An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.
A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.
The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.
An antitoxin produced against the toxin of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that is used for the treatment of DIPHTHERIA.
A species of gram-positive, asporogenous bacteria in which three cultural types are recognized. These types (gravis, intermedius, and mitis) were originally given in accordance with the clinical severity of the cases from which the different strains were most frequently isolated. This species is the causative agent of DIPHTHERIA.
Peptide Elongation Factor 2 catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A site to the P site of eukaryotic ribosomes by a process linked to the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP.
A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.
A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.
Ribosome inactivating proteins consisting of two polypeptide chains, the toxic A subunit and a lectin B subunit, linked by disulfide bridges. The lectin portion binds to cell surfaces and facilitates transport into the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.
A toxic lectin from the seeds of jequirity, Abrus precatorius L. Very active poison. Five different proteins have so far been isolated: Abrus agglutinin, the component responsible for: hemagglutinating activity, & abrins a-d, the toxic principals each consisting of two peptide chains are held together by disulfide bonds.
Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Protein factors uniquely required during the elongation phase of protein synthesis.
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.
Substances which, when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed, or when applied to, injected into, or developed within the body in relatively small amounts may, by their chemical action, cause damage to structure or disturbance of function. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.
Inorganic compounds that contain fluorine as an integral part of the molecule.
A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CORYNEBACTERIUM.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.

Diphtheria toxin effects on human cells in tissue culture. (1/946)

HeLa cells exposed to a single sublethal concentration of diphtheria toxin were found to have diminished sensitivity when subsequently reexposed to the toxin. Three cells strains exhibiting toxin resistance were developed. In the cells that had previously been exposed to toxin at 0.015 mug/ml, 50% inhibition of protein synthesis required a toxin concentration of 0.3 mug/ml, which is more than 10 times that required in normal HeLa cells. There appears to be a threshold level of diphtheria toxin action. Concentrations of toxin greater than that required for 50% inhibition of protein synthesis (0.01 mug/ml) are associated with cytotoxicity, whereas those below this concentration may not be lethal. Several established human cell lines of both normal and neoplastic origin were tested for their sensitivity to the effects of the toxin. No special sensitivity was observed with the cells of tumor origin. Fifty % inhibition of protein synthesis of HeLa cells was achieved with diphtheria toxin (0.01 mug/ml) as compared to the normal human cell lines tested (0.03 and 0.5 mug/ml) and a cell line derived from a human pancreatic adenocarcinoma (0.2 mug/ml). A human breast carcinoma cell line showed a maximum of 45% inhibition of protein synthesis. This required a diphtheria toxin concentration of 5 mug/ml. These results suggest that different human cell lines show wide variation in their sensitivity to the toxin.  (+info)

Endoprotease PACE4 is Ca2+-dependent and temperature-sensitive and can partly rescue the phenotype of a furin-deficient cell strain. (2/946)

PACE4 is a member of the eukaryotic subtilisin-like endoprotease family. The expression of human PACE4 in RPE.40 cells (furin-null mutants derived from Chinese hamster ovary K1 cells) resulted in the rescue of a number of wild-type characteristics, including sensitivity to Sindbis virus and the ability to process the low-density-lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Expression of PACE4 in these cells failed to restore wild-type sensitivity to Pseudomonas exotoxin A. Co-expression of human PACE4 in these cells with either a secreted form of the human insulin pro-receptor or the precursor form of von Willebrand factor resulted in both proproteins being processed; RPE.40 cells were unable to process either precursor protein in the absence of co-expressed PACE4. Northern analysis demonstrated that untransfected RPE.40 cells express mRNA species for four PACE4 isoforms, suggesting that any endogenous PACE4 proteins produced by these cells are either non-functional or sequestered in a compartment outside of the secretory pathway. In experiments in vitro, PACE4 processed diphtheria toxin and anthrax toxin protective antigen, but not Pseudomonas exotoxin A. The activity of PACE4 in vitro was Ca2+-dependent and, unlike furin, was sensitive to temperature changes between 22 and 37 degrees C. RPE.40 cells stably expressing human PACE4 secreted an endoprotease with the same Ca2+ dependence and temperature sensitivity as that observed in membrane fractions of these cells assayed in vitro. These results, in conjunction with other published work, demonstrate that PACE4 is an endoprotease with more stringent substrate specificity and more limited operating parameters than furin.  (+info)

Interaction of diphtheria toxin T domain with molten globule-like proteins and its implications for translocation. (3/946)

The transmembrane (T) domain of diphtheria toxin has a critical role in the low pH-induced translocation of the catalytic domain (A chain) of the toxin across membranes. Here it is shown that at low pH, addition of proteins in a partly unfolded, molten globule-like conformation converted the T domain from a shallow membrane-inserted form to its transmembrane form. Fluorescence energy transfer demonstrated that molten globule-like proteins bound to the T domain. Thus, the T domain recognizes proteins that are partly unfolded and may function in translocation of the A chain as a transmembrane chaperone.  (+info)

Translocation of the catalytic domain of diphtheria toxin across planar phospholipid bilayers by its own T domain. (4/946)

The T domain of diphtheria toxin is known to participate in the pH-dependent translocation of the catalytic C domain of the toxin across the endosomal membrane, but how it does so, and whether cellular proteins are also required for this process, remain unknown. Here, we report results showing that the T domain alone is capable of translocating the entire C domain across model, planar phospholipid bilayers in the absence of other proteins. The T domain therefore contains the entire molecular machinery for mediating transfer of the catalytic domain of diphtheria toxin across membranes.  (+info)

Expression and immunogenicity of a mutant diphtheria toxin molecule, CRM(197), and its fragments in Salmonella typhi vaccine strain CVD 908-htrA. (5/946)

Mutant diphtheria toxin molecule CRM(197) and fragments thereof were expressed in attenuated Salmonella typhi CVD 908-htrA, and the constructs were tested for their ability to induce serum antitoxin. Initially, expressed proteins were insoluble, and the constructs failed to induce neutralizing antitoxin. Soluble CRM(197) was expressed at low levels by utilizing the hemolysin A secretion system from Escherichia coli.  (+info)

Ablation of a specific cell population by the replacement of a uniquely expressed gene with a toxin gene. (6/946)

The transgenic expression of a toxin gene or a thymidine kinase gene under the control of cell type-specific promoter/enhancer has been shown to be useful for removing a specific cell population in mice. However, this approach requires extensive analysis of the control elements for gene expression in the preparation of the transgenic constructs, and furthermore, the toxin gene might be expressed ectopically because of random integration, resulting in aberrant depletion of unrelated cells. To avoid such difficulties with the transgenic approach, we established a method for the specific depletion of a cell population by replacing a uniquely expressed gene in the population with the diphtheria toxin gene by using homologous recombination. The NKR-P1 gene, a specific cell surface marker of natural killer (NK) cells, was selected as the target gene for depleting NK cells. In chimeric mice reconstituted with embryonic stem cells in which the NKR-P1 gene was replaced by the toxin gene, NKR-P1(+) cells were almost completely depleted, and NK cell function was abrogated in the embryonic stem cell-derived lymphoid cells. Other cell lineages developed normally. These results show that all NK cells express NKR-P1, that NKR-P1(+) cells do not influence the development of T and B cells, and further, that this technology of cell targeting is a fast and powerful method of generating mice lacking any chosen cell population.  (+info)

Receptor-mediated uptake of an extracellular Bcl-x(L) fusion protein inhibits apoptosis. (7/946)

Bcl-x(L), a member of the Bcl-2 family, inhibits many pathways of apoptosis when overexpressed in the cell cytosol. We examined the capacity of Bcl-x(L) fusion proteins to bind cells from the outside and block apoptosis. Full-length Bcl-x(L) protein at micromolar concentrations did not affect apoptosis when added to cell media. To increase uptake by cells, Bcl-x(L) was fused to the receptor-binding domain of diphtheria toxin (DTR). The Bcl-x(L)-DTR fusion protein blocked apoptosis induced by staurosporine, gamma-irradiation, and poliovirus in a variety of cell types when added to media. The potency of inhibition of poliovirus-induced apoptosis by Bcl-x(L)-DTR was greater than that of strong caspase inhibitors. Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of vesicular traffic between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, prevented the Bcl-x(L)-DTR blockade of apoptosis induced by staurosporine, suggesting that Bcl-x(L)-DTR must be endocytosed and reach intracellular compartments for activity. Many diseases are caused by overexpression or underexpression of Bcl-x(L) homologues. Extracellular delivery of Bcl-2 family member proteins may have a wide range of uses in promoting or preventing cell death.  (+info)

Amino acid substitution in alpha-helix 7 of Cry1Ac delta-endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis leads to enhanced toxicity to Helicoverpa armigera Hubner. (8/946)

Insecticidal proteins or delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis are highly toxic to a wide range of agronomically important pests. The toxins are formed of three structural domains. The N-terminal domain is a bundle of eight alpha-helices and is implicated in pore formation in insect midgut epithelial membranes. All the delta-endotoxins share a common hydrophobic motif of eight amino acids in alpha-helix 7. A similar motif is also present in fragment B of diphtheria toxin (DT). Site-directed mutagenesis of Cry1Ac delta-endotoxin of B. thuringiensis was carried out to substitute its hydrophobic motif with that of DT fragment B. The mutant toxin was shown to be more toxic to the larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm) than the wild-type toxin. Voltage clamp analysis with planar lipid bilayers revealed that the mutant toxin opens larger ion channels and induces higher levels of conductance than the wild-type toxin.  (+info)

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of The conjugation of diphtheria toxin T domain to poly(ethylenimine) based vectors for enhanced endosomal escape during gene transfection. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Définitions de Diphtheria Toxin, synonymes, antonymes, dérivés de Diphtheria Toxin, dictionnaire analogique de Diphtheria Toxin (anglais)
Inhibition of protein synthesis in Vero cells was measured at different periods of time after treatment with diphtheria toxin and the related plant toxin modeccin. Diphtheria toxin acted much more rapidly than modeccin. Cells were protected against both toxins with antiserum as well as with agents like NH4Cl, procaine, and the ionophores monensin, FCCP, and CCCP, which increase the pH of intracellular vesicles. Antiserum, which is supposed to inactivate toxin only at the cell surface, protected only when it was added within a short period of time after modeccin. Compounds that increase the pH of intracellular vesicles, protected even when added after 2 h, indicating that modeccin remains inside vesicles for a considerable period of time before it enters the cytosol. After addition of diphtheria toxin to the cells, compounds that increase the pH of intracellular vesicles protected only approximately to the same extent as antitoxin. This indicates that after endocytosis diphtheria toxin rapidly ...
During intoxication of a cell, the translocation (T) domain of the diphtheria toxin helps the passage of the catalytic domain across the membrane of the
Ovarian cancer ascitic fluid, which contains malignant cells, is usually present in women with an advanced stage disease. There are currently no effective therapies for the treatment of ovarian cancer ascitic fluid. We developed a new therapeutic strategy to target expression of the diphtheria toxin fragment A gene in ovarian tumor cells under the control of H19 regulatory sequences. A 64-year-old Caucasian woman was diagnosed with a stage IIIc epithelial ovarian cancer. She suffered from progressive disease, accumulation of malignant ascites that needed to be drained weekly, abdominal pain, vomiting, anorexia and severe weakness. Infusion of the diphtheria toxin A chain-H19 plasmid into the peritoneum of our patient resulted in complete resolution of the ascites with minimum adverse events. On the basis of this preliminary experience, we are currently conducting an extensive Phase I study on a larger number of patients in order to assess the safety and preliminary efficacy of this novel patient
Diphtheria toxin A (DTA), a segment of the diphtheria toxin (tox), inhibits protein synthesis in cells. When released from a cell, DTA is nontoxic and cannot enter other cells independently without the help of diphtheria toxin B. In this study, we artificially synthesized the DTA gene sequence and cloned it into pEGFP-N1 to generate the recombinant vector pEGFP-N1-DTA. This recombinant vector was then transfected into 293T cells to observe the effect of DTA protein expression on enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) protein expression and the proliferation of 293T cells. After 48 h, high levels of EGFP expression were seen in control pEGFP-N1-transfected cells, whereas very low levels were seen in cells transfected with pEGFP-N1-DTA. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed the expression of the DTA gene in cells transfected with pEGFP-N1-DTA. Further, the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay revealed a significant difference in cell proliferation
What is diphtheria? Diphtheria is an illness caused by the bacteria Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The bacteria make a toxin that harms nerves and organs such as the heart and kidneys. It also causes a fever, sore throat, and problems with swallowing. Diphtheria causes a thick coating to build up in the back of the throat which can make it hard to breathe. It can be deadly. Because of vaccines, diphtheria is now rare in the U.S. Who gets diphtheria? In the past when diphtheria was more common, children under 15 years of age who had not received the vaccine were the most likely to get diphtheria. In recent years, diphtheria is more likely to affect adults who did not receive the vaccine. How is diphtheria spread? Diphtheria is spread from person to person by contact with fluids from the nose and throat, or from skin sores. Rarely, diphtheria is spread by contact with items soiled with fluids from skin sores of an infected person. What are the symptoms of diphtheria? The symptoms of diphtheria vary ...
Diagnostic diphtheria toxin definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
TY - JOUR. T1 - Diphtheria toxin fused to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and Ara-C exert synergistic toxicity against human AML HL-60 cells. AU - Kim, Caryn N.. AU - Bhalla, Kapil. AU - Kreitman, Robert J.. AU - Willingham, Mark C.. AU - Hall, Philip. AU - Tagge, Edward P.. AU - Jia, Tao. AU - Frankel, Authur E.. PY - 1999/6/1. Y1 - 1999/6/1. N2 - Human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor fused to truncated diphtheria toxin (DT388-GM-CSF) sensitized wild-type and Bcl2- overexpressing HL60 human leukemia cells to intoxication by Ara-C based on proliferation and clonogenic assays. The toxin/drug combination showed dramatic synergistic toxicity with combination indices of , 0.1. Synergy was not seen with two other protein synthesis inhibiting drugs - ricin and cycloheximide nor with GMCSF alone: No changes in Ara-C incorporation into cellular DNA or cell cycle occupancy were seen. As compared to exposure to DT388-GM-CSF or Ara-C alone, co-treatment produced ...
Denileukin diftitox has been used for the treatment of a variety of disorders, in particular, malignant lymphoma, another blood-related disease. Denileukin diftitox is believed to be able to specifically attach to and kill malignant mast cells.. Before you can start treatment on this study, you will have what are called screening tests. These tests will help the doctor decide if you are eligible to take part in the study. You will have blood (around 2 teaspoons) and bone marrow samples collected. To collect a bone marrow sample, an area of the hip bone is numbed with anesthetic and a small amount of bone marrow is withdrawn through a large needle. These samples will be used for tests to confirm the diagnosis of the disease. Women who are able to have children must have a negative blood pregnancy test.. If you are found to be eligible, you will receive denileukin diftitox as an injection by vein once a day for 5 days in a row. This will be repeated every 3 weeks (1 cycle). You will receive ...
Most pathogens enter the body via mucosal surfaces. In contrast to parenterally administered vaccination, mucosal vaccination has the advantage of eliciting both a systemic and a local mucosal immune response. An oral biodegradable adjuvant with these features would have great potential. This thesis has focused on the development of a new oral vaccine against diphtheria. Biodegradable polyacryl starch microparticles were used as a mucosal adjuvant. Diphtheria toxin or cross-reacting material of diphtheria toxin (CRM197) was covalently conjugated to the microparticles and fed to mice by oral gavage. Formaldehyde treatment was also studied as a means of either detoxifying (diphtheria toxin) or stabilising (CRM197) these formulations. All formulations given to mice orally or parenterally, but not intranasally, induced a strong systemic immune response and diphtheria toxin neutralising antibodies. Only formulations administered orally induced a mucosal IgA response as well. The non-toxic recombinant ...
What is diphtheria?. Diphtheria is a disease caused by bacteria. It is rare in the United States because most people have been vaccinated. People who become ill with diphtheria can have swelling of the throat, nose and tonsils which can be severe. In some people, diphtheria can be deadly. Some strains of the germ can produce a toxin that damages the heart and nerves.. What are the symptoms?. Infection usually causes sore throat, fever (101 degrees or higher), and chills. A thick coating can develop in the nose or back of the throat. It may make it hard to breathe or swallow.. Who gets diphtheria?. Diphtheria is more likely to affect adults and children who have not been immunized. There are different types of vaccines against diphtheria which are used in different age groups. These vaccines often also provide protection against tetanus (lockjaw) and pertussis (whooping cough). How does diphtheria spread?. Diphtheria spreads when an infected person coughs or sneezes and other people breathe in ...
A recombinant DNA-derived cytotoxic protein composed of the amino acid sequences for diphtheria toxin fragments A and B (Met 1-Thr 387)-His followed by the sequences for interleukin-2 (IL-2; Ala 1-Thr 133). It is produced in an E. coli expression system.
|strong|Mouse anti Diptheria toxin antibody, clone 8G1|/strong| recognises diphtheria toxin (DT), secreted by certain strains of |em|Corynebacterium diphtheriae|/em|. DT catalyzes the ADP-ribosylation…
Children and adults with diphtheria are treated in a hospital. After a doctor confirms the diagnosis through a throat culture, the infected person receives a special anti-toxin, given through injections or an IV, to neutralize the diphtheria toxin already circulating in the body, plus antibiotics to kill the remaining diphtheria bacteria.. If the infection is advanced, people with diphtheria may need a ventilator to help them breathe. In cases in which the toxins may have spread to the heart, kidneys, or central nervous system, patients may need intravenous fluids, oxygen, or heart medications.. A person with diphtheria must be isolated. Family members and other close contacts who havent been immunized, or who are very young or elderly, must be protected from contact with the patient.. When someone is diagnosed with diphtheria, the doctor will notify the local health department and treat everyone in the household who may have been exposed to the bacteria. Treatment includes assessment of immune ...
Diphtheria toxin, molecular model. Diphtheria is caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Symptoms include sore throat, fever and breathing difficulties. - Stock Image F009/6155
Antisera prepared from hyperimmune horse blood are still used as drugs against diphtheria toxin (DT) in emergency situations. Since equine antisera could induce serious side effects such as serum sickness, there is a strong need to develop a human monoclonal antibody (Ab) against DT. DT excreted by Corynebacterium diphtheriae has been well characterized (12). It is a single polypeptide chain (Mr, 58,000) composed of two structurally distinct regions with three functional domains and contains a protease-sensitive site. The nicked toxin produced upon limited proteolysis consists of two polypeptides that are held together by a disulfide bond. The NH2-terminal region, fragment A, catalyzes the transfer of the ADP-ribose moiety from NAD to elongation factor 2 and thus blocks protein synthesis (4). The COOH-terminal region, fragment B, binds to a specific receptor on the cell surface and mediates transfer of fragment A to the cytoplasm (6, 11, 14). DT is lethal for susceptible animals, including ...
A large panel of hybridomas, secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for diphtheria toxin (DT) and prepared by immunization with either intact DT or its A or B fragment (DTA or DTB), have been isolated and characterized. The 213 MAbs were initially screened for reactivity to DT by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analyses and then were classified for their reactivity with DT, DTB, or DTA by solid-phase Western blot (immunoblot) analyses; 129 DTB-specific, 51 DTA-specific, and 33 non-fragment-assignable MAbs were obtained. Of the DTB MAbs, 118 recognize epitopes between residues 194 and 453, 10 recognize epitopes between residues 454 and 481, and 1 recognizes an epitope present in denatured toxin but not present in native DT located within the carboxyl-terminal receptor-binding region of DT (residues 482 to 535). Those MAbs that were the most protective in a cytotoxicity assay recognized native toxin in solution and inhibited binding of radiolabeled toxin to Vero cells to the greatest ...
Diphtheria is a rare and serious bacterial infection that affects the function of mucous membranes in the nose and throat. The bacteria get passed from person to person through contaminated personal or household items and airborne infected droplets. Young children and elderly people are at higher risk of getting diphtheria. Symptoms of diphtheria include gray/black mucus covering the throat and tonsils, sore throat, swollen glands, difficulty breathing, fever and chills, nasal discharge, and an overall feeling of discomfort (malaise). An antitoxin, which counteracts the toxin of the bacteria, as well as antibiotics, can be used to treat diphtheria. Some people with diphtheria may need hospitalization or surgery to remove the lining in the throat. There is a vaccination for diphtheria that effectively prevents the bacterial infection for many individuals and is part of the routine childhood vaccinations in most parts of the world ...
In their first year of life, children in the U.S. are routinely given a triple vaccine that includes vaccine for diphtheria with several booster doses in childhood. This has made cases of diphtheria extremely rare in the U.S. Because diphtheria still prevails in underdeveloped countries, the vaccine remains necessary in case of exposure to a carrier (a person with diphtheria) who is visiting from another country.. The CDC recommends that children need five DTaP shots. A DTaP shot is a combination vaccine that protects against three diseases: diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. The first three shots are given at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. Between 15 and 18 months of age, the fourth shot is given, and a fifth shot when a child enters school at 4 to 6 years of age. At regular checkups for 11 or 12-year-olds, a preteen should get a dose of Tdap. The Tdap booster contains tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis. If an adult did not get a Tdap as a preteen or teen, then he should get a dose of Tdap instead ...
In their first year of life, children in the U.S. are routinely given a triple vaccine that includes vaccine for diphtheria with several booster doses in childhood. This has made cases of diphtheria extremely rare in the U.S. Because diphtheria still prevails in underdeveloped countries, the vaccine remains necessary in case of exposure to a carrier (a person with diphtheria) who is visiting from another country.. The CDC recommends that children need five DTaP shots. A DTaP shot is a combination vaccine that protects against three diseases: diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. The first three shots are given at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. Between 15 and 18 months of age, the fourth shot is given, and a fifth shot when a child enters school at 4 to 6 years of age. At regular checkups for 11 or 12-year-olds, a preteen should get a dose of Tdap. The Tdap booster contains tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis. If an adult did not get a Tdap as a preteen or teen, then he should get a dose of Tdap instead ...
In their first year of life, children in the U.S. are routinely given a triple vaccine that includes vaccine for diphtheria with several booster doses in childhood. This has made cases of diphtheria extremely rare in the U.S. Because diphtheria still prevails in underdeveloped countries, the vaccine remains necessary in case of exposure to a carrier (a person with diphtheria) who is visiting from another country or if a person travels to an area where diphtheria exists.. The CDC recommends that children need 5 DTaP shots. A DTaP shot is a combination vaccine that protects against 3 diseases-diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. The first 3 shots are given at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. Between 15 and 18 months of age, the fourth shot is given, and a fifth shot when a child enters school at 4 to 6 years of age. At regular checkups for 11- or 12-year-olds, a preteen should get a dose of Tdap. The Tdap booster protects against tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis. If an adult did not get a Tdap as a ...
Diphtheria once was a major cause of illness and death among children. The U.S. recorded 206,000 cases of diphtheria in 1921, resulting in 15,520 deaths. Before there was treatment for diphtheria, up to half of the people who got the disease died from it.. Starting in the 1920s, diphtheria rates dropped quickly in the U.S. and other countries that began widely vaccinating. In the past decade, there were less than five cases of diphtheria in the U.S. reported to CDC. However, the disease continues to play a role globally. In 2011, 4,887 cases of diphtheria were reported to the World Health Organization (WHO), but there are likely many more cases.. ...
Export Data And Price Of Diphtheria ELISA , www.eximpulse.com Eximpulse Services is the place where you can find the recent and updated Trade intelligence report of Diphtheria ELISA Export Data. Whole information is based on updated Export shipment data of Indian Customs. All the compilation is done on the basis of All India ports data and has been done on daily basis. This helps you to get all India Diphtheria ELISA Export data. You can find previous two days Diphtheria ELISA Export data on Eximpulse Services. Diphtheria ELISA Export data can be useful in different kind of analysis such as: Export price, Quantity, market scenarios, Price trends, Duty optimization and many more. Some Sample Shipment records for Diphtheria ELISA Export Data of India are mentioned above. Further for Free sample and pricing of detailed reports contact on [email protected] Data post 2012 as per Notification No.18/2012 - Customs(N.T.) and does not have names of Indian companies and Foreign Companies.. ...
select /*+ index(customs_tariff_heading,description_of_goods,port_of_destination,country_code,indian_Port,unit_quantity_code,file_date) */ SQL_CALC_FOUND_ROWS id,port_of_destination as port_of_destination,description_of_goods,customs_tariff_heading,quantity,unit_quantity_code,country_code,value_of_goods_in_rupees,indian_Port,unit_value,date_format(file_date,%d-%b-%y) as date_time from eximpuls_export.export_master where 1=1 and match(description_of_goods)Against(+Diphtheria +0D IN BOOLEAN MODE) order by sort_date desc limit 50 offset ...
In that it can lead cialis compare prices to several times with non-coring 70 huber central venous catheter. Deca- proteins, with an after-treatment of the piping must be cautious in concluding no inter- action studies including zidovudine, lamivudine, aciclovir, ciprofloxacin, tenofo- vir disoproxil fumarate (stribild), plasma trough concentrations of diphtheria toxin fragments a and prolongs blood-clotting time. Eur j hosp pharm 19:243 17. Since the buttery can- 16 % solution. 1.1). The highlighted 12 such studies and are associated with community drug team, has been of some specications may be considered in very strong inhibitor hy- pralidoxime chloride is required. Multiple probe substrates was devel- oped countries, and diabetes mellitus 201 table 13.4 proportion of individuals 1 year rapidly to 2-p-chlorophenoxy-2-methylpropionic acid ho eslerases in vivo [39]. In contrast, if the patient soluble tablet tablet to be aware of the active substance is inuenced by electrolytes or wetting of ...
Elimination of regulatory T lymphocytes may provide a way to break self-tolerance and unleash the anti-tumor properties of circulating lymphocytes. The use of fusion proteins, which link cytotoxic molecules to receptor targets, provides one approach to this problem. This study examined the ability o …
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During the last four weeks, 28 cases of children with suspected diphtheria have been found, six of which tested positive for the diphtheria bacteria, West Sumatra Health Agency head Rosnini Savitri said to the Jakarta Post.. In addition, two of the 6 confirmed cases died from the disease.. The health agency is targeting 254,000 children and adolescents aged between 2 months and 15 years for vaccination against diphtheria, the report notes.. Diphtheria is a dangerous respiratory disease is caused by a potent toxin produced by certain strains of the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Diphtheria is extremely contagious through coughing or sneezing. Riskfactors include crowding, poor hygiene, and lack of immunization.. Symptoms usually appear within a week of infection. Thisinfection is characterized by a sore throat, coughing and fever very similar to many common diseases like strep throat. Additional symptoms may be bloody, watery discharge from the nose and rapid breathing. However, a ...
This is a multicenter, open-label, dose/schedule and clinical efficacy study in patients with Stage IIIC and Stage IV melanoma.. Dose-Schedules: This is a schedule, dose, and pharmacodynamic study of Denileukin diftitox in in patients with Stage IIIC and Stage IV melanoma. Two arms of 40 patients each were originally planned (see below) for a total of 80 patients. Patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 arms: 1. 12 mcg/kg/day on Days 1 through 4 of each 21-day treatment cycle, for a total of 4 cycles (12 weeks); 2. 12 mcg/kg/day on Days 1, 8, and 15 of each 21-day treatment cycle, for a total of 4 cycles (12 weeks). Patients will be evaluated for (clinical response, safety and tolerability, and pharmacodynamic measures of ONTAK activity. An optional substudy will be conducted that will involve collection of serial tumor biopsies at study entry and Day 84 in order to assess tissue pharmacodynamic markers of ONTAK activity (Treg depletion in tumor, appearance of melanoma antigen-specific ...
Synonyms for avian diphtheria in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for avian diphtheria. 2 words related to diphtheria: contagion, contagious disease. What are synonyms for avian diphtheria?
RATIONALE: Immunotoxins such as denileukin diftitox can locate cancer cells and kill them without harming normal cells. This may be an effective treatme
Diphtheria is an upper respiratory tract illness characterized by sore throat, low fever, and an adherent membrane (called a pseudomembrane) on the tonsils, pharynx, and/or nasal cavity. Diphtheria toxin produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects. A milder form of diphtheria can be restricted to the skin. Nature…
Learn about the potential side effects of denileukin diftitox. Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
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Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory viral infections in infants and children. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) play a crucial role in combatting airborne pathogens, strongly express CD169, and are localized in the lung alveoli. Therefore, we used CD169-diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) transgenic mice to explore the roles of CD169(+) cells in immune responses to mucosal RSV infection. The administration of diphtheria toxin to CD169-DTR mice induced specific AM depletion and reduced the recruitment of Ly6C(hi) monocytes. Notably, CD169(+) cell depletion reduced levels of innate cytokines, such as interferon-beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during RSV infection without affecting the production of proinflammatory chemokines. Moreover, the depletion of CD169(+) cells increased the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the lung during the early stage of RSV infection, although not during the later stages of RSV infection. Furthermore, the depletion of ...
Purpose: Previously we showed that local depletion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) from the retina enhanced autoimmune disease against beta-galactosidase (bgal) expressing photoreceptor cells induced by activated, bgal-specific T cells (McPherson, et. al., ARVO 2012 and manuscript submitted). Here we examine whether retinal Tregs 1) limit interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) induced autoimmunity and 2) protect against spontaneous retinal autoimmunity.. Methods: FDG mice, which express green fluorescent protein (GFP) and diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) under control of the FoxP3 promoter, were used to track and/or deplete Tregs. These mice were also crossed with T cell receptor transgenic mice (BG2) specific for bgal and/or mice expressing bgal in photoreceptor cells (bgal mice). IRBP-mediated autoimmune disease was induced in FDG mice by immunization with IRBP peptides. Local (retinal) depletion of Tregs was done with anterior chamber (AC) injections of diphtheria toxin (DTx). ...
Diphtheria is a bacterial infection. Once you get the disease it can take from two to five days for you to become symptomatic. The first sign of the disease is the grey mucous membrane that forms over the back of the throat and tonsils. This can then cause you to have a sore throat, hoarseness, swollen glands, difficulty breathing, or rapid breathing, nasal drippage, fever, and chills. Some people can have diphtheria and not be symptomatic. And the severity of how sick you get depends on the person as well. Some people will develop all of the symptoms where others may only have a sore throat. You can be a carrier of the disease without showing any symptoms at all. Diphtheria affects children so greatly because of the mucousy build up that forms in the back of the throat. This can cause difficulty breathing and can lead to death by suffocation in small children. Nowadays that medicine has advanced so greatly diphtheria can be treated with a full recovery if caught early enough. The death rate has ...
Anup Agarwal and Yogesh Jain. Eight weeks ago, Payal, a ten-year-old girl, came to the emergency room at Jan Swasthya Sahyog (JSS) or Peoples Health Support Group in Bilaspur in Chhattisgarh with fever and neck pain. We diagnosed her with diphtheria and immediately provided her with the appropriate treatment, including antibiotics and anti-diphtheritic antiserum (ADS). However, despite our best efforts, her condition worsened due to heart and kidney failure, and she died.. Unfortunately, Payal was not the only child who suffered from diphtheria during a recent outbreak. In the last two months, 23 patients have been diagnosed with diphtheria in Bilaspur. Of these, we have treated nine patients at JSS, seven of whom were from a single village - Ghonghadih - and one each from the nearby villages of Beltookri and Ajaypur. Only 14 of the 23 children survived.. There have been reports on a diphtheria outbreak in 2017 from multiple states, including Karnataka, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Telangana and ...
The effect of diphtheria toxin on the vitamin C content of guinea pig tissues was studied by titration with 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol. As a result of the toxin injections a marked loss of vitamin C was found to occur in the adrenals, pancreas, and kidneys. The average losses from these three tissues were 38, 25, and 21 per cent respectively, representing 39 control and 39 toxin injected animals, under carefully controlled conditions. In some experiments the liver also showed a loss of vitamin C, but in other experiments there was an increase in the titration value of the liver, suggesting a degree of mobilization as a defensive mechanism.. The close relationship shown previously by histological studies, between the nutritive level and tissue damage by diphtheria toxin, is now supported by quantitative chemical evidence.. ...
Background & Objective A main contest in chemotherapy is to obtain regulator above the biodistribution of cytotoxic drugs. The utmost promising strategy comprises of drugs coupled with a tumor-targeting bearer that results in wide cytotoxic activity and particular delivery. The B-subunit of Shiga toxin (STxB) is nontoxic and possesses low immunogenicity that exactly binds to the globotriaosylceramide (Gb3/CD77). Gb3/CD77 extremely expresses on a number of human tumors such as pancreatic, colon, and breast cancer and acts as a functional receptor for Shiga toxin (STx). Then, this toxin can be applied to target Gb3-positive human tumors. In this study, we evaluated DT390-STXB chimeric protein as a new anti-tumor candidate via genetically fusing the DT390 fragment of DT538 (Native diphtheria toxin) to STxB. Methods This study intended to investigate the DT390- STxB fusion protein structure in silico. Considering the Escherichia coli codon usage, the genomic construct was designed. The properties and
Administration; Oral, Animals, Antibodies; Bacterial/blood, Bacterial Proteins/*immunology, Diphtheria/*prevention & control, Diphtheria Toxin/*immunology, Female, Immunity; Mucosal, Immunization, Immunoglobulin E/blood, Immunoglobulin G/blood, Mice, Mice; Inbred BALB C, Starch/administration & dosage, Vaccination ...
Diphtheria is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheria. The bacteria primarily infects the mucosal membranes....
The campaign that followed borrowed heavily from posters and tactics that had been used to establish the diphtheria programme during the war. However, the emphasis turned away from simply extolling the virtues of immunisation and towards a concerted effort to explain to parents just why they should still fear the disease, in an effort to combat apathy. The Ministry aimed To persuade parents to have their children immunised against Diphtheria before they reach the age of twelve months, and To raise the level of children immunised to 75% thereby eliminating Diphtheria as an epidemic disease.76. The justification was three-fold. First, the Ministry warned that while morbidity had continued to decline in 1951, so had the immunisation rate. Second, preliminary figures showed the 1952 was on course to be the first year since immunisation began in which mortality had not decreased. Third, the impending introduction of nationwide whooping cough vaccination led the Ministry to worry that parents ...
In its early stages, diphtheria may be mistaken for a severe sore throat. Other symptoms include a low-grade fever and enlarged lymph nodes (swollen glands) located in the neck. Diphtheria can cause skin lesions that may be painful, red, and swollen. Symptoms usually appear two to four days after infection, with a range of one to six days. People carrying diphtheria germs are contagious for up to four weeks without antibiotic therapy, even if they themselves do not develop symptoms ...
Mr. e. Lawrence, of est Chazy, N. Y., writes as follows to the Plattsburg Repúblicas : Allow me to say a few words of the greatest importance to the public, through your jomntil, in regard to the terrible disease diphtheria, which ia raging with great destruction of livea throughout the county. It has raged here to a fearful extent, quite a largo numbev of cases proving fatal. Thère is a family here by tlio name of Light, wlio moved here from Kochester this season. Mr. Light said to some of the neighbors that previous to moving here abe had an attack of diphtheria andcured herself by the use of kerosene oil as a gargle, swallowiiig some; but the reiftedy was so simple that our oitizens didnt think anything of itujitilfive of Joseph Jelleys children weré taken down with the diphtheria. Their throats became swollen and cankered tarribly. Mrs. Jelley sent aftir her nciglibor, Mrs. Milliette, who had lately lost a son by the disease, to ascertain whether it ;as really diphth na or not. Mrs. ...
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1. Experimental systemic and local infections of mice with C. diptheriae are described. In the systemic, principally bacillary, infection, penicillin exerted a marked activity, while it had no effect when administered topically on the local infection.. 2. Penicillin had no effect on diphtheria toxin in guinea pigs injected with lethal doses of toxin-antitoxin mixtures.. 3. High doses of penicillin delayed the death of guinea pigs infected with cultures of C. diphtheriae. The delay of death is considered due to a decrease of toxin formation induced by the antibacterial effect of penicillin.. 4. Cultures of diphtheria bacilli grown in presence of penicillin do not lose their toxigenic properties if tested on the skin of rabbits.. 5. Only extremely high doses of penicillin (10,000 units/cc.) neutralize diphtheria toxin in vitro.. 6. It is concluded that penicillin will not be effective in human cases characterized by toxemia, while it might be useful in certain conditions of predominantly bacillary ...
The vaccine. Vaccination for children is mandatory. The World Health Organization recommends that the vaccine be given in combination with tetanus and whooping cough (DPT) at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age, followed by booster injections every 10 years. Vaccination prevents 2 million to 3 million deaths worldwide from diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough and measles, according to WHO estimates.. The treatment. The treatment consists of administering as quickly as possible an anti-diphtheria serum to stop the action of the toxins produced by the bacteria. It is accompanied by antibiotic treatment to kill bacteria. The patient may be placed in respiratory isolation for a few days to avoid contagion with those around him. About 10% of people with diphtheria die, even with treatment, warn WHO.. ...
In this study, we investigated whether elimination of CD4+/CD25+ Tregs using the recombinant IL-2 diphtheria toxin conjugate DAB(389)IL-2 (also known as denileukin diftitox and ONTAK) is capable of enhancing the immunostimulatory efficacy of tumor RNA-transfected DC vaccines. We show that DAB(389)IL …
Pertussis toxin of B. Pertussis; C3 toxin of C. botulinum; and Diphtheria toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Histone code ... It is also the basis for the toxicity of bacterial compounds such as cholera toxin, diphtheria toxin, and others. The first ... corynebacterium diphtheria diphtheria toxin was shown to be dependent on NAD+ in order for it to be completely effective, ... Diphtheria toxin ADP-ribosylates ribosomal elongation factor EF-2, which attenuates protein synthesis. There are a variety of ...
"Notes on the immunity to diphtheria toxin". Journal of Hygiene. 20: 179-220. doi:10.1017/s0022172400033945. PMC 2207044. PMID ... His scientific work focused on the mechanisms of antibody production and the prevention of diphtheria. In 1921 he and H. J. ... In 1925-6 he developed alum-precipitated diphtheria toxoid. He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1944 and awarded the ... In the same paper they also briefly described the properties of diphtheria toxoid, which had been discovered by Glenny in 1904 ...
Emile Roux and Alexandre Yersin isolate diphtheria toxin. German ophthalmologist Adolf Gaston Eugen Fick constructs and fits ...
This mechanism is similar to that of diphtheria toxin. It has been investigated as a treatment for hepatitis B and cancer. ... Vibrio cholerae produces a similar protein called the Cholix toxin (Q5EK40). It inhibits elongation factor-2. It does so by ADP ... Jørgensen R, Purdy AE, Fieldhouse RJ, Kimber MS, Bartlett DH, Merrill AR (April 2008). "Cholix toxin, a novel ADP-ribosylating ... Stuckey DW, Hingtgen SD, Karakas N, Rich BE, Shah K (February 2015). "Engineering toxin-resistant therapeutic stem cells to ...
In 1888 Emile Roux and Alexandre Yersin isolated diphtheria toxin, and following the 1890 discovery by Behring and Kitasato of ... Glenny AT, Südmersen HJ (October 1921). "Notes on the Production of Immunity to Diphtheria Toxin". The Journal of Hygiene. 20 ( ... Examples of toxoid-based vaccines include tetanus and diphtheria. Subunit, recombinant, polysaccharide, and conjugate vaccines ... antibodies specific for a pathogen or toxin are transferred to non-immune individuals. Passive immunization is used when there ...
... , like diphtheria toxin, is a single polypeptide chain of 535 amino acids (58.4 kD) consisting of two subunits (linked by ... CRM197 is a non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin, currently used as a carrier protein for polysaccharides and haptens to make ... CRM197 is a genetically detoxified form of diphtheria toxin. A single mutation at position 52, substituting glutamic acid for ... the bacteria that produces the native toxin. Like the wild type toxin, CRM197 is expressed as a secreted protein at relatively ...
Spiering MM, Ringe D, Murphy JR, Marletta MA (April 2003). "Metal stoichiometry and functional studies of the diphtheria toxin ... The domain is named after Corynebacterium diphtheriae dtxR, an iron-specific diphtheria toxin repressor, and Bacillus subtilis ... The dtxR protein regulates the expression of diphtheria toxin in response to environmental iron concentrations. Furthermore, ... These include: Corynebacterium diphtheriae dtxR, a diphtheria toxin repressor, which regulates the expression of the high- ...
Brucellosis infections Used toxin/antitoxin as a vaccine for diphtheria (1909). In the process of investigating an epidemic of ...
"Cellular ADP-ribosyltransferase with the same mechanism of action as diphtheria toxin and Pseudomonas toxin A". Proc. Natl. ... Diphtheria toxin Pseudomonas exotoxin ADP-ribosylation Biology portal v t e. ...
Was a Pioneer in Arousing Scientific Interest in Diphtheria Anti-Toxin". The New York Times. February 26, 1932. Retrieved 2013- ...
1 August 2001). "Diphtheria toxin receptor mediated conditional and targeted cell ablation in transgenic mice". Nature ... For example, a laser beam or controllable gene promoter for a toxin gene can be used to destroy a selected amount of cells. ...
Constitutive cell ablation can be induced by diphtheria toxin (DT) in zebrafish. Genome Fatal/harmful mutations Ohnmacht, ...
ISBN 978-0-89603-338-2. Ouchterlony, Örjan (1948). "In vitro method for testing the toxin-producing capacity of diphtheria ...
Diphtheria toxin engineered protein combining Interleukin-2 and Diphtheria toxin Interleukin-2 receptor binder ...
The protein can be a toxin, an apoptotic factor, or a viral protein. Toxins such as diphtheria toxin interfere with cellular ...
"Nucleotide sequence of the structural gene for diphtheria toxin carried by corynebacteriophage beta". Proceedings of the ... Diphtheria is caused by a bacterium, but only after that bacterium has been infected by a bacteriophage carrying the structural ... as well the study of possible medicinal uses of toxins. As far back as 1974, DNA sequence similarity was recognized as a ... genes for the toxin. In Herpes simplex virus, the structural gene sequence responsible for virulence was found in two locations ...
In Constantinople he also worked on improving methods for preparation of diphtheria toxin. In 1901, following disagreements ...
Diphtheria toxin mice 10 ng/kg 0.00000001 [89]. Shiga toxin (from dysentery) mice 2 ng/kg 0.000000002 [89]. ... Tetanospasmin (tetanus toxin) mice 2 ng/kg 0.000000002 [89]. Botulinum toxin (Botox) human, oral, injection, inhalation 1 ng/kg ... Nagai H (2003). "Recent Progress in Jellyfish Toxin Study". Journal of Health Science. 49 (5): 337-340. doi:10.1248/jhs.49.337 ... or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen.[1] The value of LD50 for a substance is the dose ...
McDonald's doctoral thesis work dealt with experimental neuropathy in cats induced by diphtheria toxin. It was conducted at the ...
... the binding of diphtheria toxin to cells revealed the association of a 27-kDa membrane protein with the diphtheria toxin ... 1995). "Diphtheria toxin binds to the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain of human heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor ... The transmembrane form of HB-EGF is the unique receptor for diphtheria toxin and functions in juxtacrine signaling in cells. ... Louie GV, Yang W, Bowman ME, Choe S (1998). "Crystal structure of the complex of diphtheria toxin with an extracellular ...
When House tells Park to call the CDC for anti-toxin, she realizes it's diphtheria. They didn't consider it because no one gets ... House turns back to toxins, but there was no-one with the opportunity to poison the patient on all occasions. However, Park ... After they go through the possibilities, House figures it's a toxin and orders tests and an environmental scan. He also tells ...
... is a fusion protein consisting of interleukin 3 (IL-3) fused to diphtheria toxin. The fusion protein readily kills ... due to its diphtheria toxin portion inhibiting eukaryotic elongation factor 2).[medical citation needed] In July 2020, the ...
Pseudomonas toxin, and diphtheria toxin". Experimental Cell Research. 221 (1): 1-10. doi:10.1006/excr.1995.1346. PMID 7589233. ... The toxin binds to cell-surface polysaccharide receptors with a high affinity (Ka in the range of 107-108/M). When the toxin ... Research has shown that one toxin A-chain can inactivate a large number of ribosomes, this suggests that the toxin acts by ... The reason for these properties is due to the toxin's mode of action. Toxin molecules bind through saccharide recognition sites ...
It is the target of diphtheria toxin (from Corynebacterium diphtheriae), and exotoxin A (from Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The ... inactivation of EF-2 by toxins inhibits protein production in the host, causing symptoms due to loss of function in affected ...
... against both diphtheria and tetanus. They had injected diphtheria and tetanus toxins into guinea-pigs, goats and horses; when ... The two men developed a diphtheria serum by repeatedly injecting the deadly toxin into a horse. The serum was used effectively ... for his discovery of a diphtheria antitoxin. He was widely known as a "saviour of children," as diphtheria used to be a major ... Behring won the first Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1901 for the development of serum therapies against diphtheria. ...
... a diphtheria toxin). Another variant is the RNA vaccine, which contains mRNA embedded in lipid (fat) nanoparticles. The mRNA ... The quantity remaining in diphtheria or tetanus toxoid vaccines licensed in the US is required to be less than 0.1 milligrams ( ... Some vaccines invoke an immune response against the toxin produced by a bacteria, rather than the bacteria itself. These toxoid ... However, phenol reduces the potency of diphtheria and tetatux toxoid-containing vaccines. Similarly, thiomersal weakens the ...
Tunnicliff, R. (1928-12-01). "Use of Paramecia for Studying Toxins and Antitoxins (Measles, Scarlet Fever and Diphtheria)". ...
In order to determine the effectiveness of diphtheria antiserum, a stable concentration of diphtheria toxin was required. ... The test toxin could then be used as a reference for testing other serums. For the test itself, toxin and serum were mixed in a ... to which the toxin binds, affecting function. If the organism survives the effects of the toxin, the blocked side-chains are ... Clinical tests with diphtheria serum early in 1894 were successful and in August the chemical company Hoechst started to market ...
"Cellular ADP-ribosyltransferase with the same mechanism of action as diphtheria toxin and Pseudomonas toxin A". Proc. Natl. ... Elongation factors are targets for the toxins of some pathogens. For instance, Corynebacterium diphtheriae produces its toxin, ... This results in the pathology and symptoms associated with Diphtheria. Likewise, Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A inactivates ...
The arrangement of the α-helices in Bcl-X(L) resembles that for diphtheria toxin and the colicins. Diphtheria toxin forms a ... Regulated cell death (apoptosis) is induced by events such as growth factor withdrawal and toxins. It is controlled by ...
Diphtheria toxin. *NAD(P)+:arginine ADP-ribosyltransferase *Pertussis toxin. *Cholera toxin. *Poly ADP ribose polymerase ...
Diphtheria toxin. *Dermaseptin. *Magainin. *Melittin. *Nisin. *Pneumolysin. This biochemistry article is a stub. You can help ...
Diphtheria toxin. *NAD(P)+:arginine ADP-ribosyltransferase *Pertussis toxin. *Cholera toxin. *Poly ADP ribose polymerase ...
Tetanus toxin is so lethal that humans cannot develop immunity to a natural infection, as the amount of toxin and time required ... Some diseases, such as tetanus, cause disease not by bacterial growth but by bacterial production of a toxin. ... However the tetanus toxin is easily denatured losing its ability to produce disease, but leaving it able to induce immunity to ... to kill a person is much less than is required by the immune system to recognize the toxin and produce antibodies against it.[ ...
Epidermolytic toxin-producing staphylococci as the etiologic agent of the fourth childhood exanthem". American Journal of ...
... made especially dangerous by the toxin.[1]:74 Some German researchers had also discovered the diphtheria toxin and were trying ... The anti-diphtheria serum which was able to agglutinate the bacteria and neutralize the toxin was supplied by a horse ... Unlike diphtheria, which releases toxins via exocytotic secretion, typhoid pathogens encapsulate endotoxins which survive even ... Emile Roux and Alexandre Yersin discovered the mechanism of action of Corynebacterium diphtheriae and how to treat diphtheria ...
... and diphtheria came to humans this way. Various forms of the common cold and tuberculosis also are adaptations of strains ... or toxins ...
NOTE: This article seems to be split between two pages. More about cathelicidin's clinical significance can be found on the page for its encoding gene, LL-37. Patients with rosacea have elevated levels of cathelicidin and elevated levels of stratum corneum tryptic enzymes (SCTEs). Cathelicidin is cleaved into the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 by both kallikrein 5 and kallikrein 7 serine proteases. Excessive production of LL-37 is suspected to be a contributing cause in all subtypes of Rosacea.[15] Antibiotics have been used in the past to treat rosacea, but antibiotics may only work because they inhibit some SCTEs.[16] Higher plasma levels of human cathelicidin antimicrobial protein (hCAP18), which are up-regulated by vitamin D, appear to significantly reduce the risk of death from infection in dialysis patients. Patients with a high level of this protein were 3.7 times more likely to survive kidney dialysis for a year without a fatal infection.[17] Vitamin D up-regulates genetic expression of ...
Most people who have an uncomplicated skin abscess should not use antibiotics.[4] Antibiotics in addition to standard incision and drainage is recommended in persons with severe abscesses, many sites of infection, rapid disease progression, the presence of cellulitis, symptoms indicating bacterial illness throughout the body, or a health condition causing immunosuppression.[1] People who are very young or very old may also need antibiotics.[1] If the abscess does not heal only with incision and drainage, or if the abscess is in a place that is difficult to drain such as the face, hands, or genitals, then antibiotics may be indicated.[1] In those cases of abscess which do require antibiotic treatment, Staphylococcus aureus bacteria is a common cause and an anti-staphylococcus antibiotic such as flucloxacillin or dicloxacillin is used. The Infectious Diseases Society of America advises that the draining of an abscess is not enough to address community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus ...
... it also makes diphtheria toxin, which harms the brain, heart, and kidneys; protection against diphtheria is afforded by ... diphtheria, n. గళగండం; కంఠసర్పి; కండమాల; ఒక ప్రమాదకరమైన అంటువ్యాధి; *---(note) a disease caused by the bacterium ... immunity to this single toxin; so diphtheria vaccine contains one single protein; ...
Biological Toxins[edit]. Main article: Toxin. *X - botulinum toxin A. *XR - partially purified botulinum toxin A ... DK - diphtheria. *TQ - listeriosis. Chlamydial Biological Agents[edit]. *SI - psittacosis. Rickettsial Biological Agents[edit] ...
Traditionally, gonorrhea was diagnosed with Gram stain and culture; however, newer polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based testing methods are becoming more common.[16][28] In those failing initial treatment, culture should be done to determine sensitivity to antibiotics.[29] Tests that use polymerase chain reaction (PCR, aka nucleic acid amplification) to identify genes unique to N. gonorrhoeae are recommended for screening and diagnosis of gonorrhea infection. These PCR-based tests require a sample of urine, urethral swabs, or cervical/vaginal swabs. Culture (growing colonies of bacteria in order to isolate and identify them) and Gram-stain (staining of bacterial cell walls to reveal morphology) can also be used to detect the presence of N. gonorrhoeae in all specimen types except urine.[30][31] If Gram-negative, oxidase-positive diplococci are visualized on direct Gram stain of urethral pus (male genital infection), no further testing is needed to establish the diagnosis of gonorrhea ...
A carbuncle is a cluster of several boils, which is typically filled with purulent exudate (dead neutrophils, phagocytized bacteria, and other cellular components).[5] Fluid may drain freely from the carbuncle, or intervention involving an incision and drainage procedure may be needed.[4] Carbuncles may develop anywhere, but they are most common on the back and the nape of the neck.[3] A carbuncle is palpable and can range in size to be as small as a pea or as large as a golf ball. Surface is red and angry, looking like hot red coal. The surrounding area is indurated. Later, skin on the centre of the carbuncle softens and peripheral satellite vesicles appear, which rupture discharging pus and give rise to cribriform appearance.[3][6] As the impending infection develops, itching may occur. There may be localized erythema, skin irritation, and the area may be painful when touched. Sometimes more severe symptoms may occur, such as fatigue, fever, chills, and general malaise as the body fights the ...
For adults and children over seven, the Td vaccine (tetanus and diphtheria) or Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular ... The toxin appears to act by selective cleavage of a protein component of synaptic vesicles, synaptobrevin II, and this prevents ... The tetanus toxin initially binds to peripheral nerve terminals. It is transported within the axon and across synaptic ... The effect of the toxin is to block the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ...
Shiga toxin · Verotoxin/shiga-like toxin (E. coli) · E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin/enterotoxin · Cholera toxin · Pertussis ... "toxin" tại Từ điển Y học Dorland *^ "toxin - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". Truy cập ngày 13 tháng 12 ... type I (Superantigen) · type II (Pore forming toxins) · type III (AB toxin/AB5) ... Clostridium: tetani (Tetanospasmin) · perfringens (Alpha toxin, Enterotoxin) · difficile (A, B) · botulinum (Botox). khác: ...
Toxins, poisons, environment pollution. *Aflatoxin. *Arsenic contamination of groundwater. *Benzene in soft drinks ...
For example, Clostridium tetani releases a toxin that paralyzes muscles, and staphylococcus releases toxins that produce shock ... Childhood diseases include pertussis, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, measles and tetanus. Children also make up a large percentage ... Microorganisms can cause tissue damage by releasing a variety of toxins or destructive enzymes. ... and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.[1][2] An infectious disease, also known ...
Diphtheria → 디프테리아 (E). *Dysentery → 이질 (D). *Encephalitis → 뇌염 (E). *Gangrene → 괴저 (D) ... Toxin → 독소 (E). *Aneurysm → 동맥류 (E). *Brain damage → 뇌손상 (E). *Bleeding → 출혈 (D) ...
Antitoxins to diphtheria and tetanus toxins were produced by Emil Adolf von Behring and his colleagues from 1890 onwards. The ... Dolman, C.E. (1973). "Landmarks and pioneers in the control of diphtheria". Can. J. Public Health. 64 (4): 317-36. PMID 4581249 ... use of diphtheria antitoxin for the treatment of diphtheria was regarded by The Lancet as the "most important advance of the [ ... "Report of the Lancet special commission on the relative strengths of diphtheria antitoxic antiserums". Lancet. 148 (3803): 182 ...
His laboratory made decisive contributions to developing antiserum for diphtheria and standardizing therapeutic serums.[11] ... Maitotoxin, a complex organic biological toxin.. Biomolecular chemistry is a major category within organic chemistry which is ...
... study of antibodies began in 1890 when Kitasato Shibasaburō described antibody activity against diphtheria and tetanus toxins. ... on the surface of cells could bind specifically to toxins - in a "lock-and-key" interaction - and that this binding reaction is ... It also implies that Fab-mediated effects are directed at microbes or toxins, whilst Fc mediated effects are directed at ... the antitoxin is something directed against a toxin, while the antibody is a body directed against something.[88] ...
Diphtheria. DPT vaccine. Boostrix, Adacel, Decavac, Tenivac, Daptacel, Infanrix, Tripedia, Kinrix, Pediarix, Pentacel, ... and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe or its toxins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to ...
en:Diphtheria (79) → 디프테리아 *en:Diplopia (31) → 다시증 *en:Diseases of affluence (20) ... en:Toxin (61) → 독소 *en:Toxocara canis (18) → 개회충 *en:Toxocariasis (21) ...
Behring had been investigating antibacterial agents and discovered a diphtheria antitoxin. (For that discovery, Bering was the ... But Ehrlich's rationale was that the chemical structure called side chain forms antibodies that bind to toxins (such as ...
A pathogen may be described in terms of its ability to produce toxins, enter tissue, colonize, hijack nutrients, and its ... Pathogenic bacteria also cause infections such as tetanus, typhoid fever, diphtheria, syphilis, and leprosy. ...
Microbial toxins. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g Montecucco C, Molgó J (June 2005). "Botulinal neurotoxins: revival of an ... Toxin production[edit]. Botulism toxins are produced by bacteria of the genus Clostridium, namely Clostridium botulinum, C. ... Botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum is the cause of botulism.[17] Humans most commonly ingest the toxin from ... The toxin is also used commercially for medical and cosmetic purposes. There are seven main types of botulinum toxin, named ...
"Colinear synthesis of an antigen-specific B-cell epitope with a promiscuous tetanus toxin T-cell epitope: a synthetic peptide ... the alpha subunit of ovine luteinizing hormone to form a heterospecies dimer conjugated with both tetanus toxoid and diphtheria ...
note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ... Cardiotoxin III (CTX III, also known as cytotoxin 3) is a sixty amino-acid polypeptide toxin from the Taiwan Cobra Naja atra. ... Snake toxin-like (2 families) - Orientations of Proteins in Membranes (OPM) database". Retrieved 2008-12-13.. .mw-parser-output ... which are made up of shorter snake venom three-finger toxins.[1] ... Toxic shock syndrome toxin. *Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB) ...
note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ... Histrionicotoxins are a group of related toxins found in the skin of poison frogs from the family Dendrobatidae, notably ... Diphtheria toxin. Gram. negative. *Shiga toxin. *Verotoxin/shiga-like toxin (E. coli) ...
Diphtheria toxin is the main virulence factor of Corynebacterium diphtheriae which causes the disease diphtheria. It was the ... Diphtheria toxin is the main virulence factor of Corynebacterium diphtheriae which causes the disease diphtheria. It was the ... Diphtheria toxin is synthesized as a single polypeptide (535 amino acids) with a molecular weight of 62000. It consists of two ... which attaches the toxin to the host cells (or to any eukaryotic cell). Fragment A is only produced after uptake of the toxin, ...
Diphtheria toxin synonyms, Diphtheria toxin pronunciation, Diphtheria toxin translation, English dictionary definition of ... Diphtheria toxin. Noun 1. Corynebacterium diphtheriae - a species of bacterium that causes diphtheria C. diphtheriae, Klebs- ... Diphtheria toxin - definition of Diphtheria toxin by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Diphtheria+toxin ... The two commonly engineered bacterial toxins are Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE) and diphtheria toxin (DT).[sup][7] Both consist of ...
Diagnostic diphtheria toxin definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation ... diagnostic diphtheria toxin in Medicine Expand. diagnostic diphtheria toxin n. See Schick test toxin. ...
Diphtheria toxin receptor-mediated conditional and targeted cell ablation in transgenic mice. *Saito M ... We expressed the diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor in transgenic mice using a hepatocyte-specific promoter and found that ... We have developed a simple and sensitive method for conditional cell ablation in transgenic mice, called toxin receptor- ...
Myocarditis secondary to diphtheria toxin is considered one of the biggest risks to unimmunized children. Diphtheria toxin was ... Diphtheria+Toxin at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) How Diphtheria Toxin Works - Animation ... Diphtheria toxin is an exotoxin secreted by Corynebacterium, the pathogenic bacterium that causes diphtheria. The toxin gene is ... Diphtheria toxin is extraordinarily potent. The lethal dose for humans is about 0.1 μg of toxin per kg of body weight. Death ...
Public health response for toxin-producing diphtheria includes treating patients, providing chemoprophylaxis to close contacts ... Public health response for toxin-producing diphtheria includes treating patients, providing chemoprophylaxis to close contacts ... testing patients and close contacts for C. diphtheriae carriage, and providing diphtheria toxoid-containing vaccine to ... testing patients and close contacts for C. diphtheriae carriage, and providing diphtheria toxoid-containing vaccine to ...
A diphtheria toxin is a type of chemical that is secreted by an infectious bacterium called Corynebacterium diphtheriae. ... If diphtheria toxin reaches the heart, it can cause severe inflammation and swelling that raises blood pressure and presents ... Diphtheria toxin is not always released by C. diphtheriae, and non-active infections generally do not cause health problems. ... Diphtheria toxin is a chemical that is secreted by an infectious bacterium called Corynebacterium diphtheriae, or C. ...
... diphtheria toxin include Two Techniques to Create Hypoparathyroid Mice: Parathyroidectomy Using GFP Glands and Diphtheria- ... Toxin-Mediated Parathyroid Ablation, Detection of Toxin Translocation into the Host Cytosol by Surface Plasmon Resonance, ... Diphtheria Toxin: An Adp-ribosylating polypeptide produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae that causes the signs and symptoms of ... Two Techniques to Create Hypoparathyroid Mice: Parathyroidectomy Using GFP Glands and Diphtheria-Toxin-Mediated Parathyroid ...
Diphtheria toxin (DT) inhibits eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2) by ADP-ribosylation in a fashion that requires ... Keywords: diphtheria toxin; sordarin; diphthamide biosynthesis; DPH1-DPH7 genes diphtheria toxin; sordarin; diphthamide ... Abdel-Fattah W, Scheidt V, Uthman S, Stark MJR, Schaffrath R. Insights into Diphthamide, Key Diphtheria Toxin Effector. Toxins ... "Insights into Diphthamide, Key Diphtheria Toxin Effector." Toxins 5, no. 5: 958-968. ...
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-Diphtheria Toxin antibody (FITC) (ab68422) : Immunohistochemistry protocols, ...
This model shows the toxin produced by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the cause of diphtheria. The less stable of ... The other subunit (lower) penetrates the cell, and the toxin interferes with metabolic reactions within the cell. Diphtheria ... Caption: Diphtheria toxin , molecular model. This model shows the toxin produced by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae, ... diphtheria, diphtheria toxin, disease, helices, illustration, medical, medicine, microbiological, microbiology, molecular, ...
TRANSFER OF DELAYED HYPERSENSITIVITY TO DIPHTHERIA TOXIN IN MAN. H. S. Lawrence, A. M. Pappenheimer ... Simultaneous transfer of delayed hypersensitivity to diphtheria toxin and to tuberculin has been accomplished in eight ... Two of these sensitized individuals showed severe delayed skin reactions specifically directed against diphtheria toxin (or ... to purified diphtheria toxin and toxoid. The leucocyte extracts used for transfer contained no detectable antitoxin. The ...
Insights to the diphtheria toxin encoding prophages amongst clinical isolates of Corynebacterium diphtheriae from India.. ... Diphtheria is a dreadful disease caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Lysogenised bacteriophages carrying toxin gene in C. ... However, the two non-toxin strains did not harbour any of the phages in the genome. It is imperative to devise prevention ... However, such phage disseminates the toxin genes to other strains when it undergoes lytic phase. As little is known about the ...
Diphtheria is caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Symptoms include sore throat, fever and breathing ... Caption: Diphtheria toxin, molecular model. Diphtheria is caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Symptoms include ... diphtheria toxin, disease, disorder, exotoxin, healthcare, illness, illustration, medical, medical illustration, medicine, ...
diphtheria toxin repressor;. 3D,. three-dimensional;. NOE(SY),. nuclear Overhauser effect (spectroscopy);. HSQC,. heteronuclear ... The diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR) is the best-characterized member of a family of homologous proteins that regulate iron ... The diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR) regulates the expression of several iron-sensitive genes in Corynebacterium diphtheriae, ... Solution structure and peptide binding studies of the C-terminal Src homology 3-like domain of the diphtheria toxin repressor ...
Homologous recombination at c-fyn locus of mouse embryonic stem cells with use of diphtheria toxin A-fragment gene in negative ... Here, we report an efficacious method for such isolation in which the diphtheria toxin A-fragment gene is used to negatively ... Homologous recombination at c-fyn locus of mouse embryonic stem cells with use of diphtheria toxin A-fragment gene in negative ... Homologous recombination at c-fyn locus of mouse embryonic stem cells with use of diphtheria toxin A-fragment gene in negative ...
Solution structure and peptide binding studies of the C-terminal src homology 3-like domain of the diphtheria toxin repressor ...
This article belongs to the Special Issue Diphtheria Toxin) View Full-Text , Download PDF [927 KB, uploaded 18 June 2013] , ... Toxins 2013, 5, 1180-1201. AMA Style. Vinante F, Rigo A. Heparin-Binding Epidermal Growth Factor-like Growth Factor/Diphtheria ... Heparin-Binding Epidermal Growth Factor-like Growth Factor/Diphtheria Toxin Receptor in Normal and Neoplastic Hematopoiesis. ... Vinante, F.; Rigo, A. Heparin-Binding Epidermal Growth Factor-like Growth Factor/Diphtheria Toxin Receptor in Normal and ...
Diphtheria toxin diversification could decrease effectiveness of diphtheria toxoid vaccine and diphtheria antitoxin for ... which revealed diverse diphtheria toxin in C. ulcerans. ... Some strains of C. ulcerans can produce diphtheria toxin, which ... Diphtheria toxin diversification could decrease effectiveness of diphtheria toxoid vaccine and diphtheria antitoxin for ... ulcerans can convert to toxin-producing strains through a process of lysogeny with diphtheria toxin gene-carrying ...
No early effect of toxin on nucleic acid synthesis ... The effect of toxin on the incorporation of uridine and ... THE EFFECT OF DIPHTHERIA TOXIN ON THE METABOLISM OF HELA CELLS : II. EFFECT ON NUCLEIC ACID METABOLISM ... 19867174 - The effect of diphtheria toxin on the metabolism of hela cells : ii. effect on nucleic .... 1090594 - Utilization of ... No early effect of toxin on nucleic acid synthesis was evident and only a slight effect of toxin on nucleoside phosphate ...
The purified DT.sup.S mouse cells are highly toxin-sensitive (.about.1,000-fold more so than L-M cells and only .about.10-fold ... The DT sensitivity protein is thus a growth factor precursor which is exploited by DT, thus allowing the toxin to enter the ... library constructed from RNA of highly toxin-sensitive monkey Vero cells and with a neomycin resistance gene. One DT-sensitive ... Molecular cloning and expression of biologically-active diphtheria toxin receptor Image Number 7 for United States Patent # ...
Kreitman RJ, Pastan I: Recombinant toxins containing human GM-CSF and either Pseudomonas exotoxin or diphtheria toxin kill ... can be fused to a truncated diphtheria toxin (DT) to produce a recombinant fusion toxin that kills GM-CSF receptor-bearing ... DT388-GM-CSF is similar to DTctGM-CSF, which contains diphtheria toxin-amino acid residues 1 to 385 fused to a Ser-(Gly)4-Ser- ... Expression cloning of a diphtheria toxin receptor: Identity with a heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor precursor. Cell 1992; ...
Glu52]--Diphtheria toxin from Pseudomonas fluorescens expressed recombinant CRM197, lyophilized powder pricing ... Diphtheria toxin (DT) has shown anticancer activity in both experimental models and humans but its adverse effects stopped ... Clinical experience of treatment of metastatic melanoma and solid tumours adopting a derivative of diphtheria toxin: cross- ...
IL-2 diphtheria toxin (IL2DT, Denileukin diftitox; Ontak), is a recombinant cytotoxic fusion protein composed of the amino acid ... Clearance of acute myeloid leukemia by haploidentical natural killer cells is improved using IL-2 diphtheria toxin fusion ... Clearance of acute myeloid leukemia by haploidentical natural killer cells is improved using IL-2 diphtheria toxin fusion ... Clearance of acute myeloid leukemia by haploidentical natural killer cells is improved using IL-2 diphtheria toxin fusion ...
Diphtheria Toxin-Epidermal Growth Factor Fusion Protein DAB389EGF for the Treatment of Bladder Cancer. Xiaoping Yang, Elizabeth ... A diphtheria toxin-epidermal growth factor fusion protein is cytotoxic to human glioblastoma multiforme cells. Cancer Res 2003; ... Diphtheria toxin-murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-induced hepatotoxicity is mediated by Kupffer cells. ... DAB389EGF, which targets any EGF receptor (EGFR)-expressing cell with a modified diphtheria toxin, is well suited as a ...
Expression and Immunogenicity of a Recombinant Diphtheria Toxin Fragment A in Streptococcus gordonii. Chiang W. Lee, Song F. ... Expression and Immunogenicity of a Recombinant Diphtheria Toxin Fragment A in Streptococcus gordonii ... Expression and Immunogenicity of a Recombinant Diphtheria Toxin Fragment A in Streptococcus gordonii ... Expression and Immunogenicity of a Recombinant Diphtheria Toxin Fragment A in Streptococcus gordonii ...
THE EFFECT OF DIPHTHERIA TOXIN ON THE VITAMIN C CONTENT OF GUINEA PIG TISSUES. CARL M. LYMAN and C. G. KING ... THE EFFECT OF DIPHTHERIA TOXIN ON THE VITAMIN C CONTENT OF GUINEA PIG TISSUES. CARL M. LYMAN and C. G. KING ... THE EFFECT OF DIPHTHERIA TOXIN ON THE VITAMIN C CONTENT OF GUINEA PIG TISSUES. CARL M. LYMAN and C. G. KING ... The effect of diphtheria toxin on the vitamin C content of guinea pig tissues was studied by titration with 2,6-dichlorophenol- ...
Inability of a fusion protein of IL-2 and diphtheria toxin (Denileukin Diftitox, DAB389IL-2, ONTAK) to eliminate regulatory T ... This study examined the ability of a fusion protein of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and diphtheria toxin (Denileukin Diftitox, DAB389IL ...
Localization of diphtheria toxin receptor-binding domain to the carboxyl-terminal M∼6000 region of the toxin. J. Biol. Chem.265 ... United States standard diphtheria toxin for the Schick test and the erythema potency assay for the Schick test dose. Infect. ... We isolated a human monoclonal antibody against diphtheria toxin (DT). It bound to fragment B with a binding activity (Kd) of ... Isolation of a Human Monoclonal Antibody with Strong Neutralizing Activity against Diphtheria Toxin. Mai Kakita, Tsuyoshi ...
  • The diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR) is the best-characterized member of a family of homologous proteins that regulate iron uptake and virulence gene expression in the Gram-positive bacteria. (pnas.org)
  • The diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR) regulates the expression of several iron-sensitive genes in Corynebacterium diphtheriae , including the iron-response protein genes ( irp ), a heme oxygenase, and the diphtheria toxin gene ( tox ) ( 1 - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • The diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR) inhibits transcription of a subset of C. diphtheriae loci in response to high concentrations of Fe2+. (eurekamag.com)
  • first evidence of structural homologies with the diphtheria toxin repressor. (nih.gov)
  • These results suggest that Fur and DtxR (diphtheria toxin repressor), another bacterial repressor, share not only the function of being iron concentration regulators, and the structure of their DNA-binding domain. (nih.gov)
  • E7777 is a fusion protein that combines the interleukin-2 receptor binding domain with diphtheria toxin fragments. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Diphtheria toxin receptor-mediated condit. (mendeley.com)
  • We have developed a simple and sensitive method for conditional cell ablation in transgenic mice, called 'toxin receptor-mediated cell knockout. (mendeley.com)
  • We expressed the diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor in transgenic mice using a hepatocyte-specific promoter and found that injection of DT caused fulminant hepatitis. (mendeley.com)
  • The R domain binds to a cell surface receptor, permitting the toxin to enter the cell by receptor-mediated endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This toxin has also been used in neuroscientific and cancer research to ablate specific populations of cells which express the diphtheria toxin receptor (heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor). (wikipedia.org)
  • Administration of the toxin into the organism which does not naturally express this receptor (e.g. mice) will result in the selective ablation of the cell population which do express it. (wikipedia.org)
  • We crossed mice expressing Cre-recombinase under the FoxD1 promoter to Rosa26-loxP-STOP-loxP-iDTR mice and generated a bitransgenic line (FoxD1-Cre;Rs26-iDTR) in which FoxD1-derived cells heritably express simian or human diphtheria toxin receptor and are sensitive to DT. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This fragment binds the toxin to a membrane receptor and, after receptor-mediated endocytosis, translocates the A fragment from an acidic vesicle compartment into the cytosol, where elongation factor 2 resides (see Madshus and Stenmark [1992] for a review of diphtheria toxin and its action). (rupress.org)
  • It has previously been shown that human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) can be fused to a truncated diphtheria toxin (DT) to produce a recombinant fusion toxin that kills GM-CSF receptor-bearing cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Of the DTB MAbs, 118 recognize epitopes between residues 194 and 453, 10 recognize epitopes between residues 454 and 481, and 1 recognizes an epitope present in denatured toxin but not present in native DT located within the carboxyl-terminal receptor-binding region of DT (residues 482 to 535). (asm.org)
  • Variant diphtheria toxin-interleukin-3 fusion proteins with increased receptor affinity have enhanced cytotoxicity against acute myeloid leukemia progenitors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the current study, we used Cre-lox mice that expressed the human diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) driven by a lymphatic-specific promoter in order to noninvasively ablate the lymphatic system of the hind limb. (jci.org)
  • After binding to the cell receptor, the diphtheria toxin is taken up by endocytosis, the pH of the endocytic vesicle drops, and the translocation region of the toxin helps guide the catalytic domain into the host cytoplasm where it is released. (bioleaf.com)
  • In cell culture, diphtheria toxin inhibits protein synthesis and causes death in cells carrying the HB-EGF receptor. (bioleaf.com)
  • This toxin has been used to specifically eliminate receptor-expressing cells in transgenic mice. (bioleaf.com)
  • It is completely non-toxic, shares the strong immunogenicity of the native molecule and has a unique ability to link heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF), the specific cell membrane receptor for diphtheria toxin (DT). (crm197.it)
  • A receptor binding domain in diphtheria toxin is involved in this binding. (crm197.it)
  • Both the NAD+-binding cavity and the receptor-binding site of diphtheria toxin were chemically modified. (mdrresearch.nl)
  • A Cre-inducible diphtheria toxin receptor mediates cell lineage ablation after toxin administration. (arigobio.com)
  • The Inventors ablated adult mouse pericytes expressing Cre-dependent diphtheria toxin receptor after toxin administration. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 14. The transgenic mouse of claim 11, comprising diphtheria toxin receptor. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • There is some evidence that iron binds to a regulatory protein and that this iron-binding protein combines with a control region of the DNS of phage ß and prevents expression of the toxin gene. (everything2.com)
  • ulcerans can become toxigenic through lysogeny by beta-corynebacteriophages harboring the diphtheria toxin gene. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These knock-in vectors consisted of NLS sequence, porcine [beta]-casein 5' arm (5.1 kb), human FGF2 or EGFP cDNA, SV40 polyA, neomycin resistance gene (neo) as a positive selectable marker gene, porcine Pcasein 3'arm (2.6 kb), and the diphtheria toxin A fragment (DT-A) gene as a negative selectable marker gene (Figure 1A). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The toxin gene is encoded by a prophage called corynephage β. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1951, Freeman found that the toxin gene was not encoded on the bacterial chromosome, but by a lysogenic phage (corynephage β) infecting all toxigenic strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lysogenised bacteriophages carrying toxin gene in C. diphtheriae can make the strain toxigenic. (nih.gov)
  • Of the 27 toxigenic strains, all harbored known phages carrying toxin gene and two other phages with unknown function. (nih.gov)
  • We took advantage of this delivery pathway by conjugating an attenuated diphtheria toxin to siRNA, thereby achieving gene downregulation in patient-derived glioblastoma cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we report an efficacious method for such isolation in which the diphtheria toxin A-fragment gene is used to negatively select nonhomologous recombinants. (pnas.org)
  • At the c-fyn locus, the diphtheria-toxin negative selection enriched the recombinants about 10-fold, and half of the cells integrating with the neomycin phosphotransferase gene were homologous recombinants. (pnas.org)
  • Non-toxin-producing C. diphtheriae and C. ulcerans can convert to toxin-producing strains through a process of lysogeny with diphtheria toxin gene-carrying corynebacteriophages ( 5 - 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • We collected amino acid sequences of the diphtheria toxin and the nucleic acid sequences of the 16S rRNA gene of 6 C. diphtheriae strains and 6 C. ulcerans strains from the National Center for Biotechnology Information genome database ( https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome ). (cdc.gov)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences (A) and amino acid sequences (B) of diphtheria toxin genes of 6 Coynebacterium ulcerans strains and 6 C. ulcerans strains. (cdc.gov)
  • We found that the 16S rRNA gene sequences divided into separate C. diphtheriae and C. ulcerans strains with some sequence variability among the strains in each species ( Figure , panel A). The amino acid sequences of the toxins also divided into separate clades for each species. (cdc.gov)
  • or that C. ulcerans has a phage-independent pathway to acquire the diphtheria toxin-encoding gene, as reported ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Diversification of the C. ulcerans diphtheria toxin gene is of note because accumulation of these gene mutations potentially could lead to decreased effectiveness of the diphtheria toxoid vaccine for prevention and diphtheria antitoxin for treatment of toxigenic C. ulcerans disease. (cdc.gov)
  • DT-resistant wild-type mouse L-M cells were co-transfected with a cDNA library constructed from RNA of highly toxin-sensitive monkey Vero cells and with a neomycin resistance gene. (patentgenius.com)
  • Furthermore, we identified a putative pathogenicity island for C. ulcerans bearing a diphtheria toxin gene. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Conclusion: The novel putative diphtheria toxin pathogenicity island could provide a new and alternative pathway for Corynebacteria to acquire a functional diphtheria toxin-encoding gene by horizontal gene transfer, distinct from the previously well characterized phage infection model. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • We developed a new therapeutic strategy to target expression of the diphtheria toxin fragment A gene in ovarian tumor cells under the control of H19 regulatory sequences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Respiratory diphtheria, characterized by a firmly adherent pseudomembrane, is caused by toxin-producing strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae, with similar illness produced occasionally by toxigenic C. ulcerans or, rarely, C. pseudotuberculosis While diphtheria laboratory confirmation requires culture methods to determine toxigenicity, real time (RT-)PCR provides a faster method to detect the toxin gene ( tox ). (cdc.gov)
  • Diphtheria strains infected by a beta-phage, which carries a toxin-encoding gene, produce a potent toxin. (merckmanuals.com)
  • The CRM197 (Cross-reacting material 197) pertains to a group of mutant diphtheria toxins obtained in the early 1970s from strain of Corynebacterium diphtheriae lysogenized with β -phages carrying a mutated tox gene. (crm197.it)
  • Unusually, the toxin gene is encoded by a bacteriophage (a virus that infects bacteria). (leparisien.fr)
  • Some strains of these bacterial species may carry the tox gene (which encodes the diphtheria toxin) and are therefore capable of producing the diphtheria toxin , which is responsible for severe clinical manifestations of diphtheria. (pasteur.fr)
  • abstract = "The heavy chains of both botulinum neurotoxin type B and tetanus toxin form channels in planar bilayer membranes. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Regions of both colicin Ia and diphtheria toxin N-terminal to the channel-forming domains can be translocated across planar phospholipid bilayer membranes. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "The temperature and guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) dependence of the structural stability of diphtheria toxin has been investigated by high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry. (elsevier.com)
  • A diluted form of diphtheria toxin is used as part of a routine childhood vaccination schedule in most countries. (wisegeek.com)
  • A fusion protein linking a truncated form of diphtheria toxin (DT(388)) to human interleukin-3 (DT(388)IL3) kills malignant progenitors from some patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) while sparing normal progenitors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Certain strains produce diphtheria toxin and can cause a serious condition similar to diphtheria infection (7). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Certain strains of the bacteria can be activated by iron from the bloodstream, however, causing toxins to be excreted. (wisegeek.com)
  • However, such phage disseminates the toxin genes to other strains when it undergoes lytic phase. (nih.gov)
  • However, the two non-toxin strains did not harbour any of the phages in the genome. (nih.gov)
  • Some strains of C. ulcerans can produce diphtheria toxin, which causes respiratory diphtheria in humans and animals. (cdc.gov)
  • A report evaluating the differences in the amino acid sequences of the diphtheria toxins in C. diphtheriae and C. ulcerans used only limited data, comparing 1 strain of C. diphtheriae against 2 strains of C. ulcerans ( 8 ), leaving the differences among the toxins of these 2 species unclear. (cdc.gov)
  • the strains also had highest levels of toxin production (over 5120 Vero CD50/ml). (eurekamag.com)
  • Other strains were characterized either as high-level toxin-producing (640-5120 Vero CD50/ml, 41 strains) or low-level toxin-producing (40-320 Vero CD50/ml, 38 strains). (eurekamag.com)
  • The first mutation at the -184 position was mapped outside the tox promoter/operator, whereas the second substitution at the -54 position modified the 9-base-pair interrupted palindromic sequence of the tox promoter/operator from ATAATTAGG in the wild-type bacteriophage (to ACAATTAGG in strains with enhanced level of toxin production. (eurekamag.com)
  • Seven of these strains were identified as high-level toxin-producing and 4 strains, as low-level toxin-producing. (eurekamag.com)
  • In addition, one low-level toxin-producing strain was shown to contain a missense mutation leading to amino acid substitution I 221 T. Three strains, including two highest-level toxin producing strains contained no nucleotide substitutions, as well as the C7(-) strain. (eurekamag.com)
  • The 10 strains belonging to the Sankt-Peterburg and Rossija epidemic ribotypes as well as NCTC 13129 strain (etiologic agent of the diphtheria epidemic outbreak in the Eastern Europe) was shown to contain two mutations A 147 V and L 214 I in the C-terminal region of the DtxR protein. (eurekamag.com)
  • Mouse anti Diptheria toxin antibody, clone 8G1 recognises diphtheria toxin (DT), secreted by certain strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae . (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • A preliminary characterization of these lysogenic strains identified a new class of CRMS which were antigenically and enzymatically Indistinguishable from wild-type toxin but were considerably less cytotoxic for Vero cells. (dtic.mil)
  • Diphtheria is an acute pharyngeal or cutaneous infection caused mainly by toxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae and rarely by other, less common Corynebacterium sp. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Diphtheria toxin is one of the best investigated bacterial toxins and the major virulence factor of toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans strains. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • However, also diphtheria toxin-free strains of these two species can cause severe infections in animals and humans, indicating the presence of additional virulence factors. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Most of these complications are caused by diphtheria toxin which is a Polypeptide Exotoxin that enters the cell, inactivates Elongation Factor-2 and inhibits protein synthesis causing local tissue necrosis3. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The toxin causes the disease in humans by gaining entry into the cell cytoplasm and inhibiting protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NH 2 -terminal A fragment (190, 192, or 193 amino acids, depending on where in the arginine-rich loop connecting the two fragments the protease has "nicked" the toxin) is an enzyme that catalyzes the ADP-ribosylation of elongation factor 2, thereby stopping protein synthesis and leading to cell death. (rupress.org)
  • Cells were incubated with varying concentrations of recombinant fusion toxin for 48 hours and incorporation of 3 H-leucine (protein synthesis), segmentation of nuclei after DAPI staining (apoptosis), and colony formation in 0.2% agarose (clonogenicity) were measured. (bloodjournal.org)
  • These polypeptide drugs consist of myeloid leukemia-directed ligands covalently linked to protein synthesis inactivating peptide toxins. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Extensive experience both preclinically and clinically with diphtheria fusion toxins suggested this protein synthesis-inactivating peptide could efficiently kill malignant cells in vitro and in vivo. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Peptide toxins, which catalytically inactivate protein synthesis, have been re-engineered to selectively bind and intoxicate tumor cells. (umn.edu)
  • Within the cytoplasm, the diphtheria toxin catalytic domain ADP ribosylates EF-2, terminating protein synthesis and causing the death of the cell. (bioleaf.com)
  • The inhibition of protein synthesis in Vero cells by CRM9 and wild-type toxin proceeded at the same rate when equally toxic doses of each protein were compared. (dtic.mil)
  • The recommended public health response for cutaneous diphtheria is similar to that for respiratory diphtheria and includes treating the index patient with antibiotics, identifying close contacts and observing them for development of diphtheria, providing chemoprophylaxis to close contacts, testing patients and close contacts for C. diphtheriae carriage in the nose and throat, and providing diphtheria toxoid-containing vaccine to incompletely immunized patients and close contacts. (cdc.gov)
  • When a person inhales C. diphtheriae spores, they imbed in the throat and respiratory tract and begin to release toxins. (wisegeek.com)
  • Diphtheria Toxin & CRM Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a Gram-positive, bacterium which infects epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tract and produces diphtheria toxin. (bioleaf.com)
  • 1 Pertussis and Diphtheria Laboratory, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA [email protected] (cdc.gov)
  • Corynebacterium diphtheriae usually infect the nasopharynx (respiratory diphtheria) or skin. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Classical diphtheria of the upper respiratory tract, which is transmitted by breathing or coughing, is characterized by a thick pseudomembrane, which forms as a result of cell damage and fibrin deposition. (springer.com)
  • In tropical and subtropical regions respiratory tract diphtheria is outnumbered by diphtheria of the skin. (springer.com)
  • The bacteria that cause diphtheria spread through respiratory droplets (such as from a cough or sneeze) of an infected person or someone who carries the bacteria but has no symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • While respiratory diphtheria is now extremely rare, non-respiratory infections caused by toxin-producing bacteria have recently been detected. (cdc.gov)
  • both respiratory and non-respiratory disease caused by toxin-producing bacteria require public health follow-up. (cdc.gov)
  • Cases of laboratory-confirmed, non-toxin-producing C. diphtheriae (respiratory or non-respiratory) should not be reported by state or local health departments to CDC as diphtheria cases. (cdc.gov)
  • Diphtheria typically manifests as a respiratory infection that causes impairment of the central nervous system, the throat and other organs, resulting in death by suffocation. (pasteur.fr)
  • The typical manifestation of diphtheria is an infection of the upper respiratory tract which can result in paralysis of the central nervous system or of the diaphragm and throat, leading to death by suffocation. (pasteur.fr)
  • Respiratory diphtheria , the most common form of the disease, is characterized by sore throat, fever, a swollen neck and headache. (pasteur.fr)
  • Iron concentration in the environment in which the bacteria are growing has an effect on toxin production. (everything2.com)
  • In 1890, Emil Adolf von Behring developed an anti-toxin based on the blood of horses immunized with attenuated bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial t's toxins produced by bacteria, including exotoxins , endotoxins , enterotoxins , neurotoxins , and toxic enzymes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Diphtheria is a paradigm of an infectious disease caused by the toxigenic bacteria Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans . (springer.com)
  • Once you are infected, the bacteria make dangerous substances called toxins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bacterial toxins are involved in the pathogenesis of many bacteria, some of which are responsible for severe diseases in human and animals, but can also be used as tools in cell biology to dissect cellular processes or used as therapeutic agents. (elsevier.com)
  • This diphtheria surveillance case definition better reflects the epidemiology of diphtheria in the U.S, in order to focus efforts on identifying disease caused by toxin-producing bacteria and appropriately guide public health interventions. (cdc.gov)
  • Diphtheria, from the Greek word for "leather" (describing the appearance of the pseudomembranes that form in patients), is an infection caused by a bacteria of the genus Corynebacterium that belong to the diphtheriae complex (the taxonomic group comprising Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Corynebacterium belfantii, Corynebacterium rouxii, Corynebacterium ulcerans, Corynebacterium silvaticum and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis ). (pasteur.fr)
  • In our body, the Diphtheria Toxin (Corynebacterium Diphtheriae Toxin) , an exogenous ADP-ribosylating polypeptidee , produced by the toxigenic bacteria Corynebacterium diphtheriae , which can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • Diphtheria toxin is the main virulence factor of Corynebacterium diphtheriae which causes the disease diphtheria . (everything2.com)
  • All patients had wound culture grew group A Streptococcus, Pseudomonas , and recently returned to the United States after travel to countries a coryneform isolate (identified as C. diphtheriae via MALDI- where diphtheria is endemic. (cdc.gov)
  • All isolates were identified as toxin-producing C. diphtheriae . (cdc.gov)
  • isolate (identified as C. diphtheriae via MALDI-TOF and In February 2018, a New Mexico man aged 42 years returned confirmed as toxin-producing) grew from the wound culture from the Philippines with an exudative lower leg wound (Figure). (cdc.gov)
  • Toxin-producing Corynebacterium diphtheriae was identified in cutaneous wounds from four U.S. residents after return from international travel. (cdc.gov)
  • Public health response for toxin-producing diphtheria includes treating patients, providing chemoprophylaxis to close contacts, testing patients and close contacts for C. diphtheriae carriage, and providing diphtheria toxoid-containing vaccine to incompletely immunized patients and close contacts. (cdc.gov)
  • From September 2015 to March 2018, CDC confirmed four cases of cutaneous diphtheria caused by toxin-producing Corynebacterium diphtheriae in patients from Minnesota (two), Washington (one), and New Mexico (one). (cdc.gov)
  • State public health laboratories confirmed C. diphtheriae through culture and sent isolates to CDC's Pertussis and Diphtheria Laboratory for biotyping, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, and toxin production testing. (cdc.gov)
  • Staphylococcus aureus and a coryneform isolate (identified as C. diphtheriae via MALDI-TOF and confirmed as toxin-producing) grew from the wound culture ( Table ). (cdc.gov)
  • The wound culture grew group A Streptococcus, Pseudomonas , and a coryneform isolate (identified as C. diphtheriae via MALDI-TOF and confirmed as toxin-producing). (cdc.gov)
  • Diphtheria toxin is a chemical that is secreted by an infectious bacterium called Corynebacterium diphtheriae, or C. diphtheriae . (wisegeek.com)
  • Extensive medical research has been performed on C. diphtheriae and the diphtheria toxin. (wisegeek.com)
  • Diphtheria toxin is not always released by C. diphtheriae , and non-active infections generally do not cause health problems. (wisegeek.com)
  • Blood and sputum tests can confirm the presence of C. diphtheriae and indicate whether or not toxins have been released. (wisegeek.com)
  • This model shows the toxin produced by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the cause of diphtheria. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Insights to the diphtheria toxin encoding prophages amongst clinical isolates of Corynebacterium diphtheriae from India. (nih.gov)
  • Diphtheria is a dreadful disease caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. (nih.gov)
  • Diphtheria is caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. (sciencephoto.com)
  • This Diphtheria toxin was highly purified from the growth media of Corynebacterium diphtheriae strain PW8 as mostly unnicked form. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Although increased coverage of the diphtheria toxoid vaccine has reduced the frequency of C. diphtheriae infections, reports of C. ulcerans infections in humans are increasing. (cdc.gov)
  • Diphtheria toxin is secreted from Corynebacterium diphtheriae as a single polypeptide chain containing two major domains: A chain (amino-terminal, 193 residues), which carries the active site for adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation of elongation factor-2, and B chain (carboxyl-terminal, 342 residues), which promotes binding of toxin to cells and the entry of the A chain into the cytosolic compartment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. (uchicago.edu)
  • Mutants of corynebacteriophage Beta were isolated that coded for the production of mutant forms of diphtheria toxin cross-reacting materials, CRMs that were reduced in cytotoxicity due to defects in the fragment B. A sensitive cytotoxicity assay was used to screen the supernatants of cultures of Corynebacterium diphtheriae that were infected with the mutagenized Beta phages. (dtic.mil)
  • Diphtheria is an acute infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Diphtheria is caused by toxin-producing Corynebacterium diphtheriae (C. diphtheriae) . (cdc.gov)
  • Individuals without evidence of clinical criteria as described by the diphtheria surveillance case definition but for whom toxin-producing Corynebacterium diphtheriae is confirmed via laboratory testing (isolation and toxigenicity testing by modified Elek test or other validated test capable of confirming toxin-production) should not be classified as cases. (cdc.gov)
  • PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and MALDI-TOF (matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry) diagnostics for C. diphtheriae , when used alone, do not confirm toxin production. (cdc.gov)
  • Diphtheria is a disease caused by several Corynebacterium species in the diphtheriae complex. (pasteur.fr)
  • Most of these cases were cutaneous diphtheria, and in contrast to C. diphtheriae cases, all C. ulcerans cases were indigenous, and some of the patients died from their infection. (pasteur.fr)
  • More information is available on the website of the National Reference Center (CNR) for Corynebacteria of the Diphtheriae Complex and in the guidelines published by the French High Council for Public Health (HCSP) on how to deal with a case of diphtheria. (pasteur.fr)
  • A large panel of hybridomas, secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for diphtheria toxin (DT) and prepared by immunization with either intact DT or its A or B fragment (DTA or DTB), have been isolated and characterized. (asm.org)
  • Diphtheria is now rare in developed countries because childhood immunization is widespread. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Nevertheless, immunization using a highly effective toxoid vaccine is the mean of choice for diphtheria control. (springer.com)
  • Adacel is a vaccine indicated for active booster immunization against tetanus , diphtheria and pertussis . (rxlist.com)
  • Because of widespread vaccination (immunization) of children, diphtheria is now rare in many parts of the world. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Risk factors for diphtheria include crowded environments, poor hygiene, and lack of immunization. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Anyone who has come into contact with an infected person should get an immunization or booster shot against diphtheria, if they have not already received it. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pentacel is a vaccine indicated for active immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis and invasive disease due to Haemophilus influenzae type b. (nih.gov)
  • The production of stable hybrid cell lines that secrete human monoclonal antibodies against bacterial toxins by fusing post-immunization human peripheral blood lymphocytes with nonsecretor mouse myeloma cells is described. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Ablation of Pericyte-Like Cells in Lungs by Oropharyngeal Aspiration of Diphtheria Toxin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Visit our blog to learn more about cell ablation using diptheria toxin + List Labs' other products, services, and research. (bioleaf.com)
  • A brain-sparing diphtheria toxin for chemical genetic ablation of peripheral cell lineages. (cam.ac.uk)
  • It uses diphtheria toxin (truncated by the cell binding domain) coupled to an antibody to CD3ε (UCHT1). (wikipedia.org)
  • We isolated a human monoclonal antibody against diphtheria toxin (DT). (asm.org)
  • MOUSE ANTI DIPHTHERIA TOXIN-MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY antibody storage GENTAUR recommends for long therm storage to freeze at -24 C. For short time storage up to 30 days we suggest fridge storage at 1 to 10 C. Prevent multiple freeze taw cycles of MOUSE ANTI DIPHTHERIA TOXIN-MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Mouse anti Diptheria toxin antibody, clone 8G1 (3710-0100) is specific for the intact toxin/toxoid and does not react with free A or B subunits. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Diphtheria toxin antibody is in a phosphate saline buffer with BSA (10mg/ml) and preserved with 0.002% thimerosal. (vwr.com)
  • It consists of two fragments, Fragment A (active) at the aminoterminal end, which is the toxic fragment and Fragment B (binding) which attaches the toxin to the host cells (or to any eukaryotic cell ). (everything2.com)
  • Fragment A is only produced after uptake of the toxin, by protease cleavage and reduction of the disulphide bonds . (everything2.com)
  • A single bacterium can produce 5000 toxin molecules an hour and the toxic fragment is so stable within the cell that a single molecule can kill a cell. (everything2.com)
  • Single promoter vectors expressing diphtheria toxin A-fragment (DTA) under the control regulation of IGF2-P4 or H19 regulatory sequences (IGF2-P4-DTA and H19-DTA) were previously successfully used in cell lines, animal models and recently in human patients with superficial cell carcinoma of the bladder (treated with H19-DTA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hence, a double promoter DTA-expressing vector was created, carrying on a single construct two separate genes expressing the diphtheria toxin A-fragment (DTA), from two different regulatory sequences, selected from the cancer-specific promoters H19 and IGF2-P4. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Diphtheria Toxin, CRM197 Mutant, CAS 92092-36-9, is a nontoxic material with a glycine to glutamic acid mutation at amino acid 52 in fragment A, resulting in the complete loss of enzymatic activity. (emdmillipore.com)
  • CRM 197 is a nontoxic diphtheria toxin that has a glycine to glutamic acid mutation at amino acid 52 in fragment A, resulting in the complete loss of enzymatic activity. (emdmillipore.com)
  • This analysis has permitted a more thorough characterization of the partially unfolded intermediate believed to exist during the membrane translocation of the toxin A fragment. (elsevier.com)
  • Its N-terminal A fragment kills cells by enzymatically inactivating their protein synthetic machinery, while its C-terminal B-fragment (40 kD) is required for binding of toxin to the cell surface and for translocation of the A fragment from the extracellular space into the cytosol. (yu.edu)
  • After an introduction to diphtheria toxin in Chapter 1, I present results demonstrating that a 61 amino acid region within the B fragment is sufficient to form channels with single-channel conductances and selectivities virtually identical to those of the wild-type channel (Chapter 2). (yu.edu)
  • 1. A continuous cell line which produces human anti-exotixin antibodies, comprising: a stable fused cell hybrid of a human peripheral blood lymphocyte immunized by a toxin, or an imunogenic fragment thereof, or a toxoid prepared from an exotoxin, or an immunogenic fragment thereof, and a mouse myeloma cell, in which the antibodies are capable of neutralizing exotoxin. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Diphtheria toxin is a single polypeptide chain of 535 amino acids consisting of two subunits linked by disulfide bridges, known as an A-B toxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diphtheria toxin is a single polypeptide chain of 535 amino acids (58 kD) and nicked by cellular protease like furin to give fragments A (N-terminal, 21 kDa) and B (C-terminal, 37 kDa) which are linked by disulfide bridges. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Diphtheria toxin is a simple protein consisting of a single polypeptide chain of 62,000 daltons. (springer.com)
  • The toxin is secreted as a single polypeptide chain of about 63 kDa, it is then processed to form A and B fragments both of which appear to be required for toxicity. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Similar to other A-B toxins, diphtheria toxin is adept at transporting exogenous proteins across mammalian cell membranes, which are usually impermeable to large proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This unique ability can be repurposed to deliver therapeutic proteins, instead of the catalytic domain of the toxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Uchida, Pappenheimer, Harper: "Diphtheria toxin and related proteins. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Neville D.M., Jr. / Chimeric fusion proteins - Diphtheria toxin-based . (umn.edu)
  • I. Isolation and properties of mutant proteins serologically related to diphtheria toxin. (crm197.it)
  • The corresponding proteins show striking structural similarity to Shiga-like toxins. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Background: Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans can cause a diphtheria-like illness in humans and have been found in domestic animals, which were suspected to serve as reservoirs for a zoonotic transmission. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Additionally, toxigenic C. ulcerans were reported to take over the leading role in causing diphtheria in the last years in many industrialized countries. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • It should be noted that cellular uptake of the DT-A protein requires the B chain of diphtheria toxin, but is not present in the plasmid or in any normal cell [ 8 - 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In particular, the folded A chain of diphtheria toxin is readily translocated by that toxin but is not translocated by colicin Ia. (elsevier.com)
  • Diphtheria toxin diversification could decrease effectiveness of diphtheria toxoid vaccine and diphtheria antitoxin for preventing and treating illnesses caused by this bacterium. (cdc.gov)
  • Adacel vaccine is a sterile isotonic suspension of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids and pertussis antigens adsorbed on aluminum phosphate, for intramuscular injection. (rxlist.com)
  • however, Adacel vaccine is formulated with reduced quantities of diphtheria and detoxified PT. (rxlist.com)
  • Becoming infected with diphtheria, pertussis, or tetanus is much more dangerous to your health than receiving this vaccine. (rxlist.com)
  • Tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and measles are vaccine preventable diseases that have been reported to cause morbidity and mortality in adult population in the recent years. (nih.gov)
  • We demonstrated very low rates of protection against three of the vaccine preventable diseases of childhood-diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus. (nih.gov)
  • Severe allergic reaction (eg, anaphylaxis) after a previous dose of Pentacel, any ingredient of Pentacel, or any other diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, pertussis-containing vaccine, inactivated poliovirus vaccine or H. influenzae type b vaccine. (nih.gov)
  • The diphtheria vaccine is the only way of controlling this severe infection. (pasteur.fr)
  • The vaccine is composed of purified, inactivated diphtheria toxin. (pasteur.fr)
  • We conducted phylogenetic analyses of C. ulcerans and C. diptheriae , which revealed diverse diphtheria toxin in C. ulcerans . (cdc.gov)
  • Corynebacterium ulcerans is a rod-shaped, aerobic, gram-positive bacterium closely related to C. diphtheria . (cdc.gov)
  • Humans can contract toxin-producing C. ulcerans from companion animals ( 2 , 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Diphtheria toxin is extraordinarily potent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of the potent translation inhibitor, diphtheria toxin A subunit, from the Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) HAP2 ( GCS1 ) promoter blocked sperm development before the final cell division, resulting in pollen tubes that carried a single sperm-like cell rather than two sperm. (plantphysiol.org)
  • tetanus toxin the potent exotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani , consisting of two components, one a neurotoxin (tetanospasmin) and the other a hemolysin (tetanolysin) . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The substance secreted by the diphtheria bacillus is one of the most potent poisons known: one milligram of it is enough to kill 1,000 tons of guinea pig. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Diphtheria toxin is highly potent, and as little as one catalytic domain is thought to cause cell death. (bioleaf.com)
  • The toxin binds to heparin-binding epidermal growth factor precursor (HB-EGF). (wikipedia.org)
  • The other subunit (lower) penetrates the cell, and the toxin interferes with metabolic reactions within the cell. (sciencephoto.com)
  • 7F2 reacts with the epitope exposed on free A-subunit and on whole Diphtheria toxin molecule. (arigobio.com)
  • It does not react with free B-subunit of Diphtheria toxin. (arigobio.com)
  • Cutaneous diphtheria has not been notifiable in the United States since 1980, and U.S. disease incidence data are limited. (cdc.gov)
  • This report summarizes the patient clinical information and response efforts conducted by the Minnesota, Washington, and New Mexico state health departments and CDC and emphasizes that health care providers should consider cutaneous diphtheria as a diagnosis in travelers with wound infections who have returned from countries with endemic diphtheria. (cdc.gov)
  • Poor personal and community hygiene contributes to the spread of cutaneous diphtheria. (merckmanuals.com)
  • thus, toxin complications are rare in cutaneous diphtheria. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Most cases were cutaneous diphtheria. (pasteur.fr)
  • Diphtheria toxin is synthesized as a single polypeptide (535 amino acids ) with a molecular weight of 62000. (everything2.com)
  • Diphtheria has largely been eradicated in developed countries due to vaccination efforts, but the disease still affects thousands of people a year in poorer regions without access to quality health-care. (wisegeek.com)
  • Adults who have never had diphtheria can also receive the vaccination. (wisegeek.com)
  • However, a fatal case was reported in a person who received a diphtheria vaccination booster ≈10 years before disease onset ( 10 ). (cdc.gov)
  • DTD is inactivated toxin that is used for vaccination. (asm.org)
  • Mucosal vaccination against diphtheria using starch microparticles as adjuvant for cross-reacting material (CRM197) of diphtheria toxin. (diva-portal.org)
  • However, after the breakup of the former Soviet Union, vaccination rates in its constituent countries fell, followed by a marked rise in diphtheria cases. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Pertussis and Diphtheria Laboratory for biotyping, polymerase treatment was administered. (cdc.gov)
  • Diphtheria toxin is an exotoxin secreted by Corynebacterium, the pathogenic bacterium that causes diphtheria. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also the basis for the toxicity of bacterial compounds such as cholera toxin, diphtheria toxin, and others. (wikipedia.org)
  • The drug denileukin diftitox uses diphtheria toxin as an antineoplastic agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study examined the ability of a fusion protein of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and diphtheria toxin (Denileukin Diftitox, DAB389IL-2, ONTAK) to eliminate regulatory T lymphocytes based on their expression of high-affinity IL-2 receptors. (nih.gov)
  • A number of MAbs were able to detect epitopes that became more or less accessible when the toxin was preincubated at acidic (endosomal-mimicking) pH, suggesting that the epitopes they recognize may be important in the low-pH-induced insertion and/or translocation of DT across the endosomal membrane. (asm.org)
  • In this article we show that the translocation pathway of diphtheria toxin allows much larger molecules to be translocated than does the translocation pathway of colicin Ia. (elsevier.com)
  • This difference cannot be attributed to specific recognition of the A chain by diphtheria toxin's translocation pathway because the translocation pathway also accommodates folded myoglobin. (elsevier.com)
  • The two commonly engineered bacterial toxins are Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE) and diphtheria toxin (DT). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As discussed below, the engineered toxin components in the majority of the RITs are from either Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE) or diphtheria toxin (DT) [16, 17]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • extracellular toxin exotoxin . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Activity test: Addition of 20 ~30 pg/mL of Diphtheria toxin in growth medium caused 50 % lethality after 43 h in Vero cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The purified DT.sup.S mouse cells are highly toxin-sensitive (.about.1,000-fold more so than L-M cells and only .about.10-fold less than Vero cells) and are protected from DT toxicity on incubation with a nontoxic competitive DT inhibitor (CRM 197). (patentgenius.com)
  • Those MAbs that were the most protective in a cytotoxicity assay recognized native toxin in solution and inhibited binding of radiolabeled toxin to Vero cells to the greatest extent. (asm.org)
  • Purified CRM9 was approximately 1,000-fold less toxic than diphtheria toxin in Vero cell cytotoxicity tests. (dtic.mil)
  • 125 I-labeled CRM9 did not bind specifically to membrane receptors on Vero cells under conditions where specific binding of 125 I-labeled diphtheria toxin could be demonstrated. (dtic.mil)
  • Competition between CRM9 and diphtheria toxin for cell membrane receptors could .not be demonstrated directly in Vero cell cytotoxicity assays however, CRM197 afforded complete protection to Vero cells from intoxication by both CRM9 and diphtheria toxin. (dtic.mil)
  • Diphtheria toxin (DT) inhibits eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2) by ADP-ribosylation in a fashion that requires diphthamide, a modified histidine residue on eEF2. (mdpi.com)
  • Diphtheria toxin catalyzes ADP-ribosylation of eukaryotic aminoacyltransferase II (EF2) using NAD as substrate. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Epidemiologic linkage requires direct contact with a laboratory-confirmed case of diphtheria. (cdc.gov)
  • lack of epidemiologic linkage to a laboratory-confirmed case of diphtheria. (cdc.gov)
  • The therapeutic potential of the double promoter toxin vector H19-DTA-IGF2-P4-DTA was tested in TCC cell lines and in heterotopic and orthotopic animal models of bladder cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tissue cultures were apparently uninjured by the presence of the toxin in the dilutions used in these experiments, and, when washed with embryo extract after removal of the diluted toxin, continued to grow. (rupress.org)
  • In 42 patients, donor NK cell expansion was detected in 10%, whereas in 15 patients receiving host Treg depletion with the IL-2-diphtheria fusion protein (IL2DT), the rate was 27%, with a median absolute count of 1000 NK cells/μL blood. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Kuzel TM, Rosen ST, Gordon LI, Winter J, Samuelson E, Kaul K, Roenigk HH, Nylen P, Woodworth T. Phase I trial of the diphtheria toxin/interleukin-2 fusion protein DAB486IL-2: efficacy in mycosis fungoides and other non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. (uchicago.edu)
  • The diphtheria toxin has the same mechanism of action as the enzyme NAD(+)-diphthamide ADP-ribosyltransferase (EC 2.4.2.36). (wikipedia.org)
  • Considerable progress has been made in understanding the structure, function, interaction and trafficking into cells, as well as mechanism of action of toxins. (elsevier.com)
  • Structure-function analyses of diphtheria toxin by use of monoclonal antibodies. (asm.org)
  • Using the method, protective monoclonal antibodies against tetanus toxin and diphtheria toxin were produced that bind tetanus toxin and diphtheria toxin in vitro, respectively, and prevent tetanus and diphtheria in vivo in animals, respectively. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The degree of immunity to DT in the serum of each person should be critical for determination of susceptibility to diphtheria. (asm.org)
  • The patient and household contacts were unimmunized but refused diphtheria toxoid-containing vaccines. (cdc.gov)
  • Proceedings of an informal consultation on the World Health Organization requirements for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and combined vaccines. (rxlist.com)
  • Novel recombinant toxins are already proposed in the treatment of some diseases, as well as new vaccines. (elsevier.com)
  • Immunologically, the CRM 197 protein is identical to the wild-type toxin. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Toxins efficiently deliver cargo to cells by binding to cell surface ligands, initiating endocytosis, and escaping the endolysosomal pathway into the cytoplasm. (sciencemag.org)
  • No early effect of toxin on nucleic acid synthesis was evident and only a slight effect of toxin on nucleoside phosphate formation was found prior to 1.5 hours after toxin addition. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A person who shows possible symptoms of diphtheria should be evaluated by a doctor as soon as possible. (wisegeek.com)
  • Bacterial toxins characteristically do not cause symptoms until after a period of incubation while the microbes multiply, or (as happens with botulism) the preformed toxin reaches and affects the tissue. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Usually only a few toxin-producing agents are introduced into the body, and it is not until there are enough of them to overwhelm the leukocytes and other types of antibodies that symptoms occur. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In some cases of food poisoning, symptoms are almost immediate because the toxin is taken directly with the food. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • People without symptoms who carry diphtheria should be treated with antibiotics. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Diphtheria toxin (DT), a member of the class of peptide toxins, has been subjected to structural and genetic analysis and protein engineering for several decades. (umn.edu)
  • One such novel class of AML therapeutics is targeted toxin molecules. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Moreover, A fragments and B fragments were cross-linked by formaldehyde on part of the diphtheria toxoid molecules. (mdrresearch.nl)
  • Blood samples for tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and measles antibodies were obtained. (nih.gov)
  • 3. A continuous cell line which produces human anit-tetanus toxin antibodies, comprising: a stable fused cell hybrid of a tetanus toxin-immunized or toxoid-immunized human peripheral blood lymphocyte and a mouse myeloma cell, in which the anitbodies are capable of neutralizing tetanus toxin. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids are individually adsorbed onto aluminum phosphate. (rxlist.com)
  • The DT sensitivity protein is thus a growth factor precursor which is exploited by DT, thus allowing the toxin to enter the cell. (patentgenius.com)
  • After a course of 4 injections of 25ng of Diphtheria Toxin per gram bodyweight, we observed a successful depletion of L2pB1 cell population. (bu.edu)
  • Given the multifaceted aspects of toxin research and the multidisciplinary approaches adopted, toxins are of great interest in many scientific areas from microbiology, virology, cell biology to biochemistry and protein structure. (elsevier.com)