Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
A naturally occurring dipeptide neuropeptide found in muscles.
EXOPEPTIDASES that specifically act on dipeptides. EC 3.4.13.
A NOD signaling adaptor protein that contains two C-terminal leucine-rich domains which recognize bacterial PEPTIDOGLYCAN. It signals via an N-terminal capase recruitment domain that interacts with other CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES. The protein plays a role in the host defense response by signaling the activation of CASPASES and the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Mutations of the gene encoding the nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 protein have been associated with increased susceptibility to CROHN DISEASE.
The simplest of all peptides. It functions as a gamma-glutamyl acceptor.
Piperazines with two keto oxygens.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A papain-like cysteine protease that has specificity for amino terminal dipeptides. The enzyme plays a role in the activation of several pro-inflammatory serine proteases by removal of their aminoterminal inhibitory dipeptides. Genetic mutations that cause loss of cathepsin C activity in humans are associated with PAPILLON-LEFEVRE DISEASE.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Long-acting, broad-spectrum, water-soluble, CEPHALEXIN derivative.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A subclass of exopeptidases that includes enzymes which cleave either two or three AMINO ACIDS from the end of a peptide chain.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of CEPHALORIDINE or CEPHALOTHIN, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A group of related mycotoxins produced by the pasture fungus Pithomyces chartarum (formerly Sporidesmium bakeri); causes liver damage and facial eczema in cattle and sheep.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A subclass of EXOPEPTIDASES that act on the free N terminus end of a polypeptide liberating a single amino acid residue. EC 3.4.11.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
A serine protease that catalyses the release of an N-terminal dipeptide. Several biologically-active peptides have been identified as dipeptidyl peptidase 4 substrates including INCRETINS; NEUROPEPTIDES; and CHEMOKINES. The protein is also found bound to ADENOSINE DEAMINASE on the T-CELL surface and is believed to play a role in T-cell activation.
A specific subtype of muscarinic receptor found in a variety of locations including the SALIVARY GLANDS and the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and VENTRAL TEGMENTAL AREA of the BRAIN.
Toxic glycolipids composed of trehalose dimycolate derivatives. They are produced by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and other species of MYCOBACTERIUM. They induce cellular dysfunction in animals.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
An autosomal recessive disorder due to defective absorption of NEUTRAL AMINO ACIDS by both the intestine and the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. The abnormal urinary loss of TRYPTOPHAN, a precursor of NIACIN, leads to a NICOTINAMIDE deficiency, PELLAGRA-like light-sensitive rash, CEREBELLAR ATAXIA, emotional instability, and aminoaciduria. Mutations involve the neurotransmitter transporter gene SLC6A19.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A zinc containing enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the removal of the N-terminal amino acid from most L-peptides, particularly those with N-terminal leucine residues but not those with N-terminal lysine or arginine residues. This occurs in tissue cell cytosol, with high activity in the duodenum, liver, and kidney. The activity of this enzyme is commonly assayed using a leucine arylamide chromogenic substrate such as leucyl beta-naphthylamide.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.

A novel role for carbonic anhydrase: cytoplasmic pH gradient dissipation in mouse small intestinal enterocytes. (1/2681)

1. The spatial and temporal distribution of intracellular H+ ions in response to activation of a proton-coupled dipeptide transporter localized at the apical pole of mouse small intestinal isolated enterocytes was investigated using intracellular carboxy-SNARF-1 fluorescence in combination with whole-cell microspectrofluorimetry or confocal microscopy. 2. In Hepes-buffered Tyrode solution, application of the dipeptide Phe-Ala (10 mM) to a single enterocyte reduced pHi locally in the apical submembranous space. After a short delay (8 s), a fall of pHi occurred more slowly at the basal pole. 3. In the presence of CO2/HCO3--buffered Tyrode solution, the apical and basal rates of acidification were not significantly different and the time delay was reduced to 1 s or less. 4. Following application of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide (100 microM) in the presence of CO2/HCO3- buffer, addition of Phe-Ala once again produced a localized apical acidification that took 5 s to reach the basal pole. Basal acidification was slower than at the apical pole. 5. We conclude that acid influx due to proton-coupled dipeptide transport can lead to intracellular pH gradients and that intracellular carbonic anhydrase activity, by facilitating cytoplasmic H+ mobility, limits their magnitude and duration.  (+info)

Cluster of differentiation antigen 4 (CD4) endocytosis and adaptor complex binding require activation of the CD4 endocytosis signal by serine phosphorylation. (2/2681)

Cluster of differentiation antigen 4 (CD4), the T lymphocyte antigen receptor component and human immunodeficiency virus coreceptor, is down-modulated when cells are activated by antigen or phorbol esters. During down-modulation CD4 dissociates from p56(lck), undergoes endocytosis through clathrin-coated pits, and is then sorted in early endosomes to late endocytic organelles where it is degraded. Previous studies have suggested that phosphorylation and a dileucine sequence are required for down-modulation. Using transfected HeLa cells, in which CD4 endocytosis can be studied in the absence of p56(lck), we show that the dileucine sequence in the cytoplasmic domain is essential for clathrin-mediated CD4 endocytosis. However, this sequence is only functional as an endocytosis signal when neighboring serine residues are phosphorylated. Phosphoserine is required for rapid endocytosis because CD4 molecules in which the cytoplasmic domain serine residues are substituted with glutamic acid residues are not internalized efficiently. Using surface plasmon resonance, we show that CD4 peptides containing the dileucine sequence bind weakly to clathrin adaptor protein complexes 2 and 1. The affinity of this interaction is increased 350- to 700-fold when the peptides also contain phosphoserine residues.  (+info)

Caspase-dependent activation of calpain during drug-induced apoptosis. (3/2681)

We have previously demonstrated that calpain is responsible for the cleavage of Bax, a proapoptotic protein, during drug-induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells (Wood, D. E., Thomas, A., Devi, L. A., Berman, Y., Beavis, R. C., Reed, J. C., and Newcomb, E. W. (1998) Oncogene 17, 1069-1078). Here we show the sequential activation of caspases and calpain during drug-induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells. Time course experiments using the topoisomerase I inhibitor 9-amino-20(S)-camptothecin revealed that cleavage of caspase-3 substrates poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and the retinoblastoma protein as well as DNA fragmentation occurred several hours before calpain activation and Bax cleavage. Pretreatment with the calpain inhibitor calpeptin blocked calpain activation and Bax cleavage but did not inhibit PARP cleavage, DNA fragmentation, or 9-amino-20(S)-camptothecin-induced morphological changes and cell death. Pretreatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-fmk) inhibited PARP cleavage, DNA fragmentation, calpain activation, and Bax cleavage and increased cell survival by 40%. Interestingly, Z-VAD-fmk-treated cells died in a caspase- and calpain-independent manner that appeared morphologically distinct from apoptosis. Our results suggest that excessive or uncontrolled calpain activity may play a role downstream of and distinct from caspases in the degradation phase of apoptosis.  (+info)

Posttranslational regulation of the retinoblastoma gene family member p107 by calpain protease. (4/2681)

The retinoblastoma protein plays a critical role in regulating the G1/S transition. Less is known about the function and regulation of the homologous pocket protein p107. Here we present evidence for the posttranslational regulation of p107 by the Ca2+-activated protease calpain. Three negative growth regulators, the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor lovastatin, the antimetabolite 5-fluorouracil, and the cyclic nucleotide dibutyryl cAMP were found to induce cell type-specific loss of p107 protein which was reversible by the calpain inhibitor leucyl-leucyl-norleucinal but not by the serine protease inhibitor phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride, caspase inhibitors, or lactacystin, a specific inhibitor of the 26S proteasome. Purified calpain induced Ca2+-dependent p107 degradation in cell lysates. Transient expression of the specific calpain inhibitor calpastatin blocked the loss of p107 protein in lovastatin-treated cells, and the half-life of p107 was markedly lengthened in lovastatian-treated cells stably transfected with a calpastatin expression vector versus cells transfected with vector alone. The data presented here demonstrate down-regulation of p107 protein in response to various antiproliferative signals, and implicate calpain in p107 posttranslational regulation.  (+info)

Multiplicity of the H+-dependent transport mechanism of dipeptide and anionic beta-lactam antibiotic ceftibuten in rat intestinal brush-border membrane. (5/2681)

To elucidate the transport characteristics of the H+/dipeptide carrier that recognizes the orally active beta-lactam antibiotic ceftibuten, the uptake behaviors were compared of ceftibuten and Gly-Sar by rat intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles. The results show that 1) both the uptake of ceftibuten and that of Gly-Sar were dependent on an inwardly directed H+ gradient; 2) anionic compounds such as hippurylphenyllactic acid competitively inhibited ceftibuten uptake in the presence of H+ gradient, whereas this anion did not inhibit Gly-Sar uptake; and 3) the carrier-mediated uptake of ceftibuten did not disappear even in the presence of 20 mM Gly-Sar. The results provide an evidence that several transporters with different features are potentially responsible for the uptake of beta-lactam antibiotics into the intestinal cells. It is suggested that the dianionic beta-lactam antibiotics that carry a net negative charge such as ceftibuten use multiple H+-dependent transport systems for absorption.  (+info)

Interactions of a nonpeptidic drug, valacyclovir, with the human intestinal peptide transporter (hPEPT1) expressed in a mammalian cell line. (6/2681)

The results of previous work performed in our laboratory using an in situ perfusion technique in rats and rabbit apical brush border membrane vesicles have suggested that the intestinal uptake of valacyclovir (VACV) appears to be mediated by multiple membrane transporters. Using these techniques, it is difficult to characterize the transport kinetics of VACV with each individual transporter in the presence of multiple known or unknown transporters. The purpose of this study was to characterize the interaction of VACV and the human intestinal peptide transporter using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that overexpress the human intestinal peptide transporter (hPEPT1) gene. VACV uptake was significantly greater in CHO cells transfected with hPEPT1 than in cells transfected with only the vector, pcDNA3. The optimum pH for VACV uptake was determined to occur at pH 7.5. Proton cotransport was not observed in hPEPT1/CHO cells, consistent with previously observed results in tissues and Caco-2 cells. VACV uptake was concentration dependent and saturable with a Michaelis-Menten constant and maximum velocity of 1.64 +/- 0.06 mM and 23.34 +/- 0.36 nmol/mg protein/5 min, respectively. A very similar Km value was obtained in hPEPT1/CHO cells and in rat and rabbit tissues and Caco-2 cells, suggesting that hPEPT1 dominates the intestinal transport properties of VACV in vitro. VACV uptake was markedly inhibited by various dipeptides and beta-lactam antibiotics, and Ki values of 12.8 +/- 2.7 and 9.1 +/- 1.2 mM were obtained for Gly-Sar and cefadroxil at pH 7.5, respectively. The present results demonstrate that VACV is a substrate for the human intestinal peptide transporter in hPEPT1/CHO cells and that although transport is pH dependent, proton cotransport is not apparent. Also, the results demonstrate that the hPEPT1/CHO cell system has use in investigating the transport kinetics of drugs with the human intestinal peptide transporter hPEPT1; however, the extrapolation of these transport properties to the in vivo situation requires further investigation.  (+info)

Allosteric modulation of BPTI interaction with human alpha- and zeta-thrombin. (7/2681)

In this study, thrombin interaction with the basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) was investigated in the presence of different allosteric modulators of thrombin, that is the C-terminal hirudin peptide 54-65 (Hir54-65), a recombinant thrombomodulin form (TMEGF4-6) and Na+. BPTI binding to alpha-thrombin is positively linked to Na+. Under low sodium concentration (5 mM Na+) the BPTI affinity for alpha-thrombin was roughly threefold lower than in the presence of 150 mM sodium (Ki = 320 microM vs. 100 microM). The hirudin fragment, which binds to the fibrinogen recognition site (FRS) of thrombin, induced a progressive and saturable decrease (3.6-fold) of alpha-thrombin affinity for BPTI, whereas the thrombomodulin peptide, which binds to a more extended region of FRS, caused a 5.5-fold increase of the enzyme affinity for the inhibitor. The opposite effect exerted by Hir54-65 and TMEGF4-6 was also observed for BPTI interaction with zeta-thrombin, in which the amidic bond between W148 and T149 is cleaved. However, in this case the effect by Hir54-65 and TMEGF4-6, although qualitatively similar to that observed with alpha-thrombin, had a smaller magnitude. Thrombin hydrolysis of Protein C was also differently affected by Hir54-65 and TMEGF4-6 peptides. While the latter enhanced the Protein C activation, the former caused a reduction of both alpha- and zeta-thrombin kcat/K(m)' for Protein C cleavage. These results showed that (a) Na+ facilitates BPTI interaction with thrombin; (b) Hir54-65 and TMEGF4-6, though sharing in part the same binding site at the thrombin FRS, can affect in opposite way thrombin's interaction with BPTI and Protein C; (c) such findings along with the results obtained with zeta-thrombin might be explained by admitting that the thermodynamic linkage between FRS and the critical W60-loop is also controlled by ligation and/or conformational state of the W148 insertion loop.  (+info)

Bifunctional inhibitors of the trypsin-like activity of eukaryotic proteasomes. (8/2681)

BACKGROUND: The 20S proteasome is a multicatalytic protease complex that exhibits trypsin-like, chymotrypsin-like and post-glutamyl-peptide hydrolytic activities associated with the active sites of the beta2, beta5 and beta1 subunits, respectively. Modulation of these activities using inhibitors is essential for a better understanding of the proteasome's mechanism of action. Although there are highly selective inhibitors of the proteasome's chymotryptic activity, inhibitors of similar specificity have not yet been identified for the other activities. RESULTS: The X-ray structure of the yeast proteasome reveals that the sidechain of Cys118 of the beta3 subunit protrudes into the S3 subsite of the beta2 active site. The location of this residue was exploited for the rational design of bidentated inhibitors containing a maleinimide moiety at the P3 position for covalent linkage to the thiol group and a carboxy-terminal aldehyde group for hemiacetal formation with the Thr1 hydroxyl group of the active site. Structure-based modelling was used to determine the optimal spacing of the maleinimide group from the P2-P1 dipeptide aldehydes and the specificity of the S1 subsite was exploited to limit the inhibitory activity to the beta2 active site. X-ray crystallographic analysis of a yeast proteasome-inhibitor adduct confirmed the expected irreversible binding of the inhibitor to the P3 subsite. CONCLUSIONS: Maleoyl-beta-alanyl-valyl-arginal is a new type of inhibitor that is highly selective for the trypsin-like activity of eukaryotic proteasomes. Despite the reactivity of the maleinimide group towards thiols, and therefore the limited use of this inhibitor for in vitro studies, it might represent an interesting new biochemical tool.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanism of L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester-mediated killing of cytotoxic lymphocytes. T2 - Dependence on a lysosomal thiol protease, dipeptidyl peptidase I, that is enriched in these cells. AU - Thiele, Dwain L. AU - Lipsky, Peter E.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Exposure of murine or human lymphocytes to L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester (Leu-Leu-OMe) results in selective killing of cytotoxic lymphocytes, whereas helper T cells and B cells remain functionally intact. Cytolytic lymphocytes incubated in the presence of toxic concentrations of Leu-Leu-OMe were found to contain membranolytic metabolites of the structure (Leu-Leu)n-OMe, where n ≥ 3. The sensitivity of cytotoxic lymphocytes to Leu-Leu-OMe was found to be dependent upon production of these metabolites by a lysosomal thiol protease, dipeptidyl peptidase I, which is present at far higher levels in cytotoxic lymphocytes than in cells without cytolytic potential or not of bone marrow origin. Thus, this granule enzyme is ...
1. We report observations on transport of the hydrolysis-resistant dipeptide glycylsarcosine by rings of everted hamster jejunum in vitro in the presence and absence of Na+, using several substituents for Na+: Li+, K+, Cs+, Tris, choline and mannitol.. 2. At most concentrations, mediated influx of glycylsarcosine was depressed by Li+, K+, Cs+ and Tris, though not abolished. At high concentrations, it was moderately increased by choline and mannitol. Under conditions in which the tissue could concentrate the peptide in the presence of Na+, uptake was greatly depressed by all the substituents and the ability to concentrate was abolished.. 3. The Kt of mediated influx was affected in different ways according to the substituent used. Kt was reduced by Li+ replacement of Na+ and increased by choline replacement. Vmax. was greatly reduced by all metallic substituents but not by non-metallic substituents.. 4. Though the results cannot yet be satisfactorily interpreted, they suggest possible reasons for ...
Background & Aims: For optimal nutrient absorption to occur, the enterocyte must express a range of specialist ion-driven carrier proteins that function cooperatively in a linked and mutually dependent fashion. Thus, absorption via the human intestinal H+-coupled di/tripeptide transporter (hPepT1) is dependent on maintenance of the trans-apical driving force (the H+-electrochemical gradient) established, in part, by brush-border Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE3) activity. This study aimed to examine whether physiologic regulation of NHE3 activity can limit hPepT1 capacity and, therefore, protein absorption after a meal. Methods: hPepT1 and NHE3 activities were determined in intact human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers by measurements of [14C]glycylsarcosine transport and uptake, 22Na+-influx, H+-influx, and H+-efflux. Expression of NHE regulatory factors was determined by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results: Optimal dipeptide transport was observed in the presence of a ...
The gene encoding the di- and tripeptide transport protein (DtpT) of Lactobacillus helveticus (DtpTLH) was cloned with the aid of the inverse PCR technique and used to complement the dipeptide transport-deficient and proline-auxotrophic Escherichia coli E1772. Functional expression of the peptide transporter was shown by the uptake of prolyl-[14C] alanine in whole cells and membrane vesicles. Peptide transport via DtpT in membrane vesicles is driven by the proton motive force. The system has specificity for di- and tripeptides but not for amino acids or tetrapeptides. The dtpTLH gene consists of 1,491 bp, which translates into a 497-amino-acid polypeptide. DtpTLH shows 34% identity to the di- and tripeptide transport protein of Lactococcus lactis and is also homologous to various peptide transporters of eukaryotic origin, but the similarity between these proteins is confined mainly to the N-terminal halves.. ...
Author(s): Hirst BH; Simmons NL; Thwaites DT; McEwan GTA. Publication type: Article. Publication status: Published. Journal: Pfluegers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology. Year: 1993. Volume: 425. Issue: 1-2. Pages: 178-180. Print publication date: 01/10/1993. ISSN (print): 0031-6768. ISSN (electronic): 1432-2013. Publisher: Springer. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00374520. DOI: 10.1007/BF00374520. PubMed id: 8272376. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Drug inhibition of Gly-Sar uptake and hPepT1 localization using hPepT1-GFP fusion protein. AU - Sun, Duxin. AU - Landowski, Christopher P.. AU - Chu, Xiaoyan. AU - Wallsten, Richard. AU - Komorowski, Thomas E.. AU - Fleisher, David. AU - Amidon, Gordon L.. PY - 2001/12/1. Y1 - 2001/12/1. N2 - An hPepT1-GFP fusion construct was made to study drug inhibition of dipeptide uptake and apical, basolateral, or subcellular hPepT1 localization. The hPepT1 stop codon was mutated by polymerase chain reaction and was subsequently cloned into the pEGFP-N1 vector. The hPepT1-GFP fusion construct was then transfected into Caco-2 and HeLa cells, and drug inhibition was studied by inhibiting 3H-Gly-Sar uptake. Western blot analysis was used to determine hPepT1-GFP expression levels and confocal microscopy was used to examine the localization. Both anti-hPepT1 antibody and anti-GFP antibody recognized a 120kd hPepT1-GFP fusion protein in the transfected cells. The 3H-Gly-Sar uptake in transfected ...
Alanine dipeptide is one of the simplest molecules that exhibits some important features common to larger biomolecules. In particular, it has more than one long-lived conformation, which we will identify in this exercise by mapping out its potential energy surface. The conformations of alanine dipeptide are characterized by the dihedral angles of the backbone. Below, we color carbons in green, hydrogens in white, oxygen in red and nitrogen in blue, i.e. the torsional angle $\phi$ is C-N-C-C, while $\psi$ is N-C-C-N along the backbone. ...
Functional peptides are expected to be beneficial compounds that improve our quality of life. To address the growing need for functional peptides, we have examined peptide synthesis by using microbial enzymes. l-Amino acid ligase (Lal) catalyzes the condensation of unprotected amino acids in an ATP-dependent manner and is applicable to fermentative production. Hence, Lal is a promising enzyme to achieve cost-effective synthesis. To obtain a Lal with novel substrate specificity, we focused on the putative Lal involved in the biosynthesis of the dipeptidic phytotoxin designated tabtoxin. The tabS gene was cloned from Pseudomonas syringae NBRC14081 and overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells. The recombinant TabS protein produced showed the broadest substrate specificity of any known Lal; it detected 136 of 231 combinations of amino acid substrates when dipeptide synthesis was examined. In addition, some new substrate specificities were identified and unusual amino acids, e.g., l-pipecolic acid, hydroxy-l
Intestinal protein digestion generates a massive variety and quantity of short chain peptides that are later absorbed into small intestinal epithelial cells by the di/tri-peptide transporter (PEPT1) on the apical membrane of enterocytes. PEPT1 functions as an electrogenic proton/peptide symporter with the ability to transport most di- and tripeptide arising from food digestion. It also has significance in its ability to transport pharmacologically active drugs. Due to its uniquely broad substrate specificity and high capacity, hPEPT1 has been suggested to be relevant drug targets at the level of drug transport. Substrate docking studies to identify specific interactions between the substrate and transporter would be facilitated by crystallization of hPEPT1; however, crystallization of hPEPT1 protein is currently unapproachable due to the size of the protein and the requirement of a lipid membrane to retain tertiary. My research built on the rudimentary computer model of hPEPT1 generated by Dr. ...
The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, is involved in the biosynthesis of the nonribosomally synthesized dipeptide antibiotic bacilysin, composed
The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, is involved in the biosynthesis of the nonribosomally synthesized dipeptide antibiotic bacilysin, composed
The focus of this study is to determine the conformational, structural and vibrational properties of Methionyl-Serine dipeptide (L-Methionyl-L-Serine, Met-Ser), a biological active molecule. To investigate their energetically preferred conformations, molecular mechanics methods were utilized to determine the optimal conformations of the 3402 different dihedral angle values of the backbone and side chains. It was found that the extended (e) backbone shape in the LB conformational range was the most stable LMethionyl-L-Serine dipeptide conformation, with 3.12 kcal/mol of energy. Density Functional Theory (DFT) was used to determine the optimized geometry, the vibrational wavenumbers and modes of the title dipeptide values, with 6-31G (d,p) and 6-311++G (d,p) basis sets. The potential energy distribution data was used to carry out the assignment of the bands. In addition, the vibrational spectra of the most stable conformer and its dimer form were determined and the obtained results were compared ...
The focus of this study is to determine the conformational, structural and vibrational properties of Methionyl-Serine dipeptide (L-Methionyl-L-Serine, Met-Ser), a biological active molecule. To investigate their energetically preferred conformations, molecular mechanics methods were utilized to determine the optimal conformations of the 3402 different dihedral angle values of the backbone and side chains. It was found that the extended (e) backbone shape in the LB conformational range was the most stable LMethionyl-L-Serine dipeptide conformation, with 3.12 kcal/mol of energy. Density Functional Theory (DFT) was used to determine the optimized geometry, the vibrational wavenumbers and modes of the title dipeptide values, with 6-31G (d,p) and 6-311++G (d,p) basis sets. The potential energy distribution data was used to carry out the assignment of the bands. In addition, the vibrational spectra of the most stable conformer and its dimer form were determined and the obtained results were compared ...
Evonik is helping to overcome these bioprocessing challenges and is optimizing cell culture performance with its cQrex® portfolio, an innovative range of media ingredients and amino acid dipeptide formulations. Dipeptides consist of two identical or different amino acids joined together. They offer an alternative for supplying amino acids to production cultures, where they are taken up by cells and then broken down again into their individual amino acids.. We have chemically coupled the key problematic amino acids with carrier amino acids to create dipeptides that overcome the chemical limitations commonly associated with the free amino acid forms, said Schilling.. The cQrex® dipeptides from Evonik are specially designed for high-density cell culture applications. The portfolio includes different dipeptide alternatives to meet specific cell line and process requirements. Their high stability, solubility, and bioavailability eliminate the need for high pH levels, simplifying the biologics ...
Alanine dipeptide is often studied in theoretical work because it is among the simplest systems to exhibit some of the important features common to biomolecules. It has more than one long-lived conformational state. The relevant angles are the dihedral angles of the backbone, commonly called Φ and Ψ (see figure). In the following scheme, light blue atoms are carbons, white ones are hydrogens, red are oxygens, and blue are nitrogens. So the torsional angle Φ is C-N-C-C and Ψ is N-C-C-N along the backbone ...
Amino-PEG5-t-butyl ester ≥95%; CAS Number: 1446282-18-3; Synonym: tert-Butyl-1-amino-3,6,9,12,15-pentaoxaoctadecan-18-oate, H2N-PEG5-CH2CH2COOtBu; Linear Formula: C17H35NO7; find Sigma-Aldrich-902527 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich.
Figure seven summarizes the technique adopted during the AMBER drive fields to create the (-)OOC-terminal or C-terminal fragment, having the dimethylalanine residue for example. This C-terminal fragment is attained by utilizing the two molecules strategy reported Earlier for that N-terminal 1: acetate as well as dimethylalanine dipeptide are associated with the technique. Power industry era for this fragment is performed by environment to a worth of get more info zero two different constraints in the course of the fitting stage: (i) an inter-molecular cost constraint between the methyl group of acetate as well as CO-NHMe group of atoms from the capped amino acid, and (ii) an intra-molecular demand constraint for the MeCO group on the capped amino acid ...
Peptide synthesis utilizing isoacyl dipeptides minimizes the formation of impurities and improves the yield of aggregation-prone hydrophobic peptides.
A large number of papers have been published on analysis of microarray data with particular emphasis on normalization of data, detection of differentially expressed genes, clustering of genes and regulatory network. On other hand there are only few studies on relation between expression level and composition of nucleotide/protein sequence, using expression data. There is a need to understand why particular genes/proteins express more in particular conditions. In this study, we analyze 3468 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained from Holstege et al., (1998) to understand the relationship between expression level and amino acid composition. We compute the correlation between expression of a gene and amino acid composition of its protein. It was observed that some residues (like Ala, Gly, Arg and Val) have significant positive correlation (r | 0.20) and some other residues (Like Asp, Leu, Asn and Ser) have negative correlation (r | -0.15) with the expression of genes. A significant negative correlation
There is provided a novel process for the preparation of a dipeptide represented by the formula: ##STR1## wherein Ar represents an aromatic group; R1 represents a hydrogen atom, an alkyl group or an aryl group; R2 represents a hydrogen atom, an alkyl group or an aromatic group; Y represents a hydroxy group, an amino group or an acylamino group, which comprises subjecting a β-lactam compound represented by the formula: ##STR2## wherein Ar, R1 and R2 have the same meanings as defined above, and X represents a hydroxy group, an amino group or an acylamino group, an azido group or a benzyloxy group, to hydrogenolysis in the presence of a catalyst. The process can be practiced without any complicated procedure as seen in the conventional processes for the preparation of peptides.
BioAssay record AID 24490 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was evaluated for its stability and enzymatic cleavage of dipeptide linker at pH 7, 37 degree C.; 5-6 h.
287519680 - EP 1483284 A2 2004-12-08 - SELECTIVE DIPEPTIDE INHIBITORS OF KALLIKREIN - [origin: WO03076458A2] Compounds of general formula 1, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof: wherein R1 is selected from H, lower alkyl, R4-CO, R4-O2CCH2, R5-OCO and R5-SO2 R2 is selected from lower alkyl, cycloalkyl optionally substituted with an alkyl or alkyloxy group, C5-C12cycloalkylalkyl optionally substituted with an alkyl or alkyloxy group, aralkyl optionally substituted with up to three groups chosen from F, CI, Br, I, OH, lower alkyl, O-lower alkyl, O-benzyl, NH2, NO2, NH-acyl, CN and CF3, and aralkyloxymethyl optionally substituted with up to three groups chosen from F, CI, Br, OH, lower alkyl and O-lower alkyl or R1 and R2 together are an o-xylylene group optionally substituted on the aromatic ring with a group selected from F, CI, Br, OH, lower alkyl and O-lower alkyl R3 is selected from H, OH and O-lower alkyl R4 is selected from H, lower alkyl and phenyl and R5 is selected from lower alkyl,
Derivatives of fluorophore FITC (fluorescein isothiocyanate) are widely used in bioassays to label proteins and cells. An N-terminal leucine dipeptide is attached to FITC, and we show that this simple conjugate molecule is cytocompatible and is uptaken by cells (human dermal and corneal fibroblasts) in contrast to FITC itself. Co-localisation shows that FITC-LL segregates in pen-nuclear and intracellular vesicle regions. Above a critical aggregation concentration, the conjugate is shown to self-assemble into beta-sheet nanostructures comprising molecular bilayers. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.orgflicenses/by/4.0 ...
We compare recent quantum mechanical computations of alternative reaction pathways for carboxypeptidase A, a zinc proteinase, in an enzyme environment to similar calculations in the gas phase that include the minimal chemical entities that are required for a non-catalytic reaction. The main question that we address is whether anything may be learned from such reduced representations. Two general acid-general base alternative pathways and one nucleophilic pathway are compared. The original calculations were run on a relatively large model (120 atoms) of the active site of carboxypeptidase A which included zinc and its ligands, as well as the residues Arg145, Arg127, Glu270, a water molecule and a model dipeptide. The gas-phase pathways include only the dipeptide, water and Glu270 and serve as models for the non-catalytic pathway. The calculations were performed by semiempirical MNDO/H/d that includes modifications for d-orbital representations as well as for intra- and intermolecular ...
Product Name: Mal-Amido-PEG4-t-butyl esterFormula: C22H36N2O9MW: 472.5Web Site clickPurity: 0.98Availability: In StockCAS NO: 1402601-82-4 Product: TUG-770
Product Name: Amino-PEG12-t-butyl esterFormula: C31H63NO14MW: 673.8Web Site clickPurity: 0.98Availability: In StockCAS NO: 354812-17-2 Product: SC-514 Ships
During exercise and post-exercise, blood is diverted to the periphery [muscles and skin] and the last thing you want is to interrupt this blood flow by redirecting blood to the gastrointestinal tract for digestive purposes. It is important if you use a protein pre, intra [during] and post-exercise, that blood diversion to the muscles is not impaired. By using the wrong type of protein i.e. a slowly digested protein, it will sit in the stomach and small intestine and need intense enzyme action to break the protein down into its constituent amino acids over 1 - 2 hours. During this slow digestive process, blood will be shunted to the gastrointestinal tract [away from your muscles] to help absorption and distribution of the digested amino acids to the rest of the body ...
The digestion of proteins begins, as does all digestion, with the mechanical process of chewing food, and it ends with the absorption of the proteins constituent amino acids by the cells of the...
摘 要:蛋白质的N- 糖基化修饰是生物体调控蛋白质在组织和细胞中的定位、功能、活性、寿命和多样性的一种普遍的翻译后方式。N- 糖基化位点是理解糖链功能的重要前提之一。应用新的糖蛋白、糖肽富集技术和质谱技术,科学家们在不同组织中完成了对N- 糖基化位点的鉴定。此外,不同于经典三联子的N- 糖基化序列的发现使人们对N- 糖基化过程的认识向纵深发展 ...
Effect of the chemical nature of amino acid residues located either at the N- or C-terminal end of dipeptides on the utilization by strains of the SBP penta mut
Regulatpro® Bio je kaskadno fermentiran bio koncentrat, proizveden iz ekološkega sadja, zelenjave, oreščkov in začimb. Edinstven encimski napitek vsebuje vitalne dipeptide, tripeptide, oligopeptide, polifenole, flavonoide (fitokemikalije) in desnosučno mlečno kislino L(+). V patentiranem procesu kaskadne fermentacije se aktivne substance iz prvovrstnih naravnih virov razdrobijo v drobne delce, ki zagotavljajo visoko absorpcijo v obliki koncentriranega napitka Regulatpro® Bio.. ...
New supplement features Sustamine, a unique dipeptide that combines the amino acids L-alanine and L-glutamine to help the body rehydrate.
TY - GEN. T1 - 2-Chloroadenosine prevents inhibition of H+-coupled dipeptide transport by E.coli STa enterotoxin in Caco-2 epithelia.. AU - Marsh, Susan E.. AU - McEwan, Gordon T.A.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. M3 - Conference contribution. VL - 528P. SP - 92P. BT - Journal of Physiology. ER - ...
Thamotharan, M.; Zonno, V.; Storelli, C.; Ahearn, G.A., 1996: Basolateral dipeptide transport by the intestine of the teleost Oreochromis mossambicus
Divalent dipeptides have been introduced as counter ions in aqueous CZE. The dipeptides form ion pairs with amino alcohols in the BGE and facilitate the separation of amino alcohols. High concentrations of dipeptide caused reversed effective mobility for the analytes. The net charge of the dipeptide can be controlled using a buffer or a strong base, and regulates the interaction between the dipeptide and the amino alcohol. A stronger interaction and higher selectivity of amino alcohols was observed when the dipeptides were used as divalent counter ions, than in monovalent or uncharged form. Association constants for ion pairs between divalent dipeptides and amino alcohols can be used to enhance selectivity for amino alcohols in CZE. No chiral separation of amino alcohols was observed when using the dipeptides as ion-pairing chiral selectors in aqueous BGE, but addition of methanol to the BGE promoted enantioselectivity.. ...
An analysis of 11 crystal structures of cyclic dipeptides so far reported in the literature is made, with main reference to the internal parameters of these molecules. Preferred conformations of the side chains of cyclic dipeptides with different α-amino acid residues have been studied by classical energy calculations. The possible conformations of the DKP ring are also studied. The significance of the non-bonded interaction in deciding the pathway for conformational change has also been investigated. The agreement between theoretical results and experimental observations is quite good, both with respect to the conformation of these molecules as well as the enthalpy difference as estimated from n.m.r. studies between different conformers.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effective production of dehydro cyclic dipeptide albonoursin exhibiting pronuclear fusion inhibitory activity. I. Taxonomy and fermentation. AU - Kanzaki, Hiroshi. AU - Imura, Daisuke. AU - Sashida, Reiko. AU - Kobayashi, Akio. AU - Kawazu, Kazuyoshi. PY - 1999/11. Y1 - 1999/11. N2 - Strain KO-23, an actinomycete producing albonoursin as well as streptopyrone, was identified as Streptomyces albulus by morphological and biochemical studies. Fermentation conditions for albonoursin, a dehydro cyclic dipeptide exhibiting a pronounced inhibitory activity toward pronuclear fusion of sea urchin eggs, were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the actinomycete produced 16 mg/liter of albonoursin, 30 times higher than that in the original culture. The cells cultivated under these conditions highly express biosynthetic enzymes for albonoursin, and thus are available for biosynthetic studies of dehydro cyclic peptides.. AB - Strain KO-23, an actinomycete producing albonoursin as well as ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of vagal innervation in diurnal rhythm of intestinal peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1). AU - Qandeel, Hisham G.. AU - Alonso, Fernando. AU - Hernandez, David J.. AU - Duenes, Judith A.. AU - Zheng, Ye. AU - Scow, Jeffrey S.. AU - Sarr, Michael G.. N1 - Funding Information: Research supported in part by a grant from the Mary E. Groff Foundation and NIH R01 DK 39337-18 (MGS) H.G.Qandeel.F.Alonso.D.J.Hernandez.J.A.Duenes. Y. Zheng.J. S. Scow.M. G. Sarr (*) Gastrointestinal Research Unit and Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic (GU 10-01), 200 1st Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA e-mail: [email protected] Funding Information: Acknowledgments We would like to thank the Mary Elizabeth Groff Surgical Medical Research and Education Charitable Trust for the generous funding in support of this work. Also, we thank Deborah Frank for her superb secretarial expertise.. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Background Protein is absorbed predominantly as di/tripeptides via H +/peptide ...
The mechanism of toxicity for cytolytic lymphocytes of Leu-Leu-OMe and related dipeptide derivatives was examined. Selective inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase I (DPPI), a lysosomal thiol protease highly enriched in cytotoxic lymphocytes, prevented all natural killer (NK) toxic effects of such agents. However, many DPPI substrates were found to possess no NK toxic properties. For some such agents, this lack of NK toxicity appeared to be related to the lack of uptake by lymphocytes. In this regard, Leu-Leu-OMe was found to be incorporated by lymphocytes and monocytes via a saturable facilitated transport mechanism with characteristics distinct from previously characterized mammalian dipeptide transport processes. This novel transport process was found to be specific for dipeptides composed of selective L-stereoisomer amino acids and enhanced by hydrophobic ester or amide additions to the COOH terminus of dipeptides. Maximal rates of Leu-Leu-OMe uptake by T8 and NK cell-enriched peripheral blood ...
The strategic localization of peptide transporter 2 (PEPT2), a proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter, to the apical membrane of epithelial cells in the kidney and choroid plexus suggests that it plays an important role in the disposition of peptides/mimetics in the body. Therefore, the in vivo significance of PEPT2 was investigated in wild-type and PEPT2 null mice following an i.v. bolus dose (0.05 μmol/g body weight) of [14C]glycylsarcosine (GlySar). In PEPT2 null mice, the clearance (total and renal) of GlySar was markedly increased (2-fold), resulting in concomitantly lower systemic concentrations. In addition, renal reabsorption was almost abolished, and GlySar was eliminated by glomerular filtration. Of the 46% of GlySar reabsorbed in wild-type mice, PEPT2 accounted for 86% and PEPT1 accounted for 14% of reabsorbed substrate. Analysis of GlySar uptake in kidney sections revealed that PEPT2 was primarily localized in the outer medullary region. Wild-type mice also had greater choroid ...
1. Studies were performed to investigate the metabolic fate of dipeptides when administered intravenously in rats. Glycyl-leucine, glycylglycine or glycylsarcosine was injected into the jugular vein. The plasma disappearance rate after the peak plasma concentrations was most rapid for glycyl-leucine and least rapid for glycylsarcosine.. 2. During urine collection for 40 min, trace amounts of glycyl-leucine and glycylglycine and 13% of the injected glycylsarcosine were excreted.. 3. Neither glycylglycine nor glycyl-leucine was detected in the liver, muscle, intestinal mucosa or renal cortex, but concentrations of glycine or leucine, or both, in these tissues were increased after each injection. In contrast, glycylsarcosine was recovered in all these tissues with concentrations in the renal cortex being far greater than in any other tissue, but sarcosine was found only in the renal cortex and intestinal mucosa.. 4. The changes in plasma concentrations of free amino acids, glucose and glucagon, and ...
Histidylhistidine is a dipeptide composed of two histidine residues. It is an incomplete breakdown product of protein digestion or protein catabolism. Dipeptides are organic compounds containing a sequence of exactly two alpha-amino acids joined by a peptide bond. Some dipeptides are known to have physiological or cell-signalling effects although most are simply short-lived intermediates on their way to specific amino acid degradation pathways following further proteolysis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential modulation of sodium- and chloride-dependent opioid peptide transport system by small nonopioid peptides and free amino acids. AU - Miyauchi, Seiji. AU - Gopal, Elangovan. AU - Thakkar, Santosh V.. AU - Ichikawa, Satoshi. AU - Prasad, Puttur D.. AU - Ganapathy, Vadivel. PY - 2007/4. Y1 - 2007/4. N2 - We recently identified a novel opioid peptide transport system in the retinal pigment epithelium that transports opioid peptides by a Na +/Cl--dependent process. Here we describe a similar transport system expressed in SK-N-SH cells (a human neuronal cell line) and show for the first time that the activity of the transport system is modulated differentially by lysine and small nonopioid peptides. The transport process in SK-N-SH cells, monitored with deltorphin II as the substrate, is Na +/Cl--dependent and interacts with several opioid peptides, consisting of 5 to 13 amino acids. The activity of this transport system is markedly stimulated by specific dipeptides and ...
Results and Discussion In this paper several approaches have been applied, in order to examine the different properties of the synthetic Notch receptors and to compare them with those of endogenous Notch. They generated libraries of receptors with different EC domains, each coupled with a different IC domain and expressed them in fibroblast. They found that these synthetic receptors are strongly activated by cell-cell contact, if the sender cell expresses cognate ligand on its surface. To determine if the activation occurs by a cleavage mechanism, they used the drug DAPT (N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-lalanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester). Treatment with DAPT completely blocks the activation of synNotch. These were eliminatory examinations, which have shown the characteristics of the endogenous Notch necessary to conduct further experiments. Also, they found that the response is reversible upon removal of the ligand - expressing cells. The next phase of the research is dedicated to determining ...
Thiourea derivatives demonstrate potent cytotoxic activity against various leukemias and many tumor cell lines. In our previous study, the combination of thiourea and phosphonate has been proven as an effective strategy for developing antitumor agents. Herein, we synthesized and evaluated a series of novel chiral dipeptide thioureas containing an α-aminophosphonate moiety as antitumor agents. Finally, we developed novel dipeptide thioureas 11d and 11f that showed comparable inhibition with that of Cisplatin against BGC-823 and A-549 cells, respectively.
Clone REA408 recognizes the human prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) antigen, a single-pass type II membrane protein which is also known as folate hydrolase 1 (FOLH1), glutamate carboxypeptidase 2 (GCP2), or N-acetylated-alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase I (NAALADase). PSMA is a zinc metallopeptidase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of N-acetylaspartylglutamate to glutamate and N-acetylaspartate. It is expressed with low levels in the small intestine, renal tubular cells, and salivary gland, and is over-expressed in prostate cancer tissue. PSMA is also expressed in the nervous system. Additional information: Clone REA408 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. | USA
Using human cancer cells, tumour and blood samples from cancer patients, researchers at Johns Hopkins Medicine have uncovered the role of a neurotransmitter in the spread of aggressive cancers.. Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that transmit impulses from neurons to other target cells.. The work, described in the journal Cell Reports, found that this neurotransmitter, called N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) NAAG is more abundant in cancers with a tendency to grow and spread rapidly - or so-called higher grade cancers - than in lower grade tumours, making it a potential marker for tumour progression or regression during cancer therapy, the researchers say.. The experiments also demonstrated that NAAG is a source of glutamate, a chemical that cancer cells use as building blocks to survive, in tumours that express an enzyme called glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII).. The group also discovered that stopping the GCPII from being active by using a drug called 2-PMPA to treat human ...
USP Labs Modern BCAA is an incredibly light and voluminous powder that mixes great.. USP Labs Modern BCAA will definitely help you on your game at the gym or at work.. If you want an awesome BCAA product designed for those who truly realize just how important BCAAs are, then USP Labs Modern BCAA was made with you in mind. This product contains just about the right ingredients that would supply you with the necessary supplements that you need. In fact, USP Labs Modern BCAA consists of glutamine dipeptide (L-alanyl-L-glutamine), which is more stable and more water soluble than regular L-glutamine. The presence of a unique intestinal transporter for the dipeptide may also suggest an increased amount of glutamine to reach the bloodstream and into skeletal muscle as compared to regular free L-glutamine. Now this is very important to know since up to 65% of regular L-glutamine can be destroyed before it makes its way to your muscles. Thus the constitution of glutamine dipeptide definitely assists ...
Theoretical studies on glycyl-alanyl and seryl dipeptides were performed to determine the probable backbone and side-group conformations that are preferred for solvent interaction. By following the method of Lee & Richards [(1971) J. Mol. Biol. 55, 379-400], a solute molecule is represented by a set of interlocking spheres of appropriate van der Waals radii assigned to each atom, and a solvent (water) molecule is rolled along the envelope of the van der Waals surface, and the surface accessible to the solvent molecule, and hence the solvent accessibility for a particular conformation of the solute molecule, is computed. From the calculated solvent accessibilities for various conformations, solvation maps for dipeptides were constructed. These solvation maps suggest that the backbone polar atoms could interact with solvent molecules selectively, depending on the backbone conformation. A conformation in the right-handed bridge (zetaR) region is favoured for both solvent interaction and intrachain ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comprehensive Dipeptide Profiling and Quantitation by Capillary Electrophoresis and Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry. AU - Ozawa, Hitoshi. AU - Hirayama, Akiyoshi. AU - Ishikawa, Takamasa. AU - Kudo, Ryuhei. AU - Maruyama, Midori. AU - Shoji, Futaba. AU - Doke, Tomohito. AU - Ishimoto, Takuji. AU - Maruyama, Shoichi. AU - Soga, Tomoyoshi. AU - Tomita, Masaru. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, KAKENHI [grant numbers JP18H04804 and JP18K08219]; Research on Development of New Drugs (GAPFREE) from the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development, AMED [grant numbers 18ak0101043h0104, 18ak0101043s1404, and 18ak0101043h0004]; and grants from the Yamagata prefectural government and the city of Tsuruoka. We would like to thank Editage ( www.editage.com ) for English language editing.. PY - 2020/7/21. Y1 - 2020/7/21. N2 - Dipeptides have attracted much attention as post-amino acids with ...
Alitame is an aspartic acid-containing dipeptide sweetener. It was developed by Pfizer in the aboriginal 1980s and currently marketed in some countries beneath the cast name Aclame. Most dipeptides are not sweet, but the abrupt analysis of aspartame in 1965 led to a seek for agnate compounds that aggregate its sweetness. Alitame is one such…
Mp: 255-260℃. Glycylglycine 556-50-3 is a dipeptide used in biochemical research. It is the simplest of all dipeptides and is used as a starting template for preparation of more complex peptides. Also useful as a practical buffer with a buffering range of 7.5 - 8.9 (at 25°C). Valuable agent for experiments investigating peptide transport and absorption.. ChemSpecial , China, wholesale Glycylglycine 556-50-3 with high quality and good price.. ...
The formalism of time-dependent density functional theory and density functional response functions is reviewed from the perspective of partitioning techniques and projections, the hallmark of the school of quantum chemistry represented by P.O. Lowdin. Extension to open-shell density functional theory is described, reviewing some of its common problems. Sample calculations on hyper-Raleigh scattering in the diamagnetic and paramagnetic complexes of copper bound to (glycyl)glycine dipeptide are presented.. ...
IMPORTANCE: Developmental stuttering is a neuropsychiatric condition of incompletely understood brain origin. Our recent functional magnetic resonance imaging study indicates a possible partial basis of stuttering in circuits enacting self-regulation of motor activity, attention, and emotion.. OBJECTIVE: To further characterize the neurophysiology of stuttering through in vivo assay of neurometabolites in suspect brain regions.. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Proton chemical shift imaging of the brain was performed in a case-control study of children and adults with and without stuttering. Recruitment, assessment, and magnetic resonance imaging were performed in an academic research setting.. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Ratios of N-acetyl-aspartate plus N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAA) to creatine (Cr) and choline compounds (Cho) to Cr in widespread cerebral cortical, white matter, and subcortical regions were analyzed using region of interest and data-driven voxel-based ...
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What are proteins? Amino acids are build blocks of proteins. More than 100 amino acids make up one single protein (2 amino acids = dipeptide, up to 10 amino acids = oligopeptide, up to 100 amino acids = polypeptide). Amino acids are chemical compounds that contain two functional groups: an amino group (NH2) and a carbo
Protein is a dietary component essential for nutritional homeostasis in humans. Normally, ingested protein undergoes a complex series of degradative processes following the action of gastric, pancreatic and small intestinal enzymes. The result of this proteolytic activity is a mixture of amino acids and small peptides. Amino acids (AAs) are transported into the enterocyte (intestinal epithelial cell) by a variety of AA transporters that are specific for cationic (basic) AA, neutral AA, and anionic (acidic) AA. Small peptides are absorbed into enterocytes by the PEPT1 transporter. Inside enterocytes peptides are hydrolyzed, and the resulting amino acids are released together with those absorbed by AA transporters into blood via multiple, basolateral, AA transporters. Hydrolysis-resistant peptides, however, are transported out of the cells by a basolateral peptide transporter that has not been identified molecularly ...
Genetic polymorphisms of the LMP/TAP gene coded by the HLA-II region may be associated with outcomes of HBV infection. We conducted a case-control study to test the hypothesis, including a persistent group of 155 patients with chronic hepatitis B and 36 healthy carriers, a recovered group of 165 individuals spontaneously recovered from HBV infection, and an uninfected group of 278 healthy normal controls. Genotypes of eight polymorphisms of the LMP/TAP gene were analysed by PCR-RFLP. A logistic regression model was used to analyse statistical differences in polymorphisms or haplotypes in different groups. Of the eight polymorphisms, two (TAP1 codon 637 and LMP7 codon 145) were observed to have statistically significant association with outcomes of HBV infection (P,0·05). The two-locus haplotype constructed with two such polymorphisms was analysed. The frequencies of haplotypes B (Asp-Lys), C (Gly-Gln), and D (Gly-Lys) were found to be increased significantly in the persistent group, compared to ...
In this article we demonstrate a number of findings: 1) DPP4 expression in VAT macrophages/DCs is significantly higher than that of corresponding peripheral cells; 2) VAT DCs/macrophages in human and experimental obesity (diet-induced and ob/ob) express higher levels of DPP4 compared with lean controls; 3) DPP4 expression in DCs/macrophages is directly related to the degree of insulin resistance and T-cell activation in adipose tissue; 4) DPP4 expression increases with functional maturation of DCs/macrophages; and 5) DC/macrophage-expressing DPP4 binds ADA and contributes to T-cell proliferation via modulation of adenosine concentrations.. DPP4 is widely known for its regulatory role in glycemia control through enzymatic degradation of incretin peptides (23,24). Its role in inflammation has been traditionally postulated as occurring via its enzymatic function, whereby DPP4, through its N-terminal dipeptidase activity, cleaves X-Pro or X-Ala dipeptides from numerous chemokines. This cleavage can ...
Synthetic control of peptide-based supramolecular assemblies can provide molecular cues to understand protein aggregation while also inspiring the development of novel chemical biology tools to deliver cargoes inside cells. Here we show that the trans-to-cis photoisomerization of a pendant azo-group covalent
LOLA (Hepa-Merz) is available in Europe in both intravenous formulations and oral formulations. It is not available in the United States. LOLA is a stable salt of the two constituent amino acids. L-or... more
Description: Pepsin is a digestive protein found in the highly acidic environment of the stomach. It acts on proteins to break them down to their constituent amino acids. Pepsin is an ideal enzyme for studying the effect of pH because its functionality is reduced in non-acid environments.. Qty: 20g (1:10,000 strength). Notes: This product is sourced from Porcine Gastric Mucosa.. ...
In the world of proteins, form defines function. Based on interactions between their constituent amino acids, proteins form specific conformations, folding and twisting into distinct, chemically directed shapes. The resulting structure dictates the proteins actions; thus accurate modeling of structure is vital to understanding functionality.. Peptoids, the synthetic cousins of proteins, follow similar design rules. Less vulnerable to chemical or metabolic breakdown than proteins, peptoids are promising for diagnostics, pharmaceuticals, and as a platform to build bioinspired nanomaterials, as scientists can build and manipulate peptoids with great precision. But to design peptoids for a specific function, scientists need to first untangle the complex relationship between a peptoids composition and its function-defining folded structure.. Past efforts to predict protein structure have met with limited success, but now a scientific team led by Glenn Butterfoss, and Barney Yoo, research scientists ...
GENECARDS SUITE PRODUCTS ARE FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY, DOES NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE AND ARE NOT FOR USE IN DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES ...
While the main purpose of DNA is to code for proteins to be built in the cell, we know that a lot of DNA doesnt code for protein after all, such as the repeating region of the C9ORF72 gene. In healthy versions of the gene the repeated region (usually under 30 repeated units) is simply cut out of the RNA copy of the gene before the RNA is exported from the nucleus.. In C9ORF72-MND however, the repeated region is much larger - even up to a thousand repeated units and leads to a build up of the RNA repeats inside the nucleus but also, unexpectedly is made into abnormal toxic constituents in the cell cytoplasm called dipeptide repeat proteins. The discovery of dipeptide repeat proteins was puzzling to scientists as this type of non-protein coding RNA does not normally exit the nucleus to get to where protein can be made.. Dr Hautbergue and colleagues, who have developed expertise in the mechanisms of RNA nuclear export, looked to see how the pathological repeating precursor RNA molecules, that ...
Health, ...EDITORS PICK: Calpain inhibitors never forget: improving memory in Al...Overactivation of proteins known as calpains which are involved in me...It is thought that dysfunctional signaling between nerve cells contrib...TITLE: Inhibition of calpains improves memory and synaptic transmissio...,JCI,online,early,table,of,contents:,July,1,,2008,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
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A naturally occurring dipeptide, Carnosine (B-alanyl-L-histidine) is found in high concentrations in the brain and muscles. Recent studies suggest Carnosine supports Anti-aging and normal cell... View full product details » ...
GlutaGO™ Supplement is 200 mM dipeptide L-alanyl-L-glutamine in 0.85% sodium chloride. GlutaGO™ Supplement is highly soluble, heat-stable, and does not spontaneously break down to form ammonia for longer lasting cultures. GlutaGO™ Supplement can be used as a direct substitute for L-glutamine at equimolar concentrations in both adherent and suspension mammalian cell cultures ...
Chemists from the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Hawaii, Manoa, showed that conditions in space are capable of creating complex dipeptides - linked pairs of amino acids - that are essential building blocks shared by all living things. The discovery opens the door to the possibility that these molecules were brought to…
This domain is found in a few known nucleotidyltransferes and in a large number of uncharacterized proteins. It contains four widely separated His residues, the second of which is part of an invariant dipeptide His-Asp in a region matched approximately by the motif HDIG. For proteins scoring above the trusted cutoff, confidence is high both that the domain is present and that the HMM produces an essentially correct alignment. Protein regions scoring between the trusted and noise cutoffs include correctly aligned domains, homologous domains in which one or more of the His residues is conserved but misaligned, and some probable false-positive hits indications of homology ...
The present invention relates to a toxin conjugate in which a residue derived from a compound having an affinity for a target cell is bound to a toxin through a spacer comprising polyalkylene glycol and dipeptide.
Carnitine is a Dipeptide (composed of Lysine and Methionine) - it is chemically similar to Choline. It is manufactured within the body in the Liver and Kidneys and is also a component of the diet ...
Boeynaems, S., E. Bogaert, D. Kovacs, A. Konijnenberg, E. Timmerman, A. Volkov, M. Guharoy, M. De Decker, T. Jaspers, V. H. Ryan, et al., Phase Separation of C9orf72 Dipeptide Repeats Perturbs Stress Granule Dynamics., Mol Cell, vol. 65, issue 6, pp. 1044-1055.e5, 2017 Mar 16. ...
6-O-stearoyl-N-acetylmuramyl-alpha-aminobutyryl-isoglutamine: lipophilic muramyl dipeptide analog; RN given refers to (L-aminobutyryl-D-isoglutamine)-isomer
Rudich P, Snoznik C, Watkins SC, Monaghan J, Pandey UB, Lamitina ST. Nuclear localized C9orf72-associated arginine-containing dipeptides exhibit age-dependent toxicity in C. elegans ...
Calpain兔多克隆抗体(ab124631)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人, 曼氏血吸虫样本反应并经WB, IP, ELISA实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Dipeptides substituted with an amine at one terminus and an ester at the other 1 can spontaneously cyclize to form a 2,5- ... These cyclic dipeptides incorporate both donor and acceptor groups for hydrogen bonding and are small, conformationally ... The Ugi reaction using an isonitrile, amino acid, aldehyde and amine, can produce a dipeptide in equally high yield and optical ... The most commonly used synthesis of 2,5-diketopiperazines 3 is amide bond formation by cyclisation of dipeptide 1 or 2. These ...
Xue, Jinghua; Wu, Min (27 March 2015). "Cyclic Dipeptides from Streptomyces michiganensis". Chemistry of Natural Compounds. 51 ...
Trusek-Holownia A. (2003). "Synthesis of ZAlaPheOMe, the precursor of bitter dipeptide in the two-phase ethyl acetate-water ... Yagasaki, Makoto; Hashimoto, Shin-ichi (November 2008). "Synthesis and application of dipeptides; current status and ...
This is found with dipeptides. The reagent is commonly used in the biuret protein assay, a colorimetric test used to determine ... Datta, S. P.; Leberman, R.; Rabin, B. R. (1959). "The chelation of metal ions by dipeptides and related substances. Part 5.- ...
... is a methyl ester of the dipeptide of the natural amino acids L-aspartic acid and L-phenylalanine. Under strongly ... It is a methyl ester of the aspartic acid/phenylalanine dipeptide with the trade names NutraSweet, Equal, and Canderel. ... Aspartame's major decomposition products are its cyclic dipeptide (in a 2,5-diketopiperazine, or DKP, form), the non-esterified ... Yagasaki M, Hashimoto S (November 2008). "Synthesis and application of dipeptides; current status and perspectives". Applied ...
Blumberg S, Tauber Z (October 1983). "Inhibition of metalloendopeptidases by 2-mercaptoacetyl-dipeptides". European Journal of ...
At the low end are the dipeptides. The most important drugs with a dipeptide (L-alanyl-L-proline) moiety are the "-pril" ... is a dipeptide. At the high end there is the anticoagulant hirudin, MW ≈ 7000, which is composed of 65 amino acids. Apart from ...
Nanotubes formed from dipeptides are the widest amongst peptide nanotubes. An example of a dipeptide that has been studied is ... Dipeptides have also been shown to self assemble into hydrogels, another form of nanostructures, when connected to the ... Nanotubes formed from dipeptides are stable under extreme conditions. Dry nanotubes do not degrade until 200 °C; nanotubes ... Nanostructures can be made by dissolving dipeptides in 1,1,1,3,3, 3-hexafluoro-2-propanol at 100 mg/ml and then diluting it ...
"Intestinal absorption of two dipeptides in Hartnup disease". Gut. 11 (5): 380-387. doi:10.1136/gut.11.5.380. PMC 1411553. PMID ...
Giessen; A. Marahiel, Tobias; Mohamed (August 2014). "The tRNA-Dependent Biosynthesis of Modified Cyclic Dipeptides". ...
"Conformations of Thioamide-Containing Dipeptides: A Computational Study". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120 (47): 12200-12206. doi:10.1021/ ...
Peptidase and dipeptide esterase activities". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 243 (15): 4143-50. PMID 4969969. McDonald JK ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Release of an N-terminal dipeptide, Xaa-Yaa!, preferentially when Yaa is ...
1990). "Fluoroolefin dipeptide isosteres -II". Tetrahedron Letters. 31 (50): 7301. doi:10.1016/s0040-4039(00)88549-4. Nishikawa ...
It is a cyclic dipeptide. Barettin is the major compound in the deep-sea sponge Geodia barretti. It was isolated for the first ...
Dipeptide Tetrapeptide Nelson, David L.; Cox, Michael M. (2005). Principles of Biochemistry (4th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman ...
... s are secreted onto the brush border of the villi in the small intestine, where they cleave dipeptides into their ... DIPEPTIDASES convert dipeptides into amino acids Dipeptidases are also found within the enterocytes themselves, performing ... Dipeptidases hydrolyze bound pairs of amino acids, called dipeptides. ... cytosolic digestion of absorbed dipeptides. They are exopeptidases, classified under EC number 3.4.13. Membrane dipeptidase ...
In March 2013, a simulation experiment indicate that dipeptides (pairs of amino acids) that can be building blocks of proteins ... March 5, 2013). "On the Formation of Dipeptides in Interstellar Model Ices". The Astrophysical Journal. 765 (2): 111. Bibcode: ...
Kaiser RI, Stockton AM, Kim YS, Jensen EC, Mathies RA (2013). "On the Formation of Dipeptides in Interstellar Model Ices". The ...
By self-assembling of dendritic dipeptides, hollow cylinders can be produced. The cylindrical assemblies possess internal ... "Self-assembly of amphiphilic dendritic dipeptides into helical pores". Nature. 430 (7001): 764-8. Bibcode:2004Natur.430..764P. ...
A dipeptide has two amino acids. A tripeptide has three amino acids. A tetrapeptide has four amino acids. A pentapeptide has ... Chains of fewer than ten or fifteen amino acids are called oligopeptides, and include dipeptides, tripeptides, and ...
Amino acids can also form dimers, which are called dipeptides. An example is glycylglycine, consisting of two glycine molecules ...
Synthesis of Z-Fluoro alkene dipeptide isosteres,. Other effort to make this a more selective reactions includes the use of ... fluoroalkene dipeptide isosteres utilizing organocopper reagents under redoctive-oxidative alkylation (R-OA) conditions. ...
Huperzine A. Dipeptide D-Phe-L-Tyr. weakly inhibit NMDA/Gly-induced currents possibly by ifenprodil-like mechanism. Ibogaine: a ...
The solid phase now bears a dipeptide. This cycle is repeated to form the desired peptide chain. After all reactions are ...
February 2003). "Pyrazolinone-piperidine dipeptide growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs). Discovery of capromorelin". Bioorganic ...
Along with prolinase, prolidase are the only known enzymes that can break down dipeptides to yield free proline. Prolidase ... Xaa-Pro dipeptidase is a cytosolic dipeptidase that hydrolyzes dipeptides with proline or hydroxyproline at the carboxy ... Additionally, it also participates in the process of recycling proline from Xaa-Pro dipeptides for collagen resynthesis. ... the differential expression of prolidase and its substrate specificity for dipeptides with proline at the carboxyl end suggests ...
Dipeptides can be present in the brain at sub-picomole levels. To work effectively at this level, techniques must be highly ... He is particularly interested in the identification of peptides and dipeptides, and their effects on neurochemistry. He has ...
Tao, Kai; et, al (2019). "Stable and Optoelectronic Dipeptide Assemblies for Power Harvesting". Materials Today. 30: 10-16. doi ...
Head-Gordon T, Head-Gordon M, Frisch MJ, Brooks C, Pople J (2009-06-19). "A theoretical study of alanine dipeptide and analogs ...
Most dipeptides are not sweet, but the unexpected discovery of aspartame in 1965 led to a search for similar compounds that ... Alitame is an aspartic acid-containing dipeptide sweetener. It was developed by Pfizer in the early 1980s and currently ... Alitame is one such second-generation dipeptide sweetener. Neotame, developed by the owners of the NutraSweet brand, is another ...
Dipeptide hydrolase may refer to: Membrane dipeptidase, an enzyme Angiotensin-converting enzyme, an enzyme This set index page ...
Muramyl dipeptide is constituent of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria composed of N-acetylmuramic acid linked by ... Dipeptide Mifamurtide, a synthetic analogue for the treatment of osteosarcoma Inohara, N.; Ogura, Y.; Fontalba, A.; Gutierrez, ... 2004 Nov 9;14(21):1929-34., Martinon F, Agostini L, Meylan E, Tschopp J. Identification of bacterial muramyl dipeptide as ... "Host Recognition of Bacterial Muramyl Dipeptide Mediated through NOD2. Implications for Crohns Disease". Journal of Biological ...
There is provided a novel process for the preparation of a dipeptide represented by the formula: ##STR1## wherein Ar represents ... 1. A process for the preparation of a dipeptide represented by the formula ##STR5## wherein Ar represents an aromatic group; R1 ... An object of this invention is to provide a process for the preparation of dipeptides which is more advantageous as compared ... This invention relates to a process for the preparation of a dipeptide derivative. More particularly, it relates to a process ...
With that GR dipeptide, Kwons work intersected with a new line of thought in ALS and FTD research. The C9ORF72 expansion, a ... Poly-dipeptides encoded by the C9orf72 repeats bind nucleoli, impede RNA biogenesis, and kill cells. Science. 2014 Sep 5;345( ... One hypothesis for C9ORF72-based disease is that one or more of these dipeptides could be toxic (see Feb 2013 news story; Feb ... In future work, Taylor said, "I would like to see if those dipeptide repeats are in nucleoli in the patients … and whether the ...
... dipeptides) have been poorly studied compared with proteins or amino acids. Only a few dipeptides, such as aspartame ( l- ... The functions and applications of l-α-dipeptides ( ... The functions and applications of l-α-dipeptides (dipeptides) ... In this review, the functions and applications of dipeptides, mainly in commercial use, and methods for dipeptide production ... Tabata K, Hashimoto S (2005) Microorganisms producing dipeptides and process for producing dipeptides using the microorganisms ...
Show all 3 recent products that contain PALMITOYL DIPEPTIDE-5 DIAMINOBUTYLOYL HYDROXYTHREONINE.. ...
PALMITOYL DIPEPTIDE-5 DIAMINOBUTYLOYL HYDROXYTHREONINE. Click here for all products containing this ingredient ...
Dipeptide alcohol-based inhibitors of eukaryotic DNA polymerase alpha.. Kuriyama I1, Asano N, Kato I, Ikeda K, Takemura M, ... Chem.2004, 12, 957-962]. The discovery suggests that the dipeptide structure could be a chemical frame for a DNA polymerase ... We reported previously that a novel dipeptide alcohol, l-homoserylaminoethanol (Hse-Gly-ol), is a selective inhibitor of ... The relationships between the structures of dipeptide alcohols and the inhibition of eukaryotic DNA polymerases are discussed. ...
Myristylglycine-serine containing dipeptides decrease antagonist binding at both M1 and M2 muscarinic receptors. Palmitate on ... Fatty acylated dipeptides homologous to Gi alpha N-termini affect ligand binding to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. ... First fatty acylated dipeptides to affect muscarinic receptor ligand binding Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 1999 Dec 6;9(23):3363-8. doi ... Fatty acylated dipeptides homologous to Gi alpha N-termini affect ligand binding to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. ...
... Hum Mol Genet. 2016 May 1;25(9):1803-13. doi: ... However, the mechanisms of neurotoxicity associated with these poly-dipeptides are not clear. A proteomics approach identified ... This genetic alteration leads to the accumulation of five types of poly-dipeptides translated from the GGGGCC hexanucleotide ... by poly-PR and poly-GR peptides plays a role in neurotoxicity and reveal that the pathways altered by the poly-dipeptides-mRNA ...
In the synthesis of dipeptide material based upon asparagyl compounds, it is generally desired, especially in instances where ... disclosed the preparation of dipeptide alkyl esters by conducting the synthesis reaction in a mixture of an organic solvent and ... the dipeptides are to be used as sweetening agents, to prepare the α-isomer, and the art has generally attempted to avoid ...
Tijdens langdurige inspanningen zorgen enkele honderden milligrammem van het dipeptide L-alanyl-L-glutamine - bij sporters ... "The results from this study indicated that ingestion of the alanine-glutamine dipeptide at either the low dose (300 mg/500 ml) ... Tijdens langdurige inspanningen zorgen enkele honderden milligrammen van het dipeptide L-alanyl-L-glutamine - bij sporters ... andere gelegenheden dronken de proefpersonen elke 15 minuten 250 milliliter met daarin 150 of 500 milligram van het dipeptide L ...
The three dipeptides exhibited passive transport characteristics in the monolayer systems. However, metabolism of the boronated ... dipeptides did occur, but to a lesser extent than the non-boronated glycine-phenylalanine dipeptide. The same metabolic scheme ... examined the effect of boronation on the transepithelial transport and metabolism of three glycine-phenylalanine dipeptides in ... Transepithelial Transport and Metabolism of Boronated Dipeptides Across Caco-2 and HCT-8 Cell Monolayers,. Metal-Based Drugs, ...
In this study, a series of potent dipeptide sulfonamide dual- ... In this study, a series of potent dipeptide sulfonamide dual- ... Dipeptides / chemistry, metabolism, pharmacology*. Dogs. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Male. Organ Culture ... 0/Dipeptides; 0/Receptor, Endothelin A; 0/Receptor, Endothelin B; 0/Receptors, Endothelin; 0/Sulfonamides ...
Selected amino acids, dipeptides and arylalkylamine derivatives do not act as allosteric modulators at GABAB receptors.. ... It is concluded that the arylalkylamines, amino acids and dipeptides tested do not act as allosteric modulators at native and ... and dipeptides (L-Phe-Phe and L-Phe-Leu) on baclofen-induced responses in cortical slices, we have examined whether these ...
... from the corresponding dipeptides and L-Phe was possible, but not the separation of the two dipeptides and the amino acid from ... for DKPs, dipeptides, and amino acids and separation factor (. ) and resolution (. ) of two adjacent peaks at chosen separation ... for a screening of strains exhibiting the ability to hydrolyze cyclic dipeptides to their corresponding linear dipeptides. ... For all DKPs, dipeptides, and amino acids, linear ranges with correlation coefficients greater than 0.998 were determined. ...
Pseudoproline dipeptides disrupt hydrogen bonding of the peptide backbone, thus preventing aggregation resulting in low yield ... Pseudoproline Dipeptides. Pseudoproline dipeptides contain oxazoles formed from serine or threonine. When treated with ... Guidelines for Using Pseudoproline Dipeptides. 1. If possible, insert pseudoprolines before hydrophobic regions.. 2. There ... AAPPTec offers the a large selection of pseudoproline dipeptides at competitive prices. ...
Glutamine dipeptide supplemented nutrition to be given to participants.. Intervention: Drug: Glutamine dipeptide with 15% ... Efficacy and Mechanisms of GLN Dipeptide in the SICU (GLND). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Drug: Glutamine dipeptide with 15% Clinisol Subjects randomized to AG-PN will receive PN containing 0.5 g/kg/day of L alanyl L ... Efficacy and Mechanisms of GLN Dipeptide in the SICU. Official Title ICMJE Phase III Study on the Efficacy of Glutamine ...
Recent studies suggest that the high content of BCAA-containing dipeptides in whey hydrolysate is key to its superior anabolic ... Leucine-Containing Dipeptides Key to Anabolic Response. We know from studies as far back as the 70s and 80s that di- and tri- ... Dipeptides in Whey Hydrolysates vs Intact Whey. It was only after the publication of a pivotal study by Masashi Morifuji and ... Benefits of BCAA-Dipeptides. Aside from mediating the anabolic effects of whey protein hydrolysates, Morifuji and his ...
Lymphocyte and neutrophil death induced by exercise and the role of hydrolyzed whey protein enriched with glutamine dipeptide ( ... Lymphocyte and neutrophil death induced by exercise and the role of hydrolyzed whey protein enriched with glutamine dipeptide ( ... Effects of exercise on leukocyte death: prevention by hydrolyzed whey protein enriched with glutamine dipeptide. ... or 50 g of maltodextrin plus 4 tablets of 700 mg of hydrolyzed whey protein enriched with 175 mg of glutamine dipeptide ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
OligoPeptide Synthesis , DiPeptide Synthesis , Tri-Peptide Synthesis. Selleck has been producing synthetic oligo peptides for ... We have delivered more than 20,000 oligopeptides (including dipeptide, tri-peptide) to our customers. Our manufacturing ...
Hexanoyl dipeptide-3 norleucine acetate is a synthetic peptide that helps skins surface shed properly and speeds up surface ...
Compare arginine-glutamic acid dipeptide (RE) repeats ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, ... arginine-glutamic acid dipeptide (RE) repeats ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established ... Your search returned 14 arginine-glutamic acid dipeptide (RE) repeats ELISA ELISA Kit across 2 suppliers. ...
Build alanine dipeptide. Solvate alanine dipeptide. Save the Amber parm7 and rst7 input files. Prepare Amber MD pmemd and ... Now you have a single alanine dipeptide molecule stored in the unit diala. Solvate alanine dipeptide. The next step to prepare ... Build alanine dipeptide. We can build an alanine dipeptide as an alanine amino acid capped with an acetyl group on the N- ... The alanine dipeptide parm7 and input files are available here:. parm7. rst7 Quit tLEaP. 9. To quit tLEaP use quit. , quit. ...
Muramyl dipeptide activation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 protects mice from experimental colitis. ... Muramyl dipeptide activation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 protects mice from experimental colitis. ... One possibility is based on previous studies showing that muramyl dipeptide (MDP) activation of NOD2 negatively regulates TLR2 ...
Three bioactive cyclic dipeptides from the Bacillus sp. N strain associated with entomopathogenic nematode. Download Prime ... Three bioactive cyclic dipeptides from the Bacillus sp. N strain associated with entomopathogenic nematode.. Peptides. 2014 Mar ... "Three Bioactive Cyclic Dipeptides From the Bacillus Sp. N Strain Associated With Entomopathogenic Nematode." Peptides, vol. 53 ... To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the bioactivity of the isolated cyclic dipeptides is reported against ...
Arginine-glutamic acid dipeptide repeats proteinImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using ... tr,B1AS11,B1AS11_MOUSE Arginine-glutamic acid dipeptide repeats protein (Fragment) OS=Mus musculus OX=10090 GN=Rere PE=1 SV=1 ...
AnaSpec, Eurogentec Group is pleased to release the following dipeptides, the majority of which are >95% pure.. Dipeptide and ... AnaSpec Introduces Dipeptide Library profile. , register. , preferences. , faq. , search. next newest topic. , next oldest ... Topic: AnaSpec Introduces Dipeptide Library anaspec. Member posted 05-03-2011 08:48 PM ... and drug screening.2 Dipeptide libraries, in particular, can be prepared at relatively low cost to span a broad range of ...
  • Muramyl dipeptide is constituent of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria composed of N-acetylmuramic acid linked by its lactic acid moiety to the N-terminus of an L-alanine D-isoglutamine dipeptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Host Recognition of Bacterial Muramyl Dipeptide Mediated through NOD2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Martinon F, Agostini L, Meylan E, Tschopp J. Identification of bacterial muramyl dipeptide as activator of the NALP3/cryopyrin inflammasome. (wikipedia.org)
  • One possibility is based on previous studies showing that muramyl dipeptide (MDP) activation of NOD2 negatively regulates TLR2 responses and that absence of such regulation leads to heightened Th1 responses. (jci.org)
  • Effects of two bacterial products, muramyl dipeptide and endotoxin, on bone resorption in organ culture. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • NOD2, a NOD-like receptor (NLR), is an intracellular sensor of bacterial muramyl dipeptide (MDP) that was suggested to promote secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β. (pnas.org)
  • NOD2 was proposed to serve as an intracellular sensor for muramyl dipeptide (MDP), a fragment of peptidoglycan (PGN) from bacterial cell walls, and initiate activation of NF-κB and MAPK ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Degradation of muramyl dipeptide by mammalian serum. (asm.org)
  • Muramyl dipeptide, N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine-D-isoglutamine (MDP), is the minimal biologically active subunit of bacterial peptidoglycan and elicits an acute inflammation in vivo. (asm.org)
  • Activation is independent of TLRs because the PGN degradation product muramyl dipeptide (MDP), which is not sensed by TLRs, is the minimal-activating structure. (epfl.ch)
  • Muramyl dipeptide (MDP) is a synthetic immunoreactive peptide consisting of N-acetyl muramic acid attached to a short amino acid chain of L-Ala-D-isoGln. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Efficient induction of collagen arthritis by the use of a synthetic muramyl dipeptide. (docme.ru)
  • The results reported here clearly show that production of collagen-induced arthritis in the rat could be augmented by using a simple synthetic compound, N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamineor muramyl dipeptide (MDP). (docme.ru)
  • The membrane targeting of NOD2 is required for NF-κB activation after the recognition of bacterial muramyl dipeptide in intestinal epithelial cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Stimulation of nonspecific resistance to infection induced by 6-O-acyl muramyl dipeptide analogs in mice. (asm.org)
  • The experimental system utilized in investigating the correlation between the chemical structures of muramyl peptides and their protective activities in the sepsis type of systemic infections caused by Escherichia coli was applied in evaluating the enhancement of resistance to infection induced by 32 synthetic glycopeptide analogs, including 6-O-acyl derivatives and 1-alpha-O-benzyl derivatives of muramyl dipeptide (N-acetyl muramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine). (asm.org)
  • In assessing the 6-O-acyl derivatives of muramyl dipeptide, we found that the degree of protective activity was attributable to the kinds of fatty acids introduced. (asm.org)
  • Acylation of the 6-hydroxy group on the muramic acid moiety in muramyl dipeptide with natural mycolic acid or a synthetic fatty acid possessing either an alpha-branched or an alpha-branched, beta-hydroxylated group resulted in a decrease in or a disappearance of the protective activity of muramyl dipeptide. (asm.org)
  • Acylation with a normal fatty acid or an iso fatty acid resulted in a retention or enhancement of muramyl dipeptide activity. (asm.org)
  • Benzylation of the 1-hydroxy group of muramyl dipeptide resulted in a decrease in or a loss of protective activity. (asm.org)
  • We show here that Nod2 is a general sensor of peptidoglycan through the recognition of muramyl dipeptide (MDP), the minimal bioactive peptidoglycan motif common to all bacteria. (pasteur.fr)
  • Activation of macrophages for enhanced release of superoxide anion and greater killing of Candida albicans by injection of muramyl dipeptide. (rupress.org)
  • The adjuvant muramyl dipeptide (MDP) has been shown to affect a number of macrophage functions in vitro. (rupress.org)
  • Recently, however, novel methods have arisen for dipeptide synthesis including a nonribosomal peptide-synthetase-based method and an l -amino acid α-ligase-based method, both of which enable dipeptides to be produced through fermentative processes. (springer.com)
  • No. 3,808,190, and assigned to a common assignee (corresponding to published Netherlands patent application 7,007,176) disclosed the preparation of dipeptide alkyl esters by conducting the synthesis reaction in a mixture of an organic solvent and water, wherein the volume ratio of water:organic solvent must be less than 0.5:1, preferably with a volume ratio of less than 0.1:1. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In the synthesis of dipeptide material based upon asparagyl compounds, it is generally desired, especially in instances where the dipeptides are to be used as sweetening agents, to prepare the α-isomer, and the art has generally attempted to avoid formation of the β-isomer as much as possible as the β-isomer has no sweetening effect. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Thus pseudoprolines are utilized in peptide synthesis as preformed pseudoproline dipeptides. (peptide.com)
  • Isoacyl dipeptides have been used in a synthesis of human insulin . (peptide.com)
  • In this study, we report that the insertion of a pseudoproline dipeptide for the solid-phase peptide synthesis of wild-type Phospholamban protein (WT-PLB) has two important advantages. (scirp.org)
  • S. Abu-Baker and G. Lorigan, "Improved Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis of Wild-Type and Phosphorylated Phospholamban Using a Pseudoproline Dipeptide," Open Journal of Synthesis Theory and Applications , Vol. 1 No. 2, 2012, pp. 9-12. (scirp.org)
  • Design and synthesis of tryptophan containing dipeptide derivatives as formyl peptide receptor 1 antagonist. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Selected amino acids, dipeptides and arylalkylamine derivatives do not act as allosteric modulators at GABAB receptors. (nih.gov)
  • The mechanism of toxicity for cytolytic lymphocytes of Leu-Leu-OMe and related dipeptide derivatives was examined. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, uptake by a dipeptide-specific facilitated transport mechanism and conversion by DPPI to hydrophobic polymerization products with membranolytic properties were found to be common features of NK toxic dipeptide derivatives. (rupress.org)
  • We designed a 100% cis-locked cyclic dipeptide composed of cyclized phospho-Thr-Pro (pCDP) as a mimic for this putative pathological conformation, and three phosphate-blocked derivatives (pCDP-diBzl, pCDP-Bzl, and pCDP-diPOM). (iospress.com)
  • Corresponding triphenyllead(1V) derivatives have been prepared in 1:l molar ratio by reaction of triphenyllead chloride with the thallium(1) salts of the amino-acid or the dipeptide. (docme.ru)
  • In continuation of our earlier studies on tri~rganotin(IV),~-~ di- and tri-~rganolead(IV)~ derivatives of N-protected amino-acids and N-protected dipeptides, we report here the preparation and characterization of diphenyllead(1V) and triphenyllead(1V) derivatives with N-protected amino-acids and dipeptides. (docme.ru)
  • Biological evaluation of N-Ferrocenyl amino acid and dipeptide ester derivatives as potential anti-cancer agents and investigation into their mode of action in preparation for in vivo evaluation. (dcu.ie)
  • 1-alkyl-1'- N-ortho- derivatives exhibited lower growth inhibition compared to the meta and para derivatives for the dipeptides employed 2. (dcu.ie)
  • 4. The presence of the ethynyl moiety does not result in any significant enhancement of the anti-proliferative effect of the N-(ferrocenyl) benzoyl and naphthoyl dipeptide derivatives. (dcu.ie)
  • The functions and applications of l -α-dipeptides (dipeptides) have been poorly studied compared with proteins or amino acids. (springer.com)
  • Also the backbone side-chain hydrogen-bonding within the same dipeptide fragment in proteins is less favoured than hydrogen-bonding between side chain and water and between side chain and atoms of other residues. (biochemj.org)
  • Study of the water confined in dipeptide nanocavities is of great interest because it directly determines the functionality of proteins and amino acids in the human organisms. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • The present investigation of the water behavior in self-assembled dipeptides in which the hydrophobic interactions can significantly modify the water dynamics is of immense importance for the understanding of mechanisms governing the water interaction with amino acids, peptides and proteins. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Isoacyl dipeptides are useful building blocks for assembling large peptides and small proteins by segment condensation. (peptide.com)
  • By designing the peptide segments with isoacyl dipeptides at the C-terminals, large peptides or small proteins can be efficiently prepared in high diastereomeric purity. (peptide.com)
  • Dipeptides are compounds intermediate between polypeptides and amino acids and are formed by the hydrolysis of proteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The team went on to systematically look at all of the proteins and other small molecules (the interactome) that these highly toxic dipeptide repeat proteins interacted with in human cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The propensity scores of individual amino acids and dipeptides are examined to elucidate the interactions between heme and its host proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite its presence in an intron, the disease causing expansion is translated into protein in multiple reading frames from both the sense and anti-sense strands to produce five distinct dipeptide proteins. (neurodegenerationresearch.eu)
  • Sense and antisense repeat-containing transcripts undergo repeat-associated non-AUG-initiated translation to produce five dipeptide proteins (DPRs). (ucl.ac.uk)
  • We reported previously that a novel dipeptide alcohol, l-homoserylaminoethanol (Hse-Gly-ol), is a selective inhibitor of eukaryotic DNA polymerase epsilon (pol epsilon) [Bioorg. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, we developed novel dipeptide thioureas 11d and 11f that showed comparable inhibition with that of Cisplatin against BGC-823 and A-549 cells, respectively. (mdpi.com)
  • Preclinical pharmacology of CB30900, a novel dipeptide inhibitor of thymidylate synthase, in mice. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The action of leucyl-leucine methyl ester on cytotoxic lymphocytes requires uptake by a novel dipeptide-specific facilitated transport system and dipeptidyl peptidase I-mediated conversion to membranolytic products. (rupress.org)
  • Proposing a potential mechanism for C9ORF72-based amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia in Science online July 31, researchers report that repeat dipeptides made by the mutant gene target the nucleolus. (alzforum.org)
  • The toxicities driven by the [repeat dipeptides] may account for the pathophysiological deficits observed in nerve cell dysfunction in patients carrying repeat expansions in the C9ORF72 gene," the authors conclude. (alzforum.org)
  • Depending on where the translation starts and in which direction it goes, the C9ORF72 repeat makes five different dipeptides: glycine-alanine, glycine-proline, glycine-arginine, proline-alanine, and proline-arginine. (alzforum.org)
  • Our results demonstrate that impaired protein translation mediated by poly-PR and poly-GR peptides plays a role in neurotoxicity and reveal that the pathways altered by the poly-dipeptides-mRNA complexes are potential therapeutic targets for treatment of C9orf72 FTD/ALS. (nih.gov)
  • 1. Amino acid and dipeptide absorption. (bmj.com)
  • Predicting the physicochemical profile of diastereoisomeric histidine-containing dipeptides by property space analysis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Numerous references as well as our own work experience indicate that the antioxidant carnosine, the natural dipeptide [beta]-alanyl-L-histidine, meets almost all requirements for an ideal antioxidant. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A powerful endogenous antioxidant found most abundantly in mammalian tissues, especially brain and skeletal muscle tissue, carnosine is a dipeptide of alanine and histidine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Circumvention of P-gp and MRP2 mediated efflux of lopinavir by a histidine based dipeptide prodrug. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • This study was aimed to develop a novel Histidine-Leucine-Lopinavir (His-Leu-LPV) dipeptide prodrug and evaluate its potential for circumvention of P-gp and MRP2-mediated efflux of lopinavir (LPV) indicated for HIV-1 infection. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Histidine based dipeptide prodrug approach can be an alternative strategy to improve LPV absorption across poorly permeable intestinal barrier. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • A tissue carnosine-degrading enzyme (CN2) colocalized with the activity of histidine decarboxylase to histamine neurons in the hypothalamic tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) plays a key role in the neuro-transmission and neuroregulation roles of imidazole-containing based dipeptides. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Histidine dipeptides had a similar or more potent stimulating effect than histidine on the production of staphylococcal α-toxin in a synthetic medium. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The dipeptides were hydrolysed intracellularly, and a considerable portion of the released histidine was further degraded to urocanic acid. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • All dipeptide amides or esters with NK toxic properties were found to act as competitive inhibitors of [3H]Leu-Leu-OMe uptake by PBL. (rupress.org)
  • The presence of a previously unreported dipeptide transport mechanism within blood leukocytes and the selective enrichment of the granule enzyme, DPPI, within cytotoxic effector cells of lymphoid or myeloid lineage appear to afford a unique mechanism for the targeting of immunotherapeutic reagents composed of simple dipeptide esters or amides. (rupress.org)
  • The overall aim of this research work was to evaluate a series of dipeptide monoester prodrugs of an antiviral agent, ganciclovir (GCV), for oligopeptide transporter-targeted transscleral drug delivery to rabbit retina. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The Bacillus subtilis dciA operon encodes a dipeptide transport complex that is induced rapidly as cells enter stationary phase and initiate sporulation. (asm.org)
  • They were complemented by a recombinant plasmid containing the dpp operon, which encodes a dipeptide permease transport system. (asm.org)
  • The permeability and enzymatic hydrolysis of dipeptide monoester GCV prodrugs were evaluated using freshly excized rabbit retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-choroidsclera (RCS) and sclera tissue preparations. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Here, we showed that oral administration of dipeptides of WY, tryptophan-methionine (WM), tryptophan-valine, tryptophan-leucine, and tryptophan-phenylalanine improved spontaneous alternation of the Y-maze test in scopolamine-induced amnesic mice. (mdpi.com)
  • 5. Results show that, within the present experimental conditions, the intravenous administration of dipeptides is as effective as that of the corresponding free amino acids in enriching the tissue pools of amino acids. (clinsci.org)
  • The relationships between the structures of dipeptide alcohols and the inhibition of eukaryotic DNA polymerases are discussed. (nih.gov)
  • Further studies indicated that inhibition of superoxide production in human neutrophils by these dipeptides was associated with the selective inhibition of formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1). (biomedsearch.com)
  • 14C)Gly-Sar influx into tilapia BLMV showed cis-inhibition by several other dipeptides, suggesting that the (14C)Gly-Sar transporter was shared by other peptides too. (eurekamag.com)
  • In conclusion, the data suggest that KUD983 is an anticancer β-dipeptide against HRPCs through the inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptotic and autophagic cell death. (urotoday.com)
  • DPP-IV inhibition was seen with eight out of the twelve dipeptides and 5 of the twelve hydrolysates studied. (rian.ie)
  • This study examined the effect of boronation on the transepithelial transport and metabolism of three glycine-phenylalanine dipeptides in Caco-2 and HCT-8 cell monolayers. (hindawi.com)
  • However, metabolism of the boronated dipeptides did occur, but to a lesser extent than the non-boronated glycine-phenylalanine dipeptide. (hindawi.com)
  • We analyzed the pharmacokinetics of salicylic acid (SA)-amino acid (alanine, glutamic acid, methionine, and tyrosine) or SA−dipeptide (glycylglycine) conjugates in rabbits, by using a model that takes into account the metabolism of prodrug to SA by intestinal microorganisms and, also, by model-independent analysis. (ovid.com)
  • Three bioactive cyclic dipeptides from the Bacillus sp. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In continuation of our search for new bioactive secondary metabolites from Bacillus cereus associated with entomopathogenic nematode (EPN), three cyclic dipeptides (CDPs), cyclo(L-Leu-D-Arg) (1), cyclo(2-hydroxy-Pro-L-Leu) (2), and cyclo(L-Val-L-Pro) (3) were purified from the ethyl acetate extract of B. cereus. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Out of three cyclic dipeptides tested only cyclo(2-hydroxy-Pro-L-Leu) recorded significant antioxidant activity. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the bioactivity of the isolated cyclic dipeptides is reported against medically important fungi and cancer cells. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Nishanth SK, Nambisan B, Dileep C. Three bioactive cyclic dipeptides from the Bacillus sp. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • An analysis of 11 crystal structures of cyclic dipeptides so far reported in the literature is made, with main reference to the internal parameters of these molecules. (iisc.ernet.in)
  • Preferred conformations of the side chains of cyclic dipeptides with different α-amino acid residues have been studied by classical energy calculations. (iisc.ernet.in)
  • In this study, a series of potent dipeptide sulfonamide dual-endothelin ETA/ETB receptor antagonists were prepared to investigate their potential benefit in vascular diseases. (biomedsearch.com)
  • KUD983, an enantiomerically pure β-dipeptide derivative, displays potent activity against hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) PC-3 and DU145 cells with submicromolar IC50. (urotoday.com)
  • Gilmore, B & Walker, B 2004, ' Dipeptide Proline Diphenyl Phosphonates: Potent, Irreversible Inhibitors of Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV (DPP-IV) & Seprase ', Paper presented at 26th QUB/TCD Joint Research Seminar, Dublin, Ireland, 01/04/2004 - 01/04/2004 pp. 11-11. (qub.ac.uk)
  • Isoacyl dipeptides are used to prepare depsipeptides in which the peptide chain is attached to the side chain oxygen atom of serine or threonine residues instead of the alpha nitrogen. (peptide.com)
  • In addition, isoacyl dipeptides are most effective when they are positioned with at least six amino acid residues between the isoacyl dipeptide and other aggregation disrupting units such as proline residues, pseudoproline, and amino acids with Hmb or Dmb protection. (peptide.com)
  • The isoacyl dipeptide should also be at least six amino acid residues from the C-terminal. (peptide.com)
  • In this work, we have introduced a new concept of predicting GTP interacting dipeptide (two consecutive GTP interacting residues) and tripeptide (three consecutive GTP interacting residues) for the first time. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In order to run a molecular dynamics simulation, we need to load a force field to describe the potential energy of alanine dipeptide. (ambermd.org)
  • Here we leverage explicit-solvent molecular simulation and multidimensional free-energy calculations to investigate how adsorption to carbon nanomaterial surfaces affects the conformational equilibrium of alanine dipeptide, a widely used model of protein backbone structure. (k-state.edu)
  • Editor's note: The present article is the second in a two-part series describing the anti-aging effects of a natural dipeptide. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Newly discovered properties of N-Acetyl-Tyr-Arg-Hexadecylester (NATAH), a natural dipeptide derivative with a range of biological activities described previously, 6, 7 were investigated. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Albers S, Wernerman J, Stehle P, Vinnars E, Furst P (1988) Availability of amino acids supplied intravenously in healthy man as synthetic dipeptides: kinetic evaluation of L-alanyl-L-glutamine and glycyl-L-tyrosine. (springer.com)
  • Selected synthetic dipeptides and milk protein hydrolysates were evaluated for their dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory properties, and their superoxide (SO) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities. (rian.ie)
  • Natural dipeptides, such as carnosine and anserine, are found in animal tissues. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Non-enzymatic glycosylation of the dipeptide L-carnosine, a potential anti-protein-cross-linking agent. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Corrective Prevention: Stimulate age intervention deep in the skin with encapsulated dipeptide Carnosine and antioxidants Silybum Marianum (milk thistle) fruit extract, and Tocopherol (Vitamin E) delivered effectively via a liposomal complex. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Carnosine is a natural endogenous dipeptide widely distributed in mammalian tissues, existing at particularly high concentrations in the muscles and brain and possesses well-characterized antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. (ku.edu)
  • In this study the role of carnosine and related neuron specific naturally-occurring endogenous imidazole-containing dipeptide pharmacoperones (N-acetylcarnosine, carcinine) is revealed presently in a surprisingly large amounts in long-lived human tissues to correct conformational abnormalities leading to distinct neurodegeneration and age-related disease states, treating cognitive deficits, depression and intellectual disabilities. (eurekaselect.com)
  • This invention relates to a process for the preparation of a dipeptide derivative. (google.com)
  • More particularly, it relates to a process for the preparation of a dipeptide derivative by hydrogenolysis of a lactam compound in the presence of a catalyst. (google.com)
  • Our previous studies identified an Fmoc-(S,R)-tryptophan-containing dipeptide derivative, , which selectively inhibited neutrophil elastase release induced by formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine (FMLP) in human neutrophils. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Enantiomerically pure β-dipeptide derivative induces anticancer activity against human hormone-refractory prostate cancer through both PI3K/Akt-dependent and -independent pathways. (urotoday.com)
  • Therefore, we chemically synthesized 27 different species of dipeptide alcohols, and tested this inhibitory capability. (nih.gov)
  • By screening novel phosphinate dipeptide analogues for inhibitory activity against recombinant PfLAP, we have discovered two compounds, 4 (hPheP[CH2]Phe) and 5 (hPheP[CH2]Tyr), with inhibitory constants better than bestatin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Result: 'Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitory and antioxidative properties of milk protein-derived dipeptide. (rian.ie)
  • WY dipeptide inhibited the monoamine oxidase B activity in vitro and increased dopamine levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex, whereas tryptophan did not cause these effects. (mdpi.com)
  • Has epimerase activity with a variety of hydrophobic dipeptides (in vitro). (mybiosource.com)
  • An unusual in vitro response pattern was found for several of the dipeptides, which was attributed to non-specific responses or interactions. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • We previously reported not only that chicken HIRA, a homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcriptional corepressors Hir1p and Hir2p, possesses seven WD dipeptide motifs and a LXXLL motif in its N-terminal half and C-terminal half, respectively, but also that the N-terminal and C-terminal halves, respectively, bind to CAF-1p48 and HDAC-1 and -2 in vitro. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Seven WD dipeptide motifs in the N-terminal half of HIRA are required for the in vitro interaction with CAF-1p48. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Isoacyl dipeptides are most effective when they are utilized at the beginning of a hydrophobic segment of the peptide. (peptide.com)
  • This novel transport process was found to be specific for dipeptides composed of selective L-stereoisomer amino acids and enhanced by hydrophobic ester or amide additions to the COOH terminus of dipeptides. (rupress.org)
  • Divalent dipeptides have been introduced as counter ions in aqueous CZE. (diva-portal.org)
  • No chiral separation of amino alcohols was observed when using the dipeptides as ion-pairing chiral selectors in aqueous BGE, but addition of methanol to the BGE promoted enantioselectivity. (diva-portal.org)
  • The ^(15)N chemical shifts of a number of simple aliphatic dipeptides have been determined in a aqueous solution and while the amine nitrogen shift is independent of the nature of the neighbouring residue, the peptide nitrogen shift shows a marked dependence upon the nature of the adjacent amino-acid. (caltech.edu)
  • Palmitate on the serine analogous to native palmitoylated cysteine affords dipeptide which selectively decreases the number of high affinity agonist binding sites at M2 but not M1 receptor. (nih.gov)
  • Our recent pilot data show that GLN dipeptide-supplemented PN decreases nosocomial infections and improves clinical outcomes in SICU patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Until now, there are only few bacterial strains reported which can hydrolyze DKPs to the corresponding linear dipeptides. (hindawi.com)
  • One presumes that this dipeptide was made using enantiomerically pure amino acids, in which case the optical rotations must be available. (comporgchem.com)
  • Your search returned 14 arginine-glutamic acid dipeptide (RE) repeats ELISA ELISA Kit across 2 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • These observations strongly suggest that the basolateral intestinal dipeptide transporter in herbivorous fishes is distinctly different from either the high- or low-affinity brush-border transporter. (eurekamag.com)
  • H+ coupled active transport of bestatin via the dipeptide transport system in rabbit intestinal brush-border membranes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These results indicate that bestatin is transported via the H+/dipeptide transport system in rabbit intestinal brush-border membranes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Without that, it remains possible that any arginine-containing dipeptide could be toxic to Kwon's cultures. (alzforum.org)
  • Based on recent reports describing enhancing actions of arylalkylamines (fendiline [N-(3,3-diphenylpropyl)-alpha-methylbenzylamine] and prenylamine [N-(3,3-diphenylpropyl)-alpha-methylphenethylamine]), amino acids (L-phenylalanine, L-leucine and L-isoleucine), and dipeptides (L-Phe-Phe and L-Phe-Leu) on baclofen-induced responses in cortical slices, we have examined whether these compounds might act as positive allosteric modulators at GABA(B) receptors. (nih.gov)
  • Three dipeptide compounds were purified from its cell-free cultural broth and identified as (±)-nematophin, cyclo (L-Pro-Gly), and N , N′ -dimethyl- cyclo (L-Phe-L-Leu). (frontiersin.org)
  • Identification of phosphinate dipeptide analog inhibitors directed against the Plasmodium falciparum M17 leucine aminopeptidase as lead antimalarial compounds. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Here, we quantify the DLIPS performance using a Raman scattering probe in classification of basic constituents of collagenous tissues, namely, the amino acids glycine, L -proline, and L -alanine, and the dipeptides glycine-glycine, glycine-alanine and glycine-proline and compare the performance to a traditional Raman spectroscopy probe via several multivariate analyses. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • It is suggested that efficient hydrolysis by cellular enzymes prohibits accumulation of intact dipeptides in body tissues. (clinsci.org)
  • We present X-ray crystal structures of the peptide-free state of HLA-A*02:01, together with structures that have dipeptides bound in the A and F pockets. (rcsb.org)
  • Myristylglycine-serine containing dipeptides decrease antagonist binding at both M1 and M2 muscarinic receptors. (nih.gov)
  • Pseudoproline dipeptides contain oxazoles formed from serine or threonine . (peptide.com)
  • Dipeptides containing serine and threonine derived oxazolidines are prepared by reacting side chain unprotected dipeptides containing C-terminal Thr or Ser with dimethoxypropane. (epfl.ch)
  • The discovery suggests that the dipeptide structure could be a chemical frame for a DNA polymerase inhibitor. (nih.gov)
  • This study assessed the pharmacological effects of the WY dipeptide on memory impairment to elucidate the mechanisms. (mdpi.com)
  • This research helps to further elucidate the role of dipeptides on umami taste perception of cats. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Conformational preferences have been surveyed for divalent metal cation complexes with the dipeptide ligands AlaPhe, PheAla, GlyHis, and HisGly. (uva.nl)
  • Mutations that relieve nutritional repression of the Bacillus subtilis dipeptide permease operon. (asm.org)
  • Dipeptide hydrolase may refer to: Membrane dipeptidase, an enzyme Angiotensin-converting enzyme, an enzyme This set index page lists enzyme articles associated with the same name. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dipeptides, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and a beta-lactum antibiotic strongly inhibited the transport of glycylsarcosine indicating the functional presence of oligopeptide transport (OPT) system on the RPE. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The periplasmic dipeptide permease system transports 5-aminolevulinic acid in Escherichia coli. (asm.org)
  • AAPPTec offers the a large selection of pseudoproline dipeptides at competitive prices. (peptide.com)
  • In the third chapter, a sugarbased synthetic pathway leading to highly functionalized thiazole dipeptides is described. (logos-verlag.de)
  • In the presence of a dipeptide phosphine catalyst, a wide range of highly functionalized cyclopentenes bearing an all-carbon quaternary center were obtained in moderate to good yields and with good to excellent enantioselectivities. (beilstein-journals.org)
  • Before we get into the nitty gritty of dipeptide composition of whey protein hydrolysates, let's start by establishing what we already know about whey protein hydrolysates compared to intact whey protein. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • Lymphocyte and neutrophil death induced by exercise and the role of hydrolyzed whey protein enriched with glutamine dipeptide (Gln) supplementation was investigated. (springer.com)
  • Thirty minutes before treadmill exhaustive exercise at variable speeds in an inclination of 1% the subjects ingested 50 g of maltodextrin (placebo) or 50 g of maltodextrin plus 4 tablets of 700 mg of hydrolyzed whey protein enriched with 175 mg of glutamine dipeptide dissolved in 250 mL water. (springer.com)
  • Part of the binding-protein-dependent transport system for dipeptides. (uniprot.org)
  • The dipeptides had higher SO EC50 values compared to the milk protein hydrolysates (arising from three lactoferrin and one whey protein hydrolysates). (rian.ie)
  • However, whether and how the WY dipeptide as the core sequence in WY-related peptides improves memory functions has not been investigated. (mdpi.com)
  • An inverted sequence of this dipeptide to a His-Ser linkage renders the peptide ineffective in the cleavage of DNA. (springer.com)
  • We conclude that the amino-terminal tethered ligand dipeptide sequence S 37 L 38 plays a major role in the activation of PAR 2 . (aspetjournals.org)
  • In addition to improving the solubility of peptides segments, isoacyl dipeptides have other benefits. (peptide.com)
  • Unlike regular peptides, peptides containing an isoacyl dipeptide at the C-terminus can be coupled to other peptide segments with little racemization of the C-terminal amino acid . (peptide.com)
  • 1. This paper reports an investigation of whether the dipeptides glycylsarcosine and l-glutamyl-l-glutamic acid share a single mediated transport mechanism into hamster jejunum, or whether one of these peptides is transported in part by a transport mechanism unavailable to the other. (portlandpress.com)
  • Gillard, Preparation and Characterization of New Oxovanadium (IV) Schiff Base Complexes Derived from Salicylaldehyde and Simple Dipeptides , Inorg. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Preparation and characterization of diphenyllead(IV) and triphenyllead(IV) complexes with N-protected amino-acids and the dipeptides. (docme.ru)
  • Only a few dipeptides, such as aspartame ( l -aspartyl- l -phenylalanine methyl ester) and l -alanyl- l -glutamine (Ala-Gln), are commercially used. (springer.com)
  • Tijdens langdurige inspanningen zorgen enkele honderden milligrammen van het dipeptide L-alanyl-L-glutamine - bij sporters misschien beter bekend als Sustamine - voor betere prestaties dan een energiedrank met electrolyten en koolhydraten. (ergogenics.org)
  • Bij twee andere gelegenheden dronken de proefpersonen elke 15 minuten 250 milliliter met daarin 150 of 500 milligram van het dipeptide L-alanyl-L-glutamine. (ergogenics.org)
  • Properties of L-GLN limit provision in solution, but the GLN dipeptide alanyl-GLN (AG) confers stability and solubility in PN (AG-PN). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Theoretical studies on glycyl-alanyl and seryl dipeptides were performed to determine the probable backbone and side-group conformations that are preferred for solvent interaction. (biochemj.org)
  • Dipeptides consisting of the same L-amino acids but in different order yield isomers, for example, leucyl-alanine and alanyl-leucine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In treatment period 1, arm A receives standard PDF with the interventional drug alanyl-glutamine-dipeptide as add-on. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Schedule arm A: Treatment period 1 with one single peritoneal dialysis exchange (standard PD solution) with Alanyl-Glutamine-Dipeptide as add-on. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • After a wash out period (28 days + max 7 days), arm A undergoes treatment period 2, that is one single peritoneal dialysis exchange with standard PD solution without Alanyl-Glutamine-Dipeptide. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Schedule Arm B: Treatment period 1 with one single peritoneal dialysis exchange with standard PD solution without Alanyl-Glutamine-Dipeptide followed by wash-out. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Dipeptide prodrugs (valine-valine-GCV, glycine-valine-GCV, and tyrosine-valine-GCV), and valine-GCV demonstrate a high enzymatic stability and affinity toward the retinal OPT system. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The dipeptide monoester GCV prodrugs, owning to higher lipophilicity and OPT-mediated translocation across RPE, appear to be promising candidates in the treatment of ocular cytomegalovirus infections following an episcleral administration. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In this regard, Leu-Leu-OMe was found to be incorporated by lymphocytes and monocytes via a saturable facilitated transport mechanism with characteristics distinct from previously characterized mammalian dipeptide transport processes. (rupress.org)
  • Sustamine is a dipeptide of glutamine that provides several substantial benefits such as enhanced recovery, immune system support and increased metabolic rate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We conclude that the alu mutations are within the dpp operon and that the dipeptide transport system mediates uptake of the important metabolite ALA. (asm.org)
  • The uptake of bestatin by brush-border membrane vesicles was inhibited by p.o. cephalosporins and dipeptides, but not by amino acids. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The uptake and intracellular hydrolysis of this dipeptide were significantly slower than those of dipeptides with the free amino group in the α-position. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The first is a linear dipeptide with intramolecular hydrogen bonding occurring in a 5,5 relationship. (comporgchem.com)
  • Herein, we synthesized and evaluated a series of novel chiral dipeptide thioureas containing an α-aminophosphonate moiety as antitumor agents. (mdpi.com)
  • In an attempt to improve pharmacological activity, a series of tryptophan-containing dipeptides were synthesized and their pharmacological activities were investigated in human neutrophils. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These results indicated that the conformation of dipeptides with N-terminal tryptophan is required for their memory improving effects. (mdpi.com)
  • When the dipeptides were perfused, free amino acids appeared in the perfusate presumably by "back diffusion" from the mucosal cells. (bmj.com)
  • Since it has been revealed that some dipeptides have unique physiological functions, the progress in production methods will undoubtedly accelerate the applications of dipeptides in many fields. (springer.com)
  • A number of short peptide amphiphiles consisting of dipeptides linked to fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl spontaneously form fibrous hydrogels under physiological conditions (see figure). (strath.ac.uk)