Diphtheria Toxin: An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.Diphtheria: A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.Diphtheria Toxoid: The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.Diphtheria Antitoxin: An antitoxin produced against the toxin of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that is used for the treatment of DIPHTHERIA.Corynebacterium diphtheriae: A species of gram-positive, asporogenous bacteria in which three cultural types are recognized. These types (gravis, intermedius, and mitis) were originally given in accordance with the clinical severity of the cases from which the different strains were most frequently isolated. This species is the causative agent of DIPHTHERIA.Diphtheria-Tetanus Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Tetanus: A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Tetanus ToxoidCommonwealth of Independent StatesPeptide Elongation Factor 2: Peptide Elongation Factor 2 catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A site to the P site of eukaryotic ribosomes by a process linked to the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP.Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Whooping Cough: A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Ricin: A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Ribosome Inactivating Proteins, Type 2: Ribosome inactivating proteins consisting of two polypeptide chains, the toxic A subunit and a lectin B subunit, linked by disulfide bridges. The lectin portion binds to cell surfaces and facilitates transport into the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Corynebacterium: A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Immunotoxins: Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.Clostridium tetani: The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars: Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.ADP Ribose Transferases: Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)KyrgyzstanVaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Peptide Elongation Factors: Protein factors uniquely required during the elongation phase of protein synthesis.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Poliovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Abrin: A toxic lectin from the seeds of jequirity, Abrus precatorius L. Very active poison. Five different proteins have so far been isolated: Abrus agglutinin, the component responsible for: hemagglutinating activity, & abrins a-d, the toxic principals each consisting of two peptide chains are held together by disulfide bonds.Georgia (Republic)Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.UkraineReceptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Corynebacterium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CORYNEBACTERIUM.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).USSRExotoxins: Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.L Cells (Cell Line): A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.RussiaHaemophilus influenzae type b: A type of H. influenzae isolated most frequently from biotype I. Prior to vaccine availability, it was a leading cause of childhood meningitis.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Poisons: Substances which, when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed, or when applied to, injected into, or developed within the body in relatively small amounts may, by their chemical action, cause damage to structure or disturbance of function. (From Dorland, 27th ed)AzerbaijanProtein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Vaccines, Acellular: Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.

Candidate bacterial conditions. (1/321)

This article provides background information on bacterial diseases and discusses those that are candidates for elimination or eradication. Only one disease, neonatal tetanus, is a strong candidate for elimination. Others, including Haemophilus influenzae b infection, leprosy, diphtheria, pertussis, tuberculosis, meningococcal disease, congenital syphilis, trachoma and syphilis are important causes of morbidity and mortality in industrialized and developing countries. For all these diseases, eradication/elimination is not likely because of the characteristics of the disease and limitations in the interventions.  (+info)

Use of molecular subtyping to document long-term persistence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae in South Dakota. (2/321)

Enhanced surveillance of patients with upper respiratory symptoms in a Northern Plains community revealed that approximately 4% of them were infected by toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae of both mitis and gravis biotypes, showing that the organism is still circulating in the United States. Toxigenic C. diphtheriae was isolated from five members of four households. Four molecular subtyping methods-ribotyping, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and single-strand conformation polymorphism-were used to molecularly characterize these strains and compare them to 17 archival South Dakota strains dating back to 1973 through 1983 and to 5 isolates collected from residents of diverse regions of the United States. Ribotyping and RAPD clearly demonstrated the household transmission of isolates and provided precise information on the circulation of several distinct strains within three households. By MEE, most recent and archival South Dakota strains were identified as closely related and clustered within the newly identified ET (electrophoretic type) 215 complex. Furthermore, three recent South Dakota isolates and eight archival South Dakota isolates were indistinguishable by both ribotyping and RAPD. All of these molecular methods showed that recent South Dakota isolates and archival South Dakota isolates were more closely related to each other than to the C. diphtheriae strains isolated in other parts of the United States or worldwide. The data also supported the improbability of importation of C. diphtheriae into this area and rather strongly suggest the long-term persistence of the organism in this region.  (+info)

Resurgent diphtheria--are we safe? (3/321)

Diphtheria, one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the past, seemed nearly eliminated from industrialized countries, thanks to improved hygienic conditions and large scale vaccinations. In 1990, a large epidemic started in Eastern Europe, mainly in Russia and Ukraine, with over 70,000 cases reported within a 5 year period. The main factors leading to the epidemic included low immunization coverage among infants and children, waning immunity to diphtheria among adults, and profound social changes in the former Soviet Union. The possibility of new virulence factors in the epidemic strain has not yet been ruled out. Even though immunity among adults is far from complete in Western Europe, the epidemic did not spread there. The main reason for this might be the good immune status of children and lack of social turbulence favouring the spread of infection. Several countries have also taken preventive measures, which may also have played a role in protection against the potential epidemic.  (+info)

Experience with diphtheria toxoid-tetanus toxoid-acellular pertussis vaccine in Japan. (4/321)

In Japan, the morbidity rate for pertussis per 100,000 population was 147.6 in 1950 when whole cell pertussis vaccine was introduced but dropped to 0.2 in 1972 when routine immunization with a combined vaccine consisting of diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and whole cell pertussis had been widely accepted. Thereafter, adverse reactions to the whole cell pertussis vaccine became a social problem and lowered the acceptance of the vaccine. As a result, the morbidity rate increased to 11.3 in 1979. Introduction of the safer yet efficacious acellular pertussis vaccine, consisting of mainly pertussis toxoid and filamentous hemagglutinin, into the routine childhood vaccination in combination with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids in 1981 increased the acceptance rate. The lowest morbidity rate, 0.1, was achieved in 1993. During the next 16 years, almost all cases were in unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated persons. Regardless of whether whole cell or acellular pertussis vaccine was used, > 90% of the reported pertussis cases were in children < 10 years of age until 1990. However, since 1991, the rate of pertussis in young adults 20-44 years of age has been clearly increasing. To control pertussis, booster vaccination with diphtheria toxoid-tetanus toxoid-acellular pertussis vaccine in adults should be considered.  (+info)

Similarities between the pathogenesis of and immunity to diphtheria and pertussis: the complex nature of serum antitoxin-induced immunity to these two diseases. (5/321)

Despite data from animal studies, seroepidemiological surveys, and controlled clinical trials, skepticism persists about immunity to pertussis conferred by serum IgG neutralizing antibodies (antitoxin). This is largely prompted by the absence of a "protective" level of antitoxin. Examination of the similarities between the pathogenesis and immunity to pertussis and diphtheria provides an explanation for this dilemma. As with pertussis, diphtheria toxoid vaccination confers only approximately 70% immunity on an individual basis, individuals with protective levels of antitoxin may contract diphtheria, and about 50% of the entire population, especially adults, have less than protective levels of antitoxin. The virtual disappearance of diphtheria followed vaccination of the entire population with diphtheria toxoid, which blocked transmission of toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae and thus reduced the pathogen to almost undetectable levels. The individual and community-based immunity induced by diphtheria toxoid, we hypothesize, is similar to that of pertussis and pertussis toxoid.  (+info)

Diphtheritic polyneuropathy: a clinical study and comparison with Guillain-Barre syndrome. (6/321)

OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Clinical features of 50 adults with diphtheritic polyneuropathy (DP) were studied in Riga, Latvia and compared with 21 patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). RESULTS: Neurological complications occurred in 15% of patients admitted to hospital with diphtheria and usually after severe pharyngeal infection. Bulbar dysfunction occurred in 98% of patients with DP and only 10% of patients with GBS. Limb weakness was mild or absent in 30% of patients with DP. Ventilation dependent respiratory failure occurred in 20% of patients with DP. The first symptoms of DP occurred 2-50 days after the onset of local diphtheria infection. Neurological deterioration in DP continued for a median of 49 (range 15-83) days and improvement started 73 (range 20-115) days after onset. In 66% of patients with DP, the neuropathy was biphasic with a secondary worsening after 40 days. By contrast patients with GBS worsened for only 10 days on average (range 2-28 days) and improved after 21 (range 4-49) days. Eight patients with DP died, four from severe cardiomyopathy and four from multiple diphtheritic organ failure. Prolonged distal motor latencies (DMLs) were common to both DP and GBS, and more pronounced than motor conduction slowing. Limb symptoms continued after 1 year in 80% of the patients with DP, 6% were unable to walk independently, but independent respiratory and bulbar function had returned in all survivors. By comparison no patients with GBS died and none were severely disabled after 1 year. No death, in patients with DP occurred after antitoxin on days 1 or 2 after onset of diphtheria symptoms, whereas identical rates of death and peak severity of DP were seen both in those who received antitoxin on days 3-6 and those who did not receive it at all. CONCLUSION: Diphtheric polyneuropathy is much more likely than GBS to have a bulbar onset, to lead to respiratory failure, to evolve more slowly, to take a biphasic course, and to cause death or long term disability. Antitoxin seems ineffective if administered after the second day of diphtheritic symptoms.  (+info)

Diphtheria in the Republic of Georgia: use of molecular typing techniques for characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains. (7/321)

Sixty-six Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains (62 of the gravis biotype and 4 of the mitis biotype) isolated during the Georgian diphtheria epidemic of 1993 to 1998 and 13 non-Georgian C. diphtheriae strains (10 Russian and 3 reference isolates) were characterized by (i) biotyping, (ii) toxigenicity testing with the Elek assay and PCR, (iii) the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, and (iv) pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Fifteen selected strains were ribotyped. Six RAPD types and 15 PFGE patterns were identified among all strains examined, and 12 ribotypes were found among the 15 strains that were ribotyped. The Georgian epidemic apparently was caused by one major clonal group of C. diphtheriae (PFGE type A, ribotype R1), which was identical to the predominant epidemic strain(s) isolated during the concurrent diphtheria epidemic in Russia. A dendrogram based on the PFGE patterns revealed profound differences between the minor (nonpredominant) epidemic strains found in Georgia and Russia. The methodologies for RAPD typing, ribotyping, and PFGE typing of C. diphtheriae strains were improved to enable rapid and convenient molecular typing of the strains. The RAPD technique was adequate for biotype differentiation; however, PFGE and ribotyping were better (and equal to each other) at discriminating between epidemiologically related and unrelated isolates.  (+info)

Diphtheria antitoxin levels in the Netherlands: a population-based study. (8/321)

In a population-based study in the Netherlands, diphtheria antitoxin antibodies were measured with a toxin-binding inhibition assay in 9, 134 sera from the general population and religious communities refusing vaccination. The Dutch immunization program appears to induce long-term protection against diphtheria. However, a substantial number of adults born before the program was introduced had no protective diphtheria antibody levels. Although herd immunity seems adequate, long-term population protection cannot be assured. As more than 60% of orthodox reformed persons have antibody levels lower than 0.01 IU/ml, introduction of diphtheria into religious communities refusing vaccination may constitute a danger of spread of the bacterium.  (+info)

  • Low rates of immunization, delayed clinical recognition of diphtheria and absence of treatment with antitoxin and appropriate antibiotics contributed to this epidemic and its severity. (msf.org)
  • In the past five years there has not been a single reported case of diphtheria within the United States. (smartvax.com)
  • Average annual incidence of diphtheria was around 10 cases in the whole of the state. (freethoughtblogs.com)
  • The global Diphtheria Treatment Market is projected to reach USD 5 billion at a 3.2% CAGR from 2017 to 2023 (forecast period) says Market Research Future (MRFR). (medgadget.com)
  • Because of widespread and routine childhood DPT vaccinations, diphtheria it is now rare in many parts of the world. (medindia.net)
  • In some cases, diphtheria may first infect the skin, producing lesions on the skin. (medindia.net)
  • In historical times, classical naso-pharyngeal Diphtheria resulted in relatively high rates of mortality in young children although like most diseases morbidity and case fatality rates differed significantly between communities, likely reflecting differences in standards of living. (smartvax.com)
  • Britain, Special report series 272, HMSO 1950 demonstrated that many of the diphtheria patients had high levels of circulating antibodies, whereas many of the contacts who remained perfectly well had low antibody. (healingnaturallybybee.com)