The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
A transcription factor found in BACTERIA that positively and negatively regulates the expression of proteins required for the uptake and catabolism of L-ARABINOSE.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator is a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF containing protein that forms a complex with DIOXIN RECEPTOR. The complex binds xenobiotic regulatory elements and activates transcription of a variety of genes including UDP GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. AhR nuclear translocator is also a subunit of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A family of immunophilin proteins that bind to the immunosuppressive drugs TACROLIMUS (also known as FK506) and SIROLIMUS. EC 5.2.1.-
A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
A family of transcription factors found primarily in PLANTS that bind to the G-box DNA sequence CACGTG or to a consensus sequence CANNTG.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES whose members act in the mechanism of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by STEROID RECEPTORS.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
A species of replication-competent oncogene-containing virus in the genus ALPHARETROVIRUS. It is the original source of the src oncogene (V-SRC GENES) and causes sarcoma in chickens.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.
COUMARINS with an amino group, exemplified by NOVOBIOCIN.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Chemically stimulated aggregation of cell surface receptors, which potentiates the action of the effector cell.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
Techniques for determining the proximity of molecules based on ENERGY TRANSFER between bioluminescent chromophores and acceptor fluorophores that have overlapping emission and absorption spectra.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NEUREGULINS. It has extensive homology to and can heterodimerize with the EGF RECEPTOR and the ERBB-2 RECEPTOR. Overexpression of the erbB-3 receptor is associated with TUMORIGENESIS.

Transcriptional repression by the Drosophila giant protein: cis element positioning provides an alternative means of interpreting an effector gradient. (1/13650)

Early developmental patterning of the Drosophila embryo is driven by the activities of a diverse set of maternally and zygotically derived transcription factors, including repressors encoded by gap genes such as Kruppel, knirps, giant and the mesoderm-specific snail. The mechanism of repression by gap transcription factors is not well understood at a molecular level. Initial characterization of these transcription factors suggests that they act as short-range repressors, interfering with the activity of enhancer or promoter elements 50 to 100 bp away. To better understand the molecular mechanism of short-range repression, we have investigated the properties of the Giant gap protein. We tested the ability of endogenous Giant to repress when bound close to the transcriptional initiation site and found that Giant effectively represses a heterologous promoter when binding sites are located at -55 bp with respect to the start of transcription. Consistent with its role as a short-range repressor, as the binding sites are moved to more distal locations, repression is diminished. Rather than exhibiting a sharp 'step-function' drop-off in activity, however, repression is progressively restricted to areas of highest Giant concentration. Less than a two-fold difference in Giant protein concentration is sufficient to determine a change in transcriptional status of a target gene. This effect demonstrates that Giant protein gradients can be differentially interpreted by target promoters, depending on the exact location of the Giant binding sites within the gene. Thus, in addition to binding site affinity and number, cis element positioning within a promoter can affect the response of a gene to a repressor gradient. We also demonstrate that a chimeric Gal4-Giant protein lacking the basic/zipper domain can specifically repress reporter genes, suggesting that the Giant effector domain is an autonomous repression domain.  (+info)

Four dimers of lambda repressor bound to two suitably spaced pairs of lambda operators form octamers and DNA loops over large distances. (2/13650)

Transcription factors that are bound specifically to DNA often interact with each other over thousands of base pairs [1] [2]. Large DNA loops resulting from such interactions have been observed in Escherichia coli with the transcription factors deoR [3] and NtrC [4], but such interactions are not, as yet, well understood. We propose that unique protein complexes, that are not present in solution, may form specifically on DNA. Their uniqueness would make it possible for them to interact tightly and specifically with each other. We used the repressor and operators of coliphage lambda to construct a model system in which to test our proposition. lambda repressor is a dimer at physiological concentrations, but forms tetramers and octamers at a hundredfold higher concentration. We predict that two lambda repressor dimers form a tetramer in vitro when bound to two lambda operators spaced 24 bp apart and that two such tetramers interact to form an octamer. We examined, in vitro, relaxed circular plasmid DNA in which such operator pairs were separated by 2,850 bp and 2,470 bp. Of these molecules, 29% formed loops as seen by electron microscopy (EM). The loop increased the tightness of binding of lambda repressor to lambda operator. Consequently, repression of the lambda PR promoter in vivo was increased fourfold by the presence of a second pair of lambda operators, separated by a distance of 3,600 bp.  (+info)

ETO-2, a new member of the ETO-family of nuclear proteins. (3/13650)

The t(8;21) is associated with 12-15% of acute myelogenous leukemias of the M2 subtype. The translocation results in the fusion of two genes, AML1 (CBFA2) on chromosome 21 and ETO (MTG8) on chromosome 8. AML1 encodes a DNA binding factor; the ETO protein product is less well characterized, but is thought to be a transcription factor. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of ETO-2, a murine cDNA that encodes a new member of the ETO family of proteins. ETO-2 is 75% identical to murine ETO and shares very high sequence identities over four regions of the protein with ETO (domain I-III and zinc-finger). Northern analysis identifies ETO-2 transcripts in many of the murine tissues analysed and in the developing mouse embryo. ETO-2 is also expressed in myeloid and erythroid cell lines. We confirmed the nuclear localization of ETO-2 and demonstrated that domain III and the zinc-finger region are not required for nuclear localization. We further showed that a region within ETO, containing domain II, mediates dimerization among family members. This region is conserved in the oncoprotein AML-1/ETO. The recent identification of another ETO-like protein, myeloid translocation gene-related protein 1, together with the data presented here, demonstrates that at least three ETO proteins exist with the potential to form dimers in the cell nucleus.  (+info)

Coupling of the cell cycle and myogenesis through the cyclin D1-dependent interaction of MyoD with cdk4. (4/13650)

Proliferating myoblasts express the muscle determination factor, MyoD, throughout the cell cycle in the absence of differentiation. Here we show that a mitogen-sensitive mechanism, involving the direct interaction between MyoD and cdk4, restricts myoblast differentiation to cells that have entered into the G0 phase of the cell cycle under mitogen withdrawal. Interaction between MyoD and cdk4 disrupts MyoD DNA-binding, muscle-specific gene activation and myogenic conversion of 10T1/2 cells independently of cyclin D1 and the CAK activation of cdk4. Forced induction of cyclin D1 in myotubes results in the cytoplasmic to nuclear translocation of cdk4. The specific MyoD-cdk4 interaction in dividing myoblasts, coupled with the cyclin D1-dependent nuclear targeting of cdk4, suggests a mitogen-sensitive mechanism whereby cyclin D1 can regulate MyoD function and the onset of myogenesis by controlling the cellular location of cdk4 rather than the phosphorylation status of MyoD.  (+info)

Assembly requirements of PU.1-Pip (IRF-4) activator complexes: inhibiting function in vivo using fused dimers. (5/13650)

Gene expression in higher eukaryotes appears to be regulated by specific combinations of transcription factors binding to regulatory sequences. The Ets factor PU.1 and the IRF protein Pip (IRF-4) represent a pair of interacting transcription factors implicated in regulating B cell-specific gene expression. Pip is recruited to its binding site on DNA by phosphorylated PU.1. PU.1-Pip interaction is shown to be template directed and involves two distinct protein-protein interaction surfaces: (i) the ets and IRF DNA-binding domains; and (ii) the phosphorylated PEST region of PU.1 and a lysine-requiring putative alpha-helix in Pip. Thus, a coordinated set of protein-protein and protein-DNA contacts are essential for PU.1-Pip ternary complex assembly. To analyze the function of these factors in vivo, we engineered chimeric repressors containing the ets and IRF DNA-binding domains connected by a flexible POU domain linker. When stably expressed, the wild-type fused dimer strongly repressed the expression of a rearranged immunoglobulin lambda gene, thereby establishing the functional importance of PU.1-Pip complexes in B cell gene expression. Comparative analysis of the wild-type dimer with a series of mutant dimers distinguished a gene regulated by PU.1 and Pip from one regulated by PU.1 alone. This strategy should prove generally useful in analyzing the function of interacting transcription factors in vivo, and for identifying novel genes regulated by such complexes.  (+info)

p50(cdc37) acting in concert with Hsp90 is required for Raf-1 function. (6/13650)

Genetic screens in Drosophila have identified p50(cdc37) to be an essential component of the sevenless receptor/mitogen-activated kinase protein (MAPK) signaling pathway, but neither the function nor the target of p50(cdc37) in this pathway has been defined. In this study, we examined the role of p50(cdc37) and its Hsp90 chaperone partner in Raf/Mek/MAPK signaling biochemically. We found that coexpression of wild-type p50(cdc37) with Raf-1 resulted in robust and dose-dependent activation of Raf-1 in Sf9 cells. In addition, p50(cdc37) greatly potentiated v-Src-mediated Raf-1 activation. Moreover, we found that p50(cdc37) is the primary determinant of Hsp90 recruitment to Raf-1. Overexpression of a p50(cdc37) mutant which is unable to recruit Hsp90 into the Raf-1 complex inhibited Raf-1 and MAPK activation by growth factors. Similarly, pretreatment with geldanamycin (GA), an Hsp90-specific inhibitor, prevented both the association of Raf-1 with the p50(cdc37)-Hsp90 heterodimer and Raf-1 kinase activation by serum. Activation of Raf-1 via baculovirus coexpression with oncogenic Src or Ras in Sf9 cells was also strongly inhibited by dominant negative p50(cdc37) or by GA. Thus, formation of a ternary Raf-1-p50(cdc37)-Hsp90 complex is crucial for Raf-1 activity and MAPK pathway signaling. These results provide the first biochemical evidence for the requirement of the p50(cdc37)-Hsp90 complex in protein kinase regulation and for Raf-1 function in particular.  (+info)

C/EBPalpha regulates generation of C/EBPbeta isoforms through activation of specific proteolytic cleavage. (7/13650)

C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta are intronless genes that can produce several N-terminally truncated isoforms through the process of alternative translation initiation at downstream AUG codons. C/EBPbeta has been reported to produce four isoforms: full-length 38-kDa C/EBPbeta, 35-kDa LAP (liver-enriched transcriptional activator protein), 21-kDa LIP (liver-enriched transcriptional inhibitory protein), and a 14-kDa isoform. In this report, we investigated the mechanisms by which C/EBPbeta isoforms are generated in the liver and in cultured cells. Using an in vitro translation system, we found that LIP can be generated by two mechanisms: alternative translation and a novel mechanism-specific proteolytic cleavage of full-length C/EBPbeta. Studies of mice in which the C/EBPalpha gene had been deleted (C/EBPalpha-/-) showed that the regulation of C/EBPbeta proteolysis is dependent on C/EBPalpha. The induction of C/EBPalpha in cultured cells leads to induced cleavage of C/EBPbeta to generate the LIP isoform. We characterized the cleavage activity in mouse liver extracts and found that the proteolytic cleavage activity is specific to prenatal and newborn livers, is sensitive to chymostatin, and is completely abolished in C/EBPalpha-/- animals. The lack of cleavage activity in the livers of C/EBPalpha-/- mice correlates with the decreased levels of LIP in the livers of these animals. Analysis of LIP production during liver regeneration showed that, in this system, the transient induction of LIP is dependent on the third AUG codon and most likely involves translational control. We propose that there are two mechanisms by which C/EBPbeta isoforms might be generated in the liver and in cultured cells: one that is determined by translation and a second that involves C/EBPalpha-dependent, specific proteolytic cleavage of full-length C/EBPbeta. The latter mechanism implicates C/EBPalpha in the regulation of posttranslational generation of the dominant negative C/EBPbeta isoform, LIP.  (+info)

The significance of tetramerization in promoter recruitment by Stat5. (8/13650)

Stat5a and Stat5b are rapidly activated by a wide range of cytokines and growth factors, including interleukin-2 (IL-2). We have previously shown that these signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT proteins) are key regulatory proteins that bind to two tandem gamma interferon-activated site (GAS) motifs within an IL-2 response element (positive regulatory region III [PRRIII]) in the human IL-2Ralpha promoter. In this study, we demonstrate cooperative binding of Stat5 to PRRIII and explore the molecular basis underlying this cooperativity. We demonstrate that formation of a tetrameric Stat5 complex is essential for the IL-2-inducible activation of PRRIII. Stable tetramer formation of Stat5 is mediated through protein-protein interactions involving a tryptophan residue conserved in all STATs and a lysine residue in the Stat5 N-terminal domain (N domain). The functional importance of tetramer formation is shown by the decreased levels of transcriptional activation associated with mutations in these residues. Moreover, the requirement for STAT protein-protein interactions for gene activation from a promoter with tandemly linked GAS motifs can be relieved by strengthening the avidity of protein-DNA interactions for the individual binding sites. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that a dimeric but tetramerization-deficient Stat5 protein can activate only a subset of target sites. For functional activity on a wider range of potential recognition sites, N-domain-mediated oligomerization is essential.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Efficacy and safety of single-agent pertuzumab, a human epidermal receptor dimerization inhibitor, in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. AU - Herbst, Roy S.. AU - Davies, Angela M.. AU - Natale, Ronald B.. AU - Dang, Thao P.. AU - Schiller, Joan H.. AU - Garland, Linda L.. AU - Miller, Vincent A.. AU - Mendelson, David. AU - Van Den Abbeele, Annick D.. AU - Melenevsky, Yulia V. AU - De Vries, Daniel J.. AU - Eberhard, David A.. AU - Lyons, Benjamin. AU - Lutzker, Stuart G.. AU - Johnson, Bruce E.. PY - 2007/10/15. Y1 - 2007/10/15. N2 - Purpose: Pertuzumab, a first-in-class human epidermal receptor 2 (HER2) dimerization inhibitor, is a humanized monoclonal anti-HER2 antibody that binds HER2s dimerization domain and inhibits HER2 signaling. Based on supporting preclinical studies, we undertook a Phase II trial of pertuzumab in patients with recurrent non - small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Experimental Design: Patients with previously treated NSCLC accessible for core biopsy ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of A neu acquaintance for erbB3 and erbB4: a role for receptor heterodimerization in growth signaling. by Kermit L. Carraway et al.
WXG100 proteins form dimeric complexes, studied using FRET.(A) Schematic diagram of the FRET experiments. Fluorescence donor, Alexa 488 (green), and fluorescenc
Pertuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody and the first in the class of agents called the HER2 dimerization inhibitors, impairs the ability of HER2 to bind to other members of the HER family, MW: 148 KD ...
Πανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων. Ιδρυματικό Αποθετήριο Ολυμπιάς.2007 . Creators: Kalatzis, F. G.. Contributors: Πανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων. Σχολή Θετικών Επιστημών. Τμήμα Χημείας, Kalatzis, F. G..In this work, a stable NEVPT2- based computational procedure was developed, capable of studying weakly bonded OH..pi heterodimer complexes. The procedure was applied to the evaluation of the weak OH..pi intermolecular interaction energy of the ethene-water C2H4- H2O complex, as a model case. The counterpoise method of Boys and Bernardi was used with the strongly contracted (SC) and partially contracted ( PC) variants of the NEVPT2 method and the energetic results were benchmarked against CCSD(T) calculations. In particular, for the first time a computational methodology is proposed for the appropriate specification of the active space in order to study weakly bonded OH..pi heterodimer complexes, using the super-molecular
Comparison of the dimeric interactions of SARAH domains based on computational alanine scanning. (a, b, c) Ribbon representations depicting the side chains of residues having dimeric interactions derived from the computational alanine scanning of SARAH dimeric interfaces are shown for the MST1-RASSF5 SARAH heterodimer (a), the MST2 SARAH homodimer (b) and the MST1 SARAH homodimer (c). Residues with ΔΔGbind > 1.0 kcal mol−1 in computational alanine scanning are represented as stick models. Among the residues, Trp369, Ile374 and Glu387 of RASSF5 and Phe437 and Leu440 of MST2 are not seen in the figure and are not labelled for clarity. Residues that have polar interactions in the dimeric interface are shown in green. Red balls represent the water molecules mediating the hydrogen bonds between the two protomers. For the MST1-RASSF5 SARAH heterodimer (a), the light blue ribbon represents the backbone structure of the MST1 SARAH domain and the light pink ribbon represents that of the RASSF5 SARAH ...
Autor: Richter, Klaus et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2003; Titel: Sti1 is a non-competitive inhibitor of the Hsp90 ATPase - Binding prevents the N-terminal dimerization reaction during the ATPase cycle
Signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) involves ligand-induced dimerization of receptors within the plasma membrane, triggering subsequent downstream signaling events. Although the transmembrane domains play an important role in dimerization, the importance of their interactions in transmembrane signaling is not clearly understood. Here, I highlight recent research that describes the intrinsic propensity of the single transmembrane domains of all 58 human RTKs to self-interact and suggest that these interactions could be exploited for designing peptides to inhibit signaling through these receptors. Such interceptor peptides would be potentially valuable as therapeutic tools for treating disease symptoms caused by excessive or ectopic RTK signaling.. ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in protein dimerization activity pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
Journal Article: Structures of the Sgt2/SGTA Dimerization Domain with the Get5/UBL4A UBL Domain Reveal an Interaction that Forms a Conserved Dynamic Interface ...
Christian Ebeling wrote: , , Hello, , i need for my project membran proteins from any organism which forms a , specific heterodimer with a strong affinity. This heterodimer should , also have the property of easy overproduction and purification in , E.coli. Has anyone an idea? Na/K-ATPase and H/K-ATPase both are heterodimers of a catalytic alpha- and a beta-subunit which seems to work as a kind of scaffold for alpha. These proteins have definetly been expressed in Xenopus oocytes and in yeast, I am not sure about E. coli (the beta subunit is a glycoprotein ...
Hello, i need for my project membran proteins from any organism which forms a specific heterodimer with a strong affinity. This heterodimer should also have the property of easy overproduction and purification in E.coli. Has anyone an idea? Christian e-mail: cebelin at ...
This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
We will determine the contributions of the four receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) domains to the energetics of RTK lateral dimerization. The six receptors chosen f...
S combinations, the sets of GPCR dimers are almost entirely unknown and thus their dominant roles are still poorly understood. Techniques to observe the
Nikki works on characterizing pharmaceutically relevant membrane protein complexes to link changes in structure and dynamics to function. Namely, she works with a G protein-coupled receptor called the adenosine A2a receptor to elucidate structural details and functional consequences of homo-dimerization. The A2a receptor regulates cardiac function and several processes within the central nervous system; the outcome of this research will facilitate improved rational drug design to target A2a receptor oligomers in the treatment of disorders such as inflammation, fibrosis, schizophrenia and Parkinsons disease.. ...
Dimerization of Silaethylene: Computational Evidence for a Novel Mechanism for the Formation of 1,3-Disilacyclobutane via a 1,2 ...
B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86) are glycoproteins expressed on antigen-presenting cells. The binding of these molecules to the T cell homodimers CD28 and CTLA-4 (CD152) generates costimulatory and inhibitory signals in T cells, respectively. The crystal structure of the extracellular region of B7-1 (sB7-1), solved to 3 A resolution, consists of a novel combination of two Ig-like domains, one characteristic of adhesion molecules and the other previously seen only in antigen receptors. In the crystal lattice, sB7-1 unexpectedly forms parallel, 2-fold rotationally symmetric homodimers. Analytical ultracentrifugation reveals that sB7-1 also dimerizes in solution. The structural data suggest a mechanism whereby the avidity-enhanced binding of B7-1 and CTLA-4 homodimers, along with the relatively high affinity of these interactions, favors the formation of very stable inhibitory signaling complexes.
ID1 / BHLHB24, 0.4 ml. |div class=value|The protein encoded by this gene is a helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein that can form heterodimers with members of the basic HLH family of transcription factors.
Na+/H+ antiporter of 386 aas and 13 predicted TMSs, NapA. The 3-d structure is known (PDB# 4BWZ; 4BZ2; 4BZ3). In the NapA structure, the core and dimerization domains are in different positions to those seen in the E. coli NhaA, and a negatively charged cavity is open to the outside. The extracellular cavity allows access to a strictly conserved aspartate residue thought to coordinate ion binding directly. To alternate access to this ion-binding site, however, requires a surprisingly large rotation of the core domain, some 20° against the dimerization interface (Lee et al. 2013). ...
May be involved in intracellular vesicle traffic. Inhibits ATF4-mediated transcription, possibly by dimerizing with ATF4 to form inactive dimers that cannot bind DNA. May be involved in regulating bone mass density through an ATF4-dependent pathway. May be involved in cell cycle progression.
It might be tempting to make a 1X soltuion with primers included, store it in the freezer, and thaw it as you need to use it. The problem with this: primer dimers may amplify. Obviously the degree to which this is an issue will depend on your primers, but it is likely worth avoiding by sticking with the 2X freezer stock. Also, there may be issues with the proteins stability upon freezing in a lower buffer/stabilizer concentration ...
1B72: Structure of a HoxB1-Pbx1 heterodimer bound to DNA: role of the hexapeptide and a fourth homeodomain helix in complex formation.
4FMM: Dimeric Sfh3 has structural changes in its binding pocket that are associated with a dimer-monomer state transformation induced by substrate binding.
The importance of ErbB receptors in development is proven from the analysis of genetically modified mice. Indeed, null mutations in individual ErbB loci are lethal. More specifically, depending upon the genetic background of the host, loss of ErbB1 leads to embryonic or perinatal lethality with mice showing abnormalities in multiple organs including the brain, skin, lung and gastrointestinal tract (Miettinen et al., 1995; Sibilia and Wagner, 1995; Threadgill et al., 1995; Sibilia et al., 1998). ErbB2 null mice die at midgestation (E10.5) due to trabeculae malformation in the heart (Lee et al., 1995), a phenotype that is shared by ErbB4 knockout mice (Gassmann et al., 1995). In addition, through genetic rescue of heart development via myocardial expression of an ErbB2 transgene, a further role for ErbB2 in peripheral nervous system development has been demonstrated (Morris et al., 1999). In the case of ErbB3, most knockout mice die by E13.5, displaying normal heart trabeculation but defective ...
The ErbB family of receptors is dysregulated in a number of cancers, and the signaling pathway of this receptor family is a critical target for several anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the mechanisms of receptors activation is critical. However, despite a plethora of biochemical studies and single particle tracking experiments, the early molecular mechanisms involving epidermal growth factor (EGF) binding and EGF receptor (EGFR) dimerization are not as well understood. Due to the large disparity of time and length scales involved in receptor dimerization reactions, we adapt the coarse-grained Monte Carlo (CGMC) simulation framework to enable the simulation of in vivo receptor diffusion and dimerization. Using the CGMC method, spatial modeling of ligand-mediated membrane receptor dimerization reaction dynamics was performed. Furthermore, the simulations demonstrate the importance of spatial heterogeneity in membrane receptor localization. Mathematical models, especially ...
Background In todays research, we describe heterodimerization between human-Somatostatin Receptor 5 (hSSTR5) and 2-Adrenergic Receptor (2AR) and its own effect on the receptor trafficking, coupling to adenylyl cyclase and signaling including mitogen activated protein kinases and calcineurin-NFAT pathways. receptor heterodimerization. Bottom line These data for the very first time unveil a book understanding for the function of hSSTR5/2AR in the modulation of signaling pathways which includes not been dealt with earlier. strong course=kwd-title Keywords: G-protein-coupled receptor, Individual somatostatin receptor-5; 2 adrenergic receptors; Heterodimerization; Photobleaching-fluorescence resonance energy transfer and Somatostatin History We have lately defined homo-and heterodimerization of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) subtypes and its own functional implications on receptor trafficking and signaling in response to agonist activation. SSTRs heterodimerization isnt restricted to its family ...
Abstract: Ni functionalized metal organic frameworks (MOF) are promising heterogeneous ethene dimerization catalysts. Activities comparable to or higher than Ni-aluminosilicates have been reported in literature. However, unlike the Ni-aluminosilicates, those Ni-MOFs require a large excess of co-catalyst to initiate the dimerization process and some catalysts generate polymers which lead to catalyst deactivation. Herein, we report a series of Ni(II) and 2,2′-bipyridine-5,5′-dicarboxylate (bpy) functionalized UiO-67 MOF that catalyze the ethene dimerization reaction co-catalyst free. The catalysts were active for ethene dimerization (up to 850 mg butene gcat-1 h-1) after activation at 300 °C in 10 % O2 for 360 min and subsequent exposure to flowing ethene (P(ethene) =26 bar, 250 °C) for 240 min. The catalysts yielded up to 6 % conversion with 99 % selectivity to linear 1- and 2-butenes, which formed in non-equilibrated ratios. Overall, the test data indicate that all three linear butenes are ...
Full title: Berry phase induced dimerization in one-dimensional quadrupolar systems. Lecturer: Karlo Penc (Wigner Res. Inst.). We investigate the effect of the Berry phase on quadrupoles that occur, for example, in the low-energy description of spin models. Specifically, we study here the one-dimensional bilinear-biquadratic spin-one model. An open question for many years about this model is whether it has a nondimerized fluctuating nematic phase. The dimerization has recently been proposed to be related to Berry phases of the quantum fluctuations. We use an effective low-energy description to calculate the scaling of the dimerization according to this theory and then verify the predictions using large scale density-matrix renormalization group simulations, giving good evidence that the state is dimerized all the way up to its transition into the ferromagnetic phase. We furthermore discuss the multiplet structure found in the entanglement spectrum of the ground state wave functions.. ...
To test the hypothesis that the difference in the directions of DNA bending induced by transcription activation domains linked to the bZIP region of Fos versus Jun was due to a preferred orientation of heterodimer binding to the AP‐1 site, we examined bending at additional binding sites. The relative directions of DNA bending induced by the transcription activation domains fused to the Fos versus Jun bZIP domains at the M, X, MX, XM and X6G sites were similar (Figure 5), suggesting that Fos-Jun heterodimers bind to these sites in the same preferred orientation. These AP‐1 sites share an asymmetric central C:G base pair. To examine the influence of this central base pair on the orientation of heterodimer binding and to explore the relationship between binding orientation and DNA bending, we examined DNA bending at two sites that contained a central G:C base pair. One site (W) is identical to the M site with the exception of transversion of the central C:G base pair to a G:C base pair. The ...
To understand how SAS-6 might organise the centriolar cartwheel, we obtained high-resolution crystal structures of SAS-6 fragments at beamlines ID29 and BM14. These structures show that SAS-6 consists of a globular N-terminal head domain and a rod like coiled-coil domain that follows in sequence. Both domains were found to form homodimers: The N-terminal domain formed a slightly curved head-to-head dimer while the coiled-coil domain formed a canonical elongated coiled-coil dimer. We confirmed these interactions in solution and showed that the coiled-coil dimer is stable while head-to-head dimerisation occurs with a rather low affinity. Both interactions are biologically relevant and are essential for SAS-6 function in vivo.. Modelling these interactions in SAS-6 resulted in curved oligomers that were compatible with a 9-fold ring with similar dimensions to that of cartwheel hubs observed in vivo (Figure 117b). Consistent with this model, we found that recombinant SAS-6 constructs do indeed form ...
There are ten isozymes of adenylyl cyclases in mammals, adenylyl cyclase type I-X, (ADCY I-X); In mammals adenylyl cyclase plays an important role in signal transduction pathways in which cAMP is a secondary messenger[13]. ADCY I-IX all share a general structure; They are composed of two trans-membrane regions (M1, M2) which are composed of six membrane-spanning helices and function to keep the enzyme anchored in the membrane, and two cytoplasmic regions (C1, C2) which can be further sub divided (C1a, C1b, C2a, C2b) and are responsible for all catalytic activity, and regulation by G-proteins and forskolin[13]. In solution, the C1a and C2a domains can form heterodimers with each other, either in the same or different enzymes, or they can form homodimers with their identical units on different enzymes[3]. The C1b domain is very large (≈15 kDa) with many regulatory sites, and has a variable structure across isozymes; while the C2b domain is nearly non-existent in many isozymes, and has yet to be ...
There are ten isozymes of adenylyl cyclases in mammals, adenylyl cyclase type I-X, (ADCY I-X); In mammals adenylyl cyclase plays an important role in signal transduction pathways in which cAMP is a secondary messenger[12]. ADCY I-IX all share a general structure; They are composed of two trans-membrane regions (M1, M2) which are composed of six membrane-spanning helices and function to keep the enzyme anchored in the membrane, and two cytoplasmic regions (C1, C2) which can be further sub divided (C1a, C1b, C2a, C2b) and are responsible for all catalytic activity, and regulation by G-proteins and forskolin[12]. In solution, the C1a and C2a domains can form heterodimers with each other, either in the same or different enzymes, or they can form homodimers with their identical units on different enzymes[3]. The C1b domain is very large (≈15 kDa) with many regulatory sites, and has a variable structure across isozymes; while the C2b domain is nearly non-existent in many isozymes, and has yet to be ...
The discovery of potent and selective prostamide antagonists provided definitive evidence for a separate pharmacological entity and, in turn, impetus for cloning the receptor. Clues for the identity of the receptor were provided by taking into account the existent, pertinent information at that point in time. This is summarized as follows: 1) prostamide F2α and bimatoprost-responsive preparations also responded to PGF2α (although in many cases PGF2α activation was not accompanied by responses to prostamide F2α and its analogs); 2) bimatoprost-induced ocular hypotensive activity was abolished in FP receptor knockout mice (Crowston et al., 2005; Ota et al., 2005); 3) an FP receptor mRNA splicing variant was shown to be active (Pierce et al., 1997, Fujino et al., 2000); 4) prostanoid receptor heterodimerization was shown to create novel activation/binding sites (Wilson et al., 2004). These data suggested that the FP receptor gene was key to encoding the prostamide receptor. Thus, attention was ...
Thus, caspase-8 has a crucial pro-survival role in shutting off RIPK1 and preventing it from inducing necroptosis. But how, then, does a cell wherein caspase-8 is activated not die by apoptosis instead? How does it live to develop into a healthy mouse or human? Caspase-8 activates through dimerization; two molecules of caspase-8 are forcefully brought together to form an active complex. The previously mentioned adapter protein FADD is essential for initiating this process of dimerization, but recent evidence has shown that once a few dimers are formed around clusters of FADD, more caspase-8 dimers can form independent of FADD. An important clue comes from the observation that caspase-8 does not only activate when it dimerises with itself to form a homodimer, but can also when it forms a dimer with its cousin, FLIP (FLICE-like Inhibitory Protein), to form a heterodimer. FLIP is similar to caspase-8 but has no protease activity, it is an inactive caspase homologue. The heterodimer is active, but ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Establishment of a new detection system for the dimerization of IRE1α by BiFC assay. AU - Shinjo, Satoko. AU - Tashiro, Etsu. AU - Imoto, Masaya. N1 - Funding Information: We would like to thank Dr. Atsushi Miyawaki for kindly providing cDNA of cerulean. This work is supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI grant no. 23510283, to E.T.) from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan. S.S. was a research assistant for the Global COE Program for Human Metabolomic Systems Biology.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - We developed a new detection system for the activation of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress sensor, inositol requiring kinase 1 α (IRE1α), by evaluating dimerization of it by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay. By detecting the fluorescence derived from the reconstituted cerulean, this assay system enabled us to distinguish the activation behaviors of IRE1α as to ER stress-inducing compounds.. AB - We ...
HNF1 homeobox A (hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 homeobox A), also known as HNF1A, is a human gene on chromosome 12. It is ubiquitously expressed in many tissues and cell types. The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor that is highly expressed in the liver and is involved in the regulation of the expression of several liver-specific genes. Mutations in the HNF1A gene have been known to cause diabetes. The HNF1A gene also contains one of 27 SNPs associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease. The HNF1A gene resides on chromosome 12 at the band 12q24.2 and contains 9 exons. This gene produces 8 isoforms through alternative splicing. This protein belongs to the HNF1 homeobox family. It contains 3 functional domains: an N-terminal dimerization domain (residues 1-32), a bipartite DNA-binding motif containing an atypical POU-homeodomain (residues 98-280), and a C-terminal transactivation domain (residues 281-631). There is also a flexible linker (residues 33-97) which connects ...
Shop Jun dimerization protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Jun dimerization protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Procaspase-3 is the dimeric precursor of the apoptosis-executioner caspase-3 that displays little activity in vitro. The interface of the procaspase-3 dimer plays a critical role in zymogen maturation, although the active sites are not located at the dimer interface. We show that replacement of valine 266, the residue at the center of the procaspase-3 dimer interface, with arginine or glutamate results in an increase in enzyme activity of about 25-60-fold, representing a pseudo-activation of the procaspase. In contrast, substitution of V266 with histidine abolishes the activity of the procaspase-3 as well as that of the mature caspase. This mutant can be activated by protein exposure at pH 5, followed by dialysis at neutral pH. While the mutations do not affect the dimeric properties of the procaspase, we show that the V266E mutation may affect the formation of a loop bundle that is important for stabilizing the active sites. In contrast, the V266H mutation affects the positioning of loop L3, ...
The major findings of this study are as follows: (1) Adeno-virus-mediated gene transfer of c-jun and c-fos can effectively and specifically establish an experimental model for AP-1 activation in human ECs, (2) AP-1 activation can directly induce gene expression of an adhesion molecule, ICAM-1, and a chemokine, MCP-1, which are considered to be the molecular markers of EC activation and are implicated in various EC pathological processes, from inflammation to atherogenesis, (3) The AP-1-mediated induction of ICAM-1 can occur independently of activation of the NF-κB pathway.. AP-1 transcription factors are formed through dimerization between the members of the Fos and Jun families.27 Recent studies have suggested AP-1 to be an important regulator in endothelial function and pathological processes. First, the AP-1 binding motif has been identified as a recurrent sequence in the promoters of many genes biologically significant in the conversion of ECs into a proinflammatory or procoagulant status, ...
GXXXG-Mediated Parallel and Antiparallel Dimerization of Transmembrane Helices and Its Inhibition by Cholesterol: Single-Pair FRET and 2D IR ...
The invention provides a catalytic method for the dimerization or codimerization or oligomerization, particularly selectively, of olefins, carried out under pressure, in a reaction zone 1 containing a solid catalyst bed into which is disposed a plurality of hollow internal spaces 6.3 defined by walls and through which an autogenous thermoregulation fluid flows, in the form of a sheet, after passing through a central distributing zone 6.1 and distributing zones 6.2 and before passing through collecting zones 6.4 and into a central collecting zone 6.5.
The self heating process of Tetrafluoroethylene caused by an exothermic dimerization reaction was studied. The heat of reaction can lead to a thermal explosion by the decomposition of the Tetrafluoroethylene.. Different reaction kinetics, including multistep kinetics, were used to describe the mass balance. The COMSOL Chemical Engineering Module was used to perform the simulation which was validated by experiments and yielded well-correlating results.. ...
Journal Article: Incomplete Peierls-like chain dimerization as a mechanism for intrinsic conductivity and optical transparency: A La-Cu-O-S phase with mixed-anion layers as a case study ...
Thermochemistry of HO2 + HO2 → H2O4: Does HO2 Dimerization Affect Laboratory Studies?: Self-reaction is an important sink for the hydroperoxy radical (HO2) in t
In dimerization To 1-Butene, Axens proposes a portfolio of technology licenses, catalysts, adsorbents and services such as consulting, software or operations support to respond to your operational n
Dimerization ranitidine - All Drugs Without a Prescription. We accept Bitcoin. We work 20 years. We have over 800.000 satisfied customers.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Stoichiometric and Catalytic Dimerization of Conjugated Dienes with (C,sub,5,/sub,R,sub,5,/sub,)Ru(diene),sup,+,/sup,. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Biological Process: cranial nerve development; endocardial cushion development; ERBB2 signaling pathway; heart development; MAPK cascade; negative regulation of cell adhesion; negative regulation of ERBB signaling pathway; negative regulation of neuron apoptosis; negative regulation of secretion; negative regulation of signal transduction; neuron apoptosis; peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation; peripheral nervous system development; phosphatidylinositol phosphorylation; phosphoinositide 3-kinase cascade; positive regulation of cardiac muscle tissue development; positive regulation of gene expression; positive regulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase cascade; positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling; regulation of cell motility; regulation of cell proliferation; Schwann cell differentiation; signal transduction; transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathway; wound healing ...
Filament formation is required for most of the functions of actin. However, the intermonomer interactions that stabilize F-actin have not been elucidated because of a lack of an F-actin crystal structure. The Holmes muscle actin model suggests that a
For the past ten years, we have been interested in the human transcription factor PATZ1. This protein is not only important for T lymphocyte development but also has tumor suppressor functions and we have identified that it functionally interacts with the tumor suppressor p53. PATZ1 belongs to the BTB-zinc finger family which has 49 members in mammals. These proteins often suppress transcription by recruiting corepressors and histone deacetylases. Recently we solved the crystal structures of the murine and zebrafish PATZ1 BTB domains (PDB ID: 6GUV and 6GUW) and showed that these proteins form homodimers like most of the other crystallized family members. The mechanism of preferential homodimerization over heterodimerization of these family members is an outstanding question. We are testing several hypotheses: a) preferential degradation of heterodimers (a degron hypothesis), b) structural restrictions of dimer interfaces, c) co-translational dimerization. To assess these models, we have set up a ...
These links are probably not what we want and we should consider revising how the linking script handles them in the future. 1) Paper ID(s): 131227 Linked Term: synaptic membrane Problem: The link links to a WormBase GO term search page 2) Paper ID(s): 128421 Linked Term: transactivation Problem: The link links to a WormBase GO term search page 3) Paper ID(s): 128421 Linked Term: core promoter binding Problem: The link links to a WormBase GO term search page 4) Paper ID(s): 128421, 128389 Linked Term: dimerization Problem: This term should link to the general protein dimerization activity, but instead links to the more specific protein homodimerization activity 5) Paper ID(s): 128389 Linked Term: E-box binding Problem: The link links to a WormBase GO term search page 6) Paper ID(s): 129064, 129486, 110338 Linked Term: embryogenesis Problem: This term is linked to the GO term embryonic development ending in seed dormancy which is too specific and irrelevant to C. elegans. Should ...
On the cover: Twenty-five TLR4 TIR dimer models in which the BB loop of one TIR domain interacts with the E helix of the other. Toshchakov et al. screened a library of TLR4 TIR-derived decoy peptides to demonstrate that peptides derived from these regions inhibit TLR4 signaling by binding to the TLR4 TIR. Toshchakov, V. Y., H. Szmacinski, L. A. Couture, J. R. Lakowicz, and S. N. Vogel. 2011. Targeting TLR4 signaling by TLR4 Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-derived decoy peptides: Identification of the TLR4 Toll/IL-1 receptor domain dimerization interface. J. Immunol. 186: 4819-4827. ...
To understand the mechanisms by which growth factor signaling can modulate the activity of the AR, we have examined the physical and functional interactions between the AR, the scaffold protein RACK1, and the signaling kinase Src. Our findings provide evidence that RACK1 mediates androgen and growth factor cross-talk by facilitating the interaction of the AR with the Src tyrosine kinase.. RACK1, which was initially identified as a binding protein for PKC ( 5), was subsequently shown to interact with a wide range of signaling molecules and thus can serve as a platform for integrating diverse signaling activities. Src and the AR are among the reported binding partners for RACK1 ( 7, 13). In our study, we showed that the RACK1-AR interaction occurs in LNCaP cells at endogenous levels of protein expression and that the interaction is enhanced when cells are treated with androgen. Interestingly, we found that, when RACK1 and the AR are overexpressed by transient transfection, the dimeric interaction ...
CRI is driven mainly by cells of the innate immune system, predominantly TAMs (2, 34). Previous reports point to the importance of V-ATPases in tumor progression and migration (6, 8, 35). Other investigators have described the fundamental role of V-ATPase during cytokine trafficking and secretion (36-38). Our studies bridge the gap between these two research areas by showing that a peptide signal of V-ATPase origin participates in the induction of an inflammatory response from monocytes.. We show that incubation of monocytes with a2NTD leads to upregulation of several genes/proteins involved in M2 polarization. a2NTD induces an M2-like phenotype in monocytes (Fig. 2) described as IL-12low, IL-23low, and IL-10high (16). The increased levels of IL-10 correspond to the significant levels of p50 in the nucleus after a2NTD stimulation (Fig. 3D). Whereas p50 homodimers are traditionally associated with transcriptional repression (39), p50 induces IL-10 transcription by binding the IL-10 promoter in ...
MMLs stimulate WhNV 480-44-4 protein A self-interaction by selling the homotypic and heterotypic interactions of protein A. (A) MBP-tagged protein A fragments
|P>PKA (Protein Kinase-A) is an enzyme that regulates processes as diverse as growth, development, memory, and metabolism. In its inactivated state, PKA exists as a tetrameric complex of two Catalytic subunits (PKA-C) and a Regulatory (PKA-R) subunit dimer. To date, [...]
Dimerisation[edit]. The activation of initiator caspases and inflammatory caspases is initiated by dimerisation, which is ... Activation involves dimerization and often oligomerisation of pro-caspases, followed by cleavage into a small subunit and large ... Inititator Caspases have a prodomain that allows recruitment and dimerisation. Adaptor proteins such as FADD represented by the ...
Dimerisation[edit]. The activation of initiator caspases and inflammatory caspases is initiated by dimerisation, which is ... Activation involves dimerization and often oligomerisation of pro-caspases, followed by cleavage into a small subunit and large ...
Dimerization to butenes. Ethylene is dimerized by hydrovinylation to give n-butenes using processes licensed by Lummus or IFP. ...
Dimerization as a regulatory mechanism in signal transduction 16: 569-592 Bell, G I (1974) Model for the binding of multivalent ... In the case of HER2, which acts as a dimerization partner of other EGFRs, constituitive activation leads to hyperproliferation ... A preponderance of evidence soon developed that receptor dimerization initiates responses (reviewed in ) in a variety of cell ... The ligand-binding domain is additionally responsible for dimerization of nucleic receptors prior to binding and providing ...
After dimerization, oligomerization occurs. Finally, the oligomers, consisting of alternating S and F subunits, undergo a ...
ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8. Page, M.; Adams, G.F.; Binkley, J.S.; Melius, C.F. (1987). "Dimerization energy of borane". J. Phys. ... B2H6 The standard enthalpy of dimerization of BH3 is estimated to be −170 kJ mol−1. The boron atom in BH3 has 6 valence ...
Yi, Li; K. N. Houk (July 2001). "The Dimerization of Cyclobutadiene. An ab Initio CASSCF Theoretical Study". Journal of the ...
Rao, G. N.; Janardhana, C.; Ramanathan, V.; Rajesh, T.; Kumar, P. H. (November 2006). "Photochemical Dimerization of ...
Synthesis and dimerization equilibriums". J. Org. Chem. 36 (20): 3055-3056. doi:10.1021/jo00819a038. David P. Barr; Michael R. ...
This is cleaved before dimerization. Apoptosis is a cell self-destruct process that removes toxic and/or useless cells during ...
This leads to EGFR dimerization. Dimerization brings the two receptors into close proximity. This stimulates the kinase ... Ligand binding to the extracellular domain induces dimerization. Dimerization of RTKs leads to autophosphorylation of tyrosine ... Ferrao R, Zhou H, Shan Y, Liu Q, Li Q, Shaw DE, Li X, Wu H (Sep 2014). "IRAK4 dimerization and trans-autophosphorylation are ... Binding with insulin triggers a conformational change in the receptor that brings them closer together (dimerization). Each β ...
Solubility, dimerization, and ATPase activity". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (44): 27745-52. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.44.27745. PMID 9346917. ...
Its C-terminal domain contains the dimerization domain, the cyclic dinucleotide interaction domain, as well as a domain ... Kranzusch PJ, Vance RE (December 2013). "cGAS dimerization entangles DNA recognition". Immunity. 39 (6): 992-4. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Calculations suggest that TiH4 is prone to dimerisation. This largely attributed to the electron deficiency of the monomer and ... Webb, Simon P.; Gordon, Mark S. (July 1995). "The dimerization of TiH 4". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 117 (27): ... the small size of the hydride ligands; which allows dimerisation to take place with a very low energy barrier as there is a ...
Dimerization and Reduction of Rhodocene". Inorg. Chem. 18 (6): 1443-1446. doi:10.1021/ic50196a007. Keller, H. J.; Wawersik, H ...
Ottilie S, Diaz JL, Horne W, Chang J, Wang Y, Wilson G, Chang S, Weeks S, Fritz LC, Oltersdorf T (1997). "Dimerization ...
The dimerisation is a redox process; the dimer is a rhodium(I) species and the monomer has a rhodium(II) centre. Rhodium ... This dimerisation process has the overall effect of decreasing the electron count around the rhodium centre from 19 to 18. This ... Dimerization and Reduction of Rhodocene". Inorganic Chemistry. 18 (6): 1443-1446. doi:10.1021/ic50196a007. Crabtree, R. H. ( ... by oxidative dimerization of cyclopentadiene; the resultant product was found to have molecular formula C10H10Fe and reported ...
... upon receptor dimerization. Although a number of potential phosphorylation sites exist, upon dimerization only one or much more ... making monomer-monomer interactions and dimerisation possible. The consequence of ectodomain dimerization is the positioning of ... In contrast, in ligand-bound ErbB-1 and unliganded ErbB-2, the dimerization arm becomes untethered and exposed at the receptor ... 2003). "EGF activates its receptor by removing interactions that autoinhibit ectodomain dimerization". Mol. Cell. 11 (2): 507- ...
S2CID 8224296.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) B Barzel, O Biham (2009). "Stochastic analysis of dimerization ...
Its main target is the ATPase site of the DNA Gyrase GyrB subunit . Chemically induced dimerization Heide L (2009). "Genetic ...
"Dimerization of Aromatic C-Nitroso Compounds". Chemical Reviews. 116 (1): 258-286. doi:10.1021/cr500520s. PMID 26730505. E. ...
Dimerization then causes autophosphorylation and activation. Other stressors have also been reported to activate GCN2. GCN2 ... It was observed that GCN2 binds to uncharged/deacylated tRNA which causes a conformational change, resulting in dimerization. ...
Uchino, M.; Chauvin, Y.; Lefebvre, G. (1967). "Dimerization of propylene by nickel complexes". Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des ... "Catalytic dimerization of alkenes by nickel complexes in organochloroaluminate molten salts". Chem. Comm. 23 (23): 1715-1716. ...
A specific example is derived from the dimerization of the ketene of stearic acid. This ketene is generated by pyrolysis of ... A quantum-chemical study rejected the formation of a cyclobutanedione during the dimerization of n-alkylketene R-CH=C=O in ... The clarification of the constitution was complicated by different dimerization products of the ketenes. For example, the ... Zhang, Zhiguo; Li, Guoneng; Hu, Guilin; Sun, Yaoyu (2013). "Theoretical Research on the Mechanism of the Dimerization Reactions ...
2000). "Glycosaminoglycans promote HARP/PTN dimerization". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 266 (2): 437-42. doi:10.1006/bbrc. ...
Beaudoin, D.; Wuest, J. D. (2016). "Dimerization of Aromatic C-Nitroso Compounds". Chemical Reviews. 116 (1): 258-286. doi: ...
Certain extracellular domains may be involved in dimerisation. CD2 CD4 VCAM1 Smith DK, Xue H (1997). "Sequence profiles of ... Sanejouand YH (2004). "Domain swapping of CD4 upon dimerization". Proteins. 57 (1): 205-12. doi:10.1002/prot.20197. PMID ...
Furthermore, the dimerization improves the anticoagulant activity as well. The TBA-HD22 construct (linked with 16-mer polyA) ... Hasegawa, H. et al., Improvement of Aptamer Affinity by Dimerization. Sensors 8, 1090-1098 doi:10.3390/s8021090(2008). Lao, Y. ... aptamers TBA and HD22 show avidity effect against thrombin after dimerization. When TBA and HD22 are conjugated with an optimal ...
Carbon-to-carbon dimerization is also possible. In one study 2,6-xylenol is oxidized with iodosobenzene diacetate with a ... Selective oxidative para C-C dimerization of 2,6-dimethylphenol Christophe Boldron, Guillem Aromí, Ger Challa, Patrick Gamez ...
... Harald Lossau harald at ZENTRUM.PHYS.CHEMIE.TU-MUENCHEN.DE Thu Dec 5 12:05:57 EST 1996 *Previous message: ... 57, 63S (1993). However, dimerization is not necessary for GFP to fluoresce. Time resolved fluorescence is not influenced by ... cryoprotectors which supress dimerization (H. Lossau et al., Chemical Physics 2653 (Dec. 1996)). Harald Lossau *Previous ...
Carbene dimerization is a type of organic reaction in which two carbene or carbenoid precursors react in a formal dimerization ... An early pioneer was Christoph Grundmann reporting on a carbene dimerisation in 1938. In the domain of persistent carbenes the ... Commun., 1997, 2163-2164 doi:10.1039/A706459D Maleates from diazoacetates and dilactones from head-to-head dimerisation of ... A direct metal carbene dimerization has been used in the synthesis of novel Polyalkynylethenes March, Jerry (1985), Advanced ...
The telomerization is the linear dimerization of 1,3-dienes with simultaneous addition of a nucleophile in a catalytic reaction ... S. Takahashi, T. Shibano, and N. Hagihara: The dimerization of butadiene by palladium complex catalysts. In: Tetrahedron ... Telomerization Edgar J. Smutny: Oligomerization and dimerization of butadiene under homogeneous catalysis. Reaction with ...
Dimerization. Figure 4. PKA and PLB binding to AKAP7γ do not interfere with AKAP7γ dimerization. (a) Lysates from either AKAP7γ ...
A dimerization motif for transmembrane alpha-helices.. Lemmon MA1, Treutlein HR, Adams PD, Brünger AT, Engelman DM. ... which when introduced into several hydrophobic transmembrane alpha-helices promotes their specific dimerization. Dimerization ...
Receptor signaling: dimerization and beyond.. Stock J1.. Author information. 1. Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton ... But recent studies of analogous receptors in bacteria indicate that dimerization may be only a prerequisite for signaling. ...
... Michael S Curtis curtis at Fri Jul 12 17:47:00 EST 1996 *Previous ...
UvrD dimerization and helicase activation. Binh Nguyen, Yerdos Ordabayev, Joshua E. Sokoloski, Elizabeth Weiland, Timothy M. ... UvrD dimerization and helicase activation. Binh Nguyen, Yerdos Ordabayev, Joshua E. Sokoloski, Elizabeth Weiland, Timothy M. ... UvrD Dimerization on DNA Shifts the 2B Conformation to a More Closed State.. The DNA unwinding (helicase) activity of UvrD is ... UvrD dimerization on DNA is accompanied by closing of the 2B subdomain conformation and helicase activation. The results ...
The authors propose that the intact immunoglobulin domains serve as a barrier to inhibit receptor dimerization in the absence ...
We show that dimerization is crucial for IRAK4 autophosphorylation invitro and ligand-dependent signaling in cells. These ... IRAK4 Dimerization and trans-Autophosphorylation Are Induced by Myddosome Assembly. *Ferrao R ... Ferrao, R., Zhou, H., Shan, Y., Liu, Q., Li, Q., Shaw, D. E., … Wu, H. (2014). IRAK4 Dimerization and trans-Autophosphorylation ...
Our results suggest that dimerization of Gal80 and binding of a Gal80 monomer to Gal3 utilizes some of the same features of ... structure and interactions of the GAL4 dimerization domain. Genes Dev. 15: 1007-1020. ... defects in self-association and that their intrinsic defects in self-association are suppressed by the very strong dimerization ...
Gal80 Dimerization and the Yeast GAL Gene Switch. Vepkhia Pilauri, Maria Bewley, Cuong Diep and James Hopper ... Gal80 Dimerization and the Yeast GAL Gene Switch. Vepkhia Pilauri, Maria Bewley, Cuong Diep and James Hopper ... Gal80 Dimerization and the Yeast GAL Gene Switch. Vepkhia Pilauri, Maria Bewley, Cuong Diep and James Hopper ...
Switch-like activation of Brutons tyrosine kinase by membrane-mediated dimerization. Jean K. Chung, Laura M. Nocka, Aubrianna ... Switch-like activation of Brutons tyrosine kinase by membrane-mediated dimerization. Jean K. Chung, Laura M. Nocka, Aubrianna ... Detection of 2D dimerization reaction on membrane surfaces by FCS. (A) In a dual-color FCS setup, TR-labeled lipid (TR-DHPE) ... The dimerization behavior and the resulting ultrasensitivity is found to be unique to Btk and is not displayed by Tec or Itk. ...
... Benjamin J. Pieters,1 Eugene E. ... We examined the impact of sevoflurane and isoflurane on the dimerization of human serum albumin (HSA), a protein with ... suggesting that inhaled anesthetics promoted HSA dimerization. Size exclusion chromatography and polarization data were ...
... and a helical dimerisation domain. The dimerisation domain consists of a 4-helical bundle that makes contact with each of the ... Transferrin receptor-like, dimerisation domain (IPR007365). Short name: TFR-like_dimer_dom ... This entry represents the dimerisation domain found in the transferrin receptor, as well as in a number of other proteins ...
MAX dimerization protein MLXImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures ... tr,I3IYA8,I3IYA8_ORENI MAX dimerization protein MLX OS=Oreochromis niloticus OX=8128 PE=4 SV=1 ...
... J Mol Biol. 2006 Feb 17;356(2):367-81. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2005.11.032 ...
Item: Dimerization. Score: 1000. Position: NC_045512v2:29045-29356. Genomic Size: 312. Strand: +. View DNA for this feature ( ...
The step we focus on in this work is the dimerization of PG1. In particular, we are interested in determining where PG1 ... We investigate the two known distinct modes of dimerization that result in either a parallel or an antiparallel β-sheet ... We explore the role of hydrogen bonds and ionic bridges in peptide dimerization in the three environments. Detailed knowledge ... dimerization is most favorable. We use extensive molecular dynamics simulations to determine the potential of mean force as a ...
We report the 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of rod domains 5 and 6, which shows that dimerization is mediated primarily by ... Structural basis for dimerization of the Dictyostelium gelation factor (ABP120) rod. *Airlie J. McCoy1. , ... We report the 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of rod domains 5 and 6, which shows that dimerization is mediated primarily by ...
Penicillin-binding protein, dimerisation domain superfamily (IPR036138). Short name: PBP_dimer_sf ...
E2 interaction and dimerization in the crystal structure of TRAF6. Access & Citations. * 4329 Article Accesses. ...
... Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009 Jun;16(6):658-66. doi: 10.1038/nsmb ... Fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis shows that TRAF6 dimerization induces higher-order oligomerization of full- ... Structure-based mutagenesis reveals that TRAF6 dimerization is crucial for polyubiquitin synthesis and autoubiquitination. ...
... self-promoted dimerization of the triarylphosphine-alkene 1, a ligand for Pd-catalyzed reactions, produced an unusual racemic ... While stable in CH2Cl2, hexane or THF, in the presence of MeOH, self-promoted dimerization of the triarylphosphine-alkene 1, a ...
Similar results were obtained with the DOCK2 point mutant having a defect in dimerization. Deletion of lobe A from the DHR-2 ... Here, we report that lobe A-mediated DOCK2 dimerization is crucial for Rac activation and lymphocyte migration. We found that ... Our results thus indicate that DOCK2 dimerization is functionally important under the physiological condition where only ... Dimerization Is the Subject Area "Dimerization" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Structure of SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid dimerization domain, P1 form. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb6WZO/pdb ... 300 substitutions identified within the N1b and N2b domains cluster away from their functional RNA binding and dimerization ...
Changes at the KinA PAS-A dimerization interface influence histidine kinase function article. 2008 ... Health · Animals · Antilipemic Agents · Apolipoprotein A-I · Cells, Cultured · Clofibrate · Clofibric Acid · Dimerization · ... Biology · Bacteria · Catalyst activity · Crystal structure · Dimerization · Bacillus subtilis KinA protein · Histidine kinase ... dimerization · enzyme inhibition · human · incubation time · inhibition kinetics · time · Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid ...
Max dimerization protein 3Add BLAST. 206. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three ... Efficient DNA binding requires dimerization with another bHLH protein. Binds DNA as a heterodimer with MAX. Interacts with ... sp,Q80US8,MAD3_MOUSE Max dimerization protein 3 OS=Mus musculus OX=10090 GN=Mxd3 PE=1 SV=1 ...
The dimerization reactin of ligand-bound receptors can be written as. 2RL-, dimer. The values of the equilibrius constant K as ... Integrilin at 20C and cRGD at 40C have the greatest degree of dimerization.. Im not sure how to find the tfraction of total ... a) which ligand leads to the greates degree of dimerization of the integrin-ligand complex at 20C? at 40C? Calculate the ... 3 different RGD-containing ligands (including Integrilin) are used to form receptor-ligand complexes, and measured dimerization ...
ZF-HD dimerization-type domain-containing proteinInterPro annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB ... ZF-HD dimerization-typeInterPro annotation. Automatic assertion inferred from signature matchi ... tr,I1QXA2,I1QXA2_ORYGL ZF-HD dimerization-type domain-containing protein OS=Oryza glaberrima OX=4538 PE=4 SV=1 ...
  • Blockade of a key region in the extracellular domain inhibits HER2 dimerization and signaling. (
  • Yet, novel therapies are needed that prevent HER2 dimerization with other HER family members, because current treatments are only partially effective. (
  • Disruption of this sequence disables the HER2 dimerization loop, blocks subsequent activation of HER2-driven oncogenic signaling, and generates a dominant-negative form of HER2. (
  • However, HER2 dimerization is important in lung cancer, including EGFR mutated NSCLC. (
  • Since HER2 dimerization leads to cell proliferation, targeting the dimerization of HER2 will have a significant impact on cancer therapies. (
  • A cyclic peptidomimetic ( 18 ) has been designed to inhibit protein-protein interactions of HER2 with its dimerization partners EGFR and HER3. (
  • A proximity ligation assay further proved that 18 inhibits HER2:HER3 and EGFR: HER2 dimerization. (
  • Overall, these results suggest that 18 can be a potential treatment for HER2-dimerization related NSCLC. (
  • Pertuzumab (rhuMAb 2C4), a humanized HER2 antibody, represents a new class of targeted therapeutics that inhibit dimerization of HER2 with ligand-activated EGFR (HER1), HER3, and HER-4. (
  • This mechanism employs multiple PIP 3 binding as well as dimerization of Btk on the membrane surface. (
  • The dimerization of the cationic β-hairpin antimicrobial peptide protegrin-1 (PG1) is investigated in three different environments: water, the surface of a lipid bilayer membrane, and the core of the membrane. (
  • Several lines of evidence suggest that the dimerization step which leads to the conducting ion channel may be a complex series of reactions which are influenced by one or more membrane structural properties not yet characterized, in addition to the effects of the externally applied electric field. (
  • The membrane-bound monomeric insulin receptors could be cross-linked to dimers in the presence of insulin, indicating that although covalent interactions had been abolished, noncovalent dimerization could still occur in the membrane. (
  • This allows for the measurement of the free energy of ClC-ec1 dimerization in lipid bilayers, revealing that it is one of the strongest membrane protein complexes measured so far, and introduces it as new type of dimerization model to investigate the physical forces that drive membrane protein association in membranes. (
  • This strategy therefore presents a model-free way to quantify protein dimerization in lipid bilayers, offering a simplified strategy in the ongoing effort to characterize equilibrium membrane-protein reactions in membranes. (
  • MinD and role of the deviant Walker A motif, dimerization and membrane binding in oscillation. (
  • The authors propose that the intact immunoglobulin domains serve as a barrier to inhibit receptor dimerization in the absence of ligand. (
  • We show that dimerization is crucial for IRAK4 autophosphorylation invitro and ligand-dependent signaling in cells. (
  • Quantitative investigations through molecular diffusion and adsorption kinetics show that Btk undergoes dimerization-mediated activation in a PIP 3 density-dependent manner, providing a ligand-counting mechanism with a sharp sensitivity to signal strength. (
  • While stable in CH 2 Cl 2 , hexane or THF, in the presence of MeOH, self-promoted dimerization of the triarylphosphine-alkene 1 , a ligand for Pd-catalyzed reactions, produced an unusual racemic bis(phosphine) 2 in high yield. (
  • 3 different RGD-containing ligands (including Integrilin) are used to form receptor-ligand complexes, and measured dimerization of ligand-bound receptors as a fuction of temperature in the range 20-40C using a variety of methods. (
  • 40 1.79*10^6 3.47*10^6 4.00*10^5 a) which ligand leads to the greates degree of dimerization of the integrin-ligand complex at 20C? (
  • The D/D Solubilizer is a synthetic, cell-permeable ligand that can be used to disrupt dimerization of fusion proteins containing the DmrD domain. (
  • Activation-induced clustering followed by disulfide bond-mediated dimerization of CD44 represents an additional signal transduction mechanism for regulating receptor-ligand interactions. (
  • The results suggest that those metalloporphyrins which caused dimerization were able to acquire a thiolate ligand from the protein, and we propose that this ligation is the trigger for dimerization. (
  • Functional characterization included the determination of total expression, cell surface expression and dimerisation studies by a sandwich-ELISA approach as well as ligand binding and signal transduction properties. (
  • Fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis shows that TRAF6 dimerization induces higher-order oligomerization of full-length TRAF6. (
  • STAT activation is dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation, which induces dimerization via reciprocal phosphotyrosine (pTyr)-SH2 interactions between two STAT monomers and is a requirement for binding to specific DNA response elements ( 11 ). (
  • Receptor signaling: dimerization and beyond. (
  • This entry represents the dimerisation domain found in the transferrin receptor, as well as in a number of other proteins including glutamate carboxypeptidase II and N-acetylated-alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase like protein. (
  • Superresolution imaging of the pattern recognition receptor TLR4 reveals how different ligands control receptor dimerization. (
  • Hormone-induced receptor dimerization is proposed to be relevant to the signal transduction mechanism for the hGH receptor and other related cytokine receptors. (
  • PathHunter ® eXpress Dimerization Assay Kits provide a robust, highly sensitive and easy-to-use, cell-based functional assay to study receptor-receptor interactions at the cell surface. (
  • We cloned chemically-inducible chimeric IGF1R and InsR constructs consisting of the extracellular domains of the p75 nerve growth factor receptor fused to the intracellular β subunit of IGF1R or InsR, and a dimerization domain. (
  • This approach is questionable, however, due to virus mutations and the high toxicity of the drugs, An alternative method to inhibit the dimeric HIV protease is the targeting of the interface region of the protease subunits in order to prevent subunit dimerization and enzyme activity, This approach should be less prone to inactivation by mutation, A list of improved 'dimerization inhibitors' of HIV-1 protease is presented. (
  • These results suggest that signermycin B targets the conserved dimerization domain of WalK to inhibit autophosphorylation. (
  • Time resolved fluorescence is not influenced by cryoprotectors which supress dimerization (H. Lossau et al. (
  • Dimerization of UGT1A1 or UGT1A9 allozymes was observed via fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and co-immunoprecipitation analysis. (
  • Here, we use bimolecular fluorescence complementation to study DJ-1 dimerization and find not only that DJ-1 forms homodimers in living cells but that most PD causative DJ-1 mutations disrupt this process, including the L166P, M26I, L10P, and P158∆ mutations. (
  • We present the first report of a peptidomimetic approach to design of small-molecule inhibitors of Stat3 that are also among the first examples of disruptors of transcription factor dimerization with the potential for novel cancer therapy. (
  • Our findings also provide proof-of-principle that small-molecule inhibitors of Stat3 represent potential novel cancer therapeutic agents, and together with an earlier report of a peptidomimetic inhibitor of Myc/Max ( 22 ) are among the first examples of small-molecule inhibitors of transcription factor dimerization ( 1 ). (
  • The capture statistics describe a monomer to dimer transition that is dependent on the subunit/lipid mole fraction density and follows an equilibrium dimerization isotherm. (
  • The BglG phosphorylation site, His 208 , resides at the junction of the two putative dimerization domains. (
  • Possible mechanisms by which the phosphorylation of BglG controls its dimerization and thus its activity are discussed. (
  • As part of the global effort to elucidate the mechanism by which reversible phosphorylation of BglG, in response to an environmental stimulus, controls its dimeric state, we attempted to map its dimerization site relative to the phosphorylation site and characterize it. (
  • It is especially demanding for members of the OmpR/PhoB subfamily, the largest RR subfamily, which share a conserved dimerization interface for phosphorylation-mediated transcription regulation. (
  • Using the Escherichia coli RR PhoB as a model system, we were able to observe phosphorylation-dependent FRET between fluorescent protein (FP)-PhoB proteins and validated the FRET method by determining dimerization affinity and dimerization-coupled phosphorylation kinetics that recapitulated values determined by alternative methods. (
  • Telomerization Edgar J. Smutny: Oligomerization and dimerization of butadiene under homogeneous catalysis. (
  • The invention relates to a method for carrying out, generally under pressure, the (notably selective) dimerization, codimerization and oligomerization of olefins in the presence of at least one catalyst, usually solid, in at least one reactionzone whose temperature is controlled by a heat-exchange device with hollow plates disposed therein. (
  • and a helical dimerisation domain. (
  • The dimerisation domain consists of a 4-helical bundle that makes contact with each of the three domains in the dimer partner [ PMID: 10531064 ]. (
  • We report the 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of rod domains 5 and 6, which shows that dimerization is mediated primarily by rod domain 6 and is the result of a double edge-to-edge extension of β-sheets. (
  • Our results also suggest that the carboxy-terminal 70 residues, which follow the leucine zipper, contain another dimerization domain which does not resemble any known dimerization motif. (
  • Phorbol myristate acetate stimulates the dimerization of CD44 involving a cysteine in the transmembrane domain. (
  • Covalent dimerization involves a cysteine (Cys286) in the transmembrane domain of CD44 and is essential for binding of high levels of fluorescein-conjugated HA. (
  • Concentration dependent experiments revealed that the EL-LOV domain is in equilibrium between the dimer and the monomer in the dark state, and the main photoreaction is the dimerization reaction between a monomer in the ground state and that in the excited state. (
  • EL222 was found to also exhibit photoinduced dimerization even in the absence of target DNA, although the yield of the reaction was low (∼0.08 compared with that of the EL-LOV domain). (
  • On the basis of the known importance of pTyr-SH2 interactions for STAT dimerization ( 11 , 19 , 20 ), we previously identified a dimerization-disrupting phosphopeptide sequence that is derived from the SH2 domain-binding region of Stat3, PY*LKTK (where Y* represents phosphotyrosine) and its tripeptide derivatives PY*L and AY*L, as inhibitors of Stat3 activation and biological function ( 21 ). (
  • The results showed that signermycin B binds to the dimerization domain but not the ATP-binding domain of WalK. (
  • Phylogenetic analysis of HPF proteins suggests that HPFlong-mediated dimerization is a widespread mechanism of ribosome hibernation in bacteria. (
  • WT AtGCL and mutant proteins were analyzed by non-reducing SDS-PAGE to address their redox state and probed by FPLC for dimerization status. (
  • Both ATP binding-induced dimerization of ATPase domains and interactions with partner proteins are involved. (
  • Carbene dimerization is a type of organic reaction in which two carbene or carbenoid precursors react in a formal dimerization to an alkene. (
  • The telomerization is the linear dimerization of 1,3-dienes with simultaneous addition of a nucleophile in a catalytic reaction. (
  • Catalytic, Tunable, One-Step Bismuth(III) Triflate Reaction with Alcohols: Dehydration Versus Dimerization. (
  • The self heating process of Tetrafluoroethylene caused by an exothermic dimerization reaction was studied. (
  • An intriguing stepwise diradical mechanism of the dimerization of the reactive intermediate (thiocarbonyl S-methanide) appearing in the reaction of phenyl selenophen-2-yl thioketone with diazomethane was studied by means of computational methods. (
  • Accounting however for PAH chemical bond formation after physical dimerization, stabilizes dimers by covalent bonds and increases the soot concentration by four orders of magnitude, in good agreement with Laser Induced Incandescence measurements. (
  • Dimerization is driven by interactions that are specific, dominated by the helix-helix interface, and involve no potentially ionizable groups. (
  • The iDimerize Reverse Dimerization System is a "reverse dimerization" system-aggregation is the resting state, and the D/D Solubilizer breaks up protein-protein interactions. (
  • Moreover, the K88E mutant had even stronger dimerization ability, primarily due to interactions involving the C-terminal region. (
  • To determine the possible impact of dimerization on redox-activation, AtGCL mutants were generated in which salt bridges or hydrophobic interactions at the dimer interface were interrupted. (
  • However, the mechanism of activation by dimerization is not known. (
  • Furthermore, this activation mechanism distinguishes Btk from other Tec family member kinases, Tec and Itk, which we show are not capable of dimerization through their PH-TH modules. (
  • It is concluded that the activation of PKG-1 α via H 2 O 2 -induced protein dimerization and subsequent opening of BK Ca channels serves as a novel mechanism of flow-induced H 2 O 2 -mediated relaxations in HCA. (
  • Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy study on 100S ribosomes from Lactococcus lactis and a dimerization mechanism involving a single protein: HPFlong. (
  • A dimerization motif for transmembrane alpha-helices. (
  • Our results suggest that dimerization of Gal80 and binding of a Gal80 monomer to Gal3 utilizes some of the same features of Gal80, whereas the binding of a Gal80 dimer to Gal4AD utilizes features of Gal80 that are unique to its dimer form. (
  • In cultured human coronary arterial smooth muscle cells, H 2 O 2 induced dose-dependent dimerization of PKG-1 α , which was subsequently reduced to the monomer forms by the reducing agent β -mecaptomethanol. (
  • Studying dimerization of ClC-type transporters offers a new approach to the problem, as individual subunits adopt a stable and functionally verifiable fold that constrains the system to two states - monomer or dimer. (
  • Kinetic studies suggest further that the dimeric apoSOD folds via a three-state process where the dimerisation proceeds via a marginally stable monomer. (
  • Recently, we reported the equilibrium dimerization of the CLC-ec1 Cl − /H + transporter in lipid bilayers (Chadda et al. (
  • The iDimerize Reverse Dimerization System brings the disruption of protein complexes under real-time, small molecule control. (
  • Bacteria downregulate their ribosomal activity through dimerization of 70S ribosomes, yielding inactive 100S complexes. (
  • Together, this data suggest a novel model whereby Bet uses two possibly complementary mechanisms to counteract A3G: (1) Bet prevents encapsidation of A3G by blocking A3G dimerization, and (2) sequesters A3G in immobile complexes, impairing its ability to interact with nascent virions. (
  • This inter-complex dimerization may be favored between complexes bound near each other on DNA. (
  • Angewandte Chemie DOI: 10.1002/anie.200802915 Protein-Inhibitor Complexes The Absolute Configuration of Rhizopodin and Its Inhibition of Actin Polymerization by Dimerization** Gregor Hagelueken, Simone C. Albrecht, Heinrich Steinmetz, Rolf Jansen, Dirk W. Heinz, Markus Kalesse, and Wolf-Dieter Schubert* In 1993 the novel polyketide rhizopodin (Figure 1) was isolated from the myxobacterium Myxococcus stipitatus. (
  • Chemical inducers of dimerization (CIDs) are cell-permeable small molecules capable of dimerizing two protein targets. (
  • First described by Schreiber and co-workers,( 1 ) chemical inducers of dimerization (CIDs) are cell-permeable, bidentate molecules capable of dimerizing two substrates. (
  • The nearly 300 substitutions identified within the N1b and N2b domains cluster away from their functional RNA binding and dimerization interfaces. (
  • Miniantibody: Bivalent (or bispecific) (scFv)2, so-called miniantibody, is produced by association of two scFv molecules through two modified dimerization domains. (
  • Here, we define the domains of vWF involved in dimerization, using deletion mutants of full-length vWF cDNA transiently expressed in monkey kidney COS-1 cells. (
  • In addition, by analyzing a construct, encoding only the carboxy-terminal 151 amino acids of vWF, we find that the formation of dimers is an event independent of other domains present on pro-vWF, such as the domains C1 and C2 previously suggested to be involved in dimerization. (
  • Disclosed herein are processes for tandem alkene dehydrogenation/alkene dimerization using an iridium pincer complex catalyst on a support comprising magnesium. (
  • Genetic systems which test dimerization and antitermination in vivo were used to map and delimit the region which mediates BglG dimerization. (
  • Calmodulin-like protein AtCML3 mediates dimerization of peroxisomal processing protease AtDEG15. (
  • The equilibrium constant and the intrinsic rate constants of dimerization were determined. (
  • various gases as well as the evaluation of the equilibrium constant Kp for the dimerization of NO2 (eq 2). (
  • NO2/N2O4 equilibrium experiment introduces the students to the use A Simple Determination of the NO2 Dimerization Equilibrium Constant. (
  • With only reversible PAH dimerization, the simulated soot concentration is negligible. (
  • The present invention relates to the use of reversible dimerization of methylene blue (MB) for sensing humidity. (
  • Here, we have investigated whether dimerization occurs in vivo and if so whether it contributes to redox-activation. (
  • Thus, dimerization of redox-activated GCL is expected to occur in vivo . (
  • This assembly relies on processing in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and involves multiple steps, including early association with the ER-resident chaperones calnexin/calreticulin and subsequent dimerization facilitated by lipase maturation factor 1 (LMF1) ( 19 - 23 ). (
  • S. Takahashi, T. Shibano, and N. Hagihara: The dimerization of butadiene by palladium complex catalysts. (
  • Dimerization changed the chemical regioselectivity, substrate-binding affinity, and enzymatic activity of UGT1A1 and UGT1A9 in glucuronidation of quercetin. (
  • Substrate and tetrahydrobiopterin binding sites only emerged with the metalloporphyrins that caused dimerization. (
  • The Absolute Configuration of Rhizopodin and Its Inhibition of Actin Polymerization by Dimerization. (
  • We report here a pattern of 7 amino acids (LIxxGVxxGVxxT) which when introduced into several hydrophobic transmembrane alpha-helices promotes their specific dimerization. (
  • The most potent inhibitor from our screen (cyclo-SGWTVVRMY) is demonstrated to disrupt CtBP dimerization in vitro and in cells. (
  • Leucine zippers are employed to mediate dimerization of scFv in a miniantibody form. (
  • In particular, we are interested in determining where PG1 dimerization is most favorable. (
  • In Escherichia coli, dimerization is mediated by the hibernation promotion factor (HPF) and ribosome modulation factor. (
  • A direct metal carbene dimerization has been used in the synthesis of novel Polyalkynylethenes March, Jerry (1985), Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reactions, Mechanisms, and Structure (3rd ed. (
  • Structure-based mutagenesis reveals that TRAF6 dimerization is crucial for polyubiquitin synthesis and autoubiquitination. (
  • We then characterized the effect of WT and K88E dimerization on DNA binding and transactivation activity. (
  • Catalysts containing Ni(2,2′-bipyridine)2Cl2 complex (K) encapsulated in Y zeolite cages (Ke/Y) or obtained by impregnation-complexation (Ki-c/Y), co-activated with AlCl(C2H5)2 show good activity and selectivity for ethylene dimerization at 333 K and W/F = 37 gcat h (moles C2H4)−1 molar contact time. (
  • In vitro transcriptional activation, dimerization, and DNA-binding specificity of the Epstein-Barr virus Zta protein. (
  • Based on these results, we proposed a model in which the dominant negative ability of the mutant protein was due to dimerization with WT PITX2a. (
  • The extent of dimerization correlated well with the observed secretion. (
  • Here, we report an inhibitor of NADH-dependent dimerization of the C-terminal binding protein (CtBP) transcriptional repressor, identified by screening genetically encoded cyclic peptide libraries of up to 64 million members. (
  • We constructed dimerization cassettes that allow the conversion of scFv antibodies from all our phage display libraries to bivalent or bispecific antibodies. (
  • Ÿ Fab Dimerization: producing bivalent or bispecific Fab antibodies in miniantibody format. (
  • 1997, 2163-2164 doi:10.1039/A706459D Maleates from diazoacetates and dilactones from head-to-head dimerisation of alkenyl diazoacetates using Grubbs' 2nd-generation ruthenium carbene catalyst David M. Hodgson and Deepshikha Angrish Chem. (
  • These findings point to a crucial role of TM3 and intracellular loop 2 for dimerisation of the human MC4R. (