Dioxins: Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.Benzofurans: Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin: A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.Incineration: High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.Body Burden: The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.Chlorophenols: Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Tampons, Surgical: Plugs or cylinders made of cotton, sponge, or other absorbent material. They are used in surgery to absorb fluids such as blood or drainage.Furans: Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1: A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.Drug Residues: Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Poultry Products: Food products manufactured from poultry.Epichlorohydrin: A chlorinated epoxy compound used as an industrial solvent. It is a strong skin irritant and carcinogen.Anion Exchange Resins: High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.Milk, HumanGas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Chemical Hazard Release: Uncontrolled release of a chemical from its containment that either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a chemical hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)RussiaMaternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Pentachlorophenol: An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.MichiganHerbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid: A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.Chloroflexi: Phylum of green nonsulfur bacteria including the family Chloroflexaceae, among others.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Chlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Endocrine Disruptors: Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.Endocrine System: The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.Jupiter: The fifth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its sixteen natural satellites include Callisto, Europa, Ganymede, and Io.IllinoisJapanPolybrominated Biphenyls: Biphenyl compounds which are extensively brominated. Many of these compounds are toxic environmental pollutants.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Minor Planets: Small solar system planetary bodies including asteroids. Most asteroids are found within the gap lying between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.ConnecticutPamphlets: Printed publications usually having a format with no binding and no cover and having fewer than some set number of pages. They are often devoted to a single subject.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.

Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos. (1/575)

Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes.  (+info)

Effects of dioxins on human health: a review. (2/575)

The toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) has been known since 1950s. TCDD is a by-product of herbicide 2,4-dichloroacetophenol (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichloroacetophenol (2,4,5-T), but it was first found in fryash of municipal incinerator in 1979 in Japan. In 1998, the survey of municipal incinerators revealed that 105 out of 1,641 produced above the allowed emission level of 80 ng TEQ/m3. Total annual release of dioxins is estimated to be about 5,000 g TEQ in 1997 in Japan. Japanese government started a comprehensive survey for dioxin levels in milk and blood of residents around incinerators, and their health effects. Human effects by dioxin exposures in Western countries were mostly acute and at high level in accidentally and/or occupationally. Health effects of low-dose and long lasting exposure has not been well understood. Certain amount of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), dibenzofurans (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) is accumulated in our body. Mother's milk is also contaminated by PCDD/PCDF. Health effects of the polychlorinated chemicals are summarized, and the necessity of regulations and recommendations for making a guideline is discussed in this review.  (+info)

Cross-talk between the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and hypoxia inducible factor signaling pathways. Demonstration of competition and compensation. (3/575)

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and the alpha-class hypoxia inducible factors (HIF1alpha, HIF2alpha, and HIF3alpha) are basic helix-loop-helix PAS (bHLH-PAS) proteins that heterodimerize with ARNT. In response to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, the AHR. ARNT complex binds to "dioxin responsive enhancers" (DREs) and activates genes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics, e.g. cytochrome P4501A1 (Cyp1a1). The HIF1alpha.ARNT complex binds to "hypoxia responsive enhancers" and activates the transcription of genes that regulate adaptation to low oxygen, e.g. erythropoietin (Epo). We postulated that activation of one pathway would inhibit the other due to competition for ARNT or other limiting cellular factors. Using pathway specific reporters in transient transfection assays, we observed that DRE driven transcription was markedly inhibited by hypoxia and that hypoxia responsive enhancer driven transcription was inhibited by AHR agonists. When we attempted to support this cross-talk model using endogenous loci, we observed that activation of the hypoxia pathway inhibited Cyp1a1 up-regulation, but that activation of the AHR actually enhanced the induction of Epo by hypoxia. To explain this unexpected additivity, we examined the Epo gene and found that its promoter harbors DREs immediately upstream of its transcriptional start site. These experiments outline conditions where inhibitory and additive cross-talk occur between the hypoxia and dioxin signal transduction pathways and identify Epo as an AHR-regulated gene.  (+info)

Removal of dibenzofuran, dibenzo-p-dioxin, and 2-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin from soils inoculated with Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1. (4/575)

Removal of dibenzofuran, dibenzo-p-dioxin, and 2-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2-CDD) (10 ppm each) from soil microcosms to final concentrations in the parts-per-billion range was affected by the addition of Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1. Rates and extents of removal were influenced by the density of RW1 organisms. For 2-CDD, the rate of removal was dependent on the content of soil organic matter (SOM), with half-life values ranging from 5.8 h (0% SOM) to 26.3 h (5.5% SOM).  (+info)

Repression of dioxin signal transduction in fibroblasts. Identification Of a putative repressor associated with Arnt. (5/575)

Heterodimeric complexes of basic helix-loop-helix/PAS transcription factors are involved in regulation of diverse physiological phenomena such as circadian rhythms, reaction to low oxygen tension, and detoxification. In fibroblasts, the basic helix-loop-helix/PAS heterodimer consisting of the ligand-inducible dioxin receptor and Arnt shows DNA-binding activity, and the receptor and Arnt are able to activate transcription when fused to a heterologous DNA-binding domain. However, fibroblasts are nonresponsive to dioxin with regard to induction mediated by the DNA response element recognized by the receptor and Arnt. Here we demonstrate that Arnt is associated with a fibroblast-specific factor, forming a complex that is capable of binding the dioxin response element. This factor may function as a repressor since negative regulation of target gene induction appears to be abolished by inhibition of histone deacetylase activity by trichostatin A. Finally, the negative regulatory function of this factor appears to be restricted for dioxin signaling since Arnt was able to mediate, together with hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, transcriptional activation in hypoxic cells. Taken together, these data suggest that fibroblast-specific inhibition of dioxin responsiveness involves recruitment by Arnt of a cell type- and signaling pathway-specific corepressor associated with a histone deacetylase.  (+info)

Aromatic hydrocarbon nuclear translocator as a common component for the hypoxia- and dioxin-induced gene expression. (6/575)

Aromatic hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (Arnt) is an ubiquitously expressed protein that contains basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and Per-AhR-Arnt-Sim (PAS) motifs. Other bHLH-PAS proteins, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediate hypoxia- and dioxin-signal pathway, respectively. Arnt has been identified as a heterodimerization partner for AhR. AhR/Arnt heterodimer binds the regulatory region of xenobiotic-induced genes and activates their transcription. Here, in vivo results provide evidence that Arnt is involved in not only xenobiotic- but also hypoxia-induced transcriptional activation. In hypoxic condition, Arnt dimerizes with HIF-1alpha to make HIF-1alpha/Arnt heterodimer which is able to bind hypoxia-responsive DNA elements. The HIF-1alpha/Arnt heterodimer functions as a transactivator for hypoxia-inducible genes. Given that the expression of Arnt is limited, HIF-1alpha may compete with AhR for recruiting Arnt as a heteromeric partner. Consistent with this idea, the results indicate that the hypoxic activation of HIF-1alpha reduces dioxin-induced AhR's function on the dioxin-responsive reporter gene and the endogenous gene.  (+info)

A functional 4-hydroxysalicylate/hydroxyquinol degradative pathway gene cluster is linked to the initial dibenzo-p-dioxin pathway genes in Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1. (7/575)

The bacterium Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1 is able to use dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran, and several hydroxylated derivatives as sole sources of carbon and energy. We have determined and analyzed the nucleic acid sequence of a 9,997-bp HindIII fragment downstream of cistrons dxnA1A2, which encode the dioxygenase component of the initial dioxygenase system of the corresponding catabolic pathways. This fragment contains 10 colinear open reading frames (ORFs), apparently organized in one compact operon. The enzymatic activities of some proteins encoded by these genes were analyzed in the strain RW1 and, after hyperexpression, in Escherichia coli. The first three ORFs of the locus, designated dxnC, ORF2, and fdx3, specify a protein with a low homology to bacterial siderophore receptors, a polypeptide representing no significant homology to known proteins, and a putative ferredoxin, respectively. dxnD encodes a 69-kDa phenol monooxygenase-like protein with activity for the turnover of 4-hydroxysalicylate, and dxnE codes for a 37-kDa protein whose sequence and activity are similar to those of known maleylacetate reductases. The following gene, dxnF, encodes a 33-kDa intradiol dioxygenase which efficiently cleaves hydroxyquinol, yielding maleylacetate, the ketoform of 3-hydroxy-cis,cis-muconate. The heteromeric protein encoded by dxnGH is a 3-oxoadipate succinyl coenzyme A (succinyl-CoA) transferase, whereas dxnI specifies a protein exhibiting marked homology to acetyl-CoA acetyltransferases (thiolases). The last ORF of the sequenced fragment codes for a putative transposase. DxnD, DxnF, DxnE, DxnGH, and DxnI (the activities of most of them have also been detected in strain RW1) thus form a complete 4-hydroxysalicylate/hydroxyquinol degradative pathway. A route for the mineralization of the growth substrates 3-hydroxydibenzofuran and 2-hydroxydibenzo-p-dioxin in Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1 thus suggests itself.  (+info)

Chlorella accelerates dioxin excretion in rats. (8/575)

We investigated the effects of Chlorella on fecal excretion of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) congeners and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners in Wistar rats administered the rice oil that caused Yusho disease, as a substitute for purified dioxin. The rats were fed 4 g of a control diet or a 10% Chlorella diet containing 0.2 mL of the rice oil once during the 5-d experimental period. The amounts of PCDD and PCDF congeners excreted in feces from d 1 to 5 in the group fed 10% Chlorella were 0.2-11.3 and 0.3-12.8 times greater (P < 0.05), respectively, than those of the control group. We then investigated the fecal excretion of PCDD and PCDF congeners from d 8 to 35 in rats administered 0.5 mL of the rice oil. Rats consumed the basal diet for 1 wk. After 1 wk, they consumed either the basal diet or the 10% Chorella diet. The fecal excretions of PCDD and PCDF congeners in the group fed 10% Chlorella were 0.3-3.4 and 0.5-2.5 times greater (most, P < 0.05), respectively, than those of the control group. Thus, the fecal excretions of PCDD and PCDF congeners were greater in rats fed Chlorella. These findings suggest that the administration of Chlorella may be useful in preventing gastrointestinal absorption and for promoting the excretion of dioxin already absorbed into tissues. Moreover, these findings suggest that Chlorella might be useful in the treatment of humans exposed to dioxin.  (+info)

  • As a part of the National and Sub-national Burden of Disease Study (NASBOD), we aimed to estimate dioxins and furans national emissions, identify their main sources, estimate daily intake doses, and assess their trend from 1990-2010 in Iran. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Toolkit for Identification and Quantification of Releases of Dioxins, Furans and Other Unintentional POPs, which is developed by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP 2013), was used to estimate the emissions of PCDD/PCDFs from several sources into the air, water, land, residue, and other products. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Currently, Iran has no standard for dioxins and furans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Adaptation of the World Health Organization recommended guidelines might be an appropriate starting point to control dioxins and furans emissions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The most well studied dioxin is called 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin (TCDD). (healthed.govt.nz)
  • Aim: To investigate whether those who were exposed to high levels of the dioxin TCDD 25 years ago in Seveso, northern Italy still have higher than the expected levels of dioxins in their fat stores, and to investigate the concentrations of dioxins in the breast milk of mothers in Seveso and in two other regions in Italy. (elsevier.com)
  • Results: In human milk from Seveso, the TCDD concentration in fat calculated on a fresh weight basis was more than twice as high as the level in the other two regions, whereas the concentrations of investigated other toxins were lower in Seveso possible due to induction of the enzyme cytochrome P4501A, which means that the total level of dioxins was the same in all three locations. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusion: Twenty-five years after the dioxin catastrophe, human milk from mothers in Seveso has concentrations of the highly toxic dioxin congener TCDD that are more than twice as high as those in central Milan and a Lombardian village. (elsevier.com)
  • Dioxins have different toxicity depending on the number and position of the chlorine atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The symptoms reported to be associated with dioxin toxicity in animal studies are incredibly wide-ranging, both in the scope of the biological systems affected and in the range of dosage needed to bring these about. (wikipedia.org)
  • By far most toxicity studies have been performed using 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Everyone has some dioxins in their body but levels in the general population are decreasing. (healthed.govt.nz)
  • Previous studies of the New Zealand population show that dioxin levels have dropped by as much as 70 percent in the ten years from the late 1980s. (healthed.govt.nz)
  • When I was the principal author and coordinator of the Detroit River Update Report, I had to figure out how to communicate complex sediment contaminant dynamics to the general public - let alone information on PCB and dioxin levels in fish and birds! (cameronstraughan.com)
  • Higher dioxin TEQs were associated with later pubertal onset by TV (hazard ratio = 0.68, 95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.95 for the highest compared with the lowest quartile). (elsevier.com)
  • Background: Animal data demonstrate associations of dioxin, furan, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures with altered male gonadal maturation. (elsevier.com)
  • While the affinity of dioxins and related industrial toxicants to this receptor may not fully explain all their toxic effects including immunotoxicity, endocrine effects and tumor promotion , toxic responses appear to be typically dose-dependent within certain concentration ranges. (wikipedia.org)
  • The endocrine disrupting activity of dioxins is thought to occur as a down-stream function of AH receptor activation, with thyroid status in particular being a sensitive marker of exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The endocrine disrupting activity of dioxins is thought to occur as a down-stream function of AH receptor activation, with thyroid status in particular being a sensitive marker of exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute effects of single high dose dioxin exposure include wasting syndrome, and typically a delayed death of the animal in 1 to 6 weeks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over 90 percent of human exposure to dioxins comes through food, mainly animal products, such as dairy, meat, fish, and shellfish. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Dioxins have been characterized by EPA as likely human carcinogens and are anticipated to increase the risk of cancer at background levels of exposure. (ewg.org)
  • Exposure to chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs) (75 chemicals) occurs mainly from eating food that contains the chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • Studies show that dioxin collects in your fatty tissues, and according to a draft report by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), dioxin is a serious public health threat that has no "safe" level of exposure! (mercola.com)
  • The results of an EU-funded study on dioxin exposure and health are now available from an on-line report. (europa.eu)
  • The study, on the current dioxin exposure and health data in the EU, was co-funded by the European Commission's Environment Directorate-General and has now been presented. (europa.eu)
  • The study, on the current dioxin exposure and health data in the EU, was co-funded by the European Commission's Environment Directorate-General and has now been presented to the Commission task force on dioxins. (europa.eu)
  • 2.1 What are the principal source of exposure to dioxins? (greenfacts.org)
  • Concerns over errors in a report on dioxin exposure in the New Plymouth suburb of Paritutu will be looked at by an expert reviewing the study, says the Minister of Health. (nzherald.co.nz)
  • Dioxin was in the defoliant sprayed over the jungles of Vietnam during the fighting there and thousands of veterans worry about the effects of possible exposure. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) has conducted an analytical survey of dioxins in a range of food sampled in Australia with the purpose of assessing the level of risk to human health associated with the dietary exposure of the Australian population to dioxins. (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • The overall conclusion of this report is that, on the basis of the available data, taking into account all the inherent uncertainties and limitations, the public health and safety risk for all Australians from exposure to dioxins from foods is very low. (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • Long term high levels of exposure to dioxins have the potential to cause a range of toxic effects in animals and humans, including skin lesions, reproductive disorders and cancer. (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • The consumption of animal products with high fat content, such as meat and dairy products, can increase human exposure to dioxins. (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • For all age groups as well as for the lifetime exposure, the mean and 95th percentile monthly dietary exposures were below the Australian tolerable monthly intake for dioxins of 70 pg TEQ/kg body weight (bw)/month. (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • For the population group aged two years and above, representing a lifetime of exposure, mean estimated exposure to dioxins was 3.7-15.6 pg TEQ/kg bw/month (lower to upper bound). (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • Toddlers aged 2-4 years were estimated to have the highest exposure to dioxins (mean 6.2-36.7 and 95th percentile 12.1-66.2 pg TEQ/kg bw/month, lower to upper bound respectively) due to their higher food consumption relative to body weight. (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • The mean estimated dietary exposure to dioxins calculated for infants aged 9 months was 11.8-60.8 pg TEQ/kg bw/month (lower to upper bound). (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • After nearly 30 years of delays caused by pressure from chemicals and defense industries, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is moving forward on setting a safety limit for exposure to dioxin, a ubiquitous, highly toxic and carcinogenic chemical that people of all ages ingest daily with their food - starting at a mother's breast. (ewg.org)
  • The Environmental Working Group applauds the EPA for taking significant steps to set a long-overdue exposure limit for dioxin, a byproduct of combustion and various industrial processes that is found everywhere in the environment and in people's bodies. (ewg.org)
  • EWG researchers say, however, that the allowable exposure levels may well need to be tightened in the future because of growing evidence that dioxin is even more dangerous than scientists had thought. (ewg.org)
  • More recently, scientists have recognized that continuous, low-dose exposure to dioxin-like compounds, which include the notorious PCB's, is also a health threat. (ewg.org)
  • The EPA, which began its efforts to set safety limits for dioxin exposure almost 30 years ago, is focusing on a particular form called tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, or TCDD, the most toxic and best studied of this family of chemicals. (ewg.org)
  • In addition, concern has arisen in the small town of Kirkjubaejarklaustur, in South Iceland, where dioxin levels were recorded at 95 times the maximum exposure level in 2007. (globalissues.org)
  • And in Vestmannaeyjar, an island just off South Iceland, the dioxin level was 84 times the maximum exposure standard. (globalissues.org)
  • The Danish Environmental Protection Agency has requested an evaluation of health hazards by exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls. (mst.dk)
  • Sources of human exposure to dioxins include food intake, drinking water, air inhalation and skin contact. (gov.hk)
  • Dietary intake is by far the most important and accounts for over 90% of dioxins exposure. (gov.hk)
  • Accidental exposure to large amount of dioxins could lead to the development of chloracne, a skin condition, excessive body hair and other skin lesions such as skin rashes and skin discolouration. (gov.hk)
  • Long-term exposure to dioxins is linked to impairment of the immune system, reproductive function, endocrine system and the developing nervous system. (gov.hk)
  • To accurately determine the risk of the population due to exposure to dioxins, an exposure assessment needs to be performed. (gov.hk)
  • In evaluating dietary exposure to dioxins, one needs to examine the dioxin levels in different food items and the food consumption amount in the population. (gov.hk)
  • Prevention of excessive exposure to dioxins should start with environmental control. (gov.hk)
  • As dioxins are mainly present in the fatty part of food, consuming low-fat products, trimming fat from meat and meat products, reducing the amount of animal fat used in food preparation and using cooking methods that reduce fat (e.g. broiling, baking) are useful measures to minimise dietary dioxin exposure. (gov.hk)
  • After more than 20 years of "assessment" the Environmental Protection Agency is finally expected later this month to release limits for safe exposure to dioxins, nasty industrial pollutants that cause cancer, among other health harms . (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Although dioxins are environmental contaminants, most dioxin exposure occurs through the diet, with over 95% coming through dietary intake of animal fats. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Dioxin is considered a probable carcinogen at high enough levels, but the FDA said the danger was in cumulative lifetime exposure, not in eating a few chickens raised on the feed. (essential.org)
  • Sources of human exposure to dioxins include food intake, drinking water, air inhalation and skin contact, of which dietary intake is the most important source. (gov.hk)
  • As dioxins are mainly found in fat, the risk of dioxin exposure can be reduced by avoiding foods with a relatively high level of fat. (gov.hk)
  • The Department has also advised adults and children to avoid the risk of exposure to dioxin through skin by not camping, fishing, or picnicking near the San Jacinto River where the toxic waste ponds are located. (chron.com)
  • Infant Exposure to Dioxin-Like Compounds in Breast Milk. (questia.com)
  • Since these are the primary dietary sources of dioxins and since diet is the primary non-occupational exposure route, this is a critical issue for the farm family. (cornell.edu)
  • For most New Zealanders, about 90 percent of dioxin exposure is through food. (healthed.govt.nz)
  • Small amounts of exposure can also occur from breathing in dioxin, skin absorption, and inadvertently eating or drinking contaminated soil or dust. (healthed.govt.nz)
  • This means that cancer development following dioxin exposure may depend on other causes of cancer like tobacco use. (healthed.govt.nz)
  • The Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences in the United States of America regularly reviews the evidence about dioxin exposure and health. (healthed.govt.nz)
  • It makes a list of conditions that it accepts as being associated with dioxin exposure. (healthed.govt.nz)
  • There is some evidence that dioxin exposure is associated with cancers of the respiratory system, prostate cancer, multiple myeloma, early onset transient peripheral neuropathy, porphyria cutanea tarda, Type II diabetes, hypertension, AL amyloidosis, and spina bifida in offspring. (healthed.govt.nz)
  • Many of these diseases are also associated with things other than dioxin exposure. (healthed.govt.nz)
  • Is there a medical test for dioxin exposure? (healthed.govt.nz)
  • A person who had a high level of exposure in the past may have a serum dioxin test which shows low or minimal levels of dioxin now. (healthed.govt.nz)
  • Are there any treatments for dioxin exposure? (healthed.govt.nz)
  • How can I reduce my current exposure to dioxins? (healthed.govt.nz)
  • We are being poisoned in NZ by low level exposure to Dioxin! (foodsafetynews.com)
  • The contribution of environmental biomonitoring with lichens to assess human exposure to dioxins. (springer.com)
  • A December 2007 PubMed search of English-language epidemiologic studies and their citations regarding dioxin exposure and CVD mortality provided the basis for the systemic review. (innovations-report.com)
  • Although a number of epidemiologic studies have examined the association of dioxin exposure with CVD morbidity or mortality, the authors found no published systematic reviews on this topic. (innovations-report.com)
  • EHP editor-in-chief Hugh A. Tilson, PhD, said, "With cardiovascular disease a leading cause of death in many countries, the potential role of dioxin exposure as a preventable risk factor could be of substantial interest. (innovations-report.com)
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development has found a University of Michigan dioxin exposure study to be of limited value in fully evaluating human exposure to levels of dioxin in the Tittabawassee River and Saginaw River and Bay. (eponline.com)
  • The University of Michigan Dioxin Exposure Study (UMDES) was conducted in response to community concerns that dioxin compounds from the Midland-based Dow Chemical Co. had contaminated the city and surrounding areas. (eponline.com)
  • Understanding these issues is critical when evaluating associations between exposure and blood dioxin levels in sensitive populations, including children. (eponline.com)
  • Dioxin exposure during pregnancy impairs the development of mammary glands during pregnancy and may cause women to not produce enough milk for their newborns, a new study finds. (ecochildsplay.com)
  • The study, from the University of Rochester Medical Center, found that dioxin causes mammary cells to stop their cycle of proliferation as early as six days into pregnancy, and the effects of exposure can last through mid-pregnancy. (ecochildsplay.com)
  • Human exposure to dioxins is usually through diet, as the chemical enters the food chain through emissions settling on farmland, and through livestock and fish. (ecochildsplay.com)
  • Researchers found that in tissue samples from mice, a 50% decrease in new epithelial cells was seen after dioxin exposure, and because mammary gland cells have a high rate of growth during early to mid-pregnancy, this is an important finding. (ecochildsplay.com)
  • The group is also investigating a possible link between breast cancer and dioxin exposure. (ecochildsplay.com)
  • It's about personal ways to reduce your exposure to dioxin and similar problems. (lbbs.org)
  • According to the EPA report, not only does there appear to be no 'safe' level of exposure to dioxin, but levels of dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals have been found in the general US population that are 'at or near levels associated with adverse health effects. (lbbs.org)
  • What health effects are related to exposure to dioxin and dioxin-like compounds? (lbbs.org)
  • In the Netherlands, the pre- and postnatal exposure to dioxins have been studied prospectively since 1987. (uva.nl)
  • We observed no trend of increasing risk for any cause of death with increasing dioxin exposure. (biomedsearch.com)
  • People living near incinerators receive the highest doses of dioxin, which persists in fatty tissue for many years, but up to 90 percent of human dioxin exposure comes from food, particularly meat, fish, and dairy products. (social-ecology.org)
  • In some cases of short-term and long-term exposure to Dioxin, humans have been known to display signs of extreme chloracne, which is an acne-like condition that develops within months of the first intake of Dioxin. (creationwiki.org)
  • According to this analysis, dioxin exposure in children 1 to 5 years old exceeds EPA's reference dose and that children 6 to 11 years old have dioxin exposure that is virtually identical to the reference dose. (chej.org)
  • We know that over 95% of our daily exposure results from ingestion o f animal fat, primarily meat and dairy and that people who live near specific dioxin sources are exposed to even higher concentrations. (chej.org)
  • While the scientists limited the pregnant rats to small amounts of dioxin exposure, these levels are still high compared to most people's exposure from the environment. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • They chose to work on juvenile fish because few studies for dioxin exposure exist on this critical life-stage. (wisc.edu)
  • Carvan said their technique "more closely mimics actual environmental exposure to dioxin. (wisc.edu)
  • And as for the trouts' noses, testing whether their sense of smell was actually impaired by dioxin exposure was not part of Carvan's research, but he'd like to follow up to see if it leads to behavioral problems and perhaps impeded spawning success. (wisc.edu)
  • Today's findings show that generally, over a person's lifetime, current exposure to dioxins does not pose a significant health risk. (epa.gov)
  • Most Americans have low-level exposure to dioxins. (epa.gov)
  • Non-cancer effects of exposure to large amounts of dioxin include chloracne, developmental and reproductive effects, damage to the immune system, interference with hormones, skin rashes, skin discoloration, excessive body hair, and possibly mild liver damage. (epa.gov)
  • and reducing exposure to dioxin. (epa.gov)
  • The objective of this research project is to determine whether exposure to dioxins, a byproduct of industrial processes and an environmental contaminant, is associated with altered growth and sexual maturation in boys. (epa.gov)
  • These results suggest that exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds is high, as expected, in this population of pre-adolescents. (epa.gov)
  • For the general Japancse public, the primary source of exposure to dioxins is food, mostly through fish and its products. (witpress.com)
  • The current level of exposure to dioxins for the general public is estimated to be less than the above-mentioned tolerable intake. (witpress.com)
  • EWG research found that the amount of dioxin a nursing infant ingests daily is up to 77 times higher than the level the agency has defined as harmless to the endocrine and immune systems. (ewg.org)
  • Dr. Kimbrough said that the amount of dioxin an infant would acquire from the mother's milk would not be that much higher than it had already acquired in the mother's uterus. (nytimes.com)
  • Pretty scary stuff, and even scarier when you realize everyone eats a certain amount of dioxin every day. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • The amount of dioxin in a person's body naturally decreases over time. (healthed.govt.nz)
  • A special version of the HYSPLIT model has been developed to simulate the atmospheric fate and transport of semivolatile pollutants such as PCDD/F (dioxin). (noaa.gov)
  • Overall, the concentration of dioxins in the surveyed foods was very low with the highest mean PCDD/F concentrations being found in peanut butter (0.035-0.235 pg TEQ/g fresh weight, lower to upper bound), butter (0.010-0.20 pg TEQ/g fresh weight) and fish fillets (0.08-0.13 pg TEQ/g fresh weight). (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • Inhibition of PCDD/Fs formation from dioxin precursors by calcium oxide. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Sometimes described as the most toxic contaminant ever found, dioxin has been linked to multiple outbreaks of disease and cancer triggered by high-level exposures at least as far back as 1949. (ewg.org)
  • EPA's "reanalysis" noted that these low-level exposures are all but unavoidable because dioxins are widespread in the environment, break down very slowly, build up in the food chain and accumulate in the tissues of animals, especially in fat. (ewg.org)
  • As a consequence, exposures begin in the womb when dioxins cross the placenta, and newborn infants begin to ingest them from the very first days of life. (ewg.org)
  • They excluded studies of leather, flavor, and fragrance workers, whose occupational exposures typically include not only dioxin but also cardiotoxic methylmercury, arsenic and xylene. (innovations-report.com)
  • It is uncertain how well the study represented people who participate in activities that could lead to elevated dioxin exposures, such as eating local fish and game with elevated dioxin levels. (eponline.com)
  • METHODS: We examined death rates among 773 workers exposed to chlorinated dioxins during PCP manufacturing from 1937 to 1980 using serum dioxin evaluations to estimate exposures to five dioxins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • EPA has argued for some time that dioxin exposures are going down and in 2009 EPA published a paper that estimated the daily average intake of dioxin to be only 0.54 pg TEQ/kg/day. (chej.org)
  • Starting from 1999, the Food and Environmental Hygiene Department has been monitoring dioxins in foods. (gov.hk)
  • In the last 30 years, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other bodies have reduced the production of dioxin levels in the U.S. by 90 percent . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Meanwhile, the Environmental Protection Agency is expected to soon release its long-awaited report on dioxin's health hazards, and by most accounts, it will say that dioxin is more dangerous than current regulations assume. (loe.org)
  • In 1991, the Environmental Protection Agency used its emergency powers under the Federal Superfund Law, and began digging up dioxin-contaminated soil at one of the abandoned factories. (loe.org)
  • Today the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized its non-cancer science assessment for dioxins, which was last reviewed in the 1980s. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Dr. Shecter's calculation was based on estimates by the Environmental Protection Agency on the hazards of dioxin. (nytimes.com)
  • A report released for public comment in September 1994 by the US Environmental Protection Agency clearly describes dioxin as a serious public health threat. (lbbs.org)
  • For a quarter of a century, the Environmental Protection Agency has dragged its feet in releasing a report on dioxin, thanks to pressure from industrialized agriculture (Big Ag). (beforeitsnews.com)
  • Dr Mannix's letter reads: "The HSE will check with the Environmental Protection Agency about the possibility of dioxin measurement in local animals. (limerickleader.ie)
  • Dioxin has been linked to a range of health effects, including cancer and reproductive damage. (loe.org)
  • In addition, the receptor seems to mediate by as-yet-unresolved mechanisms a wide range of toxic effects by dioxins including birth defects, impaired reproductive capacity, and immune suppression ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • They also stressed that dioxin causes health problems other than cancer, including damage to the reproductive and immune systems. (nytimes.com)
  • Consumed at high levels, dioxins are linked to various human ailments including reproductive problems and cancer. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Not only can dioxins and a wide variety of related substances cause cancer at extremely minute doses, but they have widespread damaging effects on the reproductive, immune, and nervous systems of people and animals. (social-ecology.org)
  • Dioxin is an industrial pollutant linked to cancer and reproductive disorders. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • Nine animal studies conducted between 1973 and 2008 show that dioxin is harmful at levels even lower than in the human studies on which EPA based its proposal. (ewg.org)
  • Previous studies of the New Zealand population show that dioxin levels have dropped by as much as 70 percent in the ten years from the late 1980s. (healthed.govt.nz)
  • One of the biggest sources of dioxin is the commonly used plastic PVC (vinyl). (greenpeace.org)
  • Most of what you read is rubbish, propaganda put out by the chemical companies, 2,4,5-T and 2,4D are the main sources of Dioxin in the food chain! (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Finally, dioxin may refer to 1,4-Dioxin proper, the basic chemical unit of the more complex dioxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drinking water can contain dioxins if it has been contaminated by chemical waste from factories, or by other industrial processes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • For years, environmentalists in Michigan have been pressuring the state to clean up what they say are dangerous levels of dioxin in the soil of Midland, where Dow Chemical Company is headquartered. (loe.org)
  • Years ago, soil sampling in Midland, Michigan revealed high levels of dioxin on the grounds of Dow Chemical and in nearby playgrounds and parks. (loe.org)
  • And dioxins from its chemical plant came from making such products as saran wrap, Agent Orange, and various pesticides. (loe.org)
  • The deadly chemical dioxin has hit the headlines with the poisoning of Ukrainian opposition leader Viktor Yuschenko. (greenpeace.org)
  • Almost everyone has some level of dioxin in their blood because the toxic chemical is widespread in the environment and accumulates in the food chain. (greenpeace.org)
  • When the 2 factories closed in the 1980s, they left a toxic stew that includes wood preservatives, pesticides, and dioxin, a chemical by product of many industrial processes. (loe.org)
  • Dioxin is one of the most toxic chemical substances known to man. (loe.org)
  • LIMA, Peru -- Traces of the cancer-causing chemical dioxin were found in 128 tons of powdered milk imported from Belgium and destined for a food program feeding poor schoolchildren, said Peruvian health officials this week. (wsj.com)
  • The dioxin came from a Dow chemical plant. (environmentreport.org)
  • Those human studies, conducted in 2008, explored the toxic legacy of a 1976 chemical plant explosion in Seveso, Italy, which exposed thousands of people to dioxin in unprecedented intensity and left large quantities of the chemical in the soil. (ewg.org)
  • Thousands of ducks and a million duck eggs have been destroyed after the toxic chemical dioxin was found in eggs at a supermarket, the government said yesterday. (taipeitimes.com)
  • Dioxin is a toxic chemical that persists in the environment and is believed to cause cancer and birth defects. (taipeitimes.com)
  • Under the new rules, dioxin, a toxic chemical often detected in the vicinity of waste incinerators, will be designated as hazardous under the Air Pollution Law. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • An appeals court ruling has cleared the way for Harris County Attorney Vince Ryan's legal team to proceed with a lawsuit alleging that the San Jacinto River has been polluted with the dangerous chemical dioxin. (chron.com)
  • The County alleges that in the 1960s huge quantities of paper mill waste containing dioxin, the most poisonous chemical made by man, were dumped into pits along the river. (chron.com)
  • As has been reported, dioxin - a toxic chemical compound that was used among other applications to make the notorious herbacide Agent Orange - was first discovered in milk from the West Fjörds in December. (grapevine.is)
  • Although health authorities believe the levels of dioxin ingested by people exposed to the chemical so far are not high enough to cause any health problems, the matter is still of grave concern to the government. (grapevine.is)
  • 1. The EPA, in 1994, re-assessed the toxicity of dioxin, and confirmed the finding that it was the most toxic organic chemical known, with measurable health effects in our bodies at levels of as little as 10-15 ppt, cumulative over a lifetime. (lbbs.org)
  • Dioxin is formed as an unintentional by-product of many industrial processes involving chlorine such as waste incineration, chemical and pesticide manufacturing and pulp and paper bleaching. (lbbs.org)
  • Dioxin is probably the single most toxic chemical consequence of all of Louisiana's-and the world's-industrial excess. (social-ecology.org)
  • At doses already found in the fatty tissues of people all over the world, dioxins and related endocrine disrupters can alter levels of sex hormones, impair immune system function ("chemical AIDS" is a name given to dioxin in some quarters), reduce sperm counts, disturb fetal development -especially the proper development of sex organs-and increase the likelihood of learning disabilities. (social-ecology.org)
  • For this reason, large amounts of dioxin have been exposed to the environment unintentionally as by-products of other chemical processes. (creationwiki.org)
  • Dioxin is used only in chemical research. (creationwiki.org)
  • Since 1945, Monsanto and Dow have sprayed 300 million pounds of dioxin-containing herbicides on 400 million acres of American land, which explains why the chemical is even found in animal products like eggs, dairy, and meat. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • If the FDA doesn't believe the levels of dioxin in the affected chicken, eggs and catfish pose no risk, why are they requiring the poultry industry to test their products? (essential.org)
  • When dioxins enter the food chain, they are stored in animal fats. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We also monitor dioxin and furan levels in food and animal feed. (sgs.com)
  • Dioxins enter the food chain when animals eat contaminated plants. (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • The dioxins are then absorbed into the animal fat, increasing in concentration as they migrate up the food chain. (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • Photo Gallery: Analysis of food for toxins or Dioxin, poultry giblets Author: Martin MoxterDate: 2010-11-24 Royalty Free photo versions - Maximum available. (tradebit.com)
  • Dioxin is an accumulative toxin and is not considered to be particularly toxic to humans unless a lot of produce containing it is consumed - as could well be the case for farmers, who tend to eat a lot of home-produced food. (globalissues.org)
  • Dr. Shecter said that the dioxin in mothers' milk came largely from food. (nytimes.com)
  • Dioxin tends to accumulate in the food chain and build up in the flesh of fish and cattle. (nytimes.com)
  • Some dioxin-related food crises occurred in overseas countries have raised considerable public attention and concern. (gov.hk)
  • In Hong Kong , the situation of dioxins in foods has been closely monitored by the Food and Environmental Hygiene Department. (gov.hk)
  • There is no international consensus on standard of dioxin level in food. (gov.hk)
  • Individual food item exceeding action level of dioxin monitoring does not imply presence of immediate health hazard. (gov.hk)
  • Unfortunately for the food industry, dioxins accumulate in the fatty tissues of animals that Americans consume. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • The feds have further identified the highest levels in fish, followed by eggs, and then cheese, as Dr. Michael Greger* explains in his scary "Dioxins in the Food Supply" video . (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Animals absorb dioxin, which occurs naturally in the environment and moves through the food chain via the food animals consume, especially forages. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • a lobbying group, complete with the Orwellian name: The Food Industry Dioxin Working Group. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Further, Steve Kopperud, coordinator for the Food Industry Dioxin Working Group is afraid the media will have a field day with the EPA limits. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration stressed that the dioxin was not enough to endanger consumers. (essential.org)
  • The Centre for Food Safety (CFS) has analysed different kinds of food samples (including crabs) for dioxins under its Total Diet Study and the report was released in 2011. (gov.hk)
  • About 3,000 German farms were given the go-ahead to resume making food deliveries as an investigation continues into how dioxin got into animal feed and eggs, the BBC reported Sunday. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Last week, Britain's Food Standards Agency warned consumers that some dioxin-tainted eggs might have been mixed with noncontaminated eggs to make liquid egg products used commercially in mayonnaise and cakes. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • It shows that dioxin levels in food and feed are continuing to gradually drop, likely due to the spread and enforcement of stricter food standards and air emission controls. (mondaq.com)
  • But up to 6 million women either can't breastfeed, or don't produce enough milk for their child, and dioxin in our food chain may be to blame. (ecochildsplay.com)
  • 2. Beef is about the most dioxin-contaminated food, at about 1part per million million (or 1 picogram per gram of food). (lbbs.org)
  • Beef is the most dioxin-contaminated food according to EPA. (lbbs.org)
  • The government has repeatedly assured the public that there is no danger from the dioxin-contaminated food. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • When Dioxins enter the food chain , humans retain substances of it in their fatty tissue. (creationwiki.org)
  • Dioxin Levels in Food - Where's the Beef? (chej.org)
  • This is remarkable because the EPA's health assessment on dioxin adds an important piece of new information that answers the question about the levels of dioxin in the American food supply. (chej.org)
  • Until publishing this report, EPA had sidestepped the question of setting a reference dose for dioxin because they knew if they did this, they could no longer deny the obvious - the average daily intake of dioxin in food exceeds our best measure of what's safe, EPA's reference dose. (chej.org)
  • For example, a 2003 study by the National Academy of Science s Committee on Dioxin in Food found that children ages 1 to 5 were exposed to 1.09 pg TEQ/kg/day and children ages 6-11 years old were exposed to 0.69 pg TEQ/kg/day. (chej.org)
  • This estimate was based on an EPA estimate of dioxin levels in food. (chej.org)
  • Unfortunately, there is no consensus of how much dioxin exists in the food we eat. (chej.org)
  • It is clear however that large numbers of the U.S. population, especially children, are being exposed to dioxin in food at levels that exceed EPA's reference dose. (chej.org)
  • We need to stop pretending that dioxin levels in food are not a problem and take this issue on. (chej.org)
  • We need better data on dioxin levels in food and how it gets there, and for EPA, FDA, and USDA to engage in this issue. (chej.org)
  • The HSE director also pledged to consult with the Food Safety Authority of Ireland "who have responsibility for safety of food produced and sold in Ireland - and oversee the levels of dioxin in food. (limerickleader.ie)
  • Statistical modeling will be used to explore the relationship between serum levels of dioxin and altered physical growth and sexual maturation. (epa.gov)
  • Fatty foods such as meat, poultry, seafood, milk, egg and their products are the major dietary sources of dioxins. (gov.hk)
  • Last year the USEPA completed and published the non-cancer portion of its health assessment for dioxin, one of the most toxic substances ever tested.This event passed without much fan-fare and little coverage by the media. (chej.org)
  • Among the study's other findings: people living in the Midland-Saginaw area have higher blood dioxin levels than those in the reference area and national averages, and that properties in Midland-Saginaw tend to have higher soil dioxin levels than in the reference area. (eponline.com)
  • As has been found in other studies, it also found that higher blood dioxin levels were associated with demographic factors such as increased age, dietary choices and being overweight. (eponline.com)
  • There were about 1,000 parts per trillion of all forms of dioxin in the milk samples, Dr. Shecter said. (nytimes.com)
  • Elevated dioxin levels in and along the Tittabawassee River and downstream appear to be primarily attributable to liquid wastes that were discharged in the past directly into the river from the facility. (mlive.com)
  • Based on this, the EPA set the 'acceptable' dose of dioxin to be .006 picograms (six million millionths of a gram) per kilogram of body weight, or about 0.40 picograms for an adult (proportional to body weight - much less for a child). (lbbs.org)
  • The authors wrote that future studies in both animals and humans should assess whether cardiovascular effects are present at environmentally relevant doses of dioxin. (innovations-report.com)
  • A wide range of behavioral abnormalities, including abnormal sexual behaviors, have been observed in laboratory animals exposed to minuscule doses of dioxin. (social-ecology.org)
  • This is despite the fact that dioxin levels have decreased in recent years in all countries for which data for the last 10 to 15 years are available. (europa.eu)
  • What doesn't often make the news is the fact that dioxin pollution is far more widespread than political poisonings. (greenpeace.org)
  • Millions of dollars and almost a decade have already been spent on a cleanup there and in nearby areas where roads had been sprayed with oil contaminated with traces of dioxin. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Tests have found people who lived near the Ivon Watkins-Dow factory which made 245-T from 1962 to 1987 had up to seven times more dioxin in their blood than other people. (nzherald.co.nz)
  • For cancer risk, the situation is even more dire: the general public is exposed to up to 1,200 times more dioxin than regulatory agencies typically consider safe. (ewg.org)
  • EDT) -- Temporary shutdowns at poultry plants idled hundreds of workers after federal inspectors found that dioxin-contaminated feed had been used by farmers producing chicken, eggs and catfish. (essential.org)
  • Up the hill at the landfill run by Laurel Park Inc., state workers continued to sample well water, testing for the presence of dioxin. (nytimes.com)
  • The Infectious Disease Control division of the Directorate of Health has decided to monitor residents of Isafjordur, Kirkjubaejarklaustur, and Vestmannaeyjar for the presence of dioxin. (globalissues.org)
  • Carvan said that rainbow trout are more sensitive to dioxin than are zebrafish. (wisc.edu)
  • Paper manufacturers that use chlorine dioxide in their processes brought dioxin to surface water , but since then, guidelines have been put into motion to stop and reduce the production of dioxin now and later in the future. (creationwiki.org)
  • In the United States (U.S.), dioxins are not produced or used commercially, but they may result as a byproduct of other processes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Chlorinated dioxins form as an unintended byproduct of waste incineration and a variety of industrial processes, including smelting, chlorine paper bleaching and pesticide manufacturing. (ewg.org)
  • Researchers already know that dioxin (a byproduct of burned plastics and industrial processes) is toxic and can contribute to cancer and heart problems in humans, but now they know it can impact a fish's nose tissue. (wisc.edu)
Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds - Wikipedia
Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
Why are Dioxins Bad? | Tim Jensen | Indium Corporation Blogs | Burn In | Indium Corporation
Why are Dioxins Bad? | Tim Jensen | Indium Corporation Blogs | Burn In | Indium Corporation (indium.com)
Common Commercial and Consumer Products Contain Activators of the Aryl Hydrocarbon (Dioxin) Receptor
Common Commercial and Consumer Products Contain Activators of the Aryl Hydrocarbon (Dioxin) Receptor (journals.plos.org)
Fast, Economic Analysis of Chlorinated Dioxins, Difurans and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Edible Oils | Chromatography Online
Fast, Economic Analysis of Chlorinated Dioxins, Difurans and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Edible Oils | Chromatography Online (chromatographyonline.com)
Polyvinyl chloride - Wikipedia
Polyvinyl chloride - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
Properties of Clorox Bleach | eHow
Properties of Clorox Bleach | eHow (ehow.com)
Dirty Dozen Endocrine Disruptors | EWG
Dirty Dozen Endocrine Disruptors | EWG (ewg.org)
February 1986 - Scientific American
February 1986 - Scientific American (scientificamerican.com)
Coalite - Wikipedia
Coalite - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
Dioxins: What is the danger?
Dioxins: What is the danger? (medicalnewstoday.com)
BPA and other Cord Blood Pollutants | Pollution in Minority Newborns | EWG
BPA and other Cord Blood Pollutants | Pollution in Minority Newborns | EWG (ewg.org)
8    Role of Environmental Toxicants in   Preterm Birth  | Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention | The National...
8 Role of Environmental Toxicants in Preterm Birth | Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention | The National... (nap.edu)
Nutritional hormesis | European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Nutritional hormesis | European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (nature.com)
Biology News - Kenai - U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Biology News - Kenai - U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (fws.gov)
23 Toxic Chemicals You Come into Contact with on a Daily Basis | Best Life
23 Toxic Chemicals You Come into Contact with on a Daily Basis | Best Life (bestlifeonline.com)
Hui Feng studies Zebrafish to Understand Breast Cancer | The Brink | Boston University
Hui Feng studies Zebrafish to Understand Breast Cancer | The Brink | Boston University (bu.edu)
Air Contamination Near Fracking Sites is a Result of Operational Inefficiencies
Air Contamination Near Fracking Sites is a Result of Operational Inefficiencies (medindia.net)
Dioxin - Air Resources Laboratory
Dioxin - Air Resources Laboratory (arl.noaa.gov)
EWG Tap Water Database | Beauregard Water Works District #3 | 2,3,7,8-TCDD (Dioxin)
EWG Tap Water Database | Beauregard Water Works District #3 | 2,3,7,8-TCDD (Dioxin) (ewg.org)
Toxic Cover-Up: Asbestos, Lead, Mercury, Dioxin. World Trade Center Syndrome | Democracy Now!
Toxic Cover-Up: Asbestos, Lead, Mercury, Dioxin. World Trade Center Syndrome | Democracy Now! (democracynow.org)
EWG's Food Scores | Teton Waters Ranch Jalapeno Cheddar Sausage, Jalapeno Cheddar
EWG's Food Scores | Teton Waters Ranch Jalapeno Cheddar Sausage, Jalapeno Cheddar (ewg.org)
EWG's Food Scores | Signature Farms Sliced Pepperoni, Original
EWG's Food Scores | Signature Farms Sliced Pepperoni, Original (ewg.org)
December 4, 1976 | Science News
December 4, 1976 | Science News (sciencenews.org)
EWG's Food Scores | Always Save Low Moisture Part Skim Mozzarella Shredded Cheese, Mozzarella
EWG's Food Scores | Always Save Low Moisture Part Skim Mozzarella Shredded Cheese, Mozzarella (ewg.org)
United States. Congress. House. Committee on Government Operations. Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations...
United States. Congress. House. Committee on Government Operations. Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations... (openlibrary.org)
Case Study 13: Dioxin Toxicity | Environmental Medicine: Integrating a Missing Element into Medical Education | The National...
Case Study 13: Dioxin Toxicity | Environmental Medicine: Integrating a Missing Element into Medical Education | The National... (nap.edu)
Toxics Release Inventory Laws and Regulatory Activities | Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Program | US EPA
Toxics Release Inventory Laws and Regulatory Activities | Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Program | US EPA (epa.gov)
Search Results -   - 83 Results - Digital Library
Search Results - - 83 Results - Digital Library (digital.library.unt.edu)
Emissions to air of hazardous substances and particulate matter - SSB
Emissions to air of hazardous substances and particulate matter - SSB (ssb.no)
Increased Risk of Diabetes and Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Dioxins | Diabetes Care
Increased Risk of Diabetes and Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Dioxins | Diabetes Care (care.diabetesjournals.org)
Fish and Shellfish Advisories and Safe Eating Guidelines | Choose Fish and Shellfish Wisely | US EPA
Fish and Shellfish Advisories and Safe Eating Guidelines | Choose Fish and Shellfish Wisely | US EPA (epa.gov)
NIOSHTIC-2  Publications Search - 00163310 - Health hazard evaluation report: HETA-84-053-425-1680, Montana Log Home Residents,...
NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00163310 - Health hazard evaluation report: HETA-84-053-425-1680, Montana Log Home Residents,... (cdc.gov)