An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.
A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.
The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.
An antitoxin produced against the toxin of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that is used for the treatment of DIPHTHERIA.
A species of gram-positive, asporogenous bacteria in which three cultural types are recognized. These types (gravis, intermedius, and mitis) were originally given in accordance with the clinical severity of the cases from which the different strains were most frequently isolated. This species is the causative agent of DIPHTHERIA.
Peptide Elongation Factor 2 catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A site to the P site of eukaryotic ribosomes by a process linked to the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP.
A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.
A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.
Ribosome inactivating proteins consisting of two polypeptide chains, the toxic A subunit and a lectin B subunit, linked by disulfide bridges. The lectin portion binds to cell surfaces and facilitates transport into the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.
A toxic lectin from the seeds of jequirity, Abrus precatorius L. Very active poison. Five different proteins have so far been isolated: Abrus agglutinin, the component responsible for: hemagglutinating activity, & abrins a-d, the toxic principals each consisting of two peptide chains are held together by disulfide bonds.
Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Protein factors uniquely required during the elongation phase of protein synthesis.
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.
Substances which, when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed, or when applied to, injected into, or developed within the body in relatively small amounts may, by their chemical action, cause damage to structure or disturbance of function. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.
Inorganic compounds that contain fluorine as an integral part of the molecule.
A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CORYNEBACTERIUM.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.

Diphtheria toxin effects on human cells in tissue culture. (1/946)

HeLa cells exposed to a single sublethal concentration of diphtheria toxin were found to have diminished sensitivity when subsequently reexposed to the toxin. Three cells strains exhibiting toxin resistance were developed. In the cells that had previously been exposed to toxin at 0.015 mug/ml, 50% inhibition of protein synthesis required a toxin concentration of 0.3 mug/ml, which is more than 10 times that required in normal HeLa cells. There appears to be a threshold level of diphtheria toxin action. Concentrations of toxin greater than that required for 50% inhibition of protein synthesis (0.01 mug/ml) are associated with cytotoxicity, whereas those below this concentration may not be lethal. Several established human cell lines of both normal and neoplastic origin were tested for their sensitivity to the effects of the toxin. No special sensitivity was observed with the cells of tumor origin. Fifty % inhibition of protein synthesis of HeLa cells was achieved with diphtheria toxin (0.01 mug/ml) as compared to the normal human cell lines tested (0.03 and 0.5 mug/ml) and a cell line derived from a human pancreatic adenocarcinoma (0.2 mug/ml). A human breast carcinoma cell line showed a maximum of 45% inhibition of protein synthesis. This required a diphtheria toxin concentration of 5 mug/ml. These results suggest that different human cell lines show wide variation in their sensitivity to the toxin.  (+info)

Endoprotease PACE4 is Ca2+-dependent and temperature-sensitive and can partly rescue the phenotype of a furin-deficient cell strain. (2/946)

PACE4 is a member of the eukaryotic subtilisin-like endoprotease family. The expression of human PACE4 in RPE.40 cells (furin-null mutants derived from Chinese hamster ovary K1 cells) resulted in the rescue of a number of wild-type characteristics, including sensitivity to Sindbis virus and the ability to process the low-density-lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Expression of PACE4 in these cells failed to restore wild-type sensitivity to Pseudomonas exotoxin A. Co-expression of human PACE4 in these cells with either a secreted form of the human insulin pro-receptor or the precursor form of von Willebrand factor resulted in both proproteins being processed; RPE.40 cells were unable to process either precursor protein in the absence of co-expressed PACE4. Northern analysis demonstrated that untransfected RPE.40 cells express mRNA species for four PACE4 isoforms, suggesting that any endogenous PACE4 proteins produced by these cells are either non-functional or sequestered in a compartment outside of the secretory pathway. In experiments in vitro, PACE4 processed diphtheria toxin and anthrax toxin protective antigen, but not Pseudomonas exotoxin A. The activity of PACE4 in vitro was Ca2+-dependent and, unlike furin, was sensitive to temperature changes between 22 and 37 degrees C. RPE.40 cells stably expressing human PACE4 secreted an endoprotease with the same Ca2+ dependence and temperature sensitivity as that observed in membrane fractions of these cells assayed in vitro. These results, in conjunction with other published work, demonstrate that PACE4 is an endoprotease with more stringent substrate specificity and more limited operating parameters than furin.  (+info)

Interaction of diphtheria toxin T domain with molten globule-like proteins and its implications for translocation. (3/946)

The transmembrane (T) domain of diphtheria toxin has a critical role in the low pH-induced translocation of the catalytic domain (A chain) of the toxin across membranes. Here it is shown that at low pH, addition of proteins in a partly unfolded, molten globule-like conformation converted the T domain from a shallow membrane-inserted form to its transmembrane form. Fluorescence energy transfer demonstrated that molten globule-like proteins bound to the T domain. Thus, the T domain recognizes proteins that are partly unfolded and may function in translocation of the A chain as a transmembrane chaperone.  (+info)

Translocation of the catalytic domain of diphtheria toxin across planar phospholipid bilayers by its own T domain. (4/946)

The T domain of diphtheria toxin is known to participate in the pH-dependent translocation of the catalytic C domain of the toxin across the endosomal membrane, but how it does so, and whether cellular proteins are also required for this process, remain unknown. Here, we report results showing that the T domain alone is capable of translocating the entire C domain across model, planar phospholipid bilayers in the absence of other proteins. The T domain therefore contains the entire molecular machinery for mediating transfer of the catalytic domain of diphtheria toxin across membranes.  (+info)

Expression and immunogenicity of a mutant diphtheria toxin molecule, CRM(197), and its fragments in Salmonella typhi vaccine strain CVD 908-htrA. (5/946)

Mutant diphtheria toxin molecule CRM(197) and fragments thereof were expressed in attenuated Salmonella typhi CVD 908-htrA, and the constructs were tested for their ability to induce serum antitoxin. Initially, expressed proteins were insoluble, and the constructs failed to induce neutralizing antitoxin. Soluble CRM(197) was expressed at low levels by utilizing the hemolysin A secretion system from Escherichia coli.  (+info)

Ablation of a specific cell population by the replacement of a uniquely expressed gene with a toxin gene. (6/946)

The transgenic expression of a toxin gene or a thymidine kinase gene under the control of cell type-specific promoter/enhancer has been shown to be useful for removing a specific cell population in mice. However, this approach requires extensive analysis of the control elements for gene expression in the preparation of the transgenic constructs, and furthermore, the toxin gene might be expressed ectopically because of random integration, resulting in aberrant depletion of unrelated cells. To avoid such difficulties with the transgenic approach, we established a method for the specific depletion of a cell population by replacing a uniquely expressed gene in the population with the diphtheria toxin gene by using homologous recombination. The NKR-P1 gene, a specific cell surface marker of natural killer (NK) cells, was selected as the target gene for depleting NK cells. In chimeric mice reconstituted with embryonic stem cells in which the NKR-P1 gene was replaced by the toxin gene, NKR-P1(+) cells were almost completely depleted, and NK cell function was abrogated in the embryonic stem cell-derived lymphoid cells. Other cell lineages developed normally. These results show that all NK cells express NKR-P1, that NKR-P1(+) cells do not influence the development of T and B cells, and further, that this technology of cell targeting is a fast and powerful method of generating mice lacking any chosen cell population.  (+info)

Receptor-mediated uptake of an extracellular Bcl-x(L) fusion protein inhibits apoptosis. (7/946)

Bcl-x(L), a member of the Bcl-2 family, inhibits many pathways of apoptosis when overexpressed in the cell cytosol. We examined the capacity of Bcl-x(L) fusion proteins to bind cells from the outside and block apoptosis. Full-length Bcl-x(L) protein at micromolar concentrations did not affect apoptosis when added to cell media. To increase uptake by cells, Bcl-x(L) was fused to the receptor-binding domain of diphtheria toxin (DTR). The Bcl-x(L)-DTR fusion protein blocked apoptosis induced by staurosporine, gamma-irradiation, and poliovirus in a variety of cell types when added to media. The potency of inhibition of poliovirus-induced apoptosis by Bcl-x(L)-DTR was greater than that of strong caspase inhibitors. Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of vesicular traffic between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, prevented the Bcl-x(L)-DTR blockade of apoptosis induced by staurosporine, suggesting that Bcl-x(L)-DTR must be endocytosed and reach intracellular compartments for activity. Many diseases are caused by overexpression or underexpression of Bcl-x(L) homologues. Extracellular delivery of Bcl-2 family member proteins may have a wide range of uses in promoting or preventing cell death.  (+info)

Amino acid substitution in alpha-helix 7 of Cry1Ac delta-endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis leads to enhanced toxicity to Helicoverpa armigera Hubner. (8/946)

Insecticidal proteins or delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis are highly toxic to a wide range of agronomically important pests. The toxins are formed of three structural domains. The N-terminal domain is a bundle of eight alpha-helices and is implicated in pore formation in insect midgut epithelial membranes. All the delta-endotoxins share a common hydrophobic motif of eight amino acids in alpha-helix 7. A similar motif is also present in fragment B of diphtheria toxin (DT). Site-directed mutagenesis of Cry1Ac delta-endotoxin of B. thuringiensis was carried out to substitute its hydrophobic motif with that of DT fragment B. The mutant toxin was shown to be more toxic to the larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm) than the wild-type toxin. Voltage clamp analysis with planar lipid bilayers revealed that the mutant toxin opens larger ion channels and induces higher levels of conductance than the wild-type toxin.  (+info)

The symptoms of diphtheria typically develop within 2-5 days after exposure and may include:

* Sore throat and difficulty swallowing
* Fever and chills
* Swollen and tender lymph nodes in the neck
* Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
* Skin lesions or rashes
* Nerve damage, leading to weakness, paralysis, and other neurological symptoms.

If left untreated, diphtheria can lead to serious complications such as respiratory failure, heart failure, and death. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, which can help clear the infection and prevent further damage. In severe cases, hospitalization may be required to provide supportive care, such as mechanical ventilation or cardiac support.

Diphtheria is a vaccine-preventable disease, and immunization programs have been instrumental in reducing the incidence of this disease worldwide. However, outbreaks still occur in some areas, particularly among unvaccinated individuals or those living in areas with low vaccination coverage.

In addition to its clinical features, diphtheria has several key characteristics that are important to note:

* It is highly contagious and can be transmitted through respiratory droplets, close contact with an infected person, or by touching contaminated surfaces and objects.
* The bacteria can survive for weeks outside the body, making it a significant risk for transmission through fomites.
* Immunity to diphtheria is not lifelong, and booster doses of the vaccine are recommended every 10 years to maintain protection.

The symptoms of tetanus can develop anywhere from 3 days to 3 weeks after exposure to the bacteria, and they can include:

* Muscle stiffness and spasms, especially in the neck, jaw, and limbs
* Difficulty swallowing or speaking
* Fever and sweating
* Headache and fatigue
* Rigidity and spasticity of muscles
* Abdominal cramps and diarrhea
* In severe cases, tetanus can cause serious complications such as pneumonia, heart problems, and death.

Tetanus is diagnosed through a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. Treatment typically involves administering antitoxin medication to neutralize the effects of the bacterial toxins, as well as providing supportive care such as pain management and wound care.

Prevention is key in avoiding tetanus, and this can be achieved through:

* Vaccination: Tetanus vaccines are available and recommended for individuals of all ages, especially for those who have open wounds or injuries.
* Proper wound care: Keeping wounds clean and covered can help prevent the entry of bacteria into the body.
* Avoiding risky behaviors: Avoiding activities that can cause injury, such as playing contact sports or engaging in dangerous hobbies, can reduce the risk of developing tetanus.

Overall, tetanus is a serious medical condition that requires prompt treatment and prevention measures to avoid complications and ensure a full recovery.

Symptoms of whooping cough typically appear within 7-14 days after exposure and may include:

* Mild fever
* Runny nose
* Sneezing
* Dry, irritating cough that progresses to spasmodic, convulsive coughing fits
* Vomiting after coughing
* Apnea (pause in breathing)

In infants, the symptoms may be milder and include:

* Mild fever
* Lack of appetite
* Irritability
* Cyanosis (blue discoloration of the skin)

If left untreated, whooping cough can lead to serious complications such as pneumonia, seizures, and brain damage. Diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and medical imaging. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Prevention measures include immunization with the pertussis vaccine, which is routinely given to infants and children in early childhood, as well as booster shots during adolescence and adulthood. Good hygiene practices, such as frequent handwashing and avoiding close contact with people who are sick, can also help prevent the spread of the disease.

Symptoms of Corynebacterium Infections: The symptoms of Corynebacterium infections vary depending on the location and severity of the infection. They may include:

* Skin rashes or lesions
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Fever
* Pain and tenderness in the affected area
* Difficulty moving the affected joints (in case of bacterial arthritis)
* Shortness of breath (in case of pneumonia)
* Fatigue, fever, and chills (in case of sepsis)

Causes and Risk Factors: Corynebacterium infections are caused by the bacteria of the Corynebacterium genus. The most common species that cause human infections are Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Corynebacterium ulcerans, and Corynebacterium jeikeium. These bacteria can enter the body through various means, such as:

* Open wounds or cuts
* Infected burns
* Contaminated surgical sites
* Prosthetic joints or other implanted medical devices
* Weakened immune system (in HIV/AIDS patients)
* Chronic medical conditions (such as diabetes, cancer, or liver disease)

Diagnosis and Treatment: The diagnosis of Corynebacterium infections typically involves a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment usually involves antibiotics, which may be administered orally or intravenously, depending on the severity of the infection. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove infected tissue or debris.

Prevention: Preventing Corynebacterium infections involves maintaining good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly and thoroughly, especially after contact with someone who is infected or after touching animals or contaminated surfaces. In addition, individuals with weakened immune systems or chronic medical conditions should take extra precautions to avoid exposure to these bacteria.

In conclusion, Corynebacterium infections are a group of serious illnesses caused by the Corynebacterium genus of bacteria. These infections can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination and laboratory tests, and treated with antibiotics. Prevention involves maintaining good hygiene practices and taking extra precautions for individuals with weakened immune systems or chronic medical conditions.

Myocarditis secondary to diphtheria toxin is considered one of the biggest risks to unimmunized children. Diphtheria toxin was ... Diphtheria+Toxin at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) How Diphtheria Toxin Works - Animation ... Diphtheria toxin is extraordinarily potent. The lethal dose for humans is about 0.1 μg of toxin per kg of body weight. Death ... Diphtheria toxin is an exotoxin secreted by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the pathogenic bacterium that causes diphtheria. The ...
... pertussis toxin of B. pertussis; C3 toxin of C. botulinum; and diphtheria toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Histone code ... It is also the basis for the toxicity of bacterial compounds such as cholera toxin, diphtheria toxin, and others. The first ... corynebacterium diphtheria diphtheria toxin was shown to be dependent on NAD+ in order for it to be completely effective, ... Diphtheria toxin ADP-ribosylates ribosomal elongation factor EF-2, which attenuates protein synthesis. There are a variety of ...
... toxin precursor is a protein of molecular weight 60 kDa. Certain proteases, such as trypsin, selectively cleave DT ... Diphtheria toxin (DT) is produced only by C. diphtheriae infected with a certain type of bacteriophage. Toxinogenicity is ... In cases that progress beyond a throat infection, diphtheria toxin spreads through the blood and can lead to potentially life- ... In 1926, Alexander Thomas Glenny increased the effectiveness of diphtheria toxoid (a modified version of the toxin used for ...
"Notes on the immunity to diphtheria toxin". Journal of Hygiene. 20 (2): 179-220. doi:10.1017/s0022172400033945. PMC 2207044. ... His scientific work focused on the mechanisms of antibody production and the prevention of diphtheria. In 1921 he and H. J. ... In 1925-6 he developed alum-precipitated diphtheria toxoid. He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1944 and awarded the ... In the same paper they also briefly described the properties of diphtheria toxoid, which had been discovered by Glenny in 1904 ...
Emile Roux and Alexandre Yersin isolate diphtheria toxin. German ophthalmologist Adolf Gaston Eugen Fick constructs and fits ...
The Diphtheria toxin also is an AB toxin. It inhibits protein synthesis in the host cell through phosphorylation of the ... Examples of the "A" component of an AB toxin include C. perfringens iota toxin Ia, C. botulinum C2 toxin CI, and Clostridium ... The AB5 toxins are usually considered a type of AB toxin, characterized by B pentamers. Less commonly, the term "AB toxin" is ... They can be classified as Type III toxins because they interfere with internal cell function. They are named AB toxins due to ...
This mechanism is similar to that of diphtheria toxin. It has been investigated as a treatment for hepatitis B and cancer. ... Vibrio cholerae produces a similar protein called the Cholix toxin (Q5EK40). It inhibits elongation factor-2. It does so by ADP ... Jørgensen R, Purdy AE, Fieldhouse RJ, Kimber MS, Bartlett DH, Merrill AR (April 2008). "Cholix toxin, a novel ADP-ribosylating ... Stuckey DW, Hingtgen SD, Karakas N, Rich BE, Shah K (February 2015). "Engineering toxin-resistant therapeutic stem cells to ...
In 1888 Emile Roux and Alexandre Yersin isolated diphtheria toxin, and following the 1890 discovery by Behring and Kitasato of ... Glenny AT, Südmersen HJ (October 1921). "Notes on the Production of Immunity to Diphtheria Toxin". The Journal of Hygiene. 20 ( ... Examples of toxoid-based vaccines include tetanus and diphtheria. Subunit, recombinant, polysaccharide, and conjugate vaccines ... antibodies specific for a pathogen or toxin are transferred to non-immune individuals. Passive immunization is used when there ...
... , like diphtheria toxin, is a single polypeptide chain of 535 amino acids (58.4 kD) consisting of two subunits (linked by ... CRM197 is a non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin, currently used as a carrier protein for polysaccharides and haptens to make ... CRM197 is a genetically detoxified form of diphtheria toxin. A single mutation at position 52, substituting glutamic acid for ... the bacteria that produces the native toxin. Like the wild type toxin, CRM197 is expressed as a secreted protein at relatively ...
An example of a neutralizing antibody is diphtheria antitoxin, which can neutralize the biological effects of diphtheria toxin ... Diphtheria antitoxin contains polyclonal antibodies against the diphtheria toxin. By treating with antibodies binding multiple ... This showed that antibodies could be used as an effective treatment for viral infections and toxins. Antiserum is a very crude ... This can be due to the antibodies statically interfering with the pathogens or toxins attaching to host cell receptors. In case ...
Manganese-containing polypeptides are the diphtheria toxin, lectins and integrins. Manganese is an essential human dietary ...
An example is Shiga toxin. Other toxins act at elongation factor-2. In the case of the diphtheria toxin, EF2 is ADP-ribosylated ... Toxins of this type include cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, Shiga toxin and heat-labile enterotoxin from E. coli. Once in the ... AB5 toxin) By domain architecture of the toxin (for example, polymorphic toxins) By the ability of the toxin to endure in ... Membrane-damaging toxins can be divided into two categories, the channel-forming toxins and toxins that function as enzymes ...
... -containing polypeptides are the diphtheria toxin, lectins and integrins. Manganese is an essential human dietary ...
Spiering MM, Ringe D, Murphy JR, Marletta MA (April 2003). "Metal stoichiometry and functional studies of the diphtheria toxin ... The domain is named after Corynebacterium diphtheriae dtxR, an iron-specific diphtheria toxin repressor, and Bacillus subtilis ... The dtxR protein regulates the expression of diphtheria toxin in response to environmental iron concentrations. Furthermore, ... These include: Corynebacterium diphtheriae dtxR, a diphtheria toxin repressor, which regulates the expression of the high- ...
Brucellosis infections Used toxin/antitoxin as a vaccine for diphtheria (1909). In the process of investigating an epidemic of ...
Was a Pioneer in Arousing Scientific Interest in Diphtheria Anti-Toxin". The New York Times. February 26, 1932. Retrieved 2013- ...
1 August 2001). "Diphtheria toxin receptor mediated conditional and targeted cell ablation in transgenic mice". Nature ... For example, a laser beam or controllable gene promoter for a toxin gene can be used to destroy a selected amount of cells. ...
Constitutive cell ablation can be induced by diphtheria toxin (DT) in zebrafish. Genome Fatal/harmful mutations Ohnmacht, ...
ISBN 978-0-89603-338-2. Ouchterlony, Örjan (1948). "In vitro method for testing the toxin-producing capacity of diphtheria ... the Swedish physician who developed the test in 1948 to evaluate the production diphtheria toxins from isolated bacteria. A gel ...
"Genetic assembly and selective toxicity of diphtheria-toxin-related polypeptide hormone fusion proteins". Biochemical Society ... T3DB: Toxin-target database ATDB: Animal toxin database Society of Toxicology The Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins ... Toxin-antitoxin system Harper, Douglas. "toxin". Online Etymology Dictionary. "toxin - Definition from the Merriam-Webster ... The word toxin does not specify method of delivery (as opposed to venom, a toxin delivered via a bite, sting, etc.). Poison is ...
The protein can be a toxin, an apoptotic factor, or a viral protein. Toxins such as diphtheria toxin interfere with cellular ...
"Nucleotide sequence of the structural gene for diphtheria toxin carried by corynebacteriophage beta". Proceedings of the ... Diphtheria is caused by a bacterium, but only after that bacterium has been infected by a bacteriophage carrying the structural ... as well the study of possible medicinal uses of toxins. As far back as 1974, DNA sequence similarity was recognized as a ... genes for the toxin. In Herpes simplex virus, the structural gene sequence responsible for virulence was found in two locations ...
In Constantinople he also worked on improving methods for preparation of diphtheria toxin. In 1901, following disagreements ...
Tagraxofusp, human IL-3 fused to diphtheria toxin, is an approved treatment for BPDCN. An experimental antibody-drug conjugate ...
McDonald's doctoral thesis work dealt with experimental neuropathy in cats induced by diphtheria toxin. It was conducted at the ...
... the binding of diphtheria toxin to cells revealed the association of a 27-kDa membrane protein with the diphtheria toxin ... 1995). "Diphtheria toxin binds to the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain of human heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor ... The transmembrane form of HB-EGF is the unique receptor for diphtheria toxin and functions in juxtacrine signaling in cells. ... Louie GV, Yang W, Bowman ME, Choe S (1998). "Crystal structure of the complex of diphtheria toxin with an extracellular ...
When House tells Park to call the CDC for anti-toxin, she realizes it's diphtheria. They didn't consider it because no one gets ... House turns back to toxins, but there was no-one with the opportunity to poison the patient on all occasions. However, Park ... After they go through the possibilities, House figures it's a toxin and orders tests and an environmental scan. He also tells ...
... is a fusion protein consisting of interleukin 3 (IL-3) fused to diphtheria toxin. The fusion protein readily kills ... due to its diphtheria toxin portion inhibiting eukaryotic elongation factor 2).[medical citation needed] In July 2020, the ...
Pseudomonas toxin, and diphtheria toxin". Experimental Cell Research. 221 (1): 1-10. doi:10.1006/excr.1995.1346. PMID 7589233. ... The toxin binds to cell-surface polysaccharide receptors with a high affinity (Ka in the range of 107-108/M). When the toxin ... Research has shown that one toxin A-chain can inactivate a large number of ribosomes, this suggests that the toxin acts by ... The reason for these properties is due to the toxin's mode of action. Toxin molecules bind through saccharide recognition sites ...
It is the target of diphtheria toxin (from Corynebacterium diphtheriae), and exotoxin A (from Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The ... inactivation of EF-2 by toxins inhibits protein production in the host, causing symptoms due to loss of function in affected ...
Tunnicliff, R. (1928-12-01). "Use of Paramecia for Studying Toxins and Antitoxins (Measles, Scarlet Fever and Diphtheria)". ...
... diphtheria, dysentery, and psittacosis. She studied the toxins produced by Shigella dysenteriae. The main focus of Branham's ... Branham retired from the NIH in 1958 at the age of seventy from the position of Chief of the Section on Bacterial Toxins, and ... She remained in the role for over 25 years until she was promoted to the Chief of Bacterial Toxins of the Division of ...
... in particular those between diphtheria toxin and antitoxin. Using ultracentrifugation, they showed that about 2/3 of the native ... Petermann, M. L.; Pappenheimer, A. M. (January 1941). "The Ultracentrifugal Analysis of Diphtheria Proteins". The Journal of ... diphtheria antitoxin (later determined to be the Fc portion of IgG) was "inactive" - it could be removed by protease treatment ...
Causes of neuritis include: Physical injury Infection Diphtheria Herpes zoster (shingles) Leprosy Lyme disease Chemical injury ... and toxins (including alcohol and certain prescribed drugs). Most types of polyneuropathy progress fairly slowly, over months ...
The bacteria that causes Diphtheria infects the respiratory system, produces a toxin that, within 2 to 3 days, kills tissue ... The bacteria's toxin also causes the following symptoms: sore throat fever swollen glands in the neck The toxin may also be ... "About Diphtheria". CDC. CDC. Retrieved 10 April 2014. "Diphtheria Cause and Spread to Others". CDC. CDC. Retrieved 10 April ... Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacteria Corynebacterium diphtheria. It is spread through respiratory droplets from ...
The body responds to these toxins by making antibodies to those specific toxins. However, those antibodies do not completely ... There used to be a diphtheria scarlet fever vaccine. It was, however, found not to be effective. This product was discontinued ... The first toxin which causes this disease was cloned and sequenced in 1986 by Weeks and Ferretti. The incidence of scarlet ... These toxins are also known as "superantigens" because they are able to cause an extensive immune response within the body ...
The first diphtheria vaccines were produced in 1914 from a mixture of diphtheria toxin and antitoxin (produced from the serum ... led to the discovery that a safer vaccine could be produced by treating diphtheria toxin with formaldehyde. In 1944, Maurice ... The United States recorded 206,000 cases of diphtheria in 1921 resulting in 15,520 deaths. In 1923, parallel efforts by Gaston ... 5. ISBN 978-0-931292-08-8. "Diphtheria - Timelines - History of Vaccines". Archived from the original on 14 May 2016. Retrieved ...
Diphtheria antitoxin was serum from horses that had been immunized against diphtheria, and was used to treat human cases by ... Formaldehyde is used in very small concentrations to inactivate viruses and bacterial toxins used in vaccines. Very small ... Since the cause of SIDS has not been fully determined, this led to concerns about whether vaccines, in particular diphtheria- ... Ciok, Amy E. "Horses and the diphtheria antitoxin." Academic Medicine 75.4 (2000): 396. Lilienfeld DE (2008). "The first ...
1935). "The influence of vitamin C level upon resistance to diphtheria toxin I. Changes in body weight and duration of life". ... She characterised bacterial toxins from B. paratyphosus, Streptococcus scarlatina, and Salmonella ssp. that were used in a ...
... which infect Corynebacterium diphtheriae and carry the deadly diphtheria toxin. The following species are recognized: ...
Louis, Missouri, after being given a diphtheria anti-toxin. Investigations found that the St. Louis Board of Health produced ... While the infected horse, Jim, was killed, the Board of Health continued to use the serum to treat diphtheria. It was later ... The Biologics Control Act of 1902, also known as the Virus-Toxin Law, was the first law that implemented federal regulations of ... When the large scale production of vaccines and anti-toxin serum began in the late 19th century, the United States had no ...
... in which 12 children died following inoculation with diphtheria toxin-antitoxin. The rigour of this inquiry was lauded by the ... experimental work during the early 1940s progressed on to the response of tissues to other insults including bacterial toxins, ... medical profession and public alike, both vindicating the Commonwealth's diphtheria immunisation programme and drawing ...
Toxins are secreted by bacteria, whereas toxoids are altered form of toxins; toxoids are not secreted by bacteria. Thus, when ... "Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids Adsorbed" (PDF). fda.gov. Retrieved 21 October 2015. "Tetanus Immune Globulin (Human)" (PDF). ... It consists of inactivated subunits of anthrax toxin and elicits an antibody response that neutralises anthrax toxin. Kossaczka ... Toxoids are used as vaccines because they induce an immune response to the original toxin or increase the response to another ...
A plasmid composed of the H19 gene regulatory sequences that drive the expression of the 'A' strand of Diphtheria Toxin (DT-A ...
"Approved Products, Tetanus & Diphtheria Toxoids, Adsorbed, Manufacturer: MassBiologics, License #1779". U.S. Food and Drug ... January 21, 2010). "Treatment with monoclonal antibodies against Clostridium difficile toxins". New England Journal of Medicine ... tetanus and diphtheria) vaccine, providing a substantial proportion of the U.S. requirement for this vaccine.[citation needed] ...
... a nontoxic recombinant variant of diphtheria toxin (from cultures of Corynebacterium diphtheriae). This produces a more robust ... conjugated with diphtheria proteins. It was manufactured by Wyeth (which was acquired by Pfizer). Prevnar (PCV7) was approved ... Diphtheria CRM197 Protein)". Wyeth. 2006. Archived from the original on 15 June 2006. "February 17, 2000 Approval Letter". U.S ... These serotype sugars are conjugated to diphtheria carrier protein because this makes the antigenic and protective effect ...
... even more toxin is released. It takes up to several days for the toxin to be neutralized from the body by using continuous ... meningococcal polysaccharide-diphtheria conjugate vaccine versus quadrivalent polysaccharide vaccine in two- to ten-year-old ... This is due to the release of toxins into the blood that break down the walls of blood vessels. A rash can develop under the ... In this case, bacterial toxins rupture blood vessels and can rapidly shut down vital organs. Within hours, patient's health can ...
Pancreatic ribonucleases that are not inhibited by RI are approximately as toxic as alpha-sarcin, diphtheria toxin, or ricin. ... "Comparison of RNases and toxins upon injection into Xenopus oocytes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 266 (31): 21208-14. ...
Soon after Morgan's appointment, CSL was drawn into a serious public health disaster when a batch of its diphtheria toxin- ... development of a combined vaccine for diphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough (1953) rapid adoption and production of a polio ...
The development of a diphtheria anti-toxin serum was a race between researchers Emil Behring in Berlin, and Émile Roux in Paris ... Roux had been nominated in 1888 for the isolation of the diphtheria toxin, but didn't win the prize in 1901 because his ... The race to develop the diphtheria anti-toxin serum was considered a national rivalry, although each team of researchers ... He studied its toxin and its properties, and began in 1891 to develop an effective serum to treat the disease, following the ...
In 1890, filtrates of diphtheria, later named diphtheria toxins, were used to vaccinate animals in an attempt to demonstrate ... Ehrlich, with his colleague von Behring, went on to develop the diphtheria antitoxin, which became the first major success of ... In 1897, Paul Ehrlich showed that antibodies form against the plant toxins ricin and abrin, and proposed that these antibodies ... Following the 1888 discovery of the bacteria that cause diphtheria and tetanus, Emil von Behring and Kitasato Shibasaburō ...
... diphtheria, yellow fever, smallpox and several zoonoses (diseases transmitted to humans by animals), such as the dreaded ... The Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases. 22: 20. doi:10.1186/s40409-016-0074-7. ISSN 1678-9199. ...
Diphtheria was a major public health scourge, killing entire families with acute airborne pulmonary disease, before diphtheria ... The presence of precipitin lines indicates that the strain produced toxin that reacted with the antitoxin. The test was ... A strip of filter paper impregnated with diphtheria antitoxin is buried just beneath the surface of a special agar plate before ... Elek SD (November 1949). "The plate virulence test for diphtheria". J. Clin. Pathol. 2 (4): 250-8. doi:10.1136/jcp.2.4.250. PMC ...
The baby is injected with the DTaP vaccine, which is three inactive toxins in one injection. DTaP protects against diphtheria, ... "Pregnancy Guidelines and Recommendations by Vaccine - Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis (Tdap); & Tetanus and Diphtheria (Td ... Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Diphtheria-Tetanus- ... www.ema.europa.eu/documents/psusa/diphtheria/tetanus-vaccines-adsorbed-diphtheria-vaccines-adsorbed-list-nationally-authorised- ...
... much as the diphtheria toxin does. Without elongation factor 2, eukaryotic cells cannot synthesize proteins and necrotise. The ... With low phosphate levels, P. aeruginosa has been found to activate from benign symbiont to express lethal toxins inside the ... Increasingly, it is becoming recognized that the iron-acquiring siderophore, pyoverdine, also functions as a toxin by removing ...
Diphtheria toxin production by Corynebacterium ulcerans from cats ... amino acid sequence differences between diphtheria toxins from ... Diphtheria toxin production by Corynebacterium ulcerans from cats D J Taylor et al. Vet Rec. 2002. . ... Diphtheria toxin production by Corynebacterium ulcerans from cats D J Taylor, A Efstratiou, W J Reilly ... A case of diphtheria in the Netherlands due to an infection with Corynebacterium ulcerans]. van Dam AP, Schippers EF, Visser LG ...
Diphtheria toxin diversification could decrease effectiveness of diphtheria toxoid vaccine and diphtheria antitoxin for ... Some strains of C. ulcerans can produce diphtheria toxin, which causes respiratory diphtheria in humans and animals. Reports of ... ulcerans can convert to toxin-producing strains through a process of lysogeny with diphtheria toxin gene-carrying ... A report evaluating the differences in the amino acid sequences of the diphtheria toxins in C. diphtheriae and C. ulcerans used ...
Public health response for toxin-producing diphtheria includes treating patients, providing chemoprophylaxis to close contacts ... Public health response for toxin-producing diphtheria includes treating patients, providing chemoprophylaxis to close contacts ... testing patients and close contacts for C. diphtheriae carriage, and providing diphtheria toxoid-containing vaccine to ... testing patients and close contacts for C. diphtheriae carriage, and providing diphtheria toxoid-containing vaccine to ...
Recombinase responsive mouse lines expressing diphtheria toxin subunit A (DTA) are well established tools for targeted ablation ... A new mouse line for cell ablation by diphtheria toxin subunit A controlled by a Cre-dependent FLEx switch Nicholas W Plummer 1 ... A new mouse line for cell ablation by diphtheria toxin subunit A controlled by a Cre-dependent FLEx switch Nicholas W Plummer ... In vivo genetic ablation by Cre-mediated expression of diphtheria toxin fragment A. Ivanova A, Signore M, Caro N, Greene ND, ...
These results indicate that the IL-4 receptor can be a target for diphtheria toxin fusion proteins and that radiation can ... Conclusions: These results indicate that the IL-4 receptor can be a target for diphtheria toxin fusion proteins and that ... In vitro efficacy of recombinant diphtheria toxin-murine interleukin-4 immunoconjugate on mouse glioblastoma and neuroblastoma ... the purpose of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of using a modified diphtheria toxin-murine IL-4 (DT390- mIL4) ...
mice that expressed the human diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) driven by a lymphatic-specific promoter in order to noninvasively ... Diphtheria toxin-mediated ablation of lymphatic endothelial cells results in progressive lymphedema. ... Diphtheria toxin-mediated ablation of lymphatic endothelial cells results in progressive lymphedema. ...
A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Properties of Mixtures of Diphtheria Toxin and Antitoxin with Diphtheria Formol Toxoids ... A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Properties of Mixtures of Diphtheria Toxin and Antitoxin with Diphtheria Formol Toxoids ... If in a neutral toxin-antitoxin mixture or in mixtures of varying degrees of over-neutralisation, one knows the amount of toxin ... toxin-antitoxin mixtures are placed at varying temperatures it is found that the binding power of the toxin and antitoxin ...
Effect of Diphtheria Toxin-Based Gene Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Effect of Diphtheria Toxin-Based Gene Therapy for ... We assessed gene therapy for HCC using a diphtheria toxin fragment A (DTA) gene-expressing plasmid, utilizing a non-viral ... alpha-fetoprotein; diphtheria toxin fragment A; gene therapy; hepatocellular carcinoma; hydrodynamic gene delivery ...
Injecting a horse with diphtheria toxin, Parke, Davis & Company, ca. 1925 Courtesy National Museum of American History ... Injecting a horse with diphtheria toxin, New York City Health Department, 1940s. Courtesy Library of Congress ...
Start Over You searched for: Subjects Diphtheria Toxin -- biosynthesis ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Diphtheria Toxin -- ... A comparative study of the toxin production of diphtheria bacilli1. *The relation of dextrose to the production of toxin in ... 1. A comparative study of the toxin production of diphtheria bacilli Author(s): Smith, Theobald, 1859-1934, author. Walker, ... Diphtheria Toxin -- biosynthesis. Corynebacterium diphtheriae -- pathogenicity. Culture Media. Massachusetts 2. The relation of ...
keywords = "Diphtheria toxin, Diphtheria toxin receptor interaction, Diphtheria toxins fluorescent derivatives, Fluorescent ... Diphtheria toxins B subunit provides toxin interaction with its receptor on the cell surface and translocation of toxins A ... N2 - Diphtheria toxins B subunit provides toxin interaction with its receptor on the cell surface and translocation of toxins ... AB - Diphtheria toxins B subunit provides toxin interaction with its receptor on the cell surface and translocation of toxins ...
A Fold-Back Diabody Format for Diphtheria Toxin-Based Immunotoxins That Can Increase Binding and Potency ... A Fold-Back Diabody Format for Diphtheria Toxin-Based Immunotoxins That Can Increase Binding and Potency ... have developed new immunotoxins comprising a mutant diphtheria toxin linked to an anti-prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA ...
Mice normally arent sensitive to diphtheria toxin. The scientists reasoned that if they put the human diphtheria toxin ... put the human diphtheria toxin receptor under the control of TRPV1 regulatory sequences and injected diphtheria toxin into ... Similarly, when the receptor was put under the control of the TRPM8 sequences, TRPM8 neurons were eliminated by a toxin ... they could selectively eliminate certain neurons with a simple toxin injection. Their study appeared on March 27, 2013, in the ...
Diphtheria is an acute infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. ... Gram stain or throat culture to identify the diphtheria bacteria. *Toxin assay (to detect the presence of the toxin made by the ... Diphtheria. www.cdc.gov/diphtheria/about/index.html. Updated May 26, 2020. Accessed March 8, 2022. ... Once you are infected, the bacteria make dangerous substances called toxins. The toxins spread through your bloodstream to ...
Diphtheria Diphtheria is an acute toxin-mediated disease caused by toxigenic strains of C. diphtheriae. Protection against ... Production of diphtheria toxin. In: Manclark CR, editor. Proceedings of an informal consultation on the World Health ... 4) Tetanus toxin is detoxified with formaldehyde and purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and diafiltration. Diphtheria ... 3) After purification by ammonium sulfate fractionation, the diphtheria toxin is detoxified with formaldehyde and diafiltered. ...
Diphtheria warrants treatment with a macrolide or penicillin. Diphtheria antitoxin may neutralize circulating (unbound) toxin. ... Preventing tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis among adults: use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular ... In patients with diphtheria, elimination of the organism should be documented with 2 consecutive negative culture results after ... To prevent the spread of diphtheria, isolation is warranted until 48 hours after antibiotics are started, after which ...
Diphtheria toxin. Site and configuration of ADP-ribosylation of diphthamide in elongation factor 2.. Oppenheimer NJ; Bodley JW ... 3. In vitro biosynthesis of diphthamide, studied with mutant Chinese hamster ovary cells resistant to diphtheria toxin. ... Mutagenesis of the histidine precursor of diphthamide yields a functional protein that is resistant to diphtheria toxin.. Phan ... of the histidine precursor of diphthamide in the human elongation factor-2 gene confers resistance to diphtheria toxin. ...
Categories: Diphtheria Toxin Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 7 ...
Diphtheria Toxin/toxicity; Discrimination Learning/drug effects; Discrimination Learning/physiology; Disease Models, Animal; ...
Diphtheria Toxin Based Bivalent Anti-cMPL Immunotoxin Effectively Depletes Human Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells. ...
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Diphtheria - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the Merck Manuals - Medical Professional ... Diphtheria toxin Diphtheria strains infected by a beta-phage, which carries a toxin-encoding gene, produce a potent toxin. This ... Toxin is poorly absorbed from the skin; thus, toxin complications are rare in cutaneous diphtheria. ... See Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine Vaccines that contain diphtheria toxoid, tetanus ...
... a nontoxic relative of diphtheria toxin. Subcutaneous injections were given to eight subjects at ages 2, 4, and 6 months, ... a nontoxic relative of diphtheria toxin. Subcutaneous injections were given to eight subjects at ages 2, 4, and 6 months, ... Safety and immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b-polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine in infants 9 to ... combined with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP-Hib), in Indonesian infants. Punjabi NH, Richie EL, Simanjuntak CH, ...
Plummer NW, Ungewitter EK, Smith KG, Yao HH, Jensen P. (2017). A New Mouse Line for Cell Ablation by Diphtheria Toxin Subunit A ... Abstract Plummer NW, Ungewitter EK, Smith KG, Yao HH, Jensen P. (2017). A New Mouse Line for Cell Ablation by Diphtheria Toxin ... A New Mouse Line for Cell Ablation by Diphtheria Toxin Subunit A Controlled by a Cre-dependent FLEx Switch. Genesis, 55(10). ...
Known as DTwP, the vaccine contained diphtheria toxin, tetanus toxin, and whole (but killed) Bordetella pertussis bacteria. By ... Muñozs group successfully isolated and characterized a fragment of B. pertussis DNA containing the genes for pertussis toxin, ... In the 1940s, a combination diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine was introduced. ... diphtheria and pertussis vaccine (Tdap) administered to pregnant women and women who had recently given birth. They found that ...
Treatment Storage and Disposal Facility Meaning from Gentaur Genprice. Reagents in Stock for Immediate Shipment.
  • A case of diphtheria in the Netherlands due to an infection with Corynebacterium ulcerans]. (nih.gov)
  • Possible zoonotic transmission of toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans from companion animals in a human case of fatal diphtheria. (nih.gov)
  • Classical diphtheria caused by Corynebacterium ulcerans in Germany: amino acid sequence differences between diphtheria toxins from Corynebacterium diphtheriae and C. ulcerans. (nih.gov)
  • Classical pseudomembranous diphtheria caused by Corynebacterium ulcerans]. (nih.gov)
  • Corynebacterium ulcerans is a rod-shaped, aerobic, gram-positive bacterium closely related to C. diphtheria . (cdc.gov)
  • Toxin-producing Corynebacterium diphtheriae was identified in cutaneous wounds from four U.S. residents after return from international travel. (cdc.gov)
  • From September 2015 to March 2018, CDC confirmed four cases of cutaneous diphtheria caused by toxin-producing Corynebacterium diphtheriae in patients from Minnesota (two), Washington (one), and New Mexico (one). (cdc.gov)
  • Diphtheria is an acute infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Corynebacterium diphtheriae (diphtheria). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Diphtheria is an acute pharyngeal or cutaneous infection caused mainly by toxigenic strains of the gram-positive bacillus Corynebacterium diphtheriae and rarely by other, less common Corynebacterium species. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Corynebacterium diphtheriae usually infect the nasopharynx (respiratory diphtheria) or skin (cutaneous diphtheria). (merckmanuals.com)
  • Corynebacterium diphtheriae is responsible for both endemic and epidemic diphtheria. (who.int)
  • An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA . (nih.gov)
  • Diphtheria toxin diversification could decrease effectiveness of diphtheria toxoid vaccine and diphtheria antitoxin for preventing and treating illnesses caused by this bacterium. (cdc.gov)
  • Although increased coverage of the diphtheria toxoid vaccine has reduced the frequency of C. diphtheriae infections, reports of C. ulcerans infections in humans are increasing. (cdc.gov)
  • Diversification of the C. ulcerans diphtheria toxin gene is of note because accumulation of these gene mutations potentially could lead to decreased effectiveness of the diphtheria toxoid vaccine for prevention and diphtheria antitoxin for treatment of toxigenic C. ulcerans disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Public health response for toxin-producing diphtheria includes treating patients, providing chemoprophylaxis to close contacts, testing patients and close contacts for C. diphtheriae carriage, and providing diphtheria toxoid-containing vaccine to incompletely immunized patients and close contacts. (cdc.gov)
  • The recommended public health response for cutaneous diphtheria is similar to that for respiratory diphtheria and includes treating the index patient with antibiotics, identifying close contacts and observing them for development of diphtheria, providing chemoprophylaxis to close contacts, testing patients and close contacts for C. diphtheriae carriage in the nose and throat, and providing diphtheria toxoid-containing vaccine to incompletely immunized patients and close contacts. (cdc.gov)
  • VAXELIS is a vaccine indicated for active immunization to prevent diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, hepatitis B, and invasive disease due to Haemophilus influenzae type b. (nih.gov)
  • Severe allergic reaction (e.g., anaphylaxis) to a previous dose of VAXELIS, any ingredient of VAXELIS, or any other diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, pertussis-containing vaccine, inactivated poliovirus vaccine, hepatitis B vaccine, or Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine. (nih.gov)
  • Subcutaneous injections were given to eight subjects at ages 2, 4, and 6 months, simultaneously with conventional diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine. (nih.gov)
  • Safety and immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b-polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine in infants 9 to 15 months of age. (nih.gov)
  • In the 1940s, a combination diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine was introduced. (nih.gov)
  • Known as DTwP, the vaccine contained diphtheria toxin, tetanus toxin, and whole (but killed) Bordetella pertussis bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • Follow-up trials, also sponsored by NIAID, showed that acellular vaccines protected children from pertussis and were associated with fewer side effects, and led to the 1996 licensure and use of the first diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine in the United States. (nih.gov)
  • In a clinical trial, the VTEUs evaluated the safety of and immune system response to a dose of combination tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis vaccine (Tdap) administered to pregnant women and women who had recently given birth. (nih.gov)
  • Ask whether you need antibiotics to prevent getting diphtheria. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Because the interleukin (IL)-4 receptor is commonly expressed on brain tumor cells, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of using a modified diphtheria toxin-murine IL-4 (DT390- mIL4) immunoconjugate for the treatment of murine brain tumor cell lines and to determine whether the addition of radiation therapy could potentiate the effect of this agent. (nih.gov)
  • These results indicate that the IL-4 receptor can be a target for diphtheria toxin fusion proteins and that radiation can potentiate the effects of DT390-mIL4. (nih.gov)
  • In the current study, we used Cre-lox mice that expressed the human diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) driven by a lymphatic-specific promoter in order to noninvasively ablate the lymphatic system of the hind limb. (jci.org)
  • Diphtheria toxin's B subunit provides toxin interaction with its receptor on the cell surface and translocation of toxin's A subunit from endosome to cytozole of sensitive cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Our results indicate the possibility to use the fluorescent derivatives of B subunit as tools for identification of diphtheria toxin's receptor (HB-EGF) expression on the cell surface as well as for studying the interaction and penetration of diphtheria toxin to the cell. (elsevier.com)
  • The scientists reasoned that if they put the human diphtheria toxin receptor under the control of genetic sequences that normally regulate different TRPs, they could selectively eliminate certain neurons with a simple toxin injection. (nih.gov)
  • When the researchers put the human diphtheria toxin receptor under the control of TRPV1 regulatory sequences and injected diphtheria toxin into adult mice, TRPV1-expressing neurons were destroyed. (nih.gov)
  • Similarly, when the receptor was put under the control of the TRPM8 sequences, TRPM8 neurons were eliminated by a toxin injection. (nih.gov)
  • A specific kind of antiserum that is produced by immunizing animals with a bacterial toxin, such as diphtheria toxin or tetanus toxin. (si.edu)
  • Cutaneous diphtheria has not been notifiable in the United States since 1980, and U.S. disease incidence data are limited. (cdc.gov)
  • This report summarizes the patient clinical information and response efforts conducted by the Minnesota, Washington, and New Mexico state health departments and CDC and emphasizes that health care providers should consider cutaneous diphtheria as a diagnosis in travelers with wound infections who have returned from countries with endemic diphtheria. (cdc.gov)
  • Poor personal and community hygiene contributes to the spread of cutaneous diphtheria. (merckmanuals.com)
  • thus, toxin complications are rare in cutaneous diphtheria. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Tagraxofusp, which is a cytotoxin consisting of recombinant human interleukin-3 and a diphtheria toxin, now addresses this need, suggest the authors. (medscape.com)
  • Some strains of C. ulcerans can produce diphtheria toxin, which causes respiratory diphtheria in humans and animals. (cdc.gov)
  • The bacteria that cause diphtheria spread through respiratory droplets (such as from a cough or sneeze) of an infected person or someone who carries the bacteria but has no symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • All patients had wound culture grew group A Streptococcus, Pseudomonas , and recently returned to the United States after travel to countries a coryneform isolate (identified as C. diphtheriae via MALDI- where diphtheria is endemic. (cdc.gov)
  • endemic diphtheria. (cdc.gov)
  • Cutaneous toxin-producing diphtheria should be considered in travelers with wound infections who have returned from countries with endemic disease to permit prompt public health response and prevent disease transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • All patients had recently returned to the United States after travel to countries where diphtheria is endemic. (cdc.gov)
  • Diphtheria may be present in returning travelers or migrants from countries where diphtheria is endemic. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Because of widespread vaccination (immunization) of children, diphtheria is now rare in many parts of the world. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Risk factors for diphtheria include crowded environments, poor hygiene, and lack of immunization. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Anyone who has come into contact with an infected person should get an immunization or booster shot against diphtheria, if they have not already received it. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Three doses of VAXELIS constitute a primary immunization course against diphtheria, tetanus, H. influenzae type b invasive disease and poliomyelitis. (nih.gov)
  • Diphtheria is now rare in the US and other high-income countries because childhood immunization is widespread. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Recombinase responsive mouse lines expressing diphtheria toxin subunit A (DTA) are well established tools for targeted ablation of genetically defined cell populations. (nih.gov)
  • If in a neutral toxin-antitoxin mixture or in mixtures of varying degrees of over-neutralisation, one knows the amount of toxin used in the production of the given mixture, then through dissociation of the compound by means of toxoid one is able to find how much antitoxin per cc. is present in the mixture. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Immunogen Full length Diphtheria toxin A-subunit protein. (receptors.org)
  • Studies on mixed infection in diphtheria]. (nih.gov)
  • In 1986, Dr. Muñoz's group successfully isolated and characterized a fragment of B. pertussis DNA containing the genes for pertussis toxin, the substance responsible for establishing infection, and mapped these genes within the bacterial genome. (nih.gov)
  • Non-toxin-producing C. diphtheriae and C. ulcerans can convert to toxin-producing strains through a process of lysogeny with diphtheria toxin gene-carrying corynebacteriophages ( 5 - 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • A report evaluating the differences in the amino acid sequences of the diphtheria toxins in C. diphtheriae and C. ulcerans used only limited data, comparing 1 strain of C. diphtheriae against 2 strains of C. ulcerans ( 8 ), leaving the differences among the toxins of these 2 species unclear. (cdc.gov)
  • We collected amino acid sequences of the diphtheria toxin and the nucleic acid sequences of the 16S rRNA gene of 6 C. diphtheriae strains and 6 C. ulcerans strains from the National Center for Biotechnology Information genome database ( https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome ). (cdc.gov)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences (A) and amino acid sequences (B) of diphtheria toxin genes of 6 Coynebacterium ulcerans strains and 6 C. ulcerans strains. (cdc.gov)
  • We found that the 16S rRNA gene sequences divided into separate C. diphtheriae and C. ulcerans strains with some sequence variability among the strains in each species ( Figure , panel A). The amino acid sequences of the toxins also divided into separate clades for each species. (cdc.gov)
  • Diphtheria strains infected by a beta-phage, which carries a toxin-encoding gene, produce a potent toxin. (merckmanuals.com)
  • However, disease does not depend alone on the microbe acquiring special abilities such as toxin genes. (creation.com)
  • These toxins use similar biochemical mechanisms to impair vital proteins inside host cells For example, the profuse diarrhea that occurs in cholera is a direct result of how its toxin forces cells in the gut to expel too much water and salt by interfering with internal signals. (uw.edu)
  • The title of the Cell paper reporting this research is, "Bifunctional immunity proteins protect bacteria against FtsZ-targeting ADP-ribosylating toxins. (uw.edu)
  • The possibility of rendering toxic a non-toxic toxin-antitoxin mixture by the addition of toxoid is confirmed. (gla.ac.uk)
  • When the excess of antitoxin is too great it is technically impossible to bring together the necessary amount of toxoid with the toxin and antitoxin in a volume that would allow of subcutaneous injection of a guinea pig. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Under otherwise similar conditions the difficulty of rendering toxic a non-toxic toxin-antitoxin mixture by means of the addition of toxoid becomes greater, the longer the toxin-antitoxin mixture has stood. (gla.ac.uk)
  • If when at a temperature of 40 C. one exposes a neutral toxin-antitoxin mixture to the dissociative action of toxoid, then the following is seen. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The toxin-antitoxin compound which is bound to the floccules can again pass into the surrounding fluid where it can be demonstrated by means of toxoid. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Diphtheria antitoxin is given as a shot into a muscle or through an IV (intravenous line). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutagenesis of the histidine precursor of diphthamide yields a functional protein that is resistant to diphtheria toxin. (nih.gov)
  • The toxin we have discovered targets a protein, called FtsZ, that is essential for cells to divide," Peterson explained. (uw.edu)
  • These bacteria produce a protein that acts as an enzyme to reverse, almost like an antidote, the modifications that the toxin had instigated. (uw.edu)
  • This protein protects the bacterium from both the toxin it produces itself," Peterson noted, "and from toxins that function by the same mechanism but made by other species. (uw.edu)
  • Tetanospasm is one of the most potent toxins in the world and works by irreversibly blocking the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters that work on the muscles, interfering with the natural rhythm of action and inaction of axonal nerve firing (1). (discovermagazine.com)
  • Research such as this can offer clues to the evolutionary origins of the potent toxins that bacterial pathogens use to cause disease," Peterson observed. (uw.edu)
  • All isolates were identified as toxin-producing C. diphtheriae . (cdc.gov)
  • isolate (identified as C. diphtheriae via MALDI-TOF and In February 2018, a New Mexico man aged 42 years returned confirmed as toxin-producing) grew from the wound culture from the Philippines with an exudative lower leg wound (Figure). (cdc.gov)
  • State public health laboratories confirmed C. diphtheriae through culture and sent isolates to CDC's Pertussis and Diphtheria Laboratory for biotyping, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, and toxin production testing. (cdc.gov)
  • Staphylococcus aureus and a coryneform isolate (identified as C. diphtheriae via MALDI-TOF and confirmed as toxin-producing) grew from the wound culture ( Table ). (cdc.gov)
  • The wound culture grew group A Streptococcus, Pseudomonas , and a coryneform isolate (identified as C. diphtheriae via MALDI-TOF and confirmed as toxin-producing). (cdc.gov)
  • A bacterial toxin is the cause of diseases such as diphtheria, tetanus, and botulism. (si.edu)
  • 4. Some vaccines against bacterial infections contain inactivated substances or chemicals (toxins and other compounds) that those bacteria make. (chkd.org)
  • Healthy bacteria (left) and bacteria (right) whose cell-division machinery has been disrupted by a toxin newly discovered in some bacterial arsenals. (uw.edu)
  • Our findings," the team wrote in the Cell paper, "reveal how an interbacterial arms race has produced a unique solution for safeguarding the integrity of the bacterial cell division machinery…" This protective mechanism confers broad immunity to a variety of toxins. (uw.edu)
  • Interbacterial fighting might also be responsible for encouraging the formation of new, more effective toxins and thereby contribute to the emergence of bacterial diseases. (uw.edu)
  • 18. Site-specific mutagenesis of the histidine precursor of diphthamide in the human elongation factor-2 gene confers resistance to diphtheria toxin. (nih.gov)
  • or that C. ulcerans has a phage-independent pathway to acquire the diphtheria toxin-encoding gene, as reported ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Effect of Diphtheria Toxin-Based Gene Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma. (bvsalud.org)
  • We assessed gene therapy for HCC using a diphtheria toxin fragment A (DTA) gene -expressing plasmid , utilizing a non-viral hydrodynamics -based procedure . (bvsalud.org)
  • Outbreaks in Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, South Africa, Sudan, and Pakistan have occurred since 2011 (travel information about diphtheria is available at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] web site for travelers' health ). (merckmanuals.com)
  • However, a fatal case was reported in a person who received a diphtheria vaccination booster ≈10 years before disease onset ( 10 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The booster is called tetanus-diphtheria ( Td ). (medlineplus.gov)
  • 6. Adults need a booster for tetanus and diphtheria every 10 years. (chkd.org)
  • People without symptoms who carry diphtheria should be treated with antibiotics. (medlineplus.gov)
  • NIH inventors, in collaboration with Scott and White Memorial Hospital inventors, have developed new immunotoxins comprising a mutant diphtheria toxin linked to an anti-prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) fold-back diabody. (nih.gov)
  • 3. In vitro biosynthesis of diphthamide, studied with mutant Chinese hamster ovary cells resistant to diphtheria toxin. (nih.gov)
  • A serum rich in antibodies against a particular bacteria, virus, or toxin. (si.edu)
  • We conducted phylogenetic analyses of C. ulcerans and C. diptheriae , which revealed diverse diphtheria toxin in C. ulcerans . (cdc.gov)
  • Humans can contract toxin-producing C. ulcerans from companion animals ( 2 , 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The patient and household contacts were unimmunized but refused diphtheria toxoid-containing vaccines. (cdc.gov)
  • Vaccines that contain inactivated toxins include the shots for tetanus and diphtheria. (chkd.org)
  • We studied an immunogen consisting of oligosaccharides derived from Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (PRP) coupled to CRM197, a nontoxic relative of diphtheria toxin. (nih.gov)
  • Microbes that exhibit polysaccharide capsules (figure 1), toxin- and melanin- forming features, tissue-invading (enzyme) capabilities, and other characteristics frequently are pathogenic. (creation.com)
  • Once you are infected, the bacteria make dangerous substances called toxins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 12. Highly frequent single amino acid substitution in mammalian elongation factor 2 (EF-2) results in expression of resistance to EF-2-ADP-ribosylating toxins. (nih.gov)
  • What is special about this toxin," noted UW Medicine microbiologist Brook Peterson, "is that it acts by the same biochemical mechanism as some infamous toxins employed by human pathogens, which evolved much later than the toxins bacteria use against each other. (uw.edu)
  • chain reaction (PCR) testing, and toxin production testing. (cdc.gov)
  • Toxins provoke an immune response,triggering the production of antibodies. (si.edu)
  • Mice normally aren't sensitive to diphtheria toxin. (nih.gov)
  • Embedded soundly in a enclosed and airless wound, C. tetani pumps out tetanospasm toxin, which acts on the central nervous system much like the pesticide and poison strychnine. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Pertussis and Diphtheria Laboratory for biotyping, polymerase treatment was administered. (cdc.gov)
  • If the provider thinks you have diphtheria, treatment will likely be started right away, even before test results come back. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Toxin Tre1 attacks competing bacteria by a mechanism similar to the way pertussis, cholera and diphtheria toxins target people. (uw.edu)
  • Mild disease with a serosanguineous or purulent discharge and irritation of the external nares and upper lip occur in patients who have only nasal diphtheria. (merckmanuals.com)

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