GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
A genus of EUKARYOTES, in the phylum EUGLENIDA, found mostly in stagnant water. Characteristics include a pellicle usually marked by spiral or longitudinal striations.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
The ester of diacylglycerol with the terminal phosphate of cytidine diphosphate. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine in bacteria.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
An important intermediate in lipid biosynthesis and in glycolysis.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC 2.7.1.107.
The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.
GLYCEROL esterified with a single acyl (FATTY ACIDS) chain.
The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A ketotriose compound. Its addition to blood preservation solutions results in better maintenance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels during storage. It is readily phosphorylated to dihydroxyacetone phosphate by triokinase in erythrocytes. In combination with naphthoquinones it acts as a sunscreening agent.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.
A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.

The Npc1 mutation causes an altered expression of caveolin-1, annexin II and protein kinases and phosphorylation of caveolin-1 and annexin II in murine livers. (1/2446)

We have previously demonstrated (1) an increased expression of caveolin-1 in murine heterozygous and homozygous Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) livers, and (2) an increased concentration of unesterified cholesterol in a detergent insoluble caveolae-enriched fraction from homozygous livers. To define further the relationship between caveolin-1 function and the cholesterol trafficking defect in NPC, we examined the expression and distribution of additional caveolar and signal transduction proteins. The expression of annexin II was significantly increased in homozygous liver homogenates and the Triton X-100 insoluble floating fraction (TIFF). Phosphoamino acid analysis of caveolin-1 and annexin II from the homozygous TIFF demonstrated an increase in serine and tyrosine phosphorylation, respectively. To determine the basis for increased phosphorylation of these proteins, the expression and distribution of several protein kinases was examined. The expression of PKCalpha, PKCzeta and pp60-src (protein kinases) were significantly increased in both heterozygous and homozygous liver homogenates, while PKCdelta was increased only in homozygous livers. Of the protein kinases analyzed, only CK IIalpha was significantly enriched in the heterozygous TIFF. Finally, the concentration of diacylglycerol in the homozygous TIFF was significantly increased and this elevation may modulate PKC distribution and function. These results provide additional evidence for involvement of a caveolin-1 containing cellular fraction in the pathophysiology of NPC and also suggest that the Npc1 gene product may directly or indirectly, regulate the expression and distribution of signaling molecules.  (+info)

Involvement of protein kinase C in 5-HT-stimulated ciliary activity in Helisoma trivolvis embryos. (2/2446)

1. During development, embryos of the pulmonate gastropod, Helisoma trivolvis, undergo a rotation behaviour due to the co-ordinated beating of three bands of ciliated epithelial cells. This behaviour is in part mediated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) released from a pair of identified embryonic neurons. Using time-lapse videomicroscopy to measure ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in response to pharmacological manipulations, we determined whether protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in mediating 5-HT-stimulated ciliary beating. 2. Diacylglycerol (DAG) analogues sn-1,2-dioctanoyl glycerol (DiC8; 100 microM) and 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG; 100 microM), partially mimicked the 5-HT-induced increase in CBF. In contrast, application of OAG in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ did not result in an increase in CBF. 3. 5-HT-stimulated CBF was effectively blocked by PKC inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide (10 and 100 nM) and calphostin C (10 nM). In addition, bisindolylmaleimide (100 nM) inhibited DiC8-induced increases in CBF. At a higher concentration (200 nM), bisindolylmaleimide did not significantly reduce 5-HT-stimulated cilio-excitation. 4. Two different phorbol esters, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA; 0.1, 10 or 1000 nM) and phorbol 12beta, 13alpha-dibenzoate (PDBn; 10 microM) did not alter basal CBF. TPA (1 microM) did not alter 5-HT-stimulated CBF. Likewise, the synthetic form of phosphatidylserine, N-(6-phenylhexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulphonamide (SC-9; 10 microM), did not increase CBF, whereas a strong increase in CBF was observed upon exposure to 5-HT. 5. The results suggest that a DAG-dependent, phorbol ester-insensitive isoform of PKC mediates 5-HT-stimulated CBF in ciliated epithelial cells from embryos of Helisoma trivolvis.  (+info)

Protein kinase C reduces the KCa current of rat tail artery smooth muscle cells. (3/2446)

The hypothesis that protein kinase C (PKC) is able to regulate the whole cell Ca-activated K (KCa) current independently of PKC effects on local Ca release events was tested using the patch-clamp technique and freshly isolated rat tail artery smooth muscle cells dialyzed with a strongly buffered low-Ca solution. The active diacylglycerol analog 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol (DOG) at 10 microM attenuated the current-voltage (I-V) relationship of the KCa current significantly and reduced the KCa current at +70 mV by 70 +/- 4% (n = 14). In contrast, 10 microM DOG after pretreatment of the cells with 1 microM calphostin C or 1 microM PKC inhibitor peptide, selective PKC inhibitors, and 10 microM 1,3-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol, an inactive diacylglycerol analog, did not significantly alter the KCa current. Furthermore, the catalytic subunit of PKC (PKCC) at 0.1 U/ml attenuated the I-V relationship of the KCa current significantly, reduced the KCa current at +70 mV by 44 +/- 3% (n = 17), and inhibited the activity of single KCa channels at 0 mV by 79 +/- 9% (n = 6). In contrast, 0.1 U/ml heat-inactivated PKCC did not significantly alter the KCa current or the activity of single KCa channels. Thus these results suggest that PKC is able to considerably attenuate the KCa current of freshly isolated rat tail artery smooth muscle cells independently of effects of PKC on local Ca release events, most likely by a direct effect on the KCa channel.  (+info)

Farnesol-induced growth inhibition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by a cell cycle mechanism. (4/2446)

The growth of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was inhibited in medium containing 25 microM farnesol (FOH). The FOH-treated cells were still viable, and were characterized by a transition from budded to unbudded phase as well as a significant loss of intracellular diacylglycerol (DAG). FOH-induced growth inhibition could be effectively prevented by the coaddition of a membrane-permeable DAG analogue which can activate yeast protein kinase C (PKC). However, yeast cell growth was not initiated upon addition of the PKC activator when the cells had been pretreated with FOH for 20 min. The failure in cell growth recovery was believed to be due to a signalling-mediated cell cycle arrest in FOH-pretreated cells. Differential display analysis demonstrated that the expression of cell cycle genes encoding DNA ligase (CDC9) and histone acetyltransferase (HAT2) was strongly repressed in FOH-treated cells. Repression of the expression of these genes was effectively cancelled when cells were grown in medium supplemented with DAG. The authors propose an interference with a phosphatidylinositol-type signalling which is involved in cell cycle progression as a cause of FOH-induced growth inhibition in yeast cells.  (+info)

Degradation of protein kinase Malpha by mu-calpain in a mu-calpain-protein kinase Calpha complex. (5/2446)

In previous studies, we isolated and identified a mu-calpain-PKCalpha complex from rabbit skeletal muscle. At the same time we pointed out that an association between mu-calpain and PKCalpha could occur at the level of the plasma membrane of muscle cells, and that PKCalpha could thus be considered as a potential mu-calpain substrate. In the present study, using the mu-calpain-PKCalpha complex as a model, we report that mu-calpain is activated in the combined presence of physiological calcium concentrations (less than 1 microM) and phosphatidylserine. Furthermore our data also show that: (1) there exists a correlation between the appearance of autolyzed mu-calpain forms and PKCalpha hydrolysis which leads to the formation of PKMalpha; (2) in certain experimental conditions, autolyzed mu-calpain forms are able to hydrolyze PKMalpha independently of the presence of diacylglycerol.  (+info)

17beta-oestradiol increases intracellular Ca2+ concentration in rat enterocytes. Potential role of phospholipase C-dependent store-operated Ca2+ influx. (6/2446)

The involvement of the phospholipase C (PLC) pathway in the non-genomic regulation of duodenal cell Ca2+ concentration by 17beta-oestradiol was investigated. The PLC inhibitors neomycin (0.5 mM) and U-73122 (2 microM) suppressed the stimulatory effect of 0.1 nM 17beta-oestradiol on the 45Ca2+ influx into enterocytes isolated from rat duodenum. The hormone (1 pM to 10 nM) increased the formation of 1,2-diacylglycerol in a biphasic pattern, characterized by an early peak at 45 s (+82%) and a later peak at 5 min (+46%). Both PLC inhibitors suppressed the first peak but were unable to block the 17beta-oestradiol effect at 5 min. 17beta-Oestradiol also increased the generation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate within 15 s, with maximal stimulation at 30 s. 17beta-Oestradiol induced a rapid (30 s) and sustained (up to 5 min) increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) of fura 2-loaded enterocytes. The fast rise in [Ca2+]i was specific because other sex steroid hormones were without effect and could be blocked to a great extent by U-73122 (by 86% at 1 min). The effects of 17beta-oestradiol on enterocyte [Ca2+]i were decreased significantly (by 75%) in a Ca2+-free extracellular medium but a pronounced increase in [Ca2+]i was obtained after readmission of Ca2+ to the medium. The latter change was suppressed by 10 microM La3+, whereas nitrendipine (1 microM) and verapamil (10 microM) separately were without effect. The permeability of the 17beta-oestradiol-induced Ca2+ influx pathway to Mn2+ was increased 2.8-fold by treatment with oestrogen. These results suggest the operation of a PLC-dependent store-operated Ca2+ channel mechanism in 17beta-oestradiol regulation of enterocyte extracellular Ca2+ influx.  (+info)

Dexamethasone-induced thymocyte apoptosis: apoptotic signal involves the sequential activation of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C, acidic sphingomyelinase, and caspases. (7/2446)

Glucocorticoid hormones (GCH) have been implicated as regulators of T-lymphocyte growth and differentiation. In particular, it has been reported that GCH can induce thymocyte apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this GCH-induced death have not been clarified. In this work, the biochemical events associated with apoptosis induced by Dexamethasone (Dex), a synthetic GCH, in normal mouse thymocytes, have been analyzed. Results indicate that Dex-induced thymocyte apoptosis is attributable to an early ceramide generation caused by the activation of an acidic sphingomyelinase (aSMase). Caspase activity plays a crucial role in Dex-induced apoptosis and is downstream the aSMase activation in that inhibition of the early ceramide generation inhibits caspase activation and thymocyte death. Moreover, Dex treatment rapidly induces diacylglycerol (DAG) generation, through a protein kinase C (PKC) and G-protein-dependent phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), an event which precedes and is required for aSMase activation. Indeed, PI-PLC inhibition by U73122 totally prevents Dex-induced aSMase activity, ceramide generation, and consequently, caspase activation and apoptosis. All these effects require Dex interaction with GCH receptor (GR), are countered by the GR antagonist RU486, and precede the GCH/GR-activated transcription and protein synthesis. These observations indicate that GCH activates thymocyte death through a complex signaling pathway that requires the sequential activation of different biochemical events.  (+info)

Solubilization of diglyceride acyltransferase from the membrane of Mycobacterium smegmatis. (8/2446)

Diglyceride acyltransferase [acyl-CoA : 1,2-diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase, EC 2.3.1.20] was found to be localized in the membrane of Mycobacterium smegmatis, and this enzyme could be solubilized from the membrane by treatment with aqueous acetone. The solubilized enzyme required either 1,2-diolein or 1, 3-diolein as an acceptor for palmitoyl-CoA. The apparent Km value for 1,2- or 1,3-diolein and that for palmitoyl-CoA were about 1.4 X 10(-5) M and 6 X 10(-6) M, respectively. Several sulfhydryl reagents were inhibitory to the enzyme activity, suggesting the existence of a thiol group(s) in its active site. The solubilized enzyme, which was more labile than that membrane-bound one, could be stabilized to some extent with antichaotropic salts such as phosphate, pyrophosphate, and sulfate.  (+info)

How is TPA and 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-glycerol abbreviated? OAG stands for TPA and 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-glycerol. OAG is defined as TPA and 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-glycerol very rarely.
It has been hypothesized on the basis of studies on BC3H-1 myocytes that diacylglycerol generation with activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in the stimulation of glucose transport in muscle by insulin. In the present study, we used the rat epitrochlearis muscle to evaluate the possibility that PKC activity mediates the stimulation of glucose transport by insulin in mammalian skeletal muscle. Phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens (PLC-Cp), which generates diacylglycerol from membrane phospholipids, and 4 beta-phorbol 12 beta-myristate 13 alpha-acetate (PMA) induced increases in glucose transport activity (assessed using 3-O-methylglucose transport) that were approximately 80 and approximately 20% as great, respectively, as that induced by a maximal insulin stimulus. PLC-Cp and PMA both caused a approximately 2-fold increase in membrane-associated PKC activity. In contrast, insulin did not affect PKC activity. These findings argue against a role of diacylglycerol-mediated PKC ...
sn-1,2-Didecanoylglycerol, a synthetic lipid second messenger and model diacylglycerol, was evaluated as a complete skin tumor promoter in CD-1 mice. In addition, sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol, sn-1,2-didecanoylglycerol, the second stage tumor promoter mezerein, and the complete tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) were examined for their ability to stimulate epidermal protein kinase C activity in vitro. All four compounds stimulated epidermal protein kinase C activity utilizing lysine-rich histone as the phosphate acceptor substrate. sn-1,2-Dioctanoylglycerol and sn-1,2-didecanoylglycerol stimulated epidermal protein kinase C activity to a maximum velocity similar to that obtained when the enzyme was stimulated with TPA; however, about 1000 times greater concentration of the sn-1,2-diacylglycerols was required. sn-1,2-Didecanoylglycerol was evaluated as a complete skin tumor promoter in CD-1 mice utilizing a dosing regimen demonstrated to produce epidermal hyperplasia. Mice ...
We have used a caged DAG compound to release the DAG analogue diC8 within cardiac myocytes in a controlled way using near-UV light.41 Photogenerated diC8 produced a positive inotropic effect, which was stereospecific and dose dependent, with an ≈4-fold enhancement of contractility under optimal conditions. This contractile response was modulated by the presence of cis-unsaturated fatty acids and blocked by the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine. This is the first direct demonstration, to our knowledge, of positive inotropy being initiated by a DAG analogue in mammalian adult ventricular muscle.. A few investigators have resolved smaller increases (12%22 and 116%28 ) in response to phorbol esters, but most investigators report dose-dependent negative ino-tropy after phorbol ester or DAG treatment.20 21 22 23 39 40 A strong case has been made that DAG mediates a physiologically important negative inotropy in ventricular tissues under some conditions.11 18 29 Our method of releasing diC8 from a caged ...
1. Human erythrocytes were treated with Ca2+ and ionophore A23187 and measurements were made of K+ efflux, polyphosphoinositide breakdown, 1,2-diacylglycerol accumulation, phosphatidate synthesis, changes in membrane polypeptide pattern and release of microvesicles. 2. It was shown that neither transamidase-mediated protein cross-linking, proteolysis of polypeptides 2.1 (ankyrin) or 4.1, nor accumulation of diacylglycerol or phosphatidate appeared to be necessary for microvesiculation to occur. 3. Microvesicles were released only under conditions where KCl efflux leading to cell shrinkage occurred and where polyphosphoinositides were broken down. These circumstances were sufficient to cause microvesiculation only in the presence of increased intracellular concentrations of Ca2+. ...
1,2-Dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol - CAS 60514-48-9 - Calbiochem CAS 60514-48-9 Cell-permeable activator of protein kinase C (PKC). - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Im sorry, but nutrition discussion is off-topic for the fatfree mailing list. You might consider joining the pf-chat list which does permit nutrition discussion and submitting your question there. To join, send email to [email protected] with the SUBJECT: subscribe Thanks, Michelle Owner, FATFREE mailing list You wrote: , Hi-- , I have been trying to find out how healthy such products like Promise Ultra , Fat Free are. The ingredients state it is composed of mono- and , diglycerides. I looked that up on the web and got the idea it is related to , Olestra. I also got the idea that such non-fat fats have giant molecules , and therefore are not absorbed by the intestine. But have read no research , report that talks about the health aspects of such substances. Can they , block the absorbtion of other good fats, like Omega 3? Can they create an , imbalance? Are mono- and diglyerides just a way of getting around the FDA , regulations for listing what is fat? Any articles, URLs, ...
Sun Nov 11 2007 Dag Wieers ,[email protected], - 1.19-2 - 7981/dag - Fix group tag. * Fri Nov 09 2007 Dag Wieers ,[email protected], - 1.19-1 - Initial package. (using DAR ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - sn-1,2-diacylglycerol kinase of Escherichia coli. Structural and kinetic analysis of the lipid cofactor dependence. AU - Walsh, J. P.. AU - Bell, R. M.. PY - 1986/12/1. Y1 - 1986/12/1. N2 - The lipid cofactor requirement of Escherichia coli sn-1,2-diacylglycerol kinase was studied using a β-octylglucoside mixed micellar assay (Walsh, J.P., and Bell, R.M. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 6239-6247). The enzyme was shown to have an absolute requirement for a lipid activator. sn-1,2-Dioleoylglycerol was both an activator and a substrate for the enzyme, 1,3-dioleoylglycerol was an activator but not a substrate, and sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol was a substrate but not an activator. Activation was observed with a large number of phospholipids, sulfolipids, neutral lipids, and detergents. Lipids with longer alkyl/acyl chains stimulated activity to a greater extent and lower concentrations than their shorter chain homologs. Anionic lipids were the best activators, and neutral lipids were ...
Displays a strong preference for 1,2-diacylglycerols over 1,3-diacylglycerols, but lacks substrate specificity among molecular species of long chain diacylglycerols. Regulates RASGRP1 activity (By similarity). Positively regulates insulin-induced translocation of SLC2A4 to the cell membrane in adipocytes. Activates PIP5K1A activity via generation of phosphatidic acid (PubMed:27739494).
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nuclear Diacylglycerol Kinase-θ is Activated in Response to α-Thrombin. AU - Bregoli, Lisa. AU - Baldassare, Joseph J.. AU - Raben, Daniel M.. PY - 2001/6/29. Y1 - 2001/6/29. N2 - Currently, there is substantial evidence that nuclear lipid metabolism plays a critical role in a number of signal transduction cascades. Previous work from our laboratory showed that stimulation of quiescent fibroblasts with α-thrombin leads to the production of two lipid second messengers in the nucleus: an increase in nuclear diacylglycerol mass and an activation of phospholipase D, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to generate phosphatidic acid. Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) catalyzes the conversion of diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid, making it an attractive candidate for a signal transduction component. There is substantial evidence that this activity is indeed regulated in a number of signaling cascades (reviewed by van Blitterswijk, W. J., and Houssa, B. (1999) Chem. ...
Hyperglycemia and diabetes have been shown to increase diacylglycerol (DAG) level and activate protein kinase C (PKC) activity in the vascular tissues, possibly altering vascular function. We have characterized the effects of D-α-tocopherol (vitamin E) on PKC activities and DAG levels in rat aortic smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) cultured with elevated glucose levels as well as in the vascular tissues obtained from control and diabetic rats. In ASMCs, the specific PKC activity from the membraneous fraction and total DAG level were increased by 31 ± 4% (P , 0.05) and 50 ± 7% (P , 0.05), respectively, when the glucose levels were changed from 5.5 to 22 mmol/1. The addition of D-α-tocopherol and another lipophilic antioxidant, probucol, prevented the glucose-stimulated increases in DAG level and PKC activity. By immunoblotting studies, D-α-tocopherol treatment was able to reduce the enhancement of PKC (ill isoform in the membraneous fraction isolated from ASMCs. Comparing streptozotocin-induced ...
Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK, EC 2.7.1.107) is a lipid kinase that phosphorylates diacylglycerol (DAG) to generate phosphatidic acid (PA). DGK belongs to a well-conserved family of proteins found in diverse species, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, mammals, plants, and bacteria (Merida et al. Biochem J 409:1-18, 2008). In eukaryotes, DGK can be activated in response to various stimuli, and its product PA is emerging as a novel lipid second messenger (Munnik, Trends Plant Sci 6:227-233, 2001; Testerink and Munnik, Trends Plant Sci 10:368-375, 2005). Despite similarities to the mammalian system, plant DGKs display several distinctive features ...
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Solid lipid microparticles (SLM) made from triglycerides and waxes are promising colloidal systems for controlled drug delivery. In this study, new symmetrical 1,3-diglycerides compromised of dihydroxyacetone and lipids ...
Diacylglycerol Kinase: An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC 2.7.1.107.
Members of the protein kinase C (PKC) superfamily transduce a myriad of transmembrane signals initiated by the formation of sn-l ,2-diacylglycerol (DAG). As the primary physiological agonist for C] domain containing PKC isoenzynles, DAG functions to regulate the spatial and temporal parameters of PKC activity. It is now recognized that cellular DAG levels can vary from minutes to hours and even days. These observations have suggested a division of PKC functions that correlate to the duration of the cellular DAG signal. In their classical role, cPKCs respond acutely to the short-lived (1-2 nlin) DAG generated at the plasma membrane by the phospholipase C-mediated turnover of phosphoinositides. In contrast, a more persistent DAG signal can be produced through a variety of physiologic as well as pathologic mechanisms, and this DAG has also been proposed to regulate PKC activity. Currently, there are conflicting data on this issue and the specific subcellular localization of cPKC during prolonged ...
The CD5 is a signal transducing molecule whose cytoplasmic tail is devoid of any intrinsic catalytic activity. CD5 modulates signaling through the antigen-specific receptor complex (TCR and BCR). CD5 crosslinking induces extracellular Ca++ mobilization, tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular proteins and DAG production. Preliminary evidence shows protein associations with ZAP-70, p56lck, p59fyn, PC-PLC, etc. CD5 may serve as a dual receptor, giving either stimulatory or inhibitory signals depending both on the cell type and development stage. In thymocytes and B1a cells seems to provide inhibitory signals, in peripheral mature T lymhocytes it acts as a costimulatory signal receptor. CD5 is the phenotypic marker of a B cell subpopulation involved in the production of autoreactive antibodies ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Shinichi Meguro, Noriko Osaki, Koji Onizawa, Noriyuki Yajima, Tadashi Hase, Noboru Matsuo, Ichiro Tokimitsu].
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Summary. Background: Platelet adhesion, activation and aggregation at sites of vascular injury are essential processes for primary hemostasis. Elevation of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration is a central event in platelet activation but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) through Orai1 was shown to be the main Ca2+ influx pathway in murine platelets, but there are additional non-store-operated Ca2+ (non-SOC) and receptor operated Ca2+ (ROC) channels expressed in the platelet plasma membrane.Objective: Canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channel 6 is found both in human and murine platelets and has been proposed to mediate diacylglycerol (DAG) activated ROCE but also a role in the regulation of SOCE has been suggested.Methods: To investigate the function of TRPC6 in platelet Ca2+ signaling and activation, we analyzed platelets from mice deficient in TRPC6 using a wide range of in vitro and in vivo assays.Results: In the mutant ...
Insulin stimulated protein synthesis in L6 myoblasts but did not increase the labelling of DAG or the release of phosphocholine from phosphatidylcholine. The DAG lipase inhibitor, RHC 80267, more than doubled the amount of label appearing in DAG but did not stimulate protein synthesis. Even in the presence of the DAG lipase inhibitor insulin failed to have any effect on DAG labelling, and conversely RHC 80267 did not modify the insulin-induced increase in protein synthesis. These results suggest that endogenous DAG production is not involved in the stimulation of protein synthesis by insulin. However, exogenous diacylglycerols (1-oleoyl-2-acetyl glycerol and 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl glycerol) both stimulated protein synthesis in L6 myoblasts. The efficacy of the former (arachidonatefree) DAG suggested that their action was by activation of protein kinase C rather than by arachidonate release and prostaglandin formation. Ibuprofen, an inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase failed to block the effects of ...
Diacylglycerol (DAG) oil has been investigated in humans and animals as a potential therapy for hypertriglyceridemia and related disorders. DAG oil was evaluated in healthy cats and in a feline model of hypertriglyceridemia as a result of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency. In the first study, eight adult cats were offered a commercial dry diet enriched with either DAG or triglyceride (TAG) oil (48% metabolizable energy [ME] from fat) in a two-bowl palatability feeding trial. After 14 days, total food intakes were similar (DAG diet 470 ± 52 g, TAG diet 380 ± 88 g, P = 0.4). Both diets were well-accepted and no changes in health or fecal quality were observed. In the second study, eleven adult LPL-deficient male cats were fed a semipurified diet containing either DAG or TAG oil as the sole fat source (25% ME) in a crossover design for 8 days each after a 21-day acclimation period. Serum concentrations of TAG, cholesterol, and nonesterified fatty acids were measured on days 6, 7, 8 and days 14, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Photoactivated inhibition of superoxide generation and protein kinase C activity in neutrophils by blepharismin, a protozoan photodynamically active pigment. AU - Watanabe, Yoshiya. AU - E-ige, Keisuke. AU - Kobuchi, Hirotsugu. AU - Kato, Yoji. AU - Matsuoka, Tatsuomi. AU - Utsumi, Toshihiko. AU - Yoshioka, Tamotsu. AU - Horton, Alan A.. AU - Utsumi, Kozo. PY - 1995/2/14. Y1 - 1995/2/14. N2 - Blepharismin is an endogenous photosensitizing pigment found in the protozoan Blepharisma. This pigment inhibited the generation of Superoxide anion (O2-) in neutrophils not only via a diacylglycerol-induced protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent reaction but also by an arachidonate-induced PKC-independent reaction. The inhibition was light and concentration dependent for both reactions. Light-activated inhibition was strong at wavelengths between 520 and 570nm but not above 610nm. PKC activity in neutrophils and from rat brain was inhibited by blepharismin in a light- and concentration dependent ...
Diacylglycerol (DAG) is a critical second messenger that mediates T cell receptor (TCR)-stimulated signaling. The abundance of DAG is reduced by the diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs), which catalyze the conversion of DAG to phosphatidic acid (PA) and thus inhibit DAG-mediated signaling. In T cells, the predominant DGK isoforms are DGKα and DGKζ, and deletion of the genes encoding either isoform enhances DAG-mediated signaling. We found that DGKζ, but not DGKα, suppressed the development of natural regulatory T (Treg) cells and predominantly mediated Ras and Akt signaling downstream of the TCR. The differential functions of DGKα and DGKζ were not attributable to differences in protein abundance in T cells or in their localization to the contact sites between T cells and antigen-presenting cells. RasGRP1, a key DAG-mediated activator of Ras signaling, associated to a greater extent with DGKζ than with DGKα; however, in silico modeling of TCR-stimulated Ras activation suggested that a ...
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine whether inhibition of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels underlies attenuation of angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced vasoconstriction by phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3 inhibition. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pretreatment of rat thoracic aorta with cilostazol, a selective PDE3 inhibitor, suppressed vasoconstriction induced by Ang II but not that induced by KCl. The Ang II-induced contraction was largely dependent on Ca(2+) influx via receptor-operated cation channels. Cilostazol specifically suppressed diacylglycerol-activated TRPC channels (TRPC3/TRPC6/TRPC7) through protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation of TRPC channels in HEK293 cells. In contrast, we found that phosphorylation of TRPC6 at Thr69 was essential for the suppression of Ang II-induced Ca(2+) influx by PDE3 inhibition in rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RAoSMCs). Cilostazol specifically induced phosphorylation of endogenous TRPC6 at Thr69. The endogenous TRPC6, but ...
The members of the protein kinase C (PKC) family consist of serine/threonine kinases classified according to their regulatory domain. Those that belong to the novel PKC subfamily, such as PKCδ, are dependent on diacylglycerol but not Calcium when considering their catalytic activity. Although several studies have shown the importance of PKCδ in different cellular events in health and disease, the overall in vivo distribution of this PKC isoform during development is still lacking. Through Lac Z and antibody staining procedures, we show here the in vivo expression of PKCδ during mouse embryogenesis. Ganglia were the domains with most prominent expression of PKCδ in most of the stages analysed, although PKCδ could also be detected in heart and somites at earlier stages, and cartilage primordium and skin among other sites in older embryos. The strong expression of PKCδ in ganglia during murine development shown in this study suggests a significant role of this isoform as well as redundancy with other
Abstract: As shown by previous studies, adaptation to short-term stress exposure developed the phenomenon of adaptive stabilization of structures (PhASS), including such as elevation in resistance to impairing effects of isolated animal hearts and the heart nuclear fraction of elements of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Studies of the role of inositol phosphate regulatory cycle in the development of the ASS phenomenon showed that the inositol triphosphate-diacyl glycerol (ITP-DAG) step of regulation was activated at the peak of PhASS development within 15 days after the adaptation onset. The activation observed was accompanied by enhanced activity of phospholipase C as well as by positive inotropic responses of heart tissue to phenylephrine stimulation, which was determined by ITP and DAG accumulation. Within 30 days the inositol phosphate cycle activation was decreased with simultaneous reduction of PhASS. The data obtained suggest that the ITP-DAG step of regulation involved in development of ...
Protein kinase C has been in the spotlight since the discovery two decades ago that it is activated by the lipid second messenger diacylglycerol. Despite protein kinase Cs enduring stage presence, the regulation and specific roles of its isozymes in defined cellular processes are still under intens …
This study is based on the overexpression of endogenous diacylglycerol acyltransferase type 2 (NeoDGAT2) in N. oleoabundans to improve triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation for potential biodiesel production. The important prerequisites for NeoDGAT2 overexpression in N. oleoabundans are the availabilities of: (i) the stable nuclear transformation system [25], (ii) the NeoDGAT2 cDNA encoding a functional DGAT protein. NeoDGAT2 fused with His tag at the C-terminus for facilitating Western blot analysis has been shown to reduce the NeoDGAT2 activity [11]. NeoDGAT2 without tag was therefore used in this study, and (iii) the functional promoter that can drive the expression of the NeoDGAT2. Because no data concerning N. oleoabundans endogenous promoter are available, promoters AR and β2-Tub from C. reinhardtii [28, 29] that have been shown to function in N. oleoabundans with similar activity [25] were utilized in this study. Among the transformants, AR-DGAT2-40 showed the highest neutral lipid content ...
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. European patent No. 0 525 915 based on application No. 92 202 859.2 was granted on the basis of one claim.. Independent claim 1 as granted read as follows:. 1. An edible glyceride mixture comprising monoglycerides, diglycerides and triglycerides, wherein:. the weight ratio of diglyceride to monoglyceride is from 5:1 to 990:1, and the aliphatic acid (acyl) moieties in the glycerides have 8 to 24 carbon atoms and comprise 70% by weight, or more, of unsaturated aliphatic acid moieties, and wherein:. the diglycerides contain 40% by weight, or less, of diglycerides having unsaturated and saturated aliphatic acid moieties and 5% by weight or less of diglycerides having two saturated aliphatic acid moieties.. II. The following documents inter alia were cited in the proceedings:. (4a) Mairata, Grasas y Aceites vol. 36, no. 4 (1985), pp. 269-273. (4) English translation of document (4a). (2a) M. Catalano, La Rivista Italiana delle sostanze grasse, vol. XLIX, (March ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by calcium and the second messenger diacylglycerol. PKC family members phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are known to be involved in diverse cellular signaling pathways. PKC family members also serve as major receptors for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters. Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play a distinct role in cells. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the PKC family members. This kinase has been shown to be involved in many different cellular functions, such as neuron channel activation, apoptosis, cardioprotection from ischemia, heat shock response, as well as insulin exocytosis. Knockout studies in mice suggest that this kinase is important for lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated signaling in activated ...
PRKCQ (pS676) Antibody is a Rabbit Polyclonal antibody against PRKCQ (pS676). Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by calcium and the second messenger diacylglycerol. PKC family members
Diacylglycerol (DAG) influences numerous cell signaling cascades by functioning as an intracellular, allosteric activator of protein kinase C (PKC),…
Protein kinases C (PKCs) are ubiquitously expressed and play critical roles in a plethora of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Owing to PKCs highly conserved phosphorylation consensus sequence, it has been difficult to distinguish the role of individual PKC isoforms. Recently, the identification of novel membrane targeting via subcellularly targeted diacylglycerol production found for novel PKCs (nPKCs), together with a characterization of their putative functions, has shed new light on the specific roles of individual PKCs in cellular processes. ...
Ebanks R, Roifman C, Mellors A, Mills GB. The diacylglycerol analogue, 1,2-sn-dioctanoylglycerol, induces an increase in cytosolic free Ca2+ and cytosolic acidification of T lymphocytes through a protein kinase C-independent process. Biochem J. 1989 Mar 15; 258(3):689-98 ...
We found that DAG-induced contraction of permeabilized smooth muscle cells was dose-dependently inhibited by antibodies raised against PKC-βII in the LES and PKC-ε in the ESO. In the LES, a complete concentration-response curve was generated only for PKC-βII because it was the only isozyme tested that significantly inhibited contraction in the LES. Similarly, in ESO, a complete concentration-response curve was generated only for PKC-ε because it was the only isozyme tested that significantly inhibited contraction in the ESO. In general, in this and other experiments using antibodies, we found a maximal effect at a 1:200 concentration.. The mechanism through which these antibodies inhibit contraction is unclear. PKC is composed of four conserved (C1-C4) and five variable regions (V1-V5), generally organized in the sequence V1-C1-V2-C2-V3-C3-V4-C4-V5. C1 and C2 are contained in the regulatory domain and contain the binding sites for phosphatidylserine, calcium, DAG, phorbol esters, and ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in acylglycerol acyl-chain remodeling pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
Binding Sites, Cell, Cells, Diacylglycerol Kinase, Downregulation, Gene, Gene Expression, Il-2, Interleukin, Interleukin-2, Kinase, Luciferase, Mouse, Phosphatidic Acid, Phosphorylation, Proteins, Regulation, Regulatory Region, Role, T Cells
Diglycerides (and monoglycerides) are most commonly used in baking to assist in emulsification. They allow ingredients that do not normally ...
We have shown previously that N-[2-bromocinnamyl(amino)-ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulphonamide (H-89), a selective inhibitor of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), inhibits phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in HeLa cells. In the present study, we elucidated the mechanism underlying the described inhibition. Treatment of cells with 10 microM H-89 had no effect on the phosphorylation of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase. However, H-89 slightly affected the distribution of cytidylyltransferase between cytosol and membranes, but the cellular 1,2-diacylglycerol content was not influenced. Furthermore, pulse-chase experiments revealed that H-89 did not affect cytidylyltransferase activity. Instead, H-89 inhibited choline kinase, the enzyme catalysing the first step in the CDP-choline pathway. In the presence of 10 microM H-89, choline kinase activity was inhibited by 36 +/- 7.6% in vitro. Additionally, the phosphorylation of choline to phosphocholine was inhibited by 30 +/- 3% in cell-culture ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Enhanced vascular reactivity to protein kinase C activators in genetically hypertensive rats. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
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Insulin resistance-related obesity and diabetes mellitus are the predominant causes of fatty liver disease. Here we examine the effects of dietary diacylglycerol (DG), which is a minor component of plant oils, on lipid accumulation and the expression
Muscle DAG accumulation has been implicated in insulin resistance, first in denervated rodent muscle (18), as well as following intralipid infusion in humans (19). DAG activate atypical PKC isoforms to decrease insulin signaling (20). In vitro studies showed that increased PKC activity results in decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake through phosphorylation of serine residues of IRS-1, including direct PKC phosphorylation of Ser1101 (21), enhanced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and inhibitor of κB kinase (IKKB) phosphorylation of Ser307 (22), and increased p44/42 MAPK activity and Ser612 and Ser636 phosphorylation (23) resulting in decreased signaling through the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/AKT pathway (24). Sphingolipids have also been implicated in insulin resistance, with muscle ceramide accumulation first reported in obese insulin-resistant humans (25). In vitro studies revealed ceramides reputedly decrease insulin sensitivity by activating protein phosphatase 2A and PKCζ, which ...
1-Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase delta-3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLCD3 gene. This gene encodes a member of the phospholipase C family, which catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to generate the second messengers diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). Diacylglycerol and IP3 mediate a variety of cellular responses to extracellular stimuli by inducing protein kinase C and increasing cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations. This enzyme localizes to the plasma membrane and requires calcium for activation. Its activity is inhibited by spermine, sphingosine, and several phospholipids. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000161714 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000020937 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Kim H, Suh PG, Ryu SH, Park SH (Apr 2000). Assignment of the human PLC delta3 gene (PLCD3) to human chromosome band 17q21 by fluorescence in situ ...
As described above, PLD hydrolyzes PC to form PA and choline. Because choline is very abundant in the cell, PLD activity does not significantly affect choline levels; and choline is unlikely to play any role in signaling.[citation needed] The role of PLD activation in numerous signaling contexts, combined with the lack of a role for choline, suggests that PA is important in signaling. However, PA is rapidly converted to DAG, and DAG is also known to be a signaling molecule. This raises the question as to whether PA has any direct role in signaling or whether it simply acts as a precursor for DAG production.[16][17] If it is found that PA acts only as a DAG precursor, then one can raise the question as to why cells should produce DAG using two enzymes when they contain the PLC that could produce DAG in a single step. PA produced by PLD or by DAGK can be distinguished by the addition of [γ-32P]ATP. This will show whether the phosphate group is newly derived from the kinase activity or whether it ...
This entry represents a domain found in the calcium-dependent secretion activators that are involved in the exocytosis of vesicles filled with neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. They also may specifically mediate the Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of large dense-core vesicles (DCVs) and other dense-core vesicles by acting as a PtdIns(4,5)P2-binding protein that acts at prefusion step following ATP-dependent priming and participates in DCVs-membrane fusion [(PUBMED:15820695)]. However, it probably also participates in small clear synaptic vesicles (SVs) exocytosis and it is unclear whether its function is related to Ca2+ triggering [(PUBMED:11516399)].. This protein is often found in tandem repeats and co-occur with C2 domains IPR000008, Protein kinase C, phorbol ester/diacylglycerol binding regions IPR002219 and PH domains IPR001849.. ...
This entry represents a domain found in the calcium-dependent secretion activators that are involved in the exocytosis of vesicles filled with neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. They also may specifically mediate the Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of large dense-core vesicles (DCVs) and other dense-core vesicles by acting as a PtdIns(4,5)P2-binding protein that acts at prefusion step following ATP-dependent priming and participates in DCVs-membrane fusion [(PUBMED:15820695)]. However, it probably also participates in small clear synaptic vesicles (SVs) exocytosis and it is unclear whether its function is related to Ca2+ triggering [(PUBMED:11516399)].. This protein is often found in tandem repeats and co-occur with C2 domains IPR000008, Protein kinase C, phorbol ester/diacylglycerol binding regions IPR002219 and PH domains IPR001849.. ...
Predicted to have several functions, including diacylglycerol kinase activity; enzyme binding activity; and transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activator activity. Involved in regulation of synaptic vesicle endocytosis. Localizes to glutamatergic synapse; postsynapse; and presynapse. Is expressed in several structures, including alimentary system; central nervous system; heart; respiratory system; and urinary system. Orthologous to human DGKQ (diacylglycerol kinase theta ...
Recombinant full-length human DGKE was expressed by baculovirus in Sf9 insect cells using an N-terminal GST tag. Diacylglycerol kinase epsilon (DAG kinase epsilon) is the only member of class III diacylglycerol kinase family.
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GO:0006639. The chemical reactions and pathways involving acylglycerol, any mono-, di- or triester of glycerol with (one or more) fatty acids. ...
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Monoglycerides and diglycerides replace eggs in baked goods. Emulsifiers tend to produce a finer grain, softer crumb, and with ... Lecithin, monoglycerides, diglycerides, and DATEM are considered emulsifiers. They disperse fat more evenly throughout the ... The cake also has emulsifying chemicals called monoglycerides and diglycerides, which replace most of the eggs that would ... Examples of dough conditioners include ascorbic acid, distilled monoglycerides, citrate ester of monoglycerides, diglycerides, ...
Nara, K; KI Nihei; Y Ogasawara; H Koga; J Kato (2011). "Novel isoflavone diglycerides in groundnut (Apios americana Medik)". ...
Some commonly used emulsifiers include monoglycerides, diglycerides, and gums. Diluents: Skim milk is commonly used as the ...
... vegetable mono and diglycerides (potassium sorbate, E202, a preservative; calcium disodium EDTA) used to protect quality; ...
The Synthesis of Single-Fatty Acid 1,3-Diglycerides". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 73 (8): 3926-3928. doi:10.1021/ ...
Petzold GL, Agranoff BW (1967). "The biosynthesis of cytidine diphosphate diglyceride by embryonic chick brain". J. Biol. Chem ... Sparrow CP, Raetz CR (1985). "Purification and properties of the membrane-bound CDP-diglyceride synthetase from Escherichia ... Carter JR, Kennedy EP (1966). "Enzymatic synthesis of cytidine diphosphate diglyceride". J. Lipid Res. 7 (5): 678-83. PMID ... McCaman RE, Finnerty WR (1968). "Biosynthesis of cytidine diphosphate-diglyceride by a particulate fracgion from Micrococcus ...
... (diacetyl tartaric acid ester of mono- and diglycerides, also E472e) is an emulsifier primarily used in baking to create ... The ingredient is prepared by the reaction of diacetyl tartaric anhydride with mono- and diglycerides that are derived from ... DATEM is derived from tartaric acid and monoglycerides and diglycerides. In the United States, DATEM is generally recognized as ...
Takenawa T, Egawa K (1977). "CDP-diglyceride:inositol transferase from rat liver. Purification and properties". J. Biol. Chem. ... Other names in common use include CDP-diglyceride-inositol phosphatidyltransferase, phosphatidylinositol synthase, CDP- ... CDP-diglyceride-inositol transferase, cytidine diphosphoglyceride-inositol phosphatidyltransferase, and cytidine ... diacylglycerol-inositol phosphatidyltransferase, CDP-diglyceride:inositol transferase, cytidine 5'-diphospho-1,2-diacyl-sn- ...
Diglycerides and triglycerides are made from smaller molecules by dehydration synthesis, which is not the same process as the ... Biopolymer groupings, and the types of monomers that create them: For lipids (Diglycerides, triglycerides)*, the monomers are ... end-to-end linking of similar monomers that qualifies as polymerization; thus, diglycerides and triglycerides are an exception ...
Selective inhibition of diglyceride lipase by RHC 80267". J. Biol. Chem. 257 (23): 14006-10. PMID 7142192. ... Sutherland CA, Amin D (1982). "Relative activities of rat and dog platelet phospholipase A2 and diglyceride lipase. ...
Alpert, S. E.; Walenga, R. W.; Mandal, A; Bourbon, N; Kester, M (1999). "15-HETE-substituted diglycerides selectively regulate ... HETE in the sn-2 position can be attacked by phospholipase C to form corresponding diglycerides with 15(S)-HETE at theirsn-2 ...
This enzyme is also called CDP-diglyceride-choline O-phosphatidyltransferase. This enzyme participates in glycerophospholipid ...
Hormone-sensitive lipase produces diglycerides from triglycerides, freeing a fatty acid molecule for oxidation. Acetyl-CoA ...
They are synthesized by the addition of cytidine diphosphate-ethanolamine to diglycerides, releasing cytidine monophosphate. S- ...
Partial glycerides may be monoglycerides (two hydroxyl groups free) or diglycerides (one hydroxyl group free). Short chain ... into mono and diglycerides and free fatty acids and glycerol. Soaps are formed from the reaction of glycerides with sodium ... diglycerides, and triglycerides. Vegetable oils and animal fats contain mostly triglycerides, but are broken down by natural ...
... also they predominantly consist of hexagonal phase II forming monogalacotosyl diglyceride lipid. Despite this unique ...
Biosynthesis of monogalactosyl diglyceride from uridine diphosphate galactose and diglyceride in brain". Biochemistry. 7 (10): ...
Anti-staling agents used in bread include wheat gluten, enzymes, and glycerolipids, mainly monoglycerides and diglycerides. ...
Also, their largest constituent, monogalactosyl diglyceride or MGDG, does not form aqueous bilayers. Nevertheless, dynamic ...
When the alcohol component is glycerol, the fatty acid esters produced can be monoglycerides, diglycerides, or triglycerides. ...
... inhibition of diglyceride acyltransferase which is involved in biosynthesis of triglycerides in the liver; and increased ...
"A membrane-bound pyrophosphatase in Escherichia coli catalyzing the hydrolysis of cytidine diphosphate-diglyceride". J. Biol. ...
... inhibition of diglyceride acyltransferase which is involved in biosynthesis of triglycerides in the liver; and increased ...
... inhibition of diglyceride acyltransferase which is involved in biosynthesis of triglycerides in the liver; and increased ...
Phospholipids can be saponified, which releases the fatty acids contained in their diglyceride tail. Once the phospholipids of ...
The cereal also contains monoglycerides and diglycerides, used to bind saturated fat, and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a ...
"Sequential actions of phospholipase D and phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase 2b generate diglyceride in mammalian cells". ...
In addition, it blocks the de novo synthesis of triglycerides, diglycerides, and cholesterol esters, thus interfering with ...
The βγ-subunit of gustducin also mediates taste by activating IP3 (inositol triphosphate) and DAG (diglyceride). These second ...
Other names in common use include EPT, diacylglycerol ethanolaminephosphotransferase, CDPethanolamine diglyceride ...
The ingredients state it is composed of mono- and , diglycerides. I looked that up on the web and got the idea it is related to ...
Since the principal known target of diC8 is PKC2 and since activation of this kinase is stereospecific for S-diglycerides,44 we ... Stereospecific protein kinase C activation by photolabile diglycerides. Bioorg Med Chem Lett.. 1997;7:341-346. ...
Diglycerides are a minor component of many seed oils and are normally present at ~1-6%; or in the case of cottonseed oil as ... A diglyceride, or diacylglycerol (DAG), is a glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol ... Diglycerides, generally in a mix with monoglycerides (E471), are common food additives largely used as emulsifiers. The values ... and diglycerides[citation needed]. They often are included in bakery products, beverages, ice cream, peanut butter, chewing gum ...
Diglyceride acyltransferase (or O-acyltransferase), DGAT, catalyzes the formation of triglycerides from diacylglycerol and Acyl ... The congenital diarrheal disorder requires a strict diet with little or no fat (i.e fatty acids, monoglycerides, diglycerides, ...
... Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state(at 25 °C, 100 kPa) ... A diglyceride, more correctly known as a diacylglycerol, is a glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded ... It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Diglyceride". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia. ... which is formed in the addition of a third fatty acid to the diacylglycerol under the catalysis of diglyceride acyltransferase ...
Diglyceride kinase (diacylglycerol kinase, E.C. 2.7.1.-), an enzyme localized in the inner membrane of Escherichia coli, has ... The broad lipid substrate specificity of diglyceride kinase suggests that this enzyme may function in vivo for the ... Partial purification and properties of diglyceride kinase from Escherichia coli.. Schneider EG, Kennedy EP. ...
SYMMETRICAL 1,3-DIGLYCERIDES AS SOLID LIPID MICROPARTICLES FOR CONTROLLED DRUG DELIVERY  Yazdi, Sara (2007-01-10) ... In this study, new symmetrical 1,3-diglycerides compromised of dihydroxyacetone and lipids ... ...
Diglycerides (and monoglycerides) are most commonly used in baking to assist in emulsification. They allow ingredients that do ... There are four types of mono- and diglycerides, namely:. *Powders - Molten mono- and diglyceride or distilled monoglyceride is ... How to avoid diglycerides. Although mainly vegetable oils are used, animal fat may be used to produce these additives. ... Diglycerides (and monoglycerides) are most commonly used in baking to assist in emulsification. They allow ingredients that do ...
Jiff would have to reveal if the mono diglycerides were wheat based. It would look like this: mono diglycerides (wheat). I ... Jiff would have to reveal if the mono diglycerides were wheat based. It would look like this: mono diglycerides (wheat). I ... Mono Diglycerides? By Lady diver, December 13, 2009. in Coping with Celiac Disease ... But, after it happened a 3rd time I rechecked the info, I found that the reduced fat has the mono diglycerides which shows on ...
Mwangi, R.W., Goldsworthy, G.J. Diglyceride-transporting lipoproteins inLocusta . J Comp Physiol B 114, 177-190 (1977). https ... Chino, H., Gilbert, L.I.: Diglyceride release from insect fat body: a possible means of lipid transport. Science (N.Y.)143, 359 ... The leading high molecular weight fraction, A, is predominant and all the diglyceride in "resting blood" is associated with it ... Tietz, A.: Fat transport in the locust: the role of diglycerides. Europ. J. Biochem.2, 236-242 (1967) ...
Total Diglycerides, Total Triglycerides, and Free and Total Glycerin in B-100 Biodiesel Methyl Esters by Gas Chromatography ... The range of quantitation for monoglyceride is 0.009 % to 0.77860 % by mass, for diglyceride is 0.092353 % to 0.54475 % by mass ... 1.1 This test method covers the quantitative determination of total monoglyceride, total diglyceride, total triglyceride, and ... Standard Test Method for Determination of Total Monoglycerides, Total Diglycerides, Total Triglycerides, and Free and Total ...
Mono And-Diglyceride on sale of Masson Group Company Limited from China. ... Food Grade E471 Emulsifier , Multi-functional Additive , Mono And-Diglyceride Food Grade E471 Emulsifier , Multi-functional ... Food Grade E471 Emulsifier , Multi-functional Additive , Mono And-Diglyceride Food Grade E471 Emulsifier , Multi-functional ... VIVIDR self-emulsifying mono and-diglyceride E-DH-Z45 is an ideal multi-functional additive in ice cream,chewing gum,toffee, ...
Food Additives specify standards for food additives-Acetylated Mono-and Diglycerides(ACETEM e472a ... ... Natural Food Emulsifier Additive Acetylated Mono And Diglycerides Acetem E472a Chemical, Product Description : ... Natural Food Emulsifier Additive Acetylated Mono And Diglycerides Acetem E472a Chemical - China. price: 2.35 Dollar US$. Food ... Food Additives specify standards for food additives-Acetylated Mono-and Diglycerides(ACETEM e472a food emulsifier), This ...
Monoglyceride and diglyceride flakes (E471), also known as glycerine flakes are derived from fats, obtained from glycerine and ... Monoglyceride and diglyceride flakes (E471), also known as glycerine flakes are derived from fats, obtained from glycerine and ... Retrieved from "https://www.cookipedia.co.uk/wiki/index.php?title=Mono_and_Diglyceride_(Glice)&oldid=237290" ...
II.C.i.-1 Reactions of Reactions of Triglycerides Triglycerides • Hydrolysis (lipolysis ) triglycerides diglycerides, ... triglycerides diglycerides, monoglycerides, glycerol + fatty acids - saponiFcation (base catalyzed) - acid catalyzed, ( lipase ...
Acetic Acid Esters Of Mono And Diglycerides Of Fatty Acids Market: Global Industry Analysis 2012-2016 and Opportunity ... Acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids are used asan airing agent in cakes and pastries. They are used to ... On the basis of functionality, the global lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids market is segmented into ... However, the global acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acidsmarket is expected to witness a steady growth by ...
... of fatty acids are generally used as emulsifiers. Basically, that means they can be used to combine oil ... Home › Ingredients › Food Additives › Mono and Diglycerides of Fatty Acids. Mono and Diglycerides of Fatty Acids. Posted on ... Mono and Diglycerides of Fatty Acids. Purpose:. Mono and Diglycerides of Fatty Acids are generally used as emulsifiers. ... 472a acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids. *472b lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty ...
... Ingredient: Vegetable-mono-and-diglycerides. IcoFont Icons. ...
Takeaway: Most monoglycerides and diglycerides are not vegan, although some are. If you want to be sure, youll need to contact ... Do you know if Martins Potato Rolls use vegan Mono and Diglycerides? Is there a master list of vegan bakery items? ... Tip for future: Ive noticed quite a few products with Mono and Diglycerides in the ingredients are certified Kosher-Pareve or ... It seems like Martins sandwhich potato rolls have a couple dairy ingredients so how the Mono and Diglycerides are manufactured ...
diglyceride. (daɪˈɡlɪsəˌraɪd) n. a type of fat often used in processed foods as an emulsifier or other additive and obtained ... diglyceride. (redirected from Diacylglycerol). Also found in: Medical, Acronyms, Encyclopedia.. Related to Diacylglycerol: ...
Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids -E471- refers to a food additive composed of diglycerides and monoglycerides which is ... E471 - Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids. Additive: E471 - Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids ... Mono and diglycerides of fatty acids, glyceryl monostearate, glyceryl distearate ...
E471 - Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids. Additives: E471 - Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids ... Mono and diglycerides of fatty acids, glyceryl monostearate, glyceryl distearate ...
Digalactosyl diglyceride/ACM92457028 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best ... PLANT LEAF LIPIDS DIGALACTOSYL DIGLYCERIDE;DGDG;DIGALACTOSYL DIGLYCERIDE;digalactosyl diglyceride from whole wheat thom; ... Digalactosyl diglyceride whole wheat flour;Glycerides, C12-24 and C12-24-unsatd. di-, digalactosyl;digalactosyl diglyceride ...
Diacylglycerols (DAG) are esters of glycerol where two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol are esterified with fatty acids. DAG exists in two isomeric forms, 1,2(2,3)-DAG and 1,3-DAG, with a natural ratio of approximately 3:7. DAGbased edible fats or oils can be used as a substitute of natural triacylglycerolbased oils, because of their enhanced nutritional properties. In particular the 1,3-DAG isomer is beneficial. We developed a novel biocatalytic method for producing a fatty material rich in DAG in their natural ratio, using milk fat as the raw material and supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) as the only processing solvent. The process steps of the method are alcoholysis of the fat, separation by SC-CO2 extraction of the produced fatty acid esters from the DAG product, and induced acyl migration to increase the ratio 1,3-DAG/1,2(2,3)-DAG. The main advantages of this process over existing ones are that a high 1,3-DAG yield can be obtained, and that the mild process ...
lactic acid esters of mono and diglycerides halal. lactic acid esters of mono and diglycerides halal ...
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Dairies / E471 - Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids. Category: Dairies Additive: E471 - Mono- and diglycerides of fatty ...
CDP-diglyceride pyrophosphorylase 1,CDP-diglyceride synthase 1,Cds,CDS 1,Cds1,CTP phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase 1,Mouse, ... CDP-DAG synthase 1,CDP-DG synthase 1,CDP-diacylglycerol synthase 1,CDP-diglyceride pyrophosphorylase 1,CDP-diglyceride synthase ... CDP-diglyceride pyrophosphorylase 1,CDP-diglyceride synthase 1,Cds,CDS 1,Cds1,CTP phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase 1,Mouse, ... CDP-diglyceride pyrophosphorylase 1,CDP-diglyceride synthase 1,Cds,CDS 1,Cds1,CTP phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase 1,Mouse, ...
We have many easy to make recipes that explain the technique of stabilizing emulsions with mono and diglycerides. - Amazing ... Mono and Diglycerides Emulsion Recipes. Mono and Diglycerides Emulsion Recipes Recipes and Articles. * Concepts: Appetizer, ... Beans, Crostini, Emulsifying, Flavored Oil, Infusions, Mono and Diglycerides, Mono and Diglycerides Emulsion Recipes, Party ... Mono and Diglycerides Emulsion Recipes Forum Topics. Sorry, no forum topics found for this tag. Like What Youve Read? ...
CDP-diglyceride pyrophosphorylase; AltName: Full=CDP-diglyceride synthase; Short=CDP-DG synthase; AltName: Full=CTP:ph.... ... CDP-diglyceride pyrophosphorylase; AltName: Full=CDP-diglyceride synthase; Short=CDP-DG synthase; AltName: Full=CTP: ...
  • Diglyceride acyltransferase (or O-acyltransferase), DGAT , catalyzes the formation of triglycerides from diacylglycerol and Acyl-CoA . (wikipedia.org)
  • The congenital diarrheal disorder requires a strict diet with little or no fat (i.e fatty acids , monoglycerides , diglycerides , and triglycerides which break down and combine to form DGAT1 substrates that build up and irritate the intestinal mucosa). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. A composition comprising a semi-refined fish oil, wherein the composition comprises less than about 2 mg of sterol per gram of composition, at least about 97% triglycerides, less than about 2% diglycerides, and less than about 1% monoglycerides and wherein the composition has a p-Anisidine value of from about 10 to about 25, as determined by ISO 6885:1998. (google.com)
  • Monoglycerides are a form of fatty acid, along with triglycerides and diglycerides. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Triglycerides convert temporarily into monoglycerides and diglycerides during digestion. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A diglyceride , or diacylglycerol ( DAG ), is a glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diacylglycerol is a precursor to triacylglycerol (triglyceride), which is formed in the addition of a third fatty acid to the diacylglycerol under the catalysis of diglyceride acyltransferase . (wikipedia.org)
  • Diglyceride kinase (diacylglycerol kinase, E.C. 2.7.1. (nih.gov)
  • The broad lipid substrate specificity of diglyceride kinase suggests that this enzyme may function in vivo for the phosphorylation of an acceptor other than diacylglycerol. (nih.gov)
  • Food Additives specify standards for food additives-Acetylated Mono-and Diglycerides(ACETEM e472a food emulsifier), This standard applies to food additives, fatty acid glycerides. (eceurope.com)
  • If you want to be sure if a particular food uses vegan glycerides you'll need to contact the manufacturer, get their source, and then ask that source how they make their mono- or diglycerides. (vegfaqs.com)
  • PLANT LEAF LIPIDS DIGALACTOSYL DIGLYCERIDE;DGDG;DIGALACTOSYL DIGLYCERIDE;digalactosyl diglyceride from whole wheat thom;Digalactosyl diglyceride whole wheat flour;Glycerides, C12-24 and C12-24-unsatd. (alfa-chemistry.com)
  • Distilled glycerides are obtained through distillation of the system mono-diglycerides which is produced from the esterification reaction between a triglyceride with glycerol. (unicamp.br)
  • Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids -E471- refers to a food additive composed of diglycerides and monoglycerides which is used as an emulsifier. (openfoodfacts.org)
  • 7. The emulsion of claim 1 wherein the emulsifier, component (c) is selected from the group consisting of a mixture of distilled propylene glycol monoesters, distilled monoglycerides and sodium stearyl lactylate, hydrophilic ethoxylated sorbitan monoesters, malto dextrin, lecithin, monoglycerides, diglycerides, and mixtures thereof. (google.com)
  • Diglycerides, generally in a mix with monoglycerides ( E471 ), are common food additives largely used as emulsifiers . (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoglyceride and diglyceride flakes (E471), also known as glycerine flakes are derived from fats , obtained from glycerine and fatty acids (typically vegetable oils ) attached to glycerol. (cookipedia.co.uk)
  • Powders - Molten mono- and diglyceride or distilled monoglyceride is sprayed into a chamber which solidify into spheres. (naturalpedia.com)
  • 1.1 This test method covers the quantitative determination of total monoglyceride, total diglyceride, total triglyceride, and free and total glycerin in B-100 methyl esters by gas chromatography. (astm.org)
  • The range of quantitation for monoglyceride is 0.009 % to 0.77860 % by mass, for diglyceride is 0.092353 % to 0.54475 % by mass, and for triglyceride is 0.00092857 % to 1.3881 % by mass. (astm.org)
  • Repositorio da Producao Cientifica e Intelectual da Unicamp: Monoglyceride And Diglyceride Production Through Lipase-catalyzed Glycerolysis And Molecular Distillation. (unicamp.br)
  • Monoglyceride And Diglyceride Production Through Lipase-catalyzed Glycerolysis And Molecular Distillation. (unicamp.br)
  • Mono Diglycerides? (celiac.com)
  • But, after it happened a 3rd time I rechecked the info, I found that the reduced fat has the mono diglycerides which shows on the unsafe list, with notes regarding it being only a possible problem. (celiac.com)
  • It seems like Martin's sandwhich potato rolls have a couple dairy ingredients so how the Mono and Diglycerides are manufactured lose relevance. (vegfaqs.com)
  • Tip for future: I've noticed quite a few products with Mono and Diglycerides in the ingredients are certified Kosher-Pareve or disclaimed to be so on their websites (jif peanut butters for one example). (vegfaqs.com)
  • Acetic acid esters are formed under acidic conditions at the temperatures of up to 140°C (285°F). Acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids are generally used as emulsifiers. (marketresearchreports.biz)
  • Acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids are used asan airing agent in cakes and pastries. (marketresearchreports.biz)
  • Growing demand for stabilizers and emulsifiers in bakery and confectionary products is primarily driving the growth of global aceticacid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acidsmarket. (marketresearchreports.biz)
  • Furthermore, the increasing demand for processed foods and beverages owing to changing lifestyle of consumers is further fuelling the growth of global acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids market. (marketresearchreports.biz)
  • Increasing applications of these additives in various industries is also expected to drive the growth of global acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acidsmarket during the forecast period. (marketresearchreports.biz)
  • Although, these additives are produce from vegetable oil but some of the manufacturing processes use animal fat to produce these food additives, which can be a limiting factor to global acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acidsmarket as vegetarians avoid these kind of products. (marketresearchreports.biz)
  • The global acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acidsmarket is divided into seven regions, namely North America, Latin America, Asia Pacific excluding Japan (APEJ), Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Japan and Middle East and Africa (MEA). (marketresearchreports.biz)
  • China is the largest market acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids. (marketresearchreports.biz)
  • However, the global acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acidsmarket is expected to witness a steady growth by the end of 2027. (marketresearchreports.biz)
  • The leading high molecular weight fraction, A, is predominant and all the diglyceride in "resting blood" is associated with it. (springer.com)
  • An additional higher molecular weight fraction, A + , is present in the haemolymph of locusts injected with extracts of the glandular lobes of the corpora cardiaca ("elevated blood"), and this fraction carries all the increased diglyceride. (springer.com)
  • The capillary column coated with a polar stationary phase stable at high temperature was applied to separate diglycerides on the basis of their molecular weight, the unsaluration degree of fatty acids and their position on the glycerol molecule. (com.hr)
  • Partial purification and properties of diglyceride kinase from Escherichia coli. (nih.gov)
  • 31 P-NMR Quantitative Determination of 1,2 and 1,3-Diglycerides and Other Minor Compounds. (rsc.org)
  • However, eating processed foods and baked goods will make it difficult to avoid mono- and diglycerides. (naturalpedia.com)
  • Mono- and diglycerides are used to improve the appearance, texture and shelf life of many food products. (naturalpedia.com)
  • Where Will You See Mono- and Diglycerides in Food? (vegfaqs.com)
  • Vous pouvez aider en faisant un don à Open Food Facts et aussi en utilisant le moteur de recherche Lilo . (openproductsfacts.org)
  • The values given in the nutritional labels for total fat, saturated fat, and trans fat do not include those present in mono- and diglycerides [ citation needed ] . (wikipedia.org)
  • In this work, monoglycerides (MG) and diglycerides (DG) are produced through lipase-catalyzed glycerolysis of soybean oil using Candida antarctica B in a solvent-free system. (unicamp.br)
  • Hydrates - Typically manufactured by taking liquid mono- or diglyceride and adding it to water. (naturalpedia.com)
  • It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Diglyceride" . (bionity.com)
  • Consuming high amounts of trans fat (fatty acids found in mono- and diglycerides) can raise your risk of coronary artery disease, stroke and diabetes. (naturalpedia.com)
  • The individual components of the mono- and diglycerides are also produced normally in the body when digesting normal fat. (naturalpedia.com)
  • Chino, H., Gilbert, L.I.: Diglyceride release from insect fat body: a possible means of lipid transport. (springer.com)
  • Substitute for mono and diglyceride flakes? (amazingfoodmadeeasy.com)
  • Roasted Sunflower Seeds, Sugar, Mono-and Diglycerides And Salt. (giantfood.com)
  • Spice, Mono- And Diglycerides, Paprika Extract (Color) (freshness Protected By Sodium Bisulfite). (stopandshop.com)
  • Soybean Oil, Hydrogenated Palm Oil, Palm Oil, Mono And Diglycerides, TBHQ And Citric Acid (Added To Help Protect Flavor). (giantfood.com)
  • Compared to Chips Ahoy, you are getting real butter and eggs in the recipe versus mono and diglycerides (yuck). (snack-girl.com)
  • without GMOs, without artificial flavors and mono-diglycerides, and without a microwave. (mommypotamus.com)
  • Nonfat Milk, Corn Syrup, Cream (Adds a Trivial Amount of Fat), Artificial Color (an Ingredient Not Normally Found in Half & Half), Sodium Citrate, Dipotassium Phosphate, Mono & Diglycerides (Adds a Trivial Amount of Fat), Carrageenan, Vitamin A Palmitate. (gourmetsleuth.com)
  • Contains 2% or less of the following: Non - fat Dry Milk Solids, Soy Lecithin, Vegetable Mono & Diglycerides, Sodium Benz oate [Preservative], Citric Acid, Natural & Artificial Flavor, Beta Carotene [Color], Leavening (Baking Soda). (cookiesbydesign.com)
  • A patented mixture of monoglycerides and diglycerides of butyric acid, caprylic acid, capric acid, propionic acid and lauric acid. (jedds.com)
  • Many dough conditioners like azodicarbonamide (which is banned all over the world), DATEM, monoglycerides, diglycerides, sodium stearoyl lactylate are linked to health issues. (foodbabe.com)
  • Leah Chernikoff, Harper's BAZAAR , "The Cultural Endurance of the Mighty, Mighty Birkin," 22 Mar. 2021 Bubble, bubble, rat hair and stubble Cellulose churn , diglycerides bubble. (merriam-webster.com)