Ethylene Glycols: An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Dimethyl Sulfoxide: A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.EthersEthyl EthersHalogenated Diphenyl Ethers: Compounds that contain two halogenated benzene rings linked via an OXYGEN atom. Many polybrominated diphenyl ethers are used as FLAME RETARDANTS.Phenyl Ethers: Ethers that are linked to a benzene ring structure.Crown Ethers: Macrocyclic polyethers with the repeating unit of (-CH2-CH2-O)n where n is greater than 2 and some oxygens may be replaced by nitrogen, sulfur or phosphorus. These compounds are useful for coordinating CATIONS. The nomenclature uses a prefix to indicate the size of the ring and a suffix for the number of heteroatoms.Phospholipid Ethers: Phospholipids which have an alcohol moiety in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol. They are usually derivatives of phosphoglycerols or phosphatidates. The other two alcohol groups of the glycerol backbone are usually in ester linkage. These compounds are widely distributed in animal tissues.Glyceryl Ethers: Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.Dimethyl Suberimidate: The methyl imidoester of suberic acid used to produce cross links in proteins. Each end of the imidoester will react with an amino group in the protein molecule to form an amidine.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sulfuric Acid Esters: Organic esters of sulfuric acid.Dimethyl Adipimidate: Bifunctional cross-linking agent that links covalently free amino groups of proteins or polypeptides, including those in cell membranes. It is used as reagent or fixative in immunohistochemistry and is a proposed antisickling agent.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Polybrominated Biphenyls: Biphenyl compounds which are extensively brominated. Many of these compounds are toxic environmental pollutants.16,16-Dimethylprostaglandin E2: A synthetic prostaglandin E analog that protects the gastric mucosa, prevents ulceration, and promotes the healing of peptic ulcers. The protective effect is independent of acid inhibition. It is also a potent inhibitor of pancreatic function and growth of experimental tumors.Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Flame Retardants: Materials applied to fabrics, bedding, furniture, plastics, etc. to retard their burning; many may leach out and cause allergies or other harm.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Methylococcaceae: A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.Methylobacterium extorquens: A species of METHYLOBACTERIUM which can utilize acetate, ethanol, or methylamine as a sole carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Prostaglandins E, Synthetic: Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins E that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGE.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Cryoprotective Agents: Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.Pichia: Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.DimethylformamideChloroform: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.Bis(Chloromethyl) Ether: A substance that is an irritant to the eyes and respiratory tract and may be carcinogenic.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Ethylene Glycol: A colorless, odorless, viscous dihydroxy alcohol. It has a sweet taste, but is poisonous if ingested. Ethylene glycol is the most important glycol commercially available and is manufactured on a large scale in the United States. It is used as an antifreeze and coolant, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of low-freezing dynamites and resins.Euryarchaeota: A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ethers, Cyclic: Compounds of the general formula R-O-R arranged in a ring or crown formation.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Coke: A residue of coal, left after dry (destructive) distillation, used as a fuel.Dissertations, Academic as Topic: Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.Animal Fins: Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.Microfluidic Analytical Techniques: Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.Microfluidics: The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.Dimethylpolysiloxanes: Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.Lab-On-A-Chip Devices: Microdevices that combine microfluidics technology with electrical and/or mechanical functions for analyzing very small fluid volumes. They consist of microchannels etched into substrates made of silicon, glass, or polymer using processes similar to photolithography. The test fluids in the channels can then interact with different elements such as electrodes, photodetectors, chemical sensors, pumps, and valves.Miniaturization: The design or construction of objects greatly reduced in scale.
  • I. Benzene co-reaction with methanol and dimethyl ether over zeolite and zeotype catalysts: Evidence of parallel reaction paths to toluene and diphenylmethane. (uio.no)
  • A process is described for the production of aromatics boiling in the gasoline boiling range from methanol carried out in two stages wherein a heat dissipating diluent is employed in the second stage during contact with a crystalline zeolite catalyst selective for the purpose and the first stage exothermic. (google.com.au)
  • A process is described for the production of aromatics boiling in the gasoline boiling range from methanol carried out in two stages wherein a heat dissipating diluent is employed in the second stage during contact with a crystalline zeolite catalyst selective for the purpose and the first stage exothermic temperature rise is catalytically restricted. (google.com.au)
  • 4. The process of claim 1 wherein a gamma alumina is relied upon to produce said product comprising dimethyl ether and a ZSM-5 type crystalline zeolite is employed to form gasoline boiling range components comprising aromatics and iso-paraffins. (google.com.au)
  • 5. The process of claim 1 wherein the ether comprising product is adjusted to a temperature of about 600 F. before contacting the crystalline zeolite catalyst. (google.com.au)
  • Typical percent yields at steady state for methanol conversion on the zeolite H-SAPO-34 are shown below. (berkeley.edu)
  • Surface methoxy groups may be formed from the reaction of methanol with a zeolite acid site. (berkeley.edu)
  • The methanol reacts in the presence of a zeolite catalyst to form alkanes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Perform a preliminary process design for a facility to produce both methanol (MeOH) and dimethyl ether (DME) from natural gas. (processengr.com)
  • To provide fundamental insights into the ignition enhancement of methanol (MeOH) by the addition of the more reactive dimethyl ether (DME), computational parametric studies were conducted in a one-dimensional counterflow fuel versus air mixing layer configuration with the incorporation of detailed chemistry and transport. (uhi.ac.uk)
  • The reactivity of methanol (MeOH) and dimethyl ether (DME) toward benzene was studied over zeolitic materials with different topology and acid strength (H-ZSM-5, H-SSZ-24, and H-SAPO-5) at 250-350 °C. Higher rates of methylation, and subsequent de-alkylation reactions, were observed with DME compared to MeOH. (ugent.be)
  • More energy can be used to combine methanol or methane into larger hydrocarbon fuel molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, these results demonstrate that light alkanes can be reactivated on Cu/BEA, which may enable re-entry of these species into the chain-growth cycle of dimethyl ether homologation, thereby increasing gasoline-range (C 5+ ) hydrocarbon yield. (osti.gov)
  • Mechanistically, methanol conversion proceeds through a 'pool' of hydrocarbon species. (nature.com)
  • Here, we report the combined results of an operando Kerr-gated Raman spectroscopic study with state-of-the-art operando molecular simulations, which allowed us to follow the formation of hydrocarbon species at various stages of methanol conversion. (nature.com)
  • Dahl, I. M. & Kolboe, S. On the reaction mechanism for hydrocarbon formation from methanol over SAPO-34: I. Isotopic labeling studies of the co-reaction of ethene and methanol. (nature.com)
  • The measurements show that dimethyl ether-air, methanol-air and ethanol-air mixtures are less "sensitive" to detonation than propane-air and ethane-air mixtures, but more sensitive than methane-air mixtures, within the tested temperature range. (queensu.ca)
  • How do I rank the following compounds from lowest to highest boiling point: calcium carbonate, methane, methanol (CH₄O), dimethyl ether (CH₃OCH₃)? (socratic.org)
  • The auto-thermal outlet gas is fed to a liquid-phase methanol reactor for the production of methanol and dimethyl ether. (processengr.com)
  • The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). (unt.edu)
  • In addition to this, it is employed in the manufacturing of Dimethyl ether (DME) and Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), which are safer alternatives to traditional gasoline. (imarcgroup.com)
  • Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) should be at a good level as the summer driving season hits its peak. (icis.com)
  • Finally, the strain rate effect on the ignition delay time was found to be significant for the pure methanol case, and then the effect diminishes as the amount of DME addition increases. (uhi.ac.uk)
  • 100% pure methanol at 75 deg. (utahbiodieselsupply.com)
  • Pure methanol, however, was first isolated in 1661 by Robert Boyle , who called it spirit of box , because he produced it via the distillation of boxwood. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Based on current estimates, a 1,600-tonnes-per-day of methanol plant will require a capital expenditure of Rs 12 billion and would be able to produce methanol at Rs 17-19 per litre. (business-standard.com)
  • STG+ ( S yngas T o G asoline +, the plus standing for the multiple end products yielded by the process) essentially improves upon commercial methanol synthesis processes and ExxonMobil's methanol to gasoline (MTG) process, combining them into a single-loop process that converts syngas directly to gasoline. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The invention relates to accomplishing the sequential restructuring of vaporized methanol first to ether and then to aromatics and isoparaffins boiling in the gasoline boiling range. (google.com.au)
  • The efficiencies are higher than standalone DME and methanol processes (51% and 53%, respectively) but lower than standalone CHP plant i.e. 81%, however the process integration increases the operating time of the CHP plant with more economic benefits. (diva-portal.org)
  • The detonation characteristics of dimethyl ether-air, methanol-air and ethanol-air mixtures, initially at atmospheric pressure and a temperature range of 298K to 373K, were investigated in this study. (queensu.ca)
  • It not only has a low rate of evaporation and radiant heat energy but is also miscible in different solvents like water, alcohol, ether and ketones. (imarcgroup.com)
  • Industry analysts expect new US plant capacity to bring both methanol contract and spot prices down this year, and one of the biggest events in 2018 will be the startup of the new OCI Natgasoline unit in Beaumont, Texas, which began commercial operations in June. (icis.com)
  • Bullish factors come from a global energy price uptrend, with crude oil jumping on the US-China trade spat, plus local Q2 European methanol turnarounds and a hangover from low stocks in early 2018. (icis.com)