Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a phosphorus-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.6.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
N-(1-Oxobutyl)-cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate)-2'-butanoate guanosine. A derivative of cyclic GMP. It has a higher resistance to extracellular and intracellular phosphodiesterase than cyclic GMP.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to yield guanosine-5'-phosphate.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
Beryllium. An element with the atomic symbol Be, atomic number 4, and atomic weight 9.01218. Short exposure to this element can lead to a type of poisoning known as BERYLLIOSIS.
A genus of gram-negative opportunistic foodborne pathogens.
A species of free-living soil amoebae in the family Acanthamoebidae. It can cause ENCEPHALITIS and KERATITIS in humans.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that consist of slender vibroid cells.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
The portion of a retinal rod cell situated between the ROD INNER SEGMENT and the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. It contains a stack of photosensitive disk membranes laden with RHODOPSIN.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
3-Mercapto-D-valine. The most characteristic degradation product of the penicillin antibiotics. It is used as an antirheumatic and as a chelating agent in Wilson's disease.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Cell surface proteins that bind ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. They contain intrinsic guanylyl cyclase activity.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
A morpholinyl sydnone imine ethyl ester, having a nitrogen in place of the keto oxygen. It acts as NITRIC OXIDE DONORS and is a vasodilator that has been used in ANGINA PECTORIS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidation of inosine 5'-phosphate (IMP) to guanosine 5'-phosphate (GMP) in the presence of AMMONIA and NADP+. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.8.
A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in vascular tissue and plays an important role in regulating VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction.
A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.
An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.
Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more amino groups.
An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)
Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.
A PEPTIDE of 22 amino acids, derived mainly from cells of VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM. It is also found in the BRAIN, major endocrine glands, and other tissues. It shares structural homology with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR. It has vasorelaxant activity thus is important in the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow. Several high molecular weight forms containing the 22 amino acids have been identified.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.
A phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor with antidepressant properties.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used as an antidepressive agent. It has been shown to be effective in patients with major depressive disorders and other subsets of depressive disorders. It is generally more useful in depressive disorders associated with insomnia and anxiety. This drug does not aggravate psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p309)
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, becoming fairly common in the southern United States and almost pantropical. The secretions from the skin glands of this species are very toxic to animals.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
Its function is to act as a diguanylate cyclase and synthesize cyclic di-GMP, which is used as an intracellular signalling ... Ryjenkov DA, Tarutina M, Moskvin OV, Gomelsky M (March 2005). "Cyclic diguanylate is a ubiquitous signaling molecule in ... "Structural basis of activity and allosteric control of diguanylate cyclase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (49): 17084-9. ... "Cell cycle-dependent dynamic localization of a bacterial response regulator with a novel di-guanylate cyclase output domain". ...
"Nitric Oxide Regulation of Cyclic di-GMP Synthesis and Hydrolysis inShewanella woodyi". Biochemistry. 51 (10): 2087-2099. doi: ... Liu N; Pak T; Boon EM (2010). "Characterization of a diguanylate cyclase from Shewanella woodyi with cyclase and ...
... cyclic di-guanylate (GMP) synthetase and cyclic di-GMP hydrolase catalytic domains, as well as various non-catalytic domains ( ... The Kinase/Phosphatase/Cyclic-GMP Synthase/Cyclic di-GMP Hydrolase (KPSH) Family The first identified substrates for the ...
C-di-GMP, cyclic diguanosine monophosphate, the second messenger in cells, is widespread in and unique to the bacterial kingdom ... "The structural basis of cyclic diguanylate signal transduction by PilZ domains". The EMBO Journal. 26 (24): 5153-66. doi: ... c-di-GMP complex from Vibrio cholerae shows c-di-GMP contacting seven of nine strongly conserved residues. Binding of c-di-GMP ... Wolfe, AJ; Visick, KL (Jan 2008). "Get the message out: cyclic-Di-GMP regulates multiple levels of flagellum-based motility". ...
... cyclic di-GMP). Degradation of cyclic di-GMP to guanosine monophosphate (GMP) is catalyzed by a phosphodiesterase (PDE). ... Diguanylate cyclase participate in the formation of the ubiquitous second messenger, cyclic-di-GMP, involved in bacterial ... Cyclic di-GMP binds to interface between the DGC and D2 domains stabilizing the open structure and preventing catalysis. Strong ... Jenal U, Malone J (2006). "Mechanisms of cyclic-di-GMP signaling in bacteria". Annual Review of Genetics. 40: 385-407. doi: ...
... (also called cyclic diguanylate and c-di-GMP) is a second messenger used in signal transduction in a wide variety ... to be regulated by cyclic di-GMP. Riboswitches called the cyclic di-GMP-I riboswitch and cyclic di-GMP-II riboswitch regulate ... Some diguanylate cyclase enzymes are allosterically inhibited by cyclic di-GMP. Cyclic di-GMP levels regulate other processes ... The PilZ domain has been shown to bind cyclic di-GMP and is believed to be involved in cyclic di-GMP-dependent regulation, but ...
... (EC 3.1.4.52, cyclic bis(3->5')diguanylate phosphodiesterase, c-di-GMP-specific ... Schmidt, A.J.; Ryjenkov, D.A.; Gomelsky, M. (2005). "The ubiquitous protein domain EAL is a cyclic diguanylate-specific ... Tamayo, R.; Tischler, A.D.; Camilli, A. (2005). "The EAL domain protein VieA is a cyclic diguanylate phosphodiesterase". J. ... diguanylate 3-guanylylhydrolase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction cyclic di-3',5'-guanylate + H2O ⇌ {\ ...
Kulshina N, Baird NJ, Ferré-D'Amaré AR (December 2009). "Recognition of the bacterial second messenger cyclic diguanylate by ... A second class of riboswitch that binds cyclic di-GMP is called the cyclic di-GMP-II riboswitch. The two classes of cyclic di- ... some bacteria in which cyclic di-GMP has been studied lack cyclic di-GMP-I riboswitches, e.g. Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cyclic di ... Cyclic di-GMP-I riboswitches are a class of riboswitch that specifically bind cyclic di-GMP, which is a second messenger that ...
Tamayo R, Pratt JT, Camilli A (2007). „Roles of cyclic diguanylate in the regulation of bacterial pathogenesis". Annu. Rev. ... Ciklični di-GMP, ciklični diguanilat, c-di-GMP, je sekundarni glasnik koji učestvuje u prenosu signala u širokom varijatetu ... Biološka uloga cikličnog di-GMP je bila otkrivena kad je za njega utvrđeno da je alosterni aktivator celulozne sintaze nađene u ... Ciklični diguanilat; 3',5'-ciklična diguanilna kiselina; c-di-GMP; 5GP-5GP ...
... encoding for the synthesis of cyclic diguanylate. In this context, c-di-GMP functions as a bacterial secondary messenger, ...
... cyclic GMP-AMP synthase EC 2.7.8.1: diacylglycerol ethanolaminephosphotransferase EC 2.7.8.2: diacylglycerol ... diguanylate cyclase EC 2.7.7.66: malonate decarboxylase holo-(acyl-carrier protein) synthase EC 2.7.7.67: CDP-archaeol synthase ...
VieA controls the intracellular concentration of the cyclic nucleotide second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) using an ... Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) regulates Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation Mol Microbiol. 2004 Aug;53(3):857-69. doi: 10.1111/j. ... Expression of unrelated V. cholerae c-di-GMP synthetase or phosphodiesterae proteins also modulated c-di-GMP concentration and ... Two-dimensional thin layer chromatography of nucleotide extracts confirmed that VieA reduces the concentration of c-di-GMP, ...
... although c-di-GMP is probably not the main inducing principle. C-di-GMP is a second messenger which controls cell surface- ... The c-di-GMP produced by this enzyme up-regulates poly-GlcNAc production as well as the biofilm synthesis protein PgaD, ... Overexpression also leads to a reduction in flagellar abundance and a 20-fold increase in c-di-GMP levels in vivo. Required for ... c-di-GMP) via the condensation of 2 GTP molecules (PubMed:18713317, PubMed:19460094, PubMed:20582742). May act as a zinc sensor ...
Similar to the initial point mutations, deletion of the VF_1200 diguanylate cyclase gene increased migration. Consistent with ... reporter-based measurements of c-di-GMP revealed that KB2B1 produced higher levels of c-di-GMP than ES114, and overproduction ... Consistent with the possibility that production of the second messenger c-di-GMP inhibited the motility of KB2B1, reporter-b... ... and two had mutations in the diguanylate cyclase (DGC) gene VF_1200. Subsequent analysis indicated that (1) the quorum sensing ...
... cyclic di-GMP). Degradation of cyclic di-GMP to guanosine monophosphate (GMP) is catalyzed by a phosphodiesterase (PDE). ... Diguanylate cyclase participate in the formation of the ubiquitous second messenger, cyclic-di-GMP, involved in bacterial ... Cyclic di-GMP binds to interface between the DGC and D2 domains stabilizing the open structure and preventing catalysis. Strong ... Jenal U, Malone J (2006). "Mechanisms of cyclic-di-GMP signaling in bacteria". Annual Review of Genetics. 40: 385-407. doi: ...
Cyclic di-GMP (also called cyclic diguanylate and c-di-GMP) is a second messenger used in signal transduction in a wide variety ... to be regulated by cyclic di-GMP. Riboswitches called the cyclic di-GMP-I riboswitch and cyclic di-GMP-II riboswitch regulate ... Some diguanylate cyclase enzymes are allosterically inhibited by cyclic di-GMP. Cyclic di-GMP levels regulate other processes ... The PilZ domain has been shown to bind cyclic di-GMP and is believed to be involved in cyclic di-GMP-dependent regulation, but ...
Abbreviations: c-diGMP, bis-(3′→5′)-cyclic di-GMP; DGC, diguanylate cyclase; RRR, response regulator receiver; AC, adenylate ... Recent discoveries suggest that a novel second messenger, bis-(3′→5′)-cyclic di-GMP (c-diGMP), is extensively used by bacteria ... In contrast, the cyclic dinucleotide bis-(3′→5′)-cyclic diGMP (c-diGMP) has been shown to regulate cell surface-associated ... Structural basis of activity and allosteric control of diguanylate cyclase. Carmen Chan, Ralf Paul, Dietrich Samoray, Nicolas C ...
trifolii and Agrobacterium tumefaciens is regulated by cyclic di-GMP as in Acetobacter xylinum. ... Genetic data indicate that proteins containing the GGDEF domain possess diguanylate cyclase activity FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001 ... that the GGDEF domain is responsible for the diguanylate cyclase activity of these proteins, and (b) that the activity of ...
Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) regulates Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation.. Tischler AD, Camilli A. ... The vibrio cholerae hybrid sensor kinase VieS contributes to motility and biofilm regulation by altering the cyclic diguanylate ... PilZ domain proteins bind cyclic diguanylate and regulate diverse processes in Vibrio cholerae. ... Transcriptome and phenotypic responses of Vibrio cholerae to increased cyclic di-GMP level. ...
... c-di-GMP), which regulates transitions between motile states and sessile... ... cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP), which regulates transitions between motile states and sessile states, such as biofilms. C-di-GMP ... Diguanylate cyclase GG(D/E)EF domain Cyclic di-GMP X-ray crystal structure Structural genomics ... Kim D, Hunt JF, Schirmer T (2010) The second messenger cyclic diguanylate. American Society for Microbiology Press, Washington ...
Diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) synthesize cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) in bacteria. C-di-GMP is important for many biological ... However, regulation of DGCs as well as the downstream targets of c-di-GMP, are still under investigation. In this work, we have ... Niu is working to understand the role of di-guanylate cyclase (DGC) and heme-nitric oxide/oxygen binding (H-NOX) proteins on ... The Molecular Basis of Nitric Oxide Regulated C-Di-GMP Synthesis and Biofilm Formation in Shewanella Woodyi. Niu Liu, Stony ...
Alterations in the intracellular levels of cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) regulate the transition between the different stages of ... We previously reported that hyper-elevation of c-di-GMP levels in E. amylovora Ea1189, resulting from the deletion of all three ... We previously reported that hyper-elevation of c-di-GMP levels in E. amylovora Ea1189, resulting from the deletion of all three ... The znuAeagA/znuCB gene cluster was transcriptionally regulated by elevated levels of c-di-GMP as well as by the zinc-dependent ...
D. discoideum uses the diguanylate cyclase DgcA to synthesize cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) (7), a well-known second messenger ... We previously reported that cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP), synthesized by diguanylate cyclase A (DgcA), induces stalk formation ... 2013) Cyclic di-GMP: The first 25 years of a universal bacterial second messenger. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 77(1):1-52. ... Adenylate cyclase A acting on PKA mediates induction of stalk formation by cyclic diguanylate at the Dictyostelium organizer. ...
Cyclic di-GMP is produced from GTP by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and is degraded by phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Genetic, ... Bis-(3′,5′)-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) is a soluble molecule that functions as a second messenger in bacteria (1). As a ... As a ubiquitous second messenger, cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) has been studied in numerous bacteria. The oral spirochete ... Cyclic di-GMP allosterically inhibits the CRP-like protein (Clp) of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. J. Bacteriol. 191:7121- ...
Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) regulates Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation. Mol Microbiol53:857-869. doi:10.1111/j.1365- ... Cyclic diguanylate regulates Vibrio cholerae virulence gene expression. Infect Immun73:5873-5882. doi:10.1128/IAI.73.9.5873- ... Attachment to mammalian host mucosal surfaces during infection requires low levels of c-di-GMP that are necessary for virulence ... Temporal progression through a cyclic series of predictable environments (outer line colors: orange triangle, blue square, red ...
Analysis of the regulation and function of the diguanylate cyclase DgcZ from Escherichia coli Cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) is ... Cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) is a widespread second messenger regulating several processes including bacterial motility, ... Regulation by cyclic di-GMP in Myxococcus xanthus von: Skotnicka, Dorota Veröffentlicht: (2016) ... The role of the second messenger cyclic di-GMP in Bacillus subtilis von: Bedrunka, Patricia Veröffentlicht: (2017) ...
Cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a ubiquitous second messenger in bacteria. In this issue of Science Signaling, ... show that c-di-GMP regulates chemotaxis by binding to the PilZ domain protein MapZ to alter the methyltransferase activity of ... Chemotaxis of an opportunistic pathogen is regulated by a c-di-GMP receptor (Xu et al., in 18 October 2016 issue). ... Chemotaxis of an opportunistic pathogen is regulated by a c-di-GMP receptor (Xu et al., in 18 October 2016 issue). ...
Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) regulates Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation. Mol. Microbiol. 53:857-869. ... Cyclic diguanylate (c-diGMP) [bis(3′,5′)-cyclic diguanylic acid] is a prokaryotic cyclic dinucleotide second messenger that has ... CdgR was required to lower the cellular level of cyclic diguanylate, suggesting that cyclic diguanylate also regulates ... The cyclic dinucleotide second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-diGMP) has been implicated in regulation of cell surface ...
... cyclic-di-GMP; EAL, diguanylate phosphodiesterase; HDOD and HD5, phosphohydrolase; HTH-luxR, luxR family of bacterial ... cyclic-di GMP (GGDEF) signaling domains, the Constans-Constans-like TOC1 (CCT) domains involved in controlling plant circadian ...
Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) regulates Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation. Mol. Microbiol. 53:857-869. ... Role of Cyclic Di-GMP during El Tor Biotype Vibrio cholerae Infection: Characterization of the In Vivo-Induced Cyclic Di-GMP ... Role of Cyclic Di-GMP during El Tor Biotype Vibrio cholerae Infection: Characterization of the In Vivo-Induced Cyclic Di-GMP ... Role of Cyclic Di-GMP during El Tor Biotype Vibrio cholerae Infection: Characterization of the In Vivo-Induced Cyclic Di-GMP ...
It is widely recognized that cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a ubiquitous bacterial signaling molecule that regulates the ... In many bacteria, an H-NOX (heme-nitric oxide/oxygen-binding) gene is found near a diguanylate cyclase (DGC) gene. H-NOX ... The cognate response regulator, a protein annotated as a cyclic-di-GMP processing enzyme that we have named HarR (H-NOX- ... Sep, 2010 , Pubmed ID: 20467666 Cyclic-di-GMP signaling is used by many bacteria to control biofilm formation. As biofilm ...
The second messenger c-di-GMP (or cyclic diguanylate) regulates biofilm formation, a physiological adaptation process in ... If cyclic-di-GMP levels drop, fewer LapD molecules can bind to cyclic-di-GMP. As cyclic-di-GMP-unbound LapD proteins interact ... When levels of cyclic-di-GMP are high, cyclic-di-GMP binds to a protein called LapD, which can then in turn bind to an enzyme ... this process is regulated by the Lap system and the second messenger cyclic-di-GMP. High cytoplasmic levels of cyclic-di-GMP ...
Interestingly, several contain diguanylate cyclase, cyclic di-GMP phosphodiesterase, or methyl-accepting domains. This variety ...
Monitoring of diguanylate cyclase activity and of cyclic-di-GMP biosynthesis by whole-cell assays suitable for high-throughput ... The second messenger cyclic di-GMP is a positive regulator of biofilm formation, and cyclic di-GMP signaling is now regarded as ... We have created cyclic di-GMP level reporters by transcriptionally fusing the cyclic di-GMP-responsive cdrA promoter to genes ... Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases reveals a role for bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic-GMP in ...
GMP by a riboswitch conducts translational repression through masking the ribosome‐binding site distant from the aptamer domain ... Recognition of the bacterial second messenger cyclic diguanylate by its cognate riboswitch ... Recognition of cyclic‐di‐GMP by a riboswitch conducts translational repression through... Inuzuka, Saki; Kakizawa, Hitoshi; ... Riboswitches in eubacteria sense the second messenger cyclic di‐GMP. Sudarsan, N.; Lee, E. R.; Weinberg, Z.; Moy, R. H.; Kim, J ...
c-di-GMP homeostasis is carried out by GGDEF domain proteins, cyclic diguanylate cyclases (DGCs), which synthesize c-di-GMP, as ... In general, increased levels of cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) inside bacterial cells correlate with biofilm formation and expression ... Currently, only biofilm development is known to be controlled by c-di-GMP signaling in Y. pestis. ... well as EAL and HD-GYP domain proteins, c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs), which degrade this nucleotide. Y. pestis was ...
11] A. D. Tischler, A. Camilli, Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) regulates Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation. Mol Microbiol. (2004 ... A. D. Tischler, A. Camilli, Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) regulates Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation. Mol Microbiol. (2004 ... Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) regulates ,i, Vibrio cholerae ,/i, biofilm formation. Mol Microbiol. (2004 Blackwell Publishing ... 7] D. Srivastava, C. M. Waters, A tangled web: regulatory connections between quorum sensing and cyclic Di-GMP. J Bacteriol 194 ...
Its function is to act as diguanylate cyclase to catalyse cyclic (c)-di-GMP production, which is used as intracellular ... Valentini, M. & Filloux, A. Biofilms and Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) Signaling: Lessons from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Other ... To regulate the level of c-di-GMP, the EAL domain (can be activated if necessary) in the same protein is used, a diguanylate ... Ryjenkov, D. A., Tarutina, M., Moskvin, O. V. & Gomelsky, M. Cyclic diguanylate is a ubiquitous signaling molecule in bacteria ...
11] A. D. Tischler, A. Camilli, Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) regulates Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation. Mol Microbiol. (2004 ... 7] D. Srivastava, C. M. Waters, A tangled web: regulatory connections between quorum sensing and cyclic Di-GMP. J Bacteriol 194 ... Thus, when cell density HapR concentrations are low, more c-di-GMP is produced. The molecule c-di-GMP acts by inducing the ... Quorum Sensing Controls Biofilm Formation in Vibrio cholerae through Modulation of Cyclic Di-GMP Levels and Repression of vpsT ...
One type of RR is involved in metabolism of cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP), a ubiquitous bacterial second messenger. Although ...
One EPS signal molecule regulated by RpoS is cyclic-di-guanosine monophoshpate (c-di-GMP). c-di-GMP is synthesized by ... The GGDEF protein YddV can stimulate cell aggregation and EPS production via its diguanylate cyclase activity. Overexpression ... 50-Cyclic Diguanylic Acid." Journal of Biological Chemistry 281 (2006): 8090-8099. [14] Brombacher E, Dorel C, Zehnder A, ... diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) which is associated with the GGDEF domain [12]. ...
  • In enzymology, diguanylate cyclase, also known as diguanylate kinase (EC 2.7.7.65), is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction: 2 Guanosine triphosphate ↔ 2 diphosphate + cyclic di-3',5'-guanylate The substrates of diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) are two molecules of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and the products are two molecules of diphosphate and one molecule of cyclic di-3',5'-guanylate (cyclic di-GMP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Diguanylate cyclases are characterized by the conserved amino acid sequence motifs "GGDEF" (Gly-Gly-Asp-Glu-Phe) or "GGEEF" (Gly-Gly-Glu-Glu-Phe), which constitute the domain of the DGC active site. (wikipedia.org)
  • C-di-GMP is synthesized from two GTP molecules by diguanylate cyclases (DGC). (springer.com)
  • c-di-GMP caused a persistent increase in cAMP, which still occurred in mutants lacking the adenylate cyclases ACG or ACR, or the cAMP phosphodiesterase RegA. (pnas.org)
  • Cyclic di-GMP is produced from GTP by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and is degraded by phosphodiesterases (PDEs). (asm.org)
  • The enzymes responsible for c-di-GMP production and degradation, diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and phosphodiesterases (PDEs), respectively, are ab. (uni-marburg.de)
  • The enzymes responsible for c-di-GMP production and degradation, diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and phosphodiesterases (PDEs), respectively, are abundant and often present in multiple copies within bacterial genomes. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) containing a GGDEF domain, named for conserved residues, synthesize c-di-GMP from two GTPs ( 4 , 36 , 43 ). (asm.org)
  • c-di-GMP homeostasis is carried out by GGDEF domain proteins, cyclic diguanylate cyclases (DGCs), which synthesize c-di-GMP, as well as EAL and HD-GYP domain proteins, c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs), which degrade this nucleotide. (asmscience.org)
  • Gene knockouts of diguanylate cyclases reveal discrete phenotypes in \(Bdellovibrio\) at different time points of predation. (bham.ac.uk)
  • Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases reveals a role for bis-(3'-5')-cyclic-GMP in virulence. (pseudomonas.com)
  • c-di-GMP is synthesized by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) from two molecules of GTP. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • Multiple diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and phosphodiesterases (PDEs) synthesize and degrade c-di-GMP. (sciencemag.org)
  • Bioinformatics analyses predicted that Mycobacterium leprae , an obligate intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of leprosy, encodes three active diguanylate cyclases. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • One of the M. leprae unique diguanylate cyclases (ML1419c) was previously shown to be produced early during the course of leprosy. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In this study, we genetically engineered Escherichia coli cells by expressions of diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) to promote proteinaceous and aliphatic biofloc formation. (springer.com)
  • Two diguanylate cyclases (DGCs), SadC and SiaD, were responsible for the increased intracellular content of c-di-GMP. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Special emphasis lies on the role of the biofilm-stimulating ubiquitous bacterial second messenger cyclic-di-GMP, which is produced and degraded by diguanylate cyclases (GGDEF domain proteins) and specific phosphodiesterases (EAL domain proteins), respectively. (fu-berlin.de)
  • C‐di‐GMP-which is produced by diguanylate cyclases (DGC) and degraded by specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs)-is a ubiquitous second messenger in bacterial biofilm formation. (embopress.org)
  • C‐di‐GMP is synthesised by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) characterised by GGDEF domains, with this amino‐acid motif constituting the active site (A‐site). (embopress.org)
  • c-di-GMP is synthesized by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) with GGDEF domains, and its degradation is catalyzed by phosphodiesterases (PDE) with EAL or HD-GYP domains. (hu-berlin.de)
  • The second messenger 3′-5′-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) promotes biofilm formation, and c-di-GMP is synthesized by diguanylate cyclases (characterized by a GGDEF domain) and degraded by phosphodiesterases. (elsevier.com)
  • Our results indicate that YeaI, YedQ, and YfiN are active diguanylate cyclases that reduce motility, eDNA, and early biofilm formation and contrary to the current paradigm, the results indicate that c-di-GMP levels should be reduced, not increased, for initial biofilm formation so c-di-GMP levels must be regulated in a temporal fashion in biofilms. (elsevier.com)
  • Diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) regulate biofilm formation and motility in bacteria by synthesizing the second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) in response to environmental stimuli. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclic di-GMP Signaling in Bacillus subtilis Is Governed by Direct Interactions of Diguanylate Cyclases and Cognate Receptors. (synmikro.com)
  • c-di-GMP signalling systems are generally composed of three major constituents: diguanylate cyclases (DGCs, synthesize c-di-GMP from two GTP molecules), phosphodiesterases (PDEs, degrade c-di-GMP) and c-di-GMP-binding effectors [ 2 , 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The intracellular level of c-di-GMP is controlled by the complementary activities of diguanylate cyclases containing a GGDEF domain and two classes of c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases containing an EAL or HD-GYP hydrolytic domain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The concentration of c-di-GMP is controlled by the competing actions of two classes of enzymes: diguanylate cyclases, which are responsible for the synthesis of c-di-GMP from two molecules of GTP, and phosphodiesterases, which hydrolyze c-di-GMP forming two molecules of GMP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The two proteins DgcB and PleD are the main cyclases in C. crescentus contributing to the intracellular c-di-GMP pool. (unibas.ch)
  • This work presented here shows that two additional cyclases, BipB and BipC (bifunctional proteins B and C), are involved in c-di-GMP signaling. (unibas.ch)
  • The c-di-GMP signaling circuit involves not only cyclases and phosphodiesterases, which produce c-di-GMP upon an environmental stimulus but also effector proteins that bind c-di-GMP and therefore transmit the signal into an intracellular response. (unibas.ch)
  • To date, we have found that five of the twelve putative diguanylate cyclases (involved in the production of c-di-GMP) are involved in colonization of alfalfa roots or survival on tomato leaves. (wisc.edu)
  • 2016. Diguanylate cyclases, AdrA and STM1987, regulate Salmonella enterica exopolysaccharide production during plant colonization in an environment-dependent manner. (wisc.edu)
  • Cyclic di-GMP is formed by diguanylate cyclases with a GGDEF domain and degraded by phosphodiesterases with either an EAL or HD-GYP domain. (ucc.ie)
  • We propose that c-di-GMP synthetase and phosphodiesterase domain-containing proteins contribute to regulating biofilm formation by controlling c-di-GMP concentration. (nih.gov)
  • The c-di-GMP produced by this enzyme up-regulates poly-GlcNAc production as well as the biofilm synthesis protein PgaD, although c-di-GMP is probably not the main inducing principle. (uniprot.org)
  • Diguanylate cyclase participate in the formation of the ubiquitous second messenger, cyclic-di-GMP, involved in bacterial biofilm formation and persistence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Processes that are known to be regulated by cyclic di-GMP, at least in some organisms, include biofilm formation, motility and virulence factor production. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, the cyclic dinucleotide bis-(3′→5′)-cyclic diGMP (c-diGMP) has been shown to regulate cell surface-associated traits and community behaviorlike biofilm formation in a number of bacterial species ( 2 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) is a widespread second messenger regulating several processes including bacterial motility, biofilm formation, and virulence. (uni-marburg.de)
  • In E. coli, the diguanylate cyclase DgcZ (formerly YdeH) is the major DGC controlling the production of the exopolysaccharide poly-N-Acetylglucosamine (poly-GlcNAc, PGA), which is involved in biofilm formation. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Externally applied zinc inhibited PGA biofilm formation in a DgcZ- and c-di-GMP-dependent fashion. (uni-marburg.de)
  • In Vibrio cholerae , the second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) positively regulates biofilm formation and negatively regulates virulence and is proposed to play an important role in the transition from persistence in the environment to survival in the host. (asm.org)
  • The decision to shift between a free-swimming and a biofilm life-style is orchestrated by a signaling molecule found inside the bacteria called cyclic-di-GMP. (elifesciences.org)
  • If not enough phosphate is available, the level of cyclic-di-GMP falls and the biofilm disperses. (elifesciences.org)
  • Cyclic-di-GMP affects the stability of the biofilm via a group of proteins called the Lap system. (elifesciences.org)
  • As cyclic-di-GMP-unbound LapD proteins interact poorly with LapG, this leaves some LapG molecules able to destabilize the attachments between the cells and the surface, which disperses the biofilm. (elifesciences.org)
  • The second messenger cyclic di-GMP is a positive regulator of biofilm formation, and cyclic di-GMP signaling is now regarded as a potential target for the development of antipathogenic compounds. (asm.org)
  • In general, increased levels of cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) inside bacterial cells correlate with biofilm formation and expression of exopolysaccharide (EPS) and adherence factors, while decreased intracellular levels stimulate motility and a planktonic lifestyle. (asmscience.org)
  • A Nutrient-Regulated Cyclic Diguanylate Phosphodiesterase Controls Clostridium difficile Biofilm and Toxin Production during Stationary Phase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Connecting quorum sensing, c-di-GMP, pel polysaccharide, and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa through tyrosine phosphatase TpbA (PA3885). (pseudomonas.com)
  • Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a second messenger that regulates diverse cellular processes in bacteria, including motility, biofilm formation, cell-cell signaling, and host colonization. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • Cyclic diguanylate regulation of Bacillus cereus group biofilm formation. (uio.no)
  • In a range of Gram-negatives, increased levels of the second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) promotes biofilm formation and reduces motility. (uio.no)
  • Among Gram-positive bacteria, where the function of c-di-GMP signaling is less well characterized, c-di-GMP was reported to regulate swarming motility in Bacillus subtilis while having very limited or no effect on biofilm formation. (uio.no)
  • The second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is known to affect bacterial attachment to surfaces, biofilm formation and related virulence phenomena. (nih.gov)
  • NO signaling through a histidine kinase-response regulator two-component signaling pathway results in increased concentrations of cyclic diguanosine monophosphate, a key bacterial second messenger molecule that controls cellular adhesion and biofilm formation. (asm.org)
  • Phenotypic studies revealed that ml1419c expression altered colony morphology, motility and biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 in a manner consistent with increased cyclic di-GMP production. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Our study provided evidence that c-di-GMP level can play an important role in mediating stress response in microbial communities during both planktonic and biofilm modes of growth. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Cyclic di-GMP is synthesized by biofilm formation, motility and induction of virulence factors. (hawaiilibrary.net)
  • The goal is to elucidate the regulation, function, cooperation and targets of the 29 GGDEF/EAL domain proteins of E. coli and their c-di-GMP-binding effector components during the entire series of molecular events that generate a biofilm. (fu-berlin.de)
  • As cyclic-di-GMP is used by most bacteria, understanding its production and mode of action will reveal new and general perspectives for interference with bacterial biofilm formation. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Biofilm formation is regulated by 3',5'-cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) and requires production of the type IV mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA) pilus. (escholarship.org)
  • Nucleotide second messenger signalling in bacteria has recently moved back into the focus of attention when bis‐(3′-5′)‐cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c‐di‐GMP) was discovered to ubiquitously promote biofilm formation (for recent reviews, see Wolfe and Visick, 2010 ). (embopress.org)
  • c‐di‐GMP nearly ubiquitously downregulates bacterial motility and stimulates biofilm formation, that is, the synthesis of bacterial adhesins and extracellular matrix components. (embopress.org)
  • Also, virulence genes involved in acute infections by some pathogenic bacteria are downregulated by c‐di‐GMP, while chronic infections are often associated with high c‐di‐GMP levels and biofilm formation ( Tamayo et al , 2007 ). (embopress.org)
  • This led to the identification of a small molecule that efficiently depletes P. aeruginosa for c-di-GMP, inhibits biofilm formation, and disperses established biofilm. (bvsalud.org)
  • Genetic analyses provided evidence that the anti-biofilm compound stimulates the activity of the c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase BifA in P. aeruginosa. (bvsalud.org)
  • As a result of the significantly enhanced motility, but contrary to current models of decreased biofilm formation with decreased diguanylate cyclase activity, early biofilm formation increased dramatically for the deletions of yeaI (30-fold), yedQ (12-fold), and yfiN (18-fold). (elsevier.com)
  • A novel signalling pathway links cGMP to the regulation of c‐di‐GMP synthesis and the control of biofilm formation and virulence in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris . (embopress.org)
  • In the plant pathogen X. campestris , the second messenger cGMP controls bacterial virulence and biofilm formation through direct regulation of XC_0249, a novel diguanylate cyclase that synthesises the signalling molecule cyclic di‐GMP. (embopress.org)
  • Cdi- GMP is an intracellular second messenger that controls a wide range of bacterial processes, including biofilm formation and synthesis of virulence factors, and also modulates the host innate immune response. (csic.es)
  • The universal cyclic-di-GMP second messenger is instrumental in the switch from a motile lifestyle to resilient biofilm as in the cystic fibrosis lung. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Like many bacterial species, biofilm formation in V. cholerae is induced by increased intracellular c-di-GMP [9]. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a ubiquitous second messenger that regulates many processes in bacteria including biofilm formation, motility, and virulence (Hengge, 2009). (bio-protocol.org)
  • then disengaged stators stimulate c-di-GMP production to reinforce a biofilm mode of growth. (meta.org)
  • In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, elevated levels of c-di-GMP promote biofilm formation and repress flagellum-driven swarming motility. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Thus, we propose a new mechanism for c-di-GMP-mediated regulation of motility for a bacterium with two flagellar stator sets, increasing our understanding of surface-associated behaviors, a key prerequisite to identifying ways to control the formation of biofilm communities. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Similarly to vector plasmid-borne pleD *, the genome-borne mini-Tn 7 pleD* constructs provide significant increases in intracellular c-di-GMP, provoking expected phenotypic changes such as enhanced polysaccharide production, biofilm formation and reduced motility. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In Vibrio cholerae , LonA regulates a broad range of behaviors including cell division, biofilm formation, flagellar motility, c-di-GMP levels, the type VI secretion system (T6SS), virulence gene expression, and host colonization. (prolekare.cz)
  • The second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) plays a central role in bacterial adaptation to extracellular stimuli, controlling processes such as motility, biofilm development, cell development and, in some pathogens, virulence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To determine the contributions of HD-GYP domain proteins to c-di-GMP signaling in V. cholerae , we systematically analyzed the enzymatic functionality of each protein and their involvement in processes known to be regulated by c-di-GMP: motility, biofilm development and virulence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Monitoring of diguanylate cyclase activity and of cyclic-di-GMP biosynthesis by whole-cell assays suitable for high-throughput screening of biofilm inhibitors. (jove.com)
  • Often, GGDEF domains with DGC activity are found in the same proteins as c-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) EAL (Glu-Ala-Leu) domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • a GGDEF domain with diguanylate cyclase activity and two CheY-like receiver domains (D1/D2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Condensation of two GTP to the dinucleotide is catalyzed by the widely distributed diguanylate cyclase (DGC or GGDEF) domain that occurs in various combinations with sensory and/or regulatory modules. (pnas.org)
  • The general importance of c-diGMP is underscored by the omnipresence of the diguanylate cyclase (DGC) domain (hitherto named GGDEF or DUF1) in bacterial genomes, where it occurs in various combinations with other sensory and/or regulatory modules ( 6 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Through genetic complementation using genes from three different bacteria encoding proteins with GGDEF domains as the only element in common, we present genetic data indicating (a) that the GGDEF domain is responsible for the diguanylate cyclase activity of these proteins, and (b) that the activity of cellulose synthase in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. (nih.gov)
  • DgcZ contains a GGDEF domain, responsible for c-di-GMP production, and a sensory domain. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Herein we describe a characterization of the infection-induced gene cdpA , which encodes both GGDEF and EAL domains, which are known to mediate diguanylate cyclase and c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) activities, respectively. (asm.org)
  • Tlr0924 contains a single bilin-binding GAF domain adjacent to a C-terminal diguanylate cyclase (GGDEF) domain whose catalytic activity requires formation of a dimeric transition state presumably supported by a multi-domain extension at its N-terminus. (osti.gov)
  • To probe the structural basis of light-mediated signal propagation from the photosensory input domain to a signaling output domain for a representative CBCR, these studies explore the properties of a bidomain GAF-GGDEF construct of Tlr0924 (Tlr0924Δ) that retains light-regulated diguanylate cyclase activity. (osti.gov)
  • Guvener ZT, Harwood CS (2007) Subcellular location characteristics of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa GGDEF protein, WspR, indicate that it produces cyclic-di-GMP in response to growth on surfaces. (springer.com)
  • YhjK has a central GGDEF putative diguanylate cyclase, then a C-terminal putative cyclic-di-GMP phosphodiesterase EAL domain. (mybiosource.com)
  • Abbau von c-di-GMP wird von Diguanylatzyklasen (DGC) mit GGDEF-Domänen bzw. (hu-berlin.de)
  • In S. venezuelae, einem Modellorganismus der Streptomyceten, konnten zehn potenziell c-di-GMP metabolisierende Enzyme identifiziert werden, von welchen mit RmdA und RmdB zwei GGDEF-EAL-Tandem-Proteine im Fokus dieser Arbeit stehen. (hu-berlin.de)
  • In S. venezuelae, the Streptomyces strain which was used as a model organism in this work, there are ten potentially c-di-GMP metabolizing enzymes, of which two GGDEF-EAL tandem proteins, RmdA and RmdB, are the focus of this work. (hu-berlin.de)
  • A dynamic physical interaction of RpfG with two diguanylate cyclase (GGDEF) domain proteins controls motility. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here we show that, contrary to expectation, regulation of motility by the GGDEF domain proteins does not depend upon their cyclic di-GMP synthetic activity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Deletions of the genes encoding the GGDEF proteins YeaI, YedQ, YfiN, YeaJ, and YneF increased swimming motility as expected for strains with reduced c-di-GMP. (elsevier.com)
  • In general, the GGDEF domain of DGCs and the EAL or HD-GYP domains of PDEs are responsible for DGC and PDE activities, respectively, and balanced control of these opposite activities determines c-di-GMP homeostasis within the cell [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This work addressed the question, which additional GGDEF domain proteins reveal DGC activity and contribute to the c-di-GMP content in C. crescentus cells. (unibas.ch)
  • Proteins with tandem GGDEF-EAL domains occur in many bacteria, where they may be involved in c-di-GMP turnover or act as enzymatically-inactive c-di-GMP effectors. (ucc.ie)
  • Left) Several DGCs and PDEs can contribute to a common global pool of c-di-GMP (black dots). (asmscience.org)
  • This questioned the concept that the activities of dozens of DGCs and PDEs simply converge to control a cellular pool of freely diffusible c‐di‐GMP and therefore a common spectrum of outputs differentiated only by different affinities of various c‐di‐GMP‐binding effectors. (embopress.org)
  • However, the multiplicity of DGCs and PDEs contrast with the comparatively few albeit functionally diverse c-di-GMP receptors/effectors identified so far, suggesting the existence of yet many unknown effectors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, a residual c-di-GMP concentration is still detectable in the pleD dgcB double mutant presumingly due to the activity of other DGCs of C. crescentus. (unibas.ch)
  • To measure specifically low levels of c-di-GMP a strain was used lacking DGCs and in addition all PDEs (really gutted strain, rGS) to avoid immediate degradation in the GS. (unibas.ch)
  • Consistent with the possibility that production of the second messenger c-di-GMP inhibited the motility of KB2B1, reporter-based measurements of c-di-GMP revealed that KB2B1 produced higher levels of c-di-GMP than ES114, and overproduction of a c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase promoted migration of KB2B1. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cumulatively, these results support a model of the V. cholerae life cycle in which c-di-GMP must be down-regulated early after entering the small intestine and maintained at a low level to allow virulence gene expression, colonization, and motility at appropriate stages of infection. (asm.org)
  • Analysis of the Borrelia burgdorferi cyclic-di-GMP-binding protein PlzA reveals a role in motility and virulence. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The bacterial second messenger cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) regulates cellular motility and the synthesis of organelles and molecules that promote adhesion to a variety of biological and nonbiological surfaces. (sciencemag.org)
  • High levels of the intracellular signalling molecule cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) supress motility and activate exopolysaccharide (EPS) production in a variety of bacterial species. (bioseek.eu)
  • Systematic mutation of the first amino acid in the AGDEF motif of VCA0965 revealed that glycine, methionine, and histidine also produced an active DGC capable of inhibiting motility and increasing the intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP in V. cholerae. (nih.gov)
  • A key regulator of flagellar motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other microbes is cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP). (meta.org)
  • C-di-GMP levels regulate motility in P. aeruginosa in part by influencing the localization of its two flagellar stator sets, MotAB and MotCD. (meta.org)
  • We demonstrate that the swarming motility-driving stator MotC physically interacts with the transmembrane region of the diguanylate cyclase SadC. (meta.org)
  • We propose a model by which the MotCD stator set interacts with SadC to stimulate c-di-GMP production in conditions not permissive to motility. (meta.org)
  • Our studies help define the bidirectional interactions between c-di-GMP and the motility machinery. (meta.org)
  • UNLABELLED: The second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is an important regulator of motility in many bacterial species. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here we show that when c-di-GMP levels are elevated, swarming motility is repressed by the PilZ domain-containing protein FlgZ and by Pel polysaccharide production. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We demonstrate that FlgZ interacts specifically with the motility-promoting stator protein MotC in a c-di-GMP-dependent manner and that a functional green fluorescent protein (GFP)-FlgZ fusion protein shows significantly reduced polar localization in a strain lacking the MotCD stator. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Our results establish FlgZ as a c-di-GMP receptor affecting swarming motility by P. aeruginosa and support a model wherein c-di-GMP-bound FlgZ impedes motility via its interaction with the MotCD stator. (ox.ac.uk)
  • c-di-GMP signaling is a widespread means of controlling bacterial motility, and yet the mechanism whereby this signal controls surface-associated motility in P. aeruginosa remains poorly understood. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here we identify a PilZ domain-containing c-di-GMP effector protein that contributes to c-di-GMP-mediated repression of swarming motility by P. aeruginosa We provide evidence that this effector, FlgZ, impacts swarming motility via its interactions with flagellar stator protein MotC. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) was discovered only 27 years ago as an allosteric activator of bacterial cellulose synthase, but is currently considered an ubiquitous second messenger in bacteria that influences a wide range of cellular processes, including flagellum-mediated motility, cell cycle and exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis, as well as bacterial virulence [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • From these results, we concluded that CmcA regulates motility in a c�di-GMP dependent manner. (unibas.ch)
  • Two-dimensional thin layer chromatography of nucleotide extracts confirmed that VieA reduces the concentration of c-di-GMP, opposing the action of c-di-GMP synthetase proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of unrelated V. cholerae c-di-GMP synthetase or phosphodiesterae proteins also modulated c-di-GMP concentration and vps gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclic di-GMP is synthesized by proteins with diguanylate cyclase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Degradation of cyclic di-GMP is affected by proteins with phosphodiesterase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • This leads to the strong inference that conformational changes in PilZ domains allow the activity of targeted effector proteins (such as cellulose synthase) to be regulated by cyclic di-GMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemical studies showed that TDE0214 binds c-di-GMP in a specific manner, with a dissociation constant ( K d ) value of 1.73 μM, which is in the low range compared to those of other reported c-di-GMP binding proteins. (asm.org)
  • In several bacterial species, PilZ-containing proteins have been confirmed to bind c-di-GMP in a highly specific manner, with dissociation constants ( K d ) in the submicromolar range. (asm.org)
  • Those proteins play a pivotal role in the regulatory networks of c-di-GMP ( 12 , 24 - 28 ). (asm.org)
  • In G. xylinus , the c-diGMP concentration is controlled by six proteins that have competing diguanylate cyclase or phosphodiesterase activities to synthesize and degrade c-diGMP, respectively ( 49 ). (asm.org)
  • Different c-di-GMP effector proteins (A, B, and C) can bind c-di-GMP with different affinities and by that can stage a graded response as levels of the second messenger fluctuate. (asmscience.org)
  • Right) Temporally or spatially separated c-di-GMP signaling modules regulate specific cellular processes by exclusive interaction with one or several effector proteins. (asmscience.org)
  • Regulation of biological functions is accomplished by c-di-GMP's binding to a diverse array of receptors, including PilZ domain proteins ( 4 , 5 ), cyclic diguanylate riboswitches ( 6 ), and transcription factors ( 7 , 8 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The apparent role of c-di-GMP in the cell cycle and the presence of many paralogous DGC, PDE, and PilZ proteins controlling diverse cellular functions indicate that there is likely tight spatial and temporal regulation of c-di-GMP. (sciencemag.org)
  • To study the spatiotemporal dynamics of c-di-GMP fluctuations in individual living bacterial cells, we engineered a set of genetically encoded fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors by fusing PilZ proteins between cyan and yellow fluorescent proteins (CFP and YFP, respectively) (fig. S1) ( 9 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Based on our previous findings from gene expression profiling of MorA mutant [57] and other reports showing evidence that c-di-GMP regulating proteins control bacterial secretion systems [45, 46, 52-55], we tested the effect of MorA on the P. aeruginosa secretome. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, this protein was renamed DgcA (Diguanylate cyclase A). These results also demonstrated the ability to use P. aeruginosa as a heterologous host for characterizing the function of proteins involved in the cyclic di-GMP pathway of a pathogen refractory to in vitro growth, M. leprae . (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Based on annotation of proteins by sequence similarity, (1) P. ingrahamii has a large number (61) of regulators of cyclic GDP, suggesting that this bacterium produces an extracellular polysaccharide that may help sequester water or lower the freezing point in the vicinity of the cell. (biomedcentral.com)
  • C‐di‐GMP‐binding effector components include proteins of different families as well as RNAs ( Hengge, 2010a ). (embopress.org)
  • The transition between the different developmental stages is regulated by the secondary messenger bis- (3´- 5´) -cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) and the c-di-GMP effector proteins BldD and RsiG. (hu-berlin.de)
  • This is presumably due to the increased c-di-GMP concentrations in the deletion mutants, with the c-di-GMP effector proteins BldD and RsiG delaying the transition to the next growth phase. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Our results showed that a Salmonella multiple mutant in the twelve genes encoding diguanylate cyclase proteins that, as a consequence, cannot synthesize c-di-GMP, presents a moderate attenuation in a systemic murine infection model. (csic.es)
  • Analysis of c-di-GMP binding properties of bacterial proteins is an important step to characterize c-di-GMP signaling pathways. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Complementary in vitro and in vivo experiments showed that four HD-GYP domain proteins are active c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases: VC1295, VC1348, VCA0210 and VCA0681. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Altogether, this work greatly furthers the understanding of this important family of c-di-GMP metabolic enzymes and demonstrates a role for HD-GYP domain proteins in the virulence of V. cholerae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Knowing different c-di-GMP binding proteins would allow understanding c-di-GMP output systems. (unibas.ch)
  • Therefore, a biochemical screen was carried out using c-di-GMP linked to a capture compound to specifically isolate c-di-GMP binding proteins. (unibas.ch)
  • Nevertheless, both proteins can bind to c-di-GMP with high affinity, indicating a potential role as c-di-GMP effectors. (ucc.ie)
  • Recent studies of signal transduction in bacteria have revealed a unique second messenger, bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP), which regulates transitions between motile states and sessile states, such as biofilms. (springer.com)
  • The c-di-GMP in turn interacts with different effectors and subsequently regulates diverse downstream cellular processes, such as transcription ( 10 ), translation ( 11 ), protein activity ( 12 , 13 ), and secretion and stability ( 14 ), at different levels (for a review, see references 2 , 4 , and 15 ). (asm.org)
  • show that c-di-GMP regulates chemotaxis by binding to the PilZ domain protein MapZ to alter the methyltransferase activity of its protein partner CheR, fleshing out the c-di-GMP signaling network of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa . (sciencemag.org)
  • A Novel Two-Component System PdeK/PdeR Regulates c-di-GMP Turnover and Virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. (apsnet.org)
  • Our structure suggests that an N-terminal tail attached to the forkhead-associated domain of Bd0742 regulates diguanylate cyclase activity via self-binding. (bham.ac.uk)
  • Here, we demonstrate that this system operates as a signalling cascade, in which c‐di‐GMP controlled by the DGC/PDE pair YegE/YhjH (module I) regulates the activity of the YdaM/YciR pair (module II). (embopress.org)
  • The work presented here adds to the list of LonA substrates, identifies LonA as a c-di-GMP receptor, demonstrates that c-di-GMP regulates LonA activity and TfoY protein stability, and helps elucidate the mechanisms by which LonA controls important V . cholerae behaviors. (prolekare.cz)
  • Among those effectors, PilZ was first identified in silico as a putative c-di-GMP binding domain (Pfam 07238) based on the BcsA1 protein of Acetobacter xylinus ( 22 ) and named after the type IV pilus control protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( 23 ). (asm.org)
  • In Pseudomonas fluorescens , this process is regulated by the Lap system and the second messenger cyclic-di-GMP. (elifesciences.org)
  • YfiBNR mediates cyclic di-GMP dependent small colony variant formation and persistence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (pseudomonas.com)
  • Asymmetrical distribution of c-di-GMP in the progeny correlated with the time of cell division and polarization for Caulobacter crescentus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . (sciencemag.org)
  • The gene encoding ML1419c was cloned and expressed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to allow for assessment of cyclic di-GMP production and cyclic di-GMP-mediated phenotypes. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Here, we showed that metalloid tellurite (TeO32-) exposure induced the intracellular content of the secondary messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • We used high-throughput screening to identify chemical compounds that reduce the intracellular c-di-GMP content in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (bvsalud.org)
  • Identification of FleQ from Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a c-di-GMP-responsive transcription factor. (bioseek.eu)
  • We have identified the protein FleQ as a c-di-GMP-responsive transcriptional regulator in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (bioseek.eu)
  • Cyclic diguanylate (c-diGMP) [bis(3′,5′)-cyclic diguanylic acid] is a prokaryotic cyclic dinucleotide second messenger that has been implicated in controlling properties of the cell surface in diverse bacterial species ( 8 , 23 ). (asm.org)
  • Degradation of cyclic di-GMP to guanosine monophosphate (GMP) is catalyzed by a phosphodiesterase (PDE). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a ubiquitous second messenger in bacteria. (sciencemag.org)
  • We demonstrate that STING binds directly to radiolabelled cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP), and we show that unlabelled cyclic dinucleotides, but not other nucleotides or nucleic acids, compete with c-di-GMP for binding to STING. (nih.gov)
  • The previous reports from our laboratory the regulation factors, DGC and CRP, play an important role in expression mechanism of Carocin in Pcc.In this study, we want to known that how is the regulatory mechanism of carocin gene throgh cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) and cAMP receptor protein (CRP) cooperation. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • The biosensor derived from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium protein YcgR exhibited the largest change in net FRET (nFRET) in vitro (-60.6%), with a binding constant of 195 nM for c-di-GMP and no detectable response to cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate, cyclic GMP, or guanosine 5′-triphosphate (figs. S1 to S3). (sciencemag.org)
  • We found that mammalian cytosolic extracts synthesized cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP-AMP, or cGAMP) in vitro from adenosine triphosphate and guanosine triphosphate in the presence of DNA but not RNA. (sciencemag.org)
  • The second messenger, bis-(3′,5′)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (cyclic di-GMP), is involved in the control of multiple bacterial phenotypes, including those that impact host-pathogen interactions. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Genome sequencing revealed a novel gene, stm0551, located between fimY and fimW that encodes an 11.4-kDa putative phosphodiesterase specific for the bacterial second messenger cyclic-diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP). (isaude.net)
  • In turn, c-di-GMP is hydrolyzed by EAL domain phosphodiesterases (PDEs), including VieA, which is described below ( 9 , 10 , 45 , 48 ). (asm.org)
  • These results indicate that the HD-GYP family of c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases impacts signaling by this second messenger during infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cyclic di-GMP (also called cyclic diguanylate and c-di-GMP) is a second messenger used in signal transduction in a wide variety of bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • In bacteria, certain signals are communicated by synthesizing or degrading cyclic di-GMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Riboswitches called the cyclic di-GMP-I riboswitch and cyclic di-GMP-II riboswitch regulate gene expression in response to cyclic di-GMP concentrations in a variety of bacteria, but not all bacteria that are known to use cyclic di-GMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent discoveries suggest that a novel second messenger, bis-(3′→5′)-cyclic di-GMP (c-diGMP), is extensively used by bacteria to control multicellular behavior. (pnas.org)
  • As a ubiquitous second messenger, cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) has been studied in numerous bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Bis-(3′,5′)-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) is a soluble molecule that functions as a second messenger in bacteria ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • In a signaling network of c-di-GMP, bacteria typically use DGC and PDE enzymes to dynamically modulate the intracellular level of c-di-GMP in response to internal and/or external environmental cues ( 2 - 4 ). (asm.org)
  • The nucleotide-based second messenger bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) is involved in regulating a plethora of processes in bacteria that are typically associated with lifestyle changes. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Putative diguanylate phosphodiesterase, present in a variety of bacteria. (embl.de)
  • The molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie the characteristic behavior of Caulobacter cells and its regulation by c-di-GMP might thus be of general relevance for the understanding of processes involved in the motile-sessile transition in many other bacteria. (asmscience.org)
  • Recently, unique nucleic acids called cyclic dinucleotides, which function as conserved signalling molecules in bacteria, have also been shown to induce a STING-dependent type I IFN response. (nih.gov)
  • In many bacteria part of the effect of c-di-GMP is on gene expression, but the mechanism involved is not known for any species. (bioseek.eu)
  • The cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is currently considered an ubiquitous second messenger in bacteria that influences a wide range of cellular processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have constructed mini-Tn 7 delivery vectors for the integration and stable expression of the pleD * gene encoding a highly active DGC, which can be used to artificially increase the intracellular levels of c-di-GMP in Gram negative bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This high stability ensures experimental homogeneity in time and space with regard to enhancing c-di-GMP intracellular levels in bacteria of interest. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, additional approaches besides genomics and bioinformatics need to be implemented to uncover novel c-di-GMP regulation pathways and targets, particularly in bacteria with complex lifestyles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since its discovery, the number of processes known to be regulated by c-di-GMP in bacteria has expanded. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The second messenger c-di-GMP is implicated in regulation of various aspects of the lifestyles and virulence of Gram-negative bacteria. (ucc.ie)
  • The biological role of cyclic di-GMP was first uncovered when it was identified as an allosteric activator of a cellulose synthase found in Gluconacetobacter xylinus in order to produce microbial cellulose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herein, we identified that alteration of the phosphate metabolism increases production of the signaling molecule c-di-GMP, which in turn decreases the expression of type 1 fimbriae. (inrs.ca)
  • One such factor is the intracellular signaling molecule cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP). (bioseek.eu)
  • One major regulatory factor is the second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) therefore especially the activities of enzymes that are responsible for synthesis and breakdown of this small molecule are tightly regulated. (unibas.ch)
  • The immunosuppressive drug azathioprine inhibits biosynthesis of the bacterial signal molecule cyclic-di-GMP by interfering with intracellular nucleotide pool availability. (jove.com)
  • The PilZ domain has been shown to bind cyclic di-GMP and is believed to be involved in cyclic di-GMP-dependent regulation, but the mechanism by which it does this is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study investigates the regulation and function of the diguanylate cyclase DgcZ in E. coli. (uni-marburg.de)
  • The cyclic dinucleotide second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-diGMP) has been implicated in regulation of cell surface properties in several bacterial species, including Vibrio cholerae . (asm.org)
  • This regulation occurred at the transcriptional level, and ectopically altering the c-diGMP concentration by expression of diguanylate cyclase or phosphodiesterase enzymes also affected ctxAB transcription. (asm.org)
  • Bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP), first identified as an allosteric activator of cellulose synthase in Gluconacetobacter xylinus ( 40 , 41 , 53 ), has been recognized as an important bacterial second messenger involved in the regulation of a number of processes. (asm.org)
  • These properties likely require tight spatial and temporal regulation of c-di-GMP concentration. (sciencemag.org)
  • The possibility that degradation of c-di-GMP is a key step in the regulation of type 1 fimbriae warrants further investigation. (isaude.net)
  • Our results show that FleQ is a new type of c-di-GMP binding protein that controls the transcriptional regulation of EPS biosynthesis genes in P. aeruginosa. (bioseek.eu)
  • Interestingly, our data demonstrate that some of these factors are important in both environments while others are needed in only one, indicating that environmental cues may influence the regulation of c-di-GMP production. (wisc.edu)
  • The diguanylate cyclase YddV controls production of the exopolysaccharide poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG) through regulation of the PNAG biosynthetic pgaABCD operon. (jove.com)
  • Chemotaxis of an opportunistic pathogen is regulated by a c-di-GMP receptor (Xu et al . (sciencemag.org)
  • High cytoplasmic levels of cyclic-di-GMP activate the transmembrane receptor LapD that in turn recruits the periplasmic protease LapG, preventing it from cleaving a cell surface-bound adhesin, thereby promoting cell adhesion. (elifesciences.org)
  • Given the conservation of key elements of this receptor system in many bacterial species, the results are broadly relevant for cyclic-di-GMP- and HAMP domain-regulated transmembrane signaling. (elifesciences.org)
  • Cyclic Di-GMP receptor PlzA controls virulence gene expression through RpoS in Borrelia burgdorferi. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cyclic-di-GMP and Cyclic-AMP receptor co-regulate the genes expression of low-molecular-weight bacteriocin in Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • Binding of c-di-GMP to the diguanylate receptor domain induced a conformational change ( 4 , 10 ) that altered the relative orientation of the external fluorescent subunits, which decreased FRET efficiency. (sciencemag.org)
  • CdbA is a DNA-binding protein and c-di-GMP receptor important for nucleoid organization and segregation in Myxococcus xanthus. (synmikro.com)
  • Co-crystallization with GTP resulted in enzymatic synthesis of c-di-GMP. (springer.com)
  • The cause of tip-specific stalk formation has been unclear, but we show here that the more widely produced stalk-inducing signal cyclic diguanylate activates cAMP synthesis by adenylate cyclase A, which is specifically expressed at the apical tip. (pnas.org)
  • However, both inhibition of adenylate cyclase A (ACA) with SQ22536 and incubation of a temperature-sensitive ACA mutant at the restrictive temperature prevented c-di-GMP-induced cAMP synthesis as well as c-di-GMP-induced stalk gene transcription. (pnas.org)
  • This transcriptome signature was shared with N16961R, as were others involving two-component signal transduction, chemotaxis, and c-di-GMP synthesis functions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Based on these results, we conclude that VCA0965 is capable of c-di-GMP synthesis and that the first amino acid of the GG(D/E)EF motif is more tolerant of substitutions than currently appreciated. (nih.gov)
  • The Vc PecS homolog bound the promoter for a gene encoding diguanylate cyclase, which is responsible for the synthesis of 3' 5' cyclic di-GMP. (lsu.edu)
  • Cyclic di-GMP binds to interface between the DGC and D2 domains stabilizing the open structure and preventing catalysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • When levels of cyclic-di-GMP are high, cyclic-di-GMP binds to a protein called LapD, which can then in turn bind to an enzyme known as LapG. (elifesciences.org)
  • YciR acts as a connector between modules I and II and functions as a trigger enzyme: its direct inhibition of the DGC YdaM is relieved when it binds and degrades c‐di‐GMP generated by module I. As a consequence, YdaM then generates c‐di‐GMP and-by direct and specific interaction-activates MlrA to stimulate csgD transcription. (embopress.org)
  • We established that WarA binds to cyclic-di-GMP, which potentiates its methyltransferase activity. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • In in vitro experiments we found that FleQ binds to pel promoter DNA and that this binding is inhibited by c-di-GMP. (bioseek.eu)
  • FleQ binds radiolabelled c-di-GMP in vitro. (bioseek.eu)
  • AraC-like transcriptional activator CuxR binds c-di-GMP by a PilZ-like mechanism to regulate extracellular polysaccharide production. (synmikro.com)
  • In support of this, ectopic expression of VCA0965 and VCA0965 containing a mutation in its RXXD motif significantly increased the intracellular c-di-GMP levels in V. cholerae and Escherichia coli. (nih.gov)
  • A positive control protein that is known to bind to c-di-GMP such as YcgR from Escherichia coli should be included in the experiment. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Here we used transcriptional profiling of dgca− structures to identify target genes for c-di-GMP, and used these genes to investigate the c-di-GMP signal transduction pathway. (pnas.org)
  • We found that knockdown of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity in prestalk cells reduced stalk gene induction by c-di-GMP, whereas PKA activation bypassed the c-di-GMP requirement for stalk gene expression. (pnas.org)
  • In this report, a PilZ-like c-di-GMP binding protein (TDE0214) was studied to investigate the role of c-di-GMP in the spirochete. (asm.org)
  • Biosynthesis and degradation of c-di-GMP are performed by three protein domains. (asm.org)
  • Recent evidence shows that the protein domain HD-GYP can also degrade c-di-GMP ( 42 ). (asm.org)
  • We have created cyclic di-GMP level reporters by transcriptionally fusing the cyclic di-GMP-responsive cdrA promoter to genes encoding green fluorescent protein. (asm.org)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis CbpA is a collagen binding cell surface protein under c-di-GMP control. (uio.no)
  • Effect on protein secretion by MorA in P. aeruginosa is c-di-GMP signaling dependent. (nih.gov)
  • 1997). The c-di-GMP binding assay described here is a relatively simple and cost effective method to characterize c-di-GMP binding to a protein using [ 32 P]-labeled c-di-GMP. (bio-protocol.org)
  • 2013). After incubation of the labeled c-di-GMP with the protein of interest in solution, the resulting mixture is filtered through a nitrocellulose protein binding membrane. (bio-protocol.org)
  • The amount of labeled c-di-GMP that is retained on the membrane indicates the interaction between the signal and protein. (bio-protocol.org)
  • By examining binding of a fixed protein concentration to increasing concentrations of c-di-GMP, this method is able to determine the dissociation constant of c-di-GMP-protein interaction. (bio-protocol.org)
  • The lack of c-di-GMP resulted in miss-localization of the effector protein PopA that is involved in the degradation of the replication inhibitor CtrA. (unibas.ch)
  • Based on these finding we propose that BipB is a bifunctional protein contributing under the applied conditions with BipC, PleD and DgcB to intracellular c-di-GMP levels in C. crescentus. (unibas.ch)
  • Transposon insertion sequences of six mutants revealed similarity with type 1 fimbriae ( fimC , fimD , and fimH ), diguanylate cyclase, ATP synthase F1, beta subunit (atpD), and the uncharacterized YjiC protein. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Enzymes that degrade or synthesize cyclic di-GMP are believed to be localized to specific regions of the cell, where they influence receivers in a restricted space. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some diguanylate cyclase enzymes are allosterically inhibited by cyclic di-GMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trigger enzymes may represent a general principle in local c‐di‐GMP signalling. (embopress.org)
  • The minimal 'module' required for c‐di‐GMP signalling consists of a DGC, a PDE and an effector component that directly controls the output of a specific target ( Hengge, 2009 ). (embopress.org)
  • Furthermore, we identify mutations in STING that selectively affect the response to cyclic dinucleotides without affecting the response to DNA. (nih.gov)
  • c and d, HEK293T cells were transfected as in a and cell lysates were UV-crosslinked to c-di-GMP 32 or GTP 32 in the presence of cold competing nucleotides in 10-fold serial dilutions beginning at 1 mM, except for guanosine (0.1 mM), VV 70mer (500 μg/mL), poly(dAT:dTA) (50 μg/mL) and poly(I:C) (50 μg/mL). (nih.gov)
  • Cyclic di-GMP levels regulate other processes via a number of mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Gluconacetobacter xylinus cellulose synthase is allosterically stimulated by cyclic di-GMP, presenting a mechanism by which cyclic di-GMP can regulate cellulose synthase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alterations in the intracellular levels of cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) regulate the transition between the different stages of infection in E. amylovora . (frontiersin.org)
  • Biosynthesis of c-di-GMP in the crystallization reaction establishes that the enzymatic activity of this DGC domain does not require interaction with regulatory domains. (springer.com)
  • Upregulated systems included cyclic diguanylate and pyoverdine biosynthesis, the type VI secretion system, nitrate metabolism, and translational machinery. (asm.org)
  • Thus, asymmetrical distribution of c-di-GMP was observed as part of cell division, which may indicate an important regulatory step in extracellular organelle biosynthesis or function. (sciencemag.org)
  • As YaiC is involved in cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) biosynthesis, an increased accumulation of c-di-GMP was observed in the pst mutant. (inrs.ca)
  • Here we show that it also represses transcription of genes including the pel operon involved in EPS biosynthesis, and that this repression is relieved by c-di-GMP. (bioseek.eu)
  • VieA controls the intracellular concentration of the cyclic nucleotide second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) using an EAL domain that functions as a c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase. (nih.gov)
  • The lifecycle of \(Bdellovibrio\) \(bacteriovorus\) is complex and regulated in part by the cyclic nucleotide, c-di-GMP. (bham.ac.uk)
  • RmdB was identified as the master PDE in S. venezuelae by means of nucleotide extraction and is responsible for the hydrolysis of c-di-GMP over the course of development investigated. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Additionally, early isolates acquired mutations in genes involved in cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) metabolism that associated with increased c-di-GMP intracellular levels. (asm.org)
  • c-di-GMP modulates type IV MSHA pilus retraction and surface attachment in Vibrio cholerae. (escholarship.org)
  • The Vibrio cholerae diguanylate cyclase VCA0965 has an AGDEF active site and synthesizes cyclic di-GMP. (nih.gov)
  • We previously reported that hyper-elevation of c-di-GMP levels in E. amylovora Ea1189, resulting from the deletion of all three c-di-GMP specific phosphodiesterase genes (Ea1189Δ pdeABC ), resulted in an autoaggregation phenotype. (frontiersin.org)
  • We show that the reporter constructs give a fluorescent readout of the intracellular level of cyclic di-GMP in P. aeruginosa strains with different levels of cyclic di-GMP. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, we show that the reporters are able to detect increased turnover of cyclic di-GMP mediated by treatment of P. aeruginosa with the phosphodiesterase inducer nitric oxide. (asm.org)
  • We thus report c-di-GMP second messenger system as a novel regulator of T2SS function in P. aeruginosa. (nih.gov)
  • Given that T2SS is a central and constitutive pump, and the secreted proteases are involved in interactions with the microbial surroundings, our data broadens the significance of c-di-GMP signaling in P. aeruginosa pathogenesis and ecological fitness. (nih.gov)
  • Direct measurement of cyclic di-GMP levels by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry confirmed that ml1419c expression increased cyclic di-GMP production in P. aeruginosa PAO1 cultures in comparison to the vector control. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The observed phenotypes and increased levels of cyclic di-GMP detected in P. aeruginosa expressing ml1419c could be abrogated by mutation of the active site in ML1419c. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The evidence obtained in vivo therefore confirms the results from the in vitro experiments showing that the diguanylate cyclase DgcZ is allosterically regulated by zinc. (uni-marburg.de)
  • a, HEK293T cells were transfected as indicated and cell lysates were subjected to an in-vitro UV-crosslinking assay with c-di-GMP 32 . (nih.gov)
  • The FRET response of each biosensor to various c-di-GMP concentrations was characterized in vitro (table S1). (sciencemag.org)
  • Correlating the emission ratio (FRET/CFP) with the binding curve derived from in vitro characterization (fig. S2) yielded a cytosolic c-di-GMP concentration below 100 nM for the flagellated swarmer cell and a concentration above 500 nM for the stalk cell ( Fig. 1, A and B , and Fig. 2D ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Furthermore, we found that purified VCA0965 was able to synthesize c-di-GMP in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • In vitro purified XOC_4190 and XOC_2102 have little or no diguanylate cyclase or phosphodiesterase activity, which is consistent with unaltered c-di-GMP concentration in ΔXOC_4190. (ucc.ie)
  • In Gluconacetobacter xylinus, c-di-GMP stimulates the polymerization of glucose into cellulose as a high affinity allosteric activator of the enzyme cellulose synthase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparison with previously solved DGC structures shows a similar orientation of c-di-GMP bound to an allosteric regulatory site mediating feedback inhibition of the enzyme. (springer.com)
  • The activity of these DgcZ variants was derived by measuring the levels of PgaD, an enzyme involved in exopolysaccharide production, and of the exopolysaccharide poly-GlcNAc (PGA) produced, both proportional to DgcZ-derived c-di-GMP. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Radiolabeled c-di-GMP is synthesized using a purified diguanylate cyclase enzyme with [α- 32 P]-GTP as a substrate. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Cyclic dinucleotides have shown promise as novel vaccine adjuvants and immunotherapeutics, and our results provide insight into the mechanism by which cyclic dinucleotides are sensed by the innate immune system. (nih.gov)
  • Structure and signaling mechanism of a zinc-sensory diguanylate cyclase. (uniprot.org)
  • Cyclic nucleotides like cAMP or cGMP have been recognized as important low-molecular-weight signaling molecules. (pnas.org)
  • The oral spirochete Treponema denticola , a periodontal pathogen associated with human periodontitis, has a complex c-di-GMP signaling network. (asm.org)
  • The wide range of different cellular processes and molecular targets that are regulated by c-di-GMP reflects its remarkable versatility as a signaling device. (asmscience.org)
  • Global versus local c-di-GMP signaling modules. (asmscience.org)
  • Two possible architectures of c-di-GMP signaling modules are schematically depicted. (asmscience.org)
  • For live-cell imaging of c-di-GMP signaling events in single bacterial cells, we expressed the YcgR-based c-di-GMP sensor in Caulobacter crescentus and measured FRET efficiencies by ratiometric dual-emission microscopy ( Fig. 1, A and B ). Caulobacter has asymmetric cell division, resulting in two morphologically distinct progeny: a surface-attached replication-competent stalk cell, and a motile swarmer cell with a polar flagellum. (sciencemag.org)
  • Further investigations suggest that the MorA-mediated c-di-GMP signaling affects protease secretion largely at a post-translational level. (nih.gov)
  • We also determine the regulatory cascade leading to the accumulation of c-di-GMP and identify the Pho regulon as new players in c-di-GMP-mediated cell signaling. (inrs.ca)
  • Overall our findings advance understanding of c-di-GMP signaling and its links to virulence in an important rice pathogen. (ucc.ie)
  • Two other suppressors contained mutations in the quorum sensing pathway that controls bacterial bioluminescence in response to cell density, and two had mutations in the diguanylate cyclase (DGC) gene VF_1200 . (frontiersin.org)
  • We also observed that with an influx of Zn 2+ in the environment, the transcription of the znuAeagA/znuBC gene cluster is regulated by both Zur and a yet to be characterized c-di-GMP dependent pathway. (frontiersin.org)
  • These studies demonstrated that ML1419c of M. leprae functions as diguanylate cyclase to synthesize cyclic di-GMP. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Once inside, it activated adenyl cyclase, causing the concentration of cyclic-AMP to increase. (kenyon.edu)
  • Also RmdA has an influence on the global cellular c-di-GMP concentration during the transition from the vegetative to the reproductive growth phase. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Recent structural studies of PilZ domains from two bacterial species have demonstrated that PilZ domains change conformation drastically upon binding to cyclic di-GMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • FleQ does not have amino acid motifs that resemble previously defined c-di-GMP binding domains. (bioseek.eu)
  • One of the methodological approaches to unravel c-di-GMP regulatory networks involves raising the c-di-GMP intracellular levels, e.g. by expressing a diguanylate cyclase (DGC), to provoke phenotypic changes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We previously reported that cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP), synthesized by diguanylate cyclase A (DgcA), induces stalk formation. (pnas.org)
  • Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a key sensor responsible for cytosolic DNA detection. (nature.com)
  • Activation of cyclic GMP-AMP synthase by self-DNA causes autoimmune diseases. (nature.com)
  • Our results indicate that c-di-GMP directly controls MshE activity, thus regulating MSHA pilus extension and retraction dynamics, and modulating V. cholerae surface attachment and colonization. (escholarship.org)
  • We have developed genetically encoded fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors to monitor c-di-GMP concentrations within single bacterial cells by microscopy. (sciencemag.org)