deletion mutants, 269 showed cross-sensitivities to sorbitol or NaCl, and four (i.e. ade5,7, ade6, ade8, and pde2) were specifically sensitive to high sucrose. The general stress response pathways via high-osmolarity ...
The p16INK4a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor is implicated in replicative senescence, the state of permanent growth arrest provoked by cumulative cell divisions or as a response to constitutive Ras-Raf-MEK signalling in somatic cells. Some contribution to senescence presumably underlies the importance of p16INK4a as a tumour suppressor but the mechanisms regulating its expression in these different contexts remain unknown. Here we demonstrate a role for the Ets1 and Ets2 transcription factors based on their ability to activate the p16INK4a promoter through an ETS-binding site and their patterns of expression during the lifespan of human diploid fibroblasts. The induction of p16INK4a by Ets2, which is abundant in young human diploid fibroblasts, is potentiated by signalling through the Ras-Raf-MEK kinase cascade and inhibited by a direct interaction with the helix-loop-helix protein Id1 (ref. 11). In senescent cells, where the Ets2 levels and MEK signalling decline, the marked increase in ...
aMRC-5 = Human diploid fibroblast cells. ** Summer= May to October. *** If CPE is detected, the technologist will pass the infected supernatant to a new shell vial and prepare a cell suspension of the infected culture so that multiple cell spots (on slide) can be stained with the enterovirus D3, Coxsackie B and ECHO stains to identify the virus. D. Interpretation and Processing of Cultures:. a) For shell vial procedure:. i) If CMV is requested, fix and stain after 2 days (or next working day) .. See Appendix II for detailed shell vial procedure.. b) Shell Vials for CPE should be examined daily for Cytopathic effect (CPE). Any culture demonstrating 2+ to 3+ CPE should be confirmed using appropriate monoclonal antibodies and immunofluorescent staining (Refer to Appendices IV and V). If positive, record in freezer program and freeze the cells and supernate (Refer to Appendix X and XII).. c) Any culture demonstrating CPE for which a virus cannot be detected using monoclonal antibodies or other ...
© Cambridge University Press 2013. Introduction: Sexual reproduction is a survival strategy employed by species for procreation, and is characterized by the transfer of haploid genetic material from each parent to produce diploid offspring, ensuring continued genetic diversity. In mammals, males produce vast numbers of gametes called sperm in the testes (˜53-55µm in length), which are deposited in the female reproductive tract in a liquid medium (semen) via the process of ejaculation. Females produce much larger gametes, eggs (˜100µm in diameter), which are surrounded by a thin glycoprotein layer, the zona pellucida (ZP), and generated in follicles contained in the ovaries which, following maturation, are released and transported through the fallopian tube to the uterus. Sexual reproduction involves the concerted release of these two components, which subsequently fuse to re-form the diploid chromosome number, resulting in a new, genetically unique individual, a process termed fertilization.
Mitosis and Meiosis By: Erin Cole and Alexis Black 2 Cells Produced Mitosis includes one division that results in two daughter cells Mitosis produces diploid cells Consistent Chromosome Number:46 Mitosis is used to replace dead or damaged cells Somatic Cells are produced Daughter cells are identical to the parent cells One advantage of Mitosis for example would be the ability of skin cells to repair and replace themselves whenever they are damaged or die. A disadvantage of Mitosis is the fact that everything is the exact same, so if a disease was to come it would wipe out the entire population of that particular organism. 4 Cells Produced Meiosis includes two cell divisions resulting in four daughter cells. Meiosis produces haploid cells Meiosis is used to produce germ or sex cells for reproduction Consistent Chromosome Number: 23 Gamete cells are produced Daughter cells are NOT identical to parent cells One advantage of Meiosis is that it doesnt produce identical cells, so if a disease were to ...
Diploids, Hybrids, Landraces and Grexes. Alan M. Kapuler PhD, Dylana Kapuler, Mario DiBenedetto, Linda Kapuler January 31, 2015. In the 1970s, Peace Seeds began purchasing F1 hybrid seeds of tomatoes, growing them out, saving the seeds and repeating the process for more than a decade. In this way Peacevine Cherry Tomato arose from the F1 Sweet 100 Cherry Tomato. This technique is now called dehybridizing.. One must reckon that most diploids are hybrids. Tomatoes are generally diploids. People are diploids. Hence all people are hybrids. And what is called dehybridizing is genetic, generational selection. If one wants all the plants and their fruits to be the same, ie. homozygous, then it may take many years to achieve. If you go into a place where wild, native species still exist you can still find bean species. For thousands of years people have been doing this, putting the seeds in their pockets, bringing them back to their communities and planting them for years to come. When we go to ...
Binary fission can refer to cell division in bacteria. Bacteria replicate their chromosomes prior to division, but I dont think that state can be called diploid because the chromosomes are identical. Diploid organisms can be carrying different alleles on each pair of sister chromosomes, but this is not the case for a duplicated bacterial chromosome before cell division. Therefore in my opinion your statement is not necessarily true, at least for bacteria ...
Introduction to Animals Worksheet Circle the correct response. 1. Animals are [ heterotrophs / autotrophs ] 2. [ All / Most ] animals are multicellular. 3. The cells in the skin of your hand are [ bigger than / the same size as ] the cells in your heart. 4. Organisms that have 2 copies of each chromosome are [mobile / diploid ] 5. The absence of a cell wall allows animals [ mobility / diploidy ] 6. A hollow ball of cells that forms after fertilization is called a [ blastula / mesoderm ] 7. In all animals except [ humans / sponges ] a zygote undergoes divisions to become a blastula. 8. The cells of animals are organized into functional units called [ blastula / tissues ] Matching: ...
In diploid organisms, such as humans, all somatic cells have two copies of the genome, one copy inherited from each parent. For the vast majority of autosomal genes, both alleles at each locus influence expression of the gene. However, a small number of genes are imprinted, meaning that gene expression results from only a single allele because the allele transmitted from either the mother or the father is silenced. It is believed that up to 1% of human genes may be imprinted, and more than 150 imprinted human genes have been identified so far, most of which are related to growth and development [12, 13]. Imprinted genes can have a significant role in disease because imposition of a functional haploid state at imprinted loci allows a single mutation event to be unopposed, giving it greater potential to affect gene function.. Genomic imprinting is related to the methylation of cytosine bases that occurs primarily in CpG clusters. Such regions are frequently involved in regulation of genes [14]. ...
ReferenceGeneration of a Large Set of Genetically Tractable Haploid and Diploid Saccharomyces Strains by Cubillos et al. FEMS Yeast Research (In Press ...
Parthenogetically activated, diploid mouse oocytes can develop to midgestation stages in utero. However, even these advanced parthenogenones appear to die because of much reduced trophoblast and yolk sac development. Previous studies have compared the general features of parthenogenetic and androgen …
Alleles are genetic locations on paired, homologous chromosomes in diploid organisms, where the DNA may have similar but alternate sequences that impart unique phenotypes (hair color, predisposition to disease, etc.).
REIG, German and CONCHA, Miguel L. Genomic Imprinting and Embryonic Development. Int. J. Morphol. [online]. 2012, vol.30, n.4, pp.1453-1457. ISSN 0717-9502. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-95022012000400029.. In diploid organisms, autosomal genes are composed of two copies, or alleles, inherited from both parents at fertilization. For the vast majority of autosomal genes, expression occurs from both alleles simultaneously. However, a small proportion (,1%) of genes are imprinted, meaning that their expression depends on the parental origin . DNA methylation is one of the most known epigenetic modifications and its function is critical for the establishment of imprinting. The global pattern of genomic methylation is stable and inheritable, however, it is erased and re-established in a sex-depended manner at two critical periods of embryonic development. Functionally, the majority of imprinted genes play roles in the control of embryonic and placental growth and development. Alterations in ...
When two haploid gametes fuse to produce a diploid fertilised embryo, they each contribute one set of chromosomes, so that the result has a pair of each chromosome. That first cell then divides and divides to produce an entire organism, and all of the cells that result are diploid - that is, they have two of each chromosome ...
With pears, there are diploids and triploids, exactly as with apples. But there are also tetraploid pears and these have the ability to pollinate themselves so
This is sometimes abbreviated to the symbol 2n, for humans the number is 46. So, 2n=46 for humans, for cats 2n=38. In the process known as mitosis a cell is divided to two cells - each with a nucleus. If we look at the nucleus we will find that each one will have a diploid nucleus. We often say these cells are identical or we can call it as daughter cells. (they have the same number of chromosomes and they have the same set of chromosomes ...
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amongst a established of different varieties of a gene. Diploid cells have two homologous chromosomes (a person derived from Each and every parent) and as a consequence two copies of every gene. Within a diploid mobile, a gene will have two alleles, Each individual occupying the exact same placement on homologous chromosomes ...
Diploidy[edit]. Organisms need to replicate their genetic material in an efficient and reliable manner. The necessity to repair ...
Haploidy or diploidy: which is better? Nature 351:314-315 Kondrashov AS & Kondrashov FA. 1999. Interactions among quantitative ...
Check date values in: ,date= (help) Gottlieb, Yuval; Zchori-Fein, Einat (4 September 2002). "Diploidy restoration in Wolbachia- ... where meiosis occurs in the developing oocyte and diploidy is restored by fusing the meiotic or mitotic products yielding ...
In Parthenolecanium, males are born from unfertilized eggs but diploidy is briefly restored by fusion of haploid cleave nuclei ... and based on how diploidy is restored in unfertilized eggs. The evolution of these systems are thought to be the result of ...
It has been shown that diploidy is restored by terminal fusion. After the first stage of meiosis, the pronucleus fuses with its ...
Haplo-diploidy, where one sex is diploid, and the other haploid. It is a common arrangement in the Hymenoptera, and in some ...
Kleiman, Maya; Tannenbaum, Emmanuel (2009). "Diploidy and the selective advantage for sexual reproduction in unicellular ...
Some studies suggest that selection is more likely to favor diploidy in host species and haploidy in parasite species. When a ... The term ploidy is a back-formation from haploidy and diploidy. "Ploid" is a combination of Ancient Greek -πλόος (-plóos, "- ...
Usually, organisms have two sets of chromosomes, otherwise known as a diploidy. However, either naturally or through the use of ...
doi:10.1002/j.1537-2197.1982.tb13284.x. Jackson, R. C. (1982). "Polyploidy and Diploidy: New Perspectives on Chromosome Pairing ...
The higher rates of aneuploidy and diploidy in the sperm cells of men who have undergone vasectomy reversal may lead to a ... "High sex chromosome aneuploidy and diploidy rate of epididymal spermatozoa in obstructive azoospermic men". Journal of Assisted ...
This fertilization restores diploidy and results in expression of maternal and paternal traits in somatic tissue. These ...
Diploidy might be restored by the doubling of the chromosomes without cell division before meiosis begins or after meiosis is ... the ploidy is restored to diploidy by various means. This is because haploid individuals are not viable in most species. In ...
... especially of diploidy and polyploidy, can lead to the failure of cell cleavage and mitosis. When these necessary early cell ...
Diploidy might be restored by the doubling of the chromosomes without cell division before meiosis begins or after meiosis is ...
In Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps), sex determination is by haplo-diploidy: the females are all diploid, the males are ...
Hyperdiploidy 47-50; Normal(diploidy); del (6q); Rearrangements of 8q24 Unfavorable Hypodiploidy-near haploidy; Near ...
Yamazaki K, Yahata H, Kobayashi N, Makioka T. Egg maturation and parthenogenetic recovery of diploidy in the scorpion Liocheles ...
... diploidy). These duplicated genes may pose a problem for the de novo assembly of sequence fragments, because repeat sequences ...
... by maintaining diploidy or polyploidy. Genome redundancy would allow a damaged RNA segment to be replaced by an additional ...
In automictic parthenogenesis, meiosis takes place and diploidy is restored by fusion of first division non-sister nuclei ( ...
Diploid males tend to have a cost to the colony because diploidy can result in a reduced proportion of workers able to perform ...
... is that diploidy allows masking of the expression of deleterious mutations through genetic complementation. Thus if one of the ...
... because the fitness decline caused by inbreeding can be determinant in the evolution of diploidy, sexual reproduction and other ...
The mathematical biologist Ronald Fisher analysed the contribution that having two copies of each gene (diploidy) would make to ...
The term is derived from the Greek, meros = part, and was originally used to describe both unstable partial diploidy, such as ...
... is that diploidy allows masking of the expression of deleterious mutations through genetic complementation. Thus if one of the ...
... diploidy MeSH G13.700.456 - haploidy MeSH G13.700.740 - polyploidy MeSH G13.810.200 - sequence homology, amino acid MeSH ...
Imprinting seems like a maladaptive phenomenon, since it essentially means giving up diploidy, and heterozygotes for one ...
As far as I am aware, ploidy is the number of sets of chromosomes, e.g. in humans diploidy = 2 sets of (non-homologous) ... There is little more than a dicdef here; I propose moving the Haploidy, Diploidy, Haploidisation, Polyploidy, and Aneuploidy ... and is undoubtedly due to the fact that humans tend to think that diploidy is all that matters. The term "monoploid" helps with ...
Recent theory has shown, however, that masking does not always provide an advantage to diploidy and would never favor diploidy ... Does diploidy increase the rate of adaptation?. H A Orr and S P Otto ... Does diploidy increase the rate of adaptation?. H A Orr and S P Otto ... Does diploidy increase the rate of adaptation?. H A Orr and S P Otto ...
Biological context of Diploidy. *GPA1 transcript was found in haploid cells but was not detected in diploid cells [16]. ... Associations of Diploidy with chemical compounds. *Of 17 evaluable patients with unresectable hyperdiploid tumors, 15 had ... Gene context of Diploidy. *Starvation for nitrogen further induced (6- to 8-fold) transcription of IME1, but, as expected, the ... Anatomical context of Diploidy. *Normal diploid human amniocytes were fused with differentiated mouse muscle cells by using ...
Orr, H. A., and S. P. Otto, 1994 Does diploidy increase the rate of adaptation? Genetics 136: 1475-1480. ... Haploidy, Diploidy and Evolution of Antifungal Drug Resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Message Subject (Your Name) has ... Kondrashov, A. S., and J. F. Crow, 1991 Haploidy or diploidy: Which is better? Nature 351: 314-315. ... Haploidy, Diploidy and Evolution of Antifungal Drug Resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. James B. Anderson, Caroline ...
"Diploidy" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Diploidy" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Diploidy" by people in Profiles. ... whether "Diploidy" was a major or minor topic of these publication.. To see the data from this visualization as text, click ...
Macrocephaly in bull spermatozoa is associated with nuclear vacuoles, diploidy and alteration of chromatin condensation.. Revay ... becoming the first proven case of association of macrocephaly and M1 diploidy. The diverse approaches used for the ...
Haplo-diploidy reproduction by half sets of chromosomes to form full sets by sexual reproduction. haploid being one half set of ... Haplo-diploidy occurs in most of the Hymenoptera or about 100,000 known species. In this form male gametes are haploid and the ... An Explanation Of Haplo-Diploidy Reproduction. Much of this text is not mine, many of the words are attributed to David H. ... A combination of sexual and asexual modes called haplo-diploidy occurs in four insect orders, the Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, ...
Home » Differential effects of polyploidy and diploidy on fitness of apomictic Boechera ...
Finally, our work suggests that sex and diploidy may be useful as generalized strategies for preventing information degredation ...
Diploidy inevitable for yeast?. January 24, 2007. Jason Stajich 1 Comment Sally Otto and colleagues have identified that ... diploidy in this study. This is nicely consistent with the observation that most wild strains isolated from the environment are ...
Diploidy[edit]. Organisms need to replicate their genetic material in an efficient and reliable manner. The necessity to repair ...
Analysis of diploidy. Cells were trypsinized, washed with PBS and 1 × 106 cells were incubated with 1 mL hypotonic DNA staining ...
Analysis of diploidy. Cells were trypsinized, washed with PBS and 1 × 106 cells were incubated with 1 mL hypotonic DNA staining ...
... Boehm K, Meyer ... Novel Chromosome Organization Pattern in Actinomycetales-Overlapping Replication Cycles Combined with Diploidy. MBIO, 8(3): ... "Novel Chromosome Organization Pattern in Actinomycetales-Overlapping Replication Cycles Combined with Diploidy". MBIO 8.3 (2017 ... Novel Chromosome Organization Pattern in Actinomycetales-Overlapping Replication Cycles Combined with Diploidy. MBIO, 8(3), ...
diploidy the state of cells containing two copies of each chromosome. Humans are diploids. ...
Diploidy restoration in Wolbachia-infected Muscidifurax uniraptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Yuval Gottlieb, Einat Zchori- ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Diploidy restoration in Wolbachia-infected Muscidifurax uniraptor (Hymenoptera: ...
3117 Diploidy and Dominance. 106. 313 Comparison of GA with Other Methods ...
कर्कट रोग (dty); Krabbamein (is); Penyakit Barah (ms); cancer (en-gb); سرطان (ps); Kanser (tr); سرطان (ur); zhubný nádor (sk); злоякісна пухлина (uk); 癌症 (zh-cn); Krebs (gsw); Saraton (uz); কৰ্কট ৰোগ (as); рак (mk); Rak (bs); कैंसर (bho); Cancru (ext); cancer (fr); rak (hr); कर्करोग (mr); କର୍କଟ ରୋଗ (or); Viežīs (sgs); рак (sr); umdlavuza (zu); Kriibs (lb); kreft (nb); xərçəng (az); Cancer (hif); 癌 (lzh); puurâs (smn); سرطان (ar); Krign-bev (br); ကင်ဆာရောဂါ (my); 癌 (yue); Ngàm (hak); cáncanu (ast); mhlaza (xh); Krebs (de-ch); canser (cy); Kanceri (sq); سرطان (fa); 癌症 (zh); kræft (da); სიმსივნე (ka); 悪性腫瘍 (ja); cancere (ia); Sankara (ha); سرطان (arz); පිළිකා (si); Cancer (la); कर्कटरोगः (sa); कर्कट रोग (hi); 癌 (wuu); syöpä (fi); Քաղցկեղ (hyw); canser (lfn); ...
Paternal-Sex-Ratio (PSR) is a B chromosome that causes all-male offspring in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. It is only transmitted via sperm of carrier males and destroys the other paternal chromosomes during the first mitotic division of the fertilized egg. Because of haplodiploidy, the e …
... and diploidy (. ). Results are summarized in Table 4. ...
Diploidy and dominance. Evolution Strategies and Evolutionary Programming. Evolution strategies. (1+1) strategy ...
Genomic analysis provides insights into the role of copy number variation in disease, but most methods are not designed to resolve mixed populations of cells. In tumours, where genetic heterogeneity is common, very important information may be lost that would be useful for reconstructing evolutionar …
Diploidy • Dispersal • DNA • DNA Mutational Analysis • DNA Primers • DNA, Chloroplast • DNA, Plant • DNA, Ribosomal • DNA, ...
Evolutionary route to diploidy and sex Erkan Tüzel, Volkan Sevim, and Ayşe Erzan ...
Fusion of gametes at fertilization reconstitutes diploidy. In most animal species, chromosome segregation during female meiosis ...
Rights & permissionsfor article Conversion of diploidy to haploidy . Opens in a new window. ...
diploidy. two complete sets. polyploidy. more than two sets. triploidy. three complete sets. ...
Diploidy*. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Erythrocytes / drug effects*. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Meiosis. ... Although the absolute frequencies of diploidy were low, ranging from 0.03% in the control group to 0.22% in the highest dose ... Induction was less prominent than in the first experiment, but the dose-response relationship for diploidy was again ... the present results show that CARB induces diploidy in sperm, without an accompanying induction of micronuclei in erythrocytes ...
Diploidy. Female. Male. Models, Genetic. Nucleic Acids / metabolism. Nutrigenomics. Phosphorus / metabolism. Polyploidy*. ...
Near-diploidy in BLCs has a high positive predictive value for BRCA1 inactivation. To obtain insight into the specific genomic ...
  • THE predicted advantages and disadvantages of haploidy and diploidy, like those of recombination ( K ondrashov 1993 ), hinge on the ability of populations (a) to cope with deleterious mutation ( K ondrashov and C row 1991 ) and (b) to adapt to new environments ( O rr and O tto 1994 ). (genetics.org)
  • 1991. Haploidy or diploidy: which is better? (wikipedia.org)
  • This process helps alternating haploidy with diploidy. (differencebetween.net)
  • Deviations from haploidy in sex cells, diploidy in somatic cells, and normal chromosome structure are not rare. (springer.com)
  • In technical terms, the technique involves conversion of the cells' paired-chromosome state of "diploidy" to a single chromosome state of "haploidy," said Vogelstein. (hhmi.org)
  • diploidy or polyploidy was not observed in R. erythropolis PR4. (asm.org)
  • A combination of sexual and asexual modes called haplo-diploidy occurs in four insect orders, the Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Thysanoptera, and Hemiptera. (dave-cushman.net)
  • Haplo-diploidy occurs in most of the Hymenoptera or about 100,000 known species. (dave-cushman.net)
  • Crozier RH (1971) Heterozyosity and sex-determination in haplo-diploidy. (springer.com)
  • In Hymenoptera ( ants , bees and wasps ), sex determination is by haplo-diploidy: the females are all diploid , the males are haploid . (wikipedia.org)
  • The percentage of sperm with double copies of all the chromosomes (diploidy) increases by 17 per cent for every 10 year increase in age, they found. (newscientist.com)
  • Although the absolute frequencies of diploidy were low, ranging from 0.03% in the control group to 0.22% in the highest dose group, the observed dose-response relationship was highly significant. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Over the age group we found an increase from 0.2 to 0.4 percent in the frequencies of diploidy," says Josep Egozcue, who led the research. (newscientist.com)
  • In GL String format, the ~ operator denotes phase, and the + operator denotes copies of genes (in this case diploidy). (r-project.org)
  • M. uniraptor generally follows the process of automixis, or meiotic thelytoky, where meiosis occurs in the developing oocyte and diploidy is restored by fusing the meiotic or mitotic products yielding diploid females or haploid males. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results show that this evolution is better described as a network of interactions between possible sexual forms, including diploidy, thelytoky, facultative sex, assortation, bisexuality, and division of labor between the sexes, rather than a simple transition from parthenogenesis to sexual recombination. (springer.com)
  • Determine whether deletion of chromosome 1p or diploidy/tetraploidy are prognostic factors in these patients. (knowcancer.com)
  • Where a normal individual has two copies of each chromosome (diploidy), these offspring may have four copies (tetraploidy). (thestudentroom.co.uk)
  • We show that, in both asexuals and sexuals, doubling the mutation rate via diploidy often does not accelerate the rate of adaptation. (genetics.org)
  • Explanations of the evolution of diploidy have focused on the advantages gained from masking deleterious alleles. (genetics.org)
  • I have also been involved in several theoretical studies related to life history evolution: (i.e. evolution of mating system and evolution of diploidy). (sb-roscoff.fr)
  • Parasite diversity and the evolution of diploidy, multicellularity and anisogamy. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Having two copies of every gene, only one of which is expressed , allows deleterious alleles to be masked, an advantage believed to have led to the evolutionary development of diploidy (Otto and Goldstein). (bionity.com)
  • Outcomes evaluated included sperm parameters, DNA damage and numerical chromosome aberrations (aneuploidy (disomy, nullisomy) or diploidy). (cdc.gov)
  • Diploidy" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • In conclusion, the present results show that CARB induces diploidy in sperm, without an accompanying induction of micronuclei in erythrocytes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This finding suggests that in rats the peripheral blood micronucleus assay is a less sensitive indicator for the genotoxic potential of CARB than the epididymal sperm aneuploidy/diploidy assay. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The incidence of diploidy in older men is probably related to the fact that the pituitary is producing too much follicle stimulating hormone, which affects sperm," he said. (newscientist.com)
  • and 6 studies assessing sperm aneuploidy or diploidy, of which 4 reported an association with exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Recent theory has shown, however, that masking does not always provide an advantage to diploidy and would never favor diploidy in predominantly asexual organisms. (genetics.org)
  • This phenomenon has been considered an evolutionary paradox because it may render gene expression haploid, negating the apparent advantages of diploidy. (nescent.org)
  • Does diploidy increase the rate of adaptation? (genetics.org)
  • Indeed, under many conditions, diploidy slows adaptation. (genetics.org)
  • Fusion of gametes at fertilization reconstitutes diploidy. (nih.gov)
  • These results suggest that female triploid Yesso scallops can release mature and functional gametes, and aneuploid progeny closest to euploidy , especially diploidy, survive longer. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The 7.5% XY-bearing cells and the presence of diploid spermatozoa detected by flow cytometry indicate a meiotic arrest in the first division in bull A, becoming the first proven case of association of macrocephaly and M1 diploidy. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, our work suggests that sex and diploidy may be useful as generalized strategies for preventing information degredation in replicating systems, and may therefore have applications beyond biology. (gatech.edu)
  • The chromosomal constitutions in these conditions range from diploidy, impressive hypodiploidy, to high hyperploidy. (annals.org)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Diploidy" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Diploidy" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • But gods, after all, transcend such mundane matters as diploidy. (languagehat.com)