Diglycerides are a type of glyceride, specifically a form of lipid, that contains two fatty acid chains linked to a glycerol molecule by ester bonds.
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
A genus of EUKARYOTES, in the phylum EUGLENIDA, found mostly in stagnant water. Characteristics include a pellicle usually marked by spiral or longitudinal striations.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
'Ethers' in a medical context are a class of organic compounds used as medication, particularly as an inhalational agent to induce and maintain general anesthesia, characterized by their ability to produce a state of unconsciousness while providing muscle relaxation and analgesia.
Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
The ester of diacylglycerol with the terminal phosphate of cytidine diphosphate. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine in bacteria.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, stored in fat cells and used as energy; they are measured in blood tests to assess heart disease risk, with high levels often resulting from dietary habits, obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol consumption.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
An important intermediate in lipid biosynthesis and in glycolysis.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC

The Npc1 mutation causes an altered expression of caveolin-1, annexin II and protein kinases and phosphorylation of caveolin-1 and annexin II in murine livers. (1/2446)

We have previously demonstrated (1) an increased expression of caveolin-1 in murine heterozygous and homozygous Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) livers, and (2) an increased concentration of unesterified cholesterol in a detergent insoluble caveolae-enriched fraction from homozygous livers. To define further the relationship between caveolin-1 function and the cholesterol trafficking defect in NPC, we examined the expression and distribution of additional caveolar and signal transduction proteins. The expression of annexin II was significantly increased in homozygous liver homogenates and the Triton X-100 insoluble floating fraction (TIFF). Phosphoamino acid analysis of caveolin-1 and annexin II from the homozygous TIFF demonstrated an increase in serine and tyrosine phosphorylation, respectively. To determine the basis for increased phosphorylation of these proteins, the expression and distribution of several protein kinases was examined. The expression of PKCalpha, PKCzeta and pp60-src (protein kinases) were significantly increased in both heterozygous and homozygous liver homogenates, while PKCdelta was increased only in homozygous livers. Of the protein kinases analyzed, only CK IIalpha was significantly enriched in the heterozygous TIFF. Finally, the concentration of diacylglycerol in the homozygous TIFF was significantly increased and this elevation may modulate PKC distribution and function. These results provide additional evidence for involvement of a caveolin-1 containing cellular fraction in the pathophysiology of NPC and also suggest that the Npc1 gene product may directly or indirectly, regulate the expression and distribution of signaling molecules.  (+info)

Involvement of protein kinase C in 5-HT-stimulated ciliary activity in Helisoma trivolvis embryos. (2/2446)

1. During development, embryos of the pulmonate gastropod, Helisoma trivolvis, undergo a rotation behaviour due to the co-ordinated beating of three bands of ciliated epithelial cells. This behaviour is in part mediated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) released from a pair of identified embryonic neurons. Using time-lapse videomicroscopy to measure ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in response to pharmacological manipulations, we determined whether protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in mediating 5-HT-stimulated ciliary beating. 2. Diacylglycerol (DAG) analogues sn-1,2-dioctanoyl glycerol (DiC8; 100 microM) and 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG; 100 microM), partially mimicked the 5-HT-induced increase in CBF. In contrast, application of OAG in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ did not result in an increase in CBF. 3. 5-HT-stimulated CBF was effectively blocked by PKC inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide (10 and 100 nM) and calphostin C (10 nM). In addition, bisindolylmaleimide (100 nM) inhibited DiC8-induced increases in CBF. At a higher concentration (200 nM), bisindolylmaleimide did not significantly reduce 5-HT-stimulated cilio-excitation. 4. Two different phorbol esters, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA; 0.1, 10 or 1000 nM) and phorbol 12beta, 13alpha-dibenzoate (PDBn; 10 microM) did not alter basal CBF. TPA (1 microM) did not alter 5-HT-stimulated CBF. Likewise, the synthetic form of phosphatidylserine, N-(6-phenylhexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulphonamide (SC-9; 10 microM), did not increase CBF, whereas a strong increase in CBF was observed upon exposure to 5-HT. 5. The results suggest that a DAG-dependent, phorbol ester-insensitive isoform of PKC mediates 5-HT-stimulated CBF in ciliated epithelial cells from embryos of Helisoma trivolvis.  (+info)

Protein kinase C reduces the KCa current of rat tail artery smooth muscle cells. (3/2446)

The hypothesis that protein kinase C (PKC) is able to regulate the whole cell Ca-activated K (KCa) current independently of PKC effects on local Ca release events was tested using the patch-clamp technique and freshly isolated rat tail artery smooth muscle cells dialyzed with a strongly buffered low-Ca solution. The active diacylglycerol analog 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol (DOG) at 10 microM attenuated the current-voltage (I-V) relationship of the KCa current significantly and reduced the KCa current at +70 mV by 70 +/- 4% (n = 14). In contrast, 10 microM DOG after pretreatment of the cells with 1 microM calphostin C or 1 microM PKC inhibitor peptide, selective PKC inhibitors, and 10 microM 1,3-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol, an inactive diacylglycerol analog, did not significantly alter the KCa current. Furthermore, the catalytic subunit of PKC (PKCC) at 0.1 U/ml attenuated the I-V relationship of the KCa current significantly, reduced the KCa current at +70 mV by 44 +/- 3% (n = 17), and inhibited the activity of single KCa channels at 0 mV by 79 +/- 9% (n = 6). In contrast, 0.1 U/ml heat-inactivated PKCC did not significantly alter the KCa current or the activity of single KCa channels. Thus these results suggest that PKC is able to considerably attenuate the KCa current of freshly isolated rat tail artery smooth muscle cells independently of effects of PKC on local Ca release events, most likely by a direct effect on the KCa channel.  (+info)

Farnesol-induced growth inhibition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by a cell cycle mechanism. (4/2446)

The growth of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was inhibited in medium containing 25 microM farnesol (FOH). The FOH-treated cells were still viable, and were characterized by a transition from budded to unbudded phase as well as a significant loss of intracellular diacylglycerol (DAG). FOH-induced growth inhibition could be effectively prevented by the coaddition of a membrane-permeable DAG analogue which can activate yeast protein kinase C (PKC). However, yeast cell growth was not initiated upon addition of the PKC activator when the cells had been pretreated with FOH for 20 min. The failure in cell growth recovery was believed to be due to a signalling-mediated cell cycle arrest in FOH-pretreated cells. Differential display analysis demonstrated that the expression of cell cycle genes encoding DNA ligase (CDC9) and histone acetyltransferase (HAT2) was strongly repressed in FOH-treated cells. Repression of the expression of these genes was effectively cancelled when cells were grown in medium supplemented with DAG. The authors propose an interference with a phosphatidylinositol-type signalling which is involved in cell cycle progression as a cause of FOH-induced growth inhibition in yeast cells.  (+info)

Degradation of protein kinase Malpha by mu-calpain in a mu-calpain-protein kinase Calpha complex. (5/2446)

In previous studies, we isolated and identified a mu-calpain-PKCalpha complex from rabbit skeletal muscle. At the same time we pointed out that an association between mu-calpain and PKCalpha could occur at the level of the plasma membrane of muscle cells, and that PKCalpha could thus be considered as a potential mu-calpain substrate. In the present study, using the mu-calpain-PKCalpha complex as a model, we report that mu-calpain is activated in the combined presence of physiological calcium concentrations (less than 1 microM) and phosphatidylserine. Furthermore our data also show that: (1) there exists a correlation between the appearance of autolyzed mu-calpain forms and PKCalpha hydrolysis which leads to the formation of PKMalpha; (2) in certain experimental conditions, autolyzed mu-calpain forms are able to hydrolyze PKMalpha independently of the presence of diacylglycerol.  (+info)

17beta-oestradiol increases intracellular Ca2+ concentration in rat enterocytes. Potential role of phospholipase C-dependent store-operated Ca2+ influx. (6/2446)

The involvement of the phospholipase C (PLC) pathway in the non-genomic regulation of duodenal cell Ca2+ concentration by 17beta-oestradiol was investigated. The PLC inhibitors neomycin (0.5 mM) and U-73122 (2 microM) suppressed the stimulatory effect of 0.1 nM 17beta-oestradiol on the 45Ca2+ influx into enterocytes isolated from rat duodenum. The hormone (1 pM to 10 nM) increased the formation of 1,2-diacylglycerol in a biphasic pattern, characterized by an early peak at 45 s (+82%) and a later peak at 5 min (+46%). Both PLC inhibitors suppressed the first peak but were unable to block the 17beta-oestradiol effect at 5 min. 17beta-Oestradiol also increased the generation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate within 15 s, with maximal stimulation at 30 s. 17beta-Oestradiol induced a rapid (30 s) and sustained (up to 5 min) increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) of fura 2-loaded enterocytes. The fast rise in [Ca2+]i was specific because other sex steroid hormones were without effect and could be blocked to a great extent by U-73122 (by 86% at 1 min). The effects of 17beta-oestradiol on enterocyte [Ca2+]i were decreased significantly (by 75%) in a Ca2+-free extracellular medium but a pronounced increase in [Ca2+]i was obtained after readmission of Ca2+ to the medium. The latter change was suppressed by 10 microM La3+, whereas nitrendipine (1 microM) and verapamil (10 microM) separately were without effect. The permeability of the 17beta-oestradiol-induced Ca2+ influx pathway to Mn2+ was increased 2.8-fold by treatment with oestrogen. These results suggest the operation of a PLC-dependent store-operated Ca2+ channel mechanism in 17beta-oestradiol regulation of enterocyte extracellular Ca2+ influx.  (+info)

Dexamethasone-induced thymocyte apoptosis: apoptotic signal involves the sequential activation of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C, acidic sphingomyelinase, and caspases. (7/2446)

Glucocorticoid hormones (GCH) have been implicated as regulators of T-lymphocyte growth and differentiation. In particular, it has been reported that GCH can induce thymocyte apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this GCH-induced death have not been clarified. In this work, the biochemical events associated with apoptosis induced by Dexamethasone (Dex), a synthetic GCH, in normal mouse thymocytes, have been analyzed. Results indicate that Dex-induced thymocyte apoptosis is attributable to an early ceramide generation caused by the activation of an acidic sphingomyelinase (aSMase). Caspase activity plays a crucial role in Dex-induced apoptosis and is downstream the aSMase activation in that inhibition of the early ceramide generation inhibits caspase activation and thymocyte death. Moreover, Dex treatment rapidly induces diacylglycerol (DAG) generation, through a protein kinase C (PKC) and G-protein-dependent phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), an event which precedes and is required for aSMase activation. Indeed, PI-PLC inhibition by U73122 totally prevents Dex-induced aSMase activity, ceramide generation, and consequently, caspase activation and apoptosis. All these effects require Dex interaction with GCH receptor (GR), are countered by the GR antagonist RU486, and precede the GCH/GR-activated transcription and protein synthesis. These observations indicate that GCH activates thymocyte death through a complex signaling pathway that requires the sequential activation of different biochemical events.  (+info)

Solubilization of diglyceride acyltransferase from the membrane of Mycobacterium smegmatis. (8/2446)

Diglyceride acyltransferase [acyl-CoA : 1,2-diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase, EC] was found to be localized in the membrane of Mycobacterium smegmatis, and this enzyme could be solubilized from the membrane by treatment with aqueous acetone. The solubilized enzyme required either 1,2-diolein or 1, 3-diolein as an acceptor for palmitoyl-CoA. The apparent Km value for 1,2- or 1,3-diolein and that for palmitoyl-CoA were about 1.4 X 10(-5) M and 6 X 10(-6) M, respectively. Several sulfhydryl reagents were inhibitory to the enzyme activity, suggesting the existence of a thiol group(s) in its active site. The solubilized enzyme, which was more labile than that membrane-bound one, could be stabilized to some extent with antichaotropic salts such as phosphate, pyrophosphate, and sulfate.  (+info)

Diacylglycerols (also known as diglycerides) are a type of glyceride, which is a compound that consists of glycerol and one or more fatty acids. Diacylglycerols contain two fatty acid chains bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages. They are important intermediates in the metabolism of lipids and can be found in many types of food, including vegetable oils and dairy products. In the body, diacylglycerols can serve as a source of energy and can also play roles in cell signaling processes.

Glycerides are esters formed from glycerol and one, two, or three fatty acids. They include monoglycerides (one fatty acid), diglycerides (two fatty acids), and triglycerides (three fatty acids). Triglycerides are the main constituents of natural fats and oils, and they are a major form of energy storage in animals and plants. High levels of triglycerides in the blood, also known as hypertriglyceridemia, can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.

'Euglena' is a genus of unicellular flagellate protists that are typically characterized by their oval-shaped bodies, long whip-like tail (flagellum), and eyespot (stigma) which helps them to move towards light. They are commonly found in freshwater environments and can also be found in soil and brackish water. Some species of Euglena have the ability to photosynthesize, while others obtain their nutrition through heterotrophy (consuming other organisms or organic matter). The term 'Euglena' is derived from the Greek word 'euglenes', which means "well-shaped" or "true-eyed". Medical professionals and researchers may study Euglena as part of broader research into protists, microbiology, or ecology.

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a type of chromatography used to separate, identify, and quantify the components of a mixture. In TLC, the sample is applied as a small spot onto a thin layer of adsorbent material, such as silica gel or alumina, which is coated on a flat, rigid support like a glass plate. The plate is then placed in a developing chamber containing a mobile phase, typically a mixture of solvents.

As the mobile phase moves up the plate by capillary action, it interacts with the stationary phase and the components of the sample. Different components of the mixture travel at different rates due to their varying interactions with the stationary and mobile phases, resulting in distinct spots on the plate. The distance each component travels can be measured and compared to known standards to identify and quantify the components of the mixture.

TLC is a simple, rapid, and cost-effective technique that is widely used in various fields, including forensics, pharmaceuticals, and research laboratories. It allows for the separation and analysis of complex mixtures with high resolution and sensitivity, making it an essential tool in many analytical applications.

Glyceryl ethers, also known as glycerol ethers or alkyl glycosides, are a class of compounds formed by the reaction between glycerol and alcohols. In the context of medical definitions, glyceryl ethers may refer to a group of naturally occurring compounds found in some organisms, including humans.

These compounds are characterized by an ether linkage between the glycerol molecule and one or more alkyl chains, which can vary in length. Glyceryl ethers have been identified as components of various biological tissues, such as lipid fractions of human blood and lung surfactant.

In some cases, glyceryl ethers may also be used as pharmaceutical excipients or drug delivery systems due to their unique physicochemical properties. For example, they can enhance the solubility and bioavailability of certain drugs, making them useful in formulation development. However, it is important to note that specific medical applications and uses of glyceryl ethers may vary depending on the particular compound and its properties.

Stearic acid is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a chemical compound. It is a saturated fatty acid with the chemical formula C18H36O2. Stearic acid is commonly found in various foods such as animal fats and vegetable oils, including cocoa butter and palm oil.

In a medical context, stearic acid might be mentioned in relation to nutrition or cosmetics. For example, it may be listed as an ingredient in some skincare products or medications where it is used as an emollient or thickening agent. It's also worth noting that while stearic acid is a saturated fat, some studies suggest that it may have a more neutral effect on blood cholesterol levels compared to other saturated fats. However, this is still a topic of ongoing research and debate in the medical community.

Chromatography, gas (GC) is a type of chromatographic technique used to separate, identify, and analyze volatile compounds or vapors. In this method, the sample mixture is vaporized and carried through a column packed with a stationary phase by an inert gas (carrier gas). The components of the mixture get separated based on their partitioning between the mobile and stationary phases due to differences in their adsorption/desorption rates or solubility.

The separated components elute at different times, depending on their interaction with the stationary phase, which can be detected and quantified by various detection systems like flame ionization detector (FID), thermal conductivity detector (TCD), electron capture detector (ECD), or mass spectrometer (MS). Gas chromatography is widely used in fields such as chemistry, biochemistry, environmental science, forensics, and food analysis.

Phospholipids are a major class of lipids that consist of a hydrophilic (water-attracting) head and two hydrophobic (water-repelling) tails. The head is composed of a phosphate group, which is often bound to an organic molecule such as choline, ethanolamine, serine or inositol. The tails are made up of two fatty acid chains.

Phospholipids are a key component of cell membranes and play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and function of the cell. They form a lipid bilayer, with the hydrophilic heads facing outwards and the hydrophobic tails facing inwards, creating a barrier that separates the interior of the cell from the outside environment.

Phospholipids are also involved in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, intracellular trafficking, and protein function regulation. Additionally, they serve as emulsifiers in the digestive system, helping to break down fats in the diet.

Chromatography is a technique used in analytical chemistry for the separation, identification, and quantification of the components of a mixture. It is based on the differential distribution of the components of a mixture between a stationary phase and a mobile phase. The stationary phase can be a solid or liquid, while the mobile phase is a gas, liquid, or supercritical fluid that moves through the stationary phase carrying the sample components.

The interaction between the sample components and the stationary and mobile phases determines how quickly each component will move through the system. Components that interact more strongly with the stationary phase will move more slowly than those that interact more strongly with the mobile phase. This difference in migration rates allows for the separation of the components, which can then be detected and quantified.

There are many different types of chromatography, including paper chromatography, thin-layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Each type has its own strengths and weaknesses, and is best suited for specific applications.

In summary, chromatography is a powerful analytical technique used to separate, identify, and quantify the components of a mixture based on their differential distribution between a stationary phase and a mobile phase.

Glycolipids are a type of lipid (fat) molecule that contain one or more sugar molecules attached to them. They are important components of cell membranes, where they play a role in cell recognition and signaling. Glycolipids are also found on the surface of some viruses and bacteria, where they can be recognized by the immune system as foreign invaders.

There are several different types of glycolipids, including cerebrosides, gangliosides, and globosides. These molecules differ in the number and type of sugar molecules they contain, as well as the structure of their lipid tails. Glycolipids are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus of cells, and they are transported to the cell membrane through vesicles.

Abnormalities in glycolipid metabolism or structure have been implicated in a number of diseases, including certain types of cancer, neurological disorders, and autoimmune diseases. For example, mutations in genes involved in the synthesis of glycolipids can lead to conditions such as Tay-Sachs disease and Gaucher's disease, which are characterized by the accumulation of abnormal glycolipids in cells.

Plasmalogens are a type of complex lipid called glycerophospholipids, which are essential components of cell membranes. They are characterized by having a unique chemical structure that includes a vinyl ether bond at the sn-1 position of the glycerol backbone and an ester bond at the sn-2 position, with the majority of them containing polyunsaturated fatty acids. The headgroup attached to the sn-3 position is typically choline or ethanolamine.

Plasmalogens are abundant in certain tissues, such as the brain, heart, and skeletal muscle. They have been suggested to play important roles in cellular functions, including membrane fluidity, signal transduction, and protection against oxidative stress. Reduced levels of plasmalogens have been associated with various diseases, including neurological disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and aging-related conditions.

Fatty acids are carboxylic acids with a long aliphatic chain, which are important components of lipids and are widely distributed in living organisms. They can be classified based on the length of their carbon chain, saturation level (presence or absence of double bonds), and other structural features.

The two main types of fatty acids are:

1. Saturated fatty acids: These have no double bonds in their carbon chain and are typically solid at room temperature. Examples include palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0).
2. Unsaturated fatty acids: These contain one or more double bonds in their carbon chain and can be further classified into monounsaturated (one double bond) and polyunsaturated (two or more double bonds) fatty acids. Examples of unsaturated fatty acids include oleic acid (C18:1, monounsaturated), linoleic acid (C18:2, polyunsaturated), and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3, polyunsaturated).

Fatty acids play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as energy storage, membrane structure, and cell signaling. Some essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources.

Galactose is a simple sugar or monosaccharide that is a constituent of lactose, the disaccharide found in milk and dairy products. It's structurally similar to glucose but with a different chemical structure, and it plays a crucial role in various biological processes.

Galactose can be metabolized in the body through the action of enzymes such as galactokinase, galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, and UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase. Inherited deficiencies in these enzymes can lead to metabolic disorders like galactosemia, which can cause serious health issues if not diagnosed and treated promptly.

In summary, Galactose is a simple sugar that plays an essential role in lactose metabolism and other biological processes.

In medical or clinical terms, "ethers" do not have a specific relevance as a single medical condition or diagnosis. However, in a broader chemical context, ethers are a class of organic compounds characterized by an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups. Ethers are not typically used as therapeutic agents but can be found in certain medications as solvents or as part of the drug's chemical structure.

An example of a medication with an ether group is the antihistamine diphenhydramine (Benadryl), which has a phenyl ether moiety in its chemical structure. Another example is the anesthetic sevoflurane, which is a fluorinated methyl isopropyl ether used for inducing and maintaining general anesthesia during surgeries.

It's important to note that 'ethers' as a term primarily belongs to the field of chemistry rather than medicine.

Phosphatidic acids (PAs) are a type of phospholipid that are essential components of cell membranes. They are composed of a glycerol backbone linked to two fatty acid chains and a phosphate group. The phosphate group is esterified to another molecule, usually either serine, inositol, or choline, forming different types of phosphatidic acids.

PAs are particularly important as they serve as key regulators of many cellular processes, including signal transduction, membrane trafficking, and autophagy. They can act as signaling molecules by binding to and activating specific proteins, such as the enzyme phospholipase D, which generates second messengers involved in various signaling pathways.

PAs are also important intermediates in the synthesis of other phospholipids, such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylinositol. They are produced by the enzyme diacylglycerol kinase (DGK), which adds a phosphate group to diacylglycerol (DAG) to form PA.

Abnormal levels of PAs have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders. Therefore, understanding the regulation and function of PAs is an active area of research with potential therapeutic implications.

Palmitic acid is a type of saturated fatty acid, which is a common component in many foods and also produced by the body. Its chemical formula is C16:0, indicating that it contains 16 carbon atoms and no double bonds. Palmitic acid is found in high concentrations in animal fats, such as butter, lard, and beef tallow, as well as in some vegetable oils, like palm kernel oil and coconut oil.

In the human body, palmitic acid can be synthesized from other substances or absorbed through the diet. It plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including energy storage, membrane structure formation, and signaling pathways regulation. However, high intake of palmitic acid has been linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases due to its potential to raise low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in the blood.

It is essential to maintain a balanced diet and consume palmitic acid-rich foods in moderation, along with regular exercise and a healthy lifestyle, to reduce the risk of chronic diseases.

Phospholipases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phospholipids, which are major components of cell membranes. Phospholipases cleave specific ester bonds in phospholipids, releasing free fatty acids and other lipophilic molecules. Based on the site of action, phospholipases are classified into four types:

1. Phospholipase A1 (PLA1): This enzyme hydrolyzes the ester bond at the sn-1 position of a glycerophospholipid, releasing a free fatty acid and a lysophospholipid.
2. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2): PLA2 cleaves the ester bond at the sn-2 position of a glycerophospholipid, releasing a free fatty acid (often arachidonic acid) and a lysophospholipid. Arachidonic acid is a precursor for eicosanoids, which are signaling molecules involved in inflammation and other physiological processes.
3. Phospholipase C (PLC): PLC hydrolyzes the phosphodiester bond in the headgroup of a glycerophospholipid, releasing diacylglycerol (DAG) and a soluble head group, such as inositol trisphosphate (IP3). DAG acts as a secondary messenger in intracellular signaling pathways, while IP3 mediates the release of calcium ions from intracellular stores.
4. Phospholipase D (PLD): PLD cleaves the phosphoester bond between the headgroup and the glycerol moiety of a glycerophospholipid, releasing phosphatidic acid (PA) and a free head group. PA is an important signaling molecule involved in various cellular processes, including membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal reorganization, and cell survival.

Phospholipases have diverse roles in normal physiology and pathophysiological conditions, such as inflammation, immunity, and neurotransmission. Dysregulation of phospholipase activity can contribute to the development of various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders.

Cytidine diphosphate-diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG) is a bioactive lipid molecule that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of other lipids and is also involved in cell signaling pathways. It is formed from the reaction between cytidine diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) and phosphatidic acid, catalyzed by the enzyme CDP-choline:1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase.

CDP-DAG is a critical intermediate in the biosynthesis of several important lipids, including phosphatidylglycerol (PG), cardiolipin (CL), and platelet-activating factor (PAF). These lipids are essential components of cell membranes and have various functions in cell signaling, energy metabolism, and other physiological processes.

CDP-DAG also acts as a second messenger in intracellular signaling pathways, particularly those involved in the regulation of gene expression, cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. It activates several protein kinases, including protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, which phosphorylate and regulate various target proteins, leading to changes in their activity and function.

Abnormalities in CDP-DAG metabolism have been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders. Therefore, understanding the regulation and function of CDP-DAG and its downstream signaling pathways is an active area of research with potential therapeutic implications.

Phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) are a type of phospholipid that are abundantly found in the cell membranes of living organisms. They play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and functionality of the cell membrane. PE contains a hydrophilic head, which consists of an ethanolamine group linked to a phosphate group, and two hydrophobic fatty acid chains. This unique structure allows PE to form a lipid bilayer, where the hydrophilic heads face outwards and interact with the aqueous environment, while the hydrophobic tails face inwards and interact with each other.

PE is also involved in various cellular processes, such as membrane trafficking, autophagy, and signal transduction. Additionally, PE can be modified by the addition of various functional groups or molecules, which can further regulate its functions and interactions within the cell. Overall, phosphatidylethanolamines are essential components of cellular membranes and play a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis.

Lipids are a broad group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. They include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Lipids serve many important functions in the body, including energy storage, acting as structural components of cell membranes, and serving as signaling molecules. High levels of certain lipids, particularly cholesterol and triglycerides, in the blood are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Phosphatidylcholines (PtdCho) are a type of phospholipids that are essential components of cell membranes in living organisms. They are composed of a hydrophilic head group, which contains a choline moiety, and two hydrophobic fatty acid chains. Phosphatidylcholines are crucial for maintaining the structural integrity and function of cell membranes, and they also serve as important precursors for the synthesis of signaling molecules such as acetylcholine. They can be found in various tissues and biological fluids, including blood, and are abundant in foods such as soybeans, eggs, and meat. Phosphatidylcholines have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their role in maintaining healthy lipid metabolism and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Phosphatidylinositols (PIs) are a type of phospholipid that are abundant in the cell membrane. They contain a glycerol backbone, two fatty acid chains, and a head group consisting of myo-inositol, a cyclic sugar molecule, linked to a phosphate group.

Phosphatidylinositols can be phosphorylated at one or more of the hydroxyl groups on the inositol ring, forming various phosphoinositides (PtdInsPs) with different functions. These signaling molecules play crucial roles in regulating cellular processes such as membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and signal transduction pathways that control cell growth, differentiation, and survival.

Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is a prominent phosphoinositide involved in the regulation of ion channels, enzymes, and cytoskeletal proteins. Upon activation of certain receptors, PIP2 can be cleaved by the enzyme phospholipase C into diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3), which act as second messengers to trigger downstream signaling events.

Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, and they're found in the food we eat. They're carried in the bloodstream to provide energy to the cells in our body. High levels of triglycerides in the blood can increase the risk of heart disease, especially in combination with other risk factors such as high LDL (bad) cholesterol, low HDL (good) cholesterol, and high blood pressure.

It's important to note that while triglycerides are a type of fat, they should not be confused with cholesterol, which is a waxy substance found in the cells of our body. Both triglycerides and cholesterol are important for maintaining good health, but high levels of either can increase the risk of heart disease.

Triglyceride levels are measured through a blood test called a lipid panel or lipid profile. A normal triglyceride level is less than 150 mg/dL. Borderline-high levels range from 150 to 199 mg/dL, high levels range from 200 to 499 mg/dL, and very high levels are 500 mg/dL or higher.

Elevated triglycerides can be caused by various factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypothyroidism, and kidney disease. Medications such as beta-blockers, steroids, and diuretics can also raise triglyceride levels.

Lifestyle changes such as losing weight, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet low in saturated and trans fats, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, and quitting smoking can help lower triglyceride levels. In some cases, medication may be necessary to reduce triglycerides to recommended levels.

Carbon isotopes are variants of the chemical element carbon that have different numbers of neutrons in their atomic nuclei. The most common and stable isotope of carbon is carbon-12 (^{12}C), which contains six protons and six neutrons. However, carbon can also come in other forms, known as isotopes, which contain different numbers of neutrons.

Carbon-13 (^{13}C) is a stable isotope of carbon that contains seven neutrons in its nucleus. It makes up about 1.1% of all carbon found on Earth and is used in various scientific applications, such as in tracing the metabolic pathways of organisms or in studying the age of fossilized materials.

Carbon-14 (^{14}C), also known as radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon that contains eight neutrons in its nucleus. It is produced naturally in the atmosphere through the interaction of cosmic rays with nitrogen gas. Carbon-14 has a half-life of about 5,730 years, which makes it useful for dating organic materials, such as archaeological artifacts or fossils, up to around 60,000 years old.

Carbon isotopes are important in many scientific fields, including geology, biology, and medicine, and are used in a variety of applications, from studying the Earth's climate history to diagnosing medical conditions.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Protein Kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine-threonine kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular signaling pathways. These enzymes are activated by second messengers such as diacylglycerol (DAG) and calcium ions (Ca2+), which result from the activation of cell surface receptors like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs).

Once activated, PKC proteins phosphorylate downstream target proteins, thereby modulating their activities. This regulation is involved in numerous cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and membrane trafficking. There are at least 10 isoforms of PKC, classified into three subfamilies based on their second messenger requirements and structural features: conventional (cPKC; α, βI, βII, and γ), novel (nPKC; δ, ε, η, and θ), and atypical (aPKC; ζ and ι/λ). Dysregulation of PKC signaling has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Hydrolysis is a chemical process, not a medical one. However, it is relevant to medicine and biology.

Hydrolysis is the breakdown of a chemical compound due to its reaction with water, often resulting in the formation of two or more simpler compounds. In the context of physiology and medicine, hydrolysis is a crucial process in various biological reactions, such as the digestion of food molecules like proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Enzymes called hydrolases catalyze these hydrolysis reactions to speed up the breakdown process in the body.

Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), also known as free fatty acids (FFA), refer to fatty acid molecules that are not bound to glycerol in the form of triglycerides or other esters. In the bloodstream, NEFAs are transported while bound to albumin and can serve as a source of energy for peripheral tissues. Under normal physiological conditions, NEFA levels are tightly regulated by the body; however, elevated NEFA levels have been associated with various metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes.

Lipid metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down and utilizes lipids (fats) for various functions, such as energy production, cell membrane formation, and hormone synthesis. This complex process involves several enzymes and pathways that regulate the digestion, absorption, transport, storage, and consumption of fats in the body.

The main types of lipids involved in metabolism include triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and fatty acids. The breakdown of these lipids begins in the digestive system, where enzymes called lipases break down dietary fats into smaller molecules called fatty acids and glycerol. These molecules are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the liver, which is the main site of lipid metabolism.

In the liver, fatty acids may be further broken down for energy production or used to synthesize new lipids. Excess fatty acids may be stored as triglycerides in specialized cells called adipocytes (fat cells) for later use. Cholesterol is also metabolized in the liver, where it may be used to synthesize bile acids, steroid hormones, and other important molecules.

Disorders of lipid metabolism can lead to a range of health problems, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). These conditions may be caused by genetic factors, lifestyle habits, or a combination of both. Proper diagnosis and management of lipid metabolism disorders typically involves a combination of dietary changes, exercise, and medication.

Thrombin is a serine protease enzyme that plays a crucial role in the coagulation cascade, which is a complex series of biochemical reactions that leads to the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) to prevent excessive bleeding during an injury. Thrombin is formed from its precursor protein, prothrombin, through a process called activation, which involves cleavage by another enzyme called factor Xa.

Once activated, thrombin converts fibrinogen, a soluble plasma protein, into fibrin, an insoluble protein that forms the structural framework of a blood clot. Thrombin also activates other components of the coagulation cascade, such as factor XIII, which crosslinks and stabilizes the fibrin network, and platelets, which contribute to the formation and growth of the clot.

Thrombin has several regulatory mechanisms that control its activity, including feedback inhibition by antithrombin III, a plasma protein that inactivates thrombin and other serine proteases, and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), which inhibits the activation of factor Xa, thereby preventing further thrombin formation.

Overall, thrombin is an essential enzyme in hemostasis, the process that maintains the balance between bleeding and clotting in the body. However, excessive or uncontrolled thrombin activity can lead to pathological conditions such as thrombosis, atherosclerosis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).

A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) in the context of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology refers to the relationship between the chemical structure of a drug or molecule and its biological activity or effect on a target protein, cell, or organism. SAR studies aim to identify patterns and correlations between structural features of a compound and its ability to interact with a specific biological target, leading to a desired therapeutic response or undesired side effects.

By analyzing the SAR, researchers can optimize the chemical structure of lead compounds to enhance their potency, selectivity, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties, ultimately guiding the design and development of novel drugs with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate (DHAP) is a 3-carbon organic compound that plays a crucial role in the metabolic pathway called glycolysis. It is an intermediate molecule formed during the conversion of glucose into pyruvate, which ultimately produces energy in the form of ATP.

In the glycolytic process, DHAP is produced from glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase. Then, DHAP is converted back to G3P in a subsequent step, which prepares it for further processing in the glycolytic pathway. This reversible conversion of DHAP and G3P helps maintain the equilibrium of the glycolytic process.

Apart from its role in energy metabolism, DHAP is also involved in other biochemical processes, such as the synthesis of glucose during gluconeogenesis and the formation of lipids in the liver.

Acyltransferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an acyl group (a functional group consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and single-bonded to a hydrogen atom) from one molecule to another. This transfer involves the formation of an ester bond between the acyl group donor and the acyl group acceptor.

Acyltransferases play important roles in various biological processes, including the biosynthesis of lipids, fatty acids, and other metabolites. They are also involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics (foreign substances) by catalyzing the addition of an acyl group to these compounds, making them more water-soluble and easier to excrete from the body.

Examples of acyltransferases include serine palmitoyltransferase, which is involved in the biosynthesis of sphingolipids, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), which facilitates the transfer of cholesteryl esters between lipoproteins.

Acyltransferases are classified based on the type of acyl group they transfer and the nature of the acyl group donor and acceptor molecules. They can be further categorized into subclasses based on their sequence similarities, three-dimensional structures, and evolutionary relationships.

Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is an enzyme that plays a role in regulating cell signaling pathways. It catalyzes the conversion of diacylglycerol (DAG), a lipid second messenger, to phosphatidic acid (PA). This reaction helps to terminate DAG-mediated signals and initiate PA-mediated signals, which are involved in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and survival. There are several isoforms of DGK that differ in their regulation, subcellular localization, and substrate specificity. Inhibition or genetic deletion of DGK has been shown to affect a variety of physiological and pathological processes, including inflammation, immunity, cancer, and neurological disorders.

Diglycerides are a minor component of many seed oils and are normally present at ~1-6%; or in the case of cottonseed oil as ... A diglyceride, or diacylglycerol (DAG), is a glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol ... Diglycerides are natural components of food fats, though minor in comparison to triglycerides. DAGs can act as surfactants and ... Diglycerides, generally in a mix with monoglycerides (E471), are common food additives largely used as emulsifiers. The values ...
... may refer to: Diacylglycerol kinase (CTP dependent), an enzyme Diacylglycerol kinase, an enzyme This set ...
... (or O-acyltransferase), DGAT, catalyzes the formation of triglycerides from diacylglycerol and ...
... (E471) refers to a naturally occurring class of food additive composed of diglycerides ... Mono-/diglycerides are made by partially hydrolysing vegetable fats, such as soybean oil, and palm oil. (Animal-fat-based ... Monoglycerides and diglycerides are both naturally present in food fats, including various seed oils; however, their ... Polyglycerol polyricinoleate Monoglyceride Diglyceride "Toxicological evaluation of some food additives including anticaking ...
Diglycerides consume two equivalents of KOH. Monoglycerides and free fatty acids, as well as by other esters such as lactones ...
... Original also contains small amounts of dipotassium phosphate, to prevent coagulation; mono- and diglycerides, used ...
Monoglycerides and diglycerides replace eggs in baked goods. Emulsifiers tend to produce a finer grain, softer crumb, and with ... The cake also has emulsifying chemicals called monoglycerides and diglycerides, which replace most of the eggs that would ... Examples of dough conditioners include ascorbic acid, distilled monoglycerides, citrate ester of monoglycerides, diglycerides, ... diglycerides, and DATEM are considered emulsifiers. They disperse fat more evenly throughout the dough, helping it to trap more ...
Nara, K; KI Nihei; Y Ogasawara; H Koga; J Kato (2011). "Novel isoflavone diglycerides in groundnut (Apios americana Medik)". ...
Some commonly used emulsifiers include monoglycerides, diglycerides, and gums. Diluents: Skim milk is commonly used as the ...
Mono- and diglycerides (WHO Food Additives Series 5). Toxicological Evaluation of Some Food Additives Including Anticaking ... Monoglycerides and diglycerides are not considered fats by the FDA, despite their nearly equal calorie per weight contribution ...
... vegetable mono and diglycerides (potassium sorbate, E202, a preservative; calcium disodium EDTA) used to protect quality; ...
Mono- and diglycerides (WHO Food Additives Series 5). Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. FAO Nutrition Meetings ... Monoglycerides and diglycerides are not considered fats by the FDA, despite their nearly equal calorie per weight contribution ...
The Synthesis of Single-Fatty Acid 1,3-Diglycerides". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 73 (8): 3926-3928. doi:10.1021/ ...
Sparrow CP, Raetz CR (1985). "Purification and properties of the membrane-bound CDP-diglyceride synthetase from Escherichia ... Petzold GL, Agranoff BW (1967). "The biosynthesis of cytidine diphosphate diglyceride by embryonic chick brain". Journal of ... Carter JR, Kennedy EP (1966). "Enzymatic synthesis of cytidine diphosphate diglyceride". Journal of Lipid Research. 7 (5): 678- ... McCaman RE, Finnerty WR (1968). "Biosynthesis of cytidine diphosphate-diglyceride by a particulate fracgion from Micrococcus ...
Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids F. D. Gunstone (1 January 1994). The Lipid Handbook. Chapman & Hall. pp. 299-300. ISBN ... DATEM (diacetyl tartaric acid ester of mono- and diglycerides, also E472e) is an emulsifier primarily used in baking to ... The ingredient is prepared by the reaction of diacetyl tartaric anhydride with mono- and diglycerides that are derived from ... DATEM is derived from tartaric acid and monoglycerides and diglycerides. In the United States, DATEM is generally recognized as ...
Takenawa T, Egawa K (1977). "CDP-diglyceride:inositol transferase from rat liver. Purification and properties". J. Biol. Chem. ... Other names in common use include CDP-diglyceride-inositol phosphatidyltransferase, phosphatidylinositol synthase, CDP- ... CDP-diglyceride-inositol transferase, cytidine diphosphoglyceride-inositol phosphatidyltransferase, and cytidine ... diacylglycerol-inositol phosphatidyltransferase, CDP-diglyceride:inositol transferase, cytidine 5'-diphospho-1,2-diacyl-sn- ...
... can stimulate PKC in a similar way to diglycerides. Phorbol esters are known for their ability to promote tumors ...
This diglyceride is more generally known as diacetin. It is the diester of glycerol and acetylating agents, such as acetic acid ...
Selective inhibition of diglyceride lipase by RHC 80267". J. Biol. Chem. 257 (23): 14006-10. PMID 7142192. (Articles without ... Sutherland CA, Amin D (1982). "Relative activities of rat and dog platelet phospholipase A2 and diglyceride lipase. ...
De La Roche, I. A.; Weber, Evelyn J.; Alexander, D. E. (1971). "The selective utilization of diglyceride species into maize ...
Alpert, S. E.; Walenga, R. W.; Mandal, A; Bourbon, N; Kester, M (1999). "15-HETE-substituted diglycerides selectively regulate ... HETE in the sn-2 position can be attacked by phospholipase C to form corresponding diglycerides with 15(S)-HETE at their sn-2 ...
This enzyme is also called CDP-diglyceride-choline O-phosphatidyltransferase. This enzyme participates in glycerophospholipid ...
Monogalactosyl Diglyceride, biomol Digalactosyl diglyceride, Merck Sigma-Aldrich Sulfoquinovosyl diglyceride, Karel's Nutrition ... and digalactosyl-diglycerides( DGDG),; the sulpholipid sulphoquinovosyl-diglyceride (SQDG),phosphatidyl glycerol, and ... The lipid components of thylakoids include the galactolipids as monogalactosyl-diglycerides (MGDG) ...
Buchet, J. P.; Roels, H.; Lauwerys, R. (1974-01-16). "Further characterization of mono and diglyceride lipases in rat tissues ...
Hormone-sensitive lipase produces diglycerides from triglycerides, freeing a fatty acid molecule for oxidation. Acetyl-CoA ...
Contains 2% or less of: whey, salt, lecithin, carrageenan, mono- and diglycerides, vanillin (artificial flavor). Chocolatey ... and diglycerides PayDay contains milk and peanuts. Country of manufacture: USA Gluten free OU-D The Chocolatey PayDay was added ...
Lingual lipase then begins breaking down triglycerides into free fatty acids, and mono- and diglycerides. The breakdown of ...
They are synthesized by the addition of cytidine diphosphate-ethanolamine to diglycerides, releasing cytidine monophosphate. S- ...
Partial glycerides may be monoglycerides (two hydroxyl groups free) or diglycerides (one hydroxyl group free). Short chain ... into mono and diglycerides and free fatty acids and glycerol. Soaps are formed from the reaction of glycerides with sodium ...
... also they predominantly consist of hexagonal phase II forming monogalacotosyl diglyceride lipid. Despite this unique ...
Diglycerides are a minor component of many seed oils and are normally present at ~1-6%; or in the case of cottonseed oil as ... A diglyceride, or diacylglycerol (DAG), is a glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol ... Diglycerides are natural components of food fats, though minor in comparison to triglycerides. DAGs can act as surfactants and ... Diglycerides, generally in a mix with monoglycerides (E471), are common food additives largely used as emulsifiers. The values ...
... Owing to Growing Consumer Adoption - published on openPR.com ... Mono DiGlycerides market: Overview. Mono DiGlycerides is commonly known as fatty acid; it is used in food products as an ... Global Mono DiGlyceride Industry Market Research Report 2017 Summary The Global Mono DiGlyceride Industry 2017 Market Research ... Ricinus fatty acids, nickel, tartaric acid are some of the commonly found compounds in mono-diglycerides. Mono-diglycerides are ...
Are Mono and Diglycerides Vegan?. When it comes to determining whether mono and diglycerides are vegan, it is important to ... What Are Mono and Diglycerides?. Mono and diglycerides are commonly used food additives that belong to the category of ... Determining the source of mono and diglycerides can be challenging as they are often listed simply as "mono and diglycerides" ... The sources and production methods of mono and diglycerides can vary depending on the manufacturer. Some mono and diglycerides ...
Mono Diglycerides Market Size, Share, Analysis, Industry Trends 2024-2032, the global mono diglycerides market is expected to ... What are the major types of mono diglycerides in the market? The major types of mono diglycerides in the market are natural and ... What are the leading sources of mono diglycerides in the market? The leading sources of mono diglycerides in the market are ... Global Mono Diglycerides Market Outlook. The global mono diglycerides market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 7.2% in the ...
High quality FDA E471 Food Emulsifier Mono And Diglycerides GMS40 INS 204-664-4 from China, Chinas leading 204-664-4 E471 Food ... Mono and Diglycerides (E471/GMS40) is available in variations depending on the concentration of mono-diglyceride. Variants are ... Mono And Diglycerides Glycerol Monostearate Cake Improver Emulsifier Bakery Raw Material Sorbitan Fatty Acid Esters Non GMO ... FDA E471 Food Emulsifier Mono And Diglycerides GMS40 INS 204-664-4. Product Details:. Place of Origin:. CHINA. ...
Diglycerides / immunology * Gene Expression Regulation / immunology * Ligands * Lipopeptides / immunology * Lipopolysaccharides ...
184.1505 - Mono- and diglycerides. § 184.1521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides. § 184.1530 - Niacin ... 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. § 184.1115 - Agar-agar. § 184.1120 - Brown algae. § ...
... and diglycerides; artificial flavor; baking soda; carrageenan; milk fat; yeast; tbhq and citric acid, to maintain freshness; ...
Mono And Di-Glycerides; Whey (Milk); Potassium Sorbate; To Maintain Freshness; Vanillin, Artificial Flavor; Polysorbate 60. ...
... and Diglycerides*; Polysorbate 60; Vanillin, Arteicial Favor ...
DiglyceridesIBA 01/2014 - 01/2006. 8. ImmunosorbentsIBA 01/2014 - 10/2003. ...
Corn Flour; Rice Flour; Mono and Diglycerides; ,190kcal. Calories. ,1g. Total Fat ...
... and diglycerides; and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides (DATEMs). Some success has been achieved using ... CSL and even ethoxylated mono- and diglycerides help a great deal in stabilizing that dough structure to reduce proof time. ... Using emulsifiers - such as CSL, SSL, mono- and diglycerides and DATEMs - singly or in combination provides improved dough ... Emulsifiers - such as mono- and diglycerides, DATEMs, propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fatty acids - act as softening ...
Hydrolysis of PIP2 produces a hydrophobic molecule known as diglycerides or diacylglycerol (DAG). After IP3 is formed, DAG is ...
You May Be Getting More Mono- and Diglycerides Than You Should 2 ...
Contains ingredients that may contribute small amounts of unhealthy artificial trans fats: Mono And Diglycerides Of Fatty Acids ... Contains ingredients that may contribute small amounts of unhealthy artificial trans fats: Mono And Diglycerides Of Fatty Acids ... DEHYDRATED POTATOES (POTATO FLAKES, MONO- AND DIGLYCERIDES, SODIUM ACID PYROPHOSPHATE [PRESERVATIVE], SODIUM BISULFITE [ ... Textbooks for food scientists reveal that the mono and di-glycerides and other emulsifiers are often made from hydrogenated ...
mono and diglycerides,. polysorbate 60. Mettler Dropping Pt 119°C. SFC at 10°C 32% ...
Mono-and Diglycerides; Whey (Milk); Baking Soda, Salt; Confectioners Glaze; Tapioca Dextrin; Lecithin (Soy); Vanillin, ...
Sunflower powder (sunflower oil, corn syrup solids, sodium caseinate, mono and diglycerides, dipotassium phosphate, tricalcium ... Sunflower creamer (sunflower oil, sodium caseinate, mono and diglycerides, natural tocopherols, and tricalcium phosphate) ...
... and Diglycerides of Fatty Acids, Thyme, Wheat Flour, Parsley, Raising Agents: Diphosphates, Sodium Carbonates ...
Simply Better Tortillas: Non GMO; no artificial flavors or sweeteners; no mono and diglycerides; aluminum free baking powder; ...
Sugars (sugar, glucose), Raspberries, Pectin, Citric acid, Mono and diglycerides.. Nutrition Facts. Serving Size Per 1 Tbsp ...
Sodium citrate, xanthan gum, and mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids were associated with increased overall cancer risk. ...
Call FL, Williams WJ (February 1970). „Biosynthesis of cytidine diphosphate diglyceride by human platelets". J. Clin. Invest. ...
Tapioca Starch, Sugar, Cocoa Powder, Glucose Syrup, Dietary Fibers (Chicory), Mono & Diglycerides of Fatty Acids, Salt, ...
Mono and di-glycerides and hydrogenated oils and sugar. Hah! Peanut butter should contain peanuts and nothing else. Maybe a ...
Vegetable Mono & Diglycerides, Potassium Sorbate (A Preservative). Citric Acid. Natural & Artificial Flavor, Beta Carotene ( ...
Contains 2% or Less of: Mono- and Diglycerides of Fatty Acids, Locust Bean Gum, Guar Gum, Natural Flavor, Sea Salt, Lemon Juice ...
  • Dip in the use of packaged food products and minimal use of harmful chemicals adapted by some organic or halal food manufacturing companies around the globe and stringent government rules to protect public health will slow the growth of the mono-diglycerides market. (openpr.com)
  • Being the largest processed food market North America will drive the growth of the mono-diglycerides market. (openpr.com)
  • China and Japan will showcase a dip in the growth of the mono-diglycerides market as buyers are sensitised, and their food habits are different from rest of the world. (openpr.com)
  • The thriving food and beverages sector is significantly contributing to the growth of the mono diglycerides industry. (expertmarketresearch.com)
  • The rising consumer demand for convenient and on-the-go food products is driving the growth of the mono diglycerides industry. (expertmarketresearch.com)
  • Fatty acid or mono-diglycerides are typically low in concentration. (openpr.com)
  • Though it is used to increase the storage life of the food products, several inbuilt negative qualities are impacting the overall development of the mono-diglycerides market. (openpr.com)
  • Some of the popular food products such as palm oil contain a considerable amount of mono-diglycerides and studies reveal and the consumption of this chemical hampers health. (openpr.com)
  • Ricinus fatty acids, nickel, tartaric acid are some of the commonly found compounds in mono-diglycerides. (openpr.com)
  • Mono-diglycerides are typically present in packaged foods. (openpr.com)
  • Some of the less health friendly food products available in the market, such as baked foods, soft drinks, ice creams, gums and candies harbour mono-diglycerides. (openpr.com)
  • The packaged food industry is booming, and this constant growth of this industry is expediting the sale the preservatives such as mono-diglycerides. (openpr.com)
  • These factors will fuel the use of mono-diglycerides as an additive. (openpr.com)
  • These factors will support the growth of the food preservatives such as mono-diglycerides in the forthcoming years. (openpr.com)
  • These components will promote the processed food market which will further enhance the demand of the chemicals such as mono-diglycerides. (openpr.com)
  • The global mono diglycerides market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 7.2% in the forecast period of 2024-2032. (expertmarketresearch.com)
  • Mono diglycerides can be used as an emulsifier and are extensively added in food products to enhance their shelf life. (expertmarketresearch.com)
  • Mono diglycerides simply refer to fatty acids. (expertmarketresearch.com)
  • Mono diglycerides can be produced by using animal fats or vegetable oils like soybean, canola or rapeseed, cottonseed, sunflower, coconut, or palm oil as the starting material. (expertmarketresearch.com)
  • Over the forecast period, the advancements in the food processing sector and new product launches by the food and beverage manufacturers are expected to have a positive effect on the expansion of the global mono diglycerides industry. (expertmarketresearch.com)
  • In chemical terms, mono glycerides and diglycerides are defined as esters of the trihydroxy alcohol (glycerol) wherein one or two of the hydroxyl groups are esterified with a long chain fatty acid. (expertmarketresearch.com)
  • § 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. (fda.gov)
  • Diglycerides are natural components of food fats, though minor in comparison to triglycerides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mono and Diglycerides (E471) also named GMS40 bring key functionality to oils and fats, dairy products, frozen desserts and confectionery. (food-emulsifier.com)
  • Sodium citrate, xanthan gum, and mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids were associated with increased overall cancer risk. (healthline.com)
  • A diglyceride, or diacylglycerol (DAG), is a glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diacylglycerol is a precursor to triacylglycerol (triglyceride), which is formed in the addition of a third fatty acid to the diacylglycerol under the catalysis of diglyceride acyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrolysis of PIP2 produces a hydrophobic molecule known as diglycerides or diacylglycerol (DAG). (news-medical.net)
  • Mono and diglycerides are composed of one or two fatty acid molecules attached to a glycerol backbone. (vegetarian-vacations.com)
  • Diglycerides, generally in a mix with monoglycerides (E471), are common food additives largely used as emulsifiers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mono and Diglycerides (E471/GMS40) is available in variations depending on the concentration of mono-diglyceride. (food-emulsifier.com)
  • I am interested in FDA E471 Food Emulsifier Mono And Diglycerides GMS40 INS 204-664-4 could you send me more details such as type, size, quantity, material, etc. (food-emulsifier.com)
  • Mono and diglycerides are commonly used as emulsifiers in various food products to improve texture and shelf life. (vegetarian-vacations.com)
  • Mono and diglycerides are commonly used food additives that belong to the category of emulsifiers. (vegetarian-vacations.com)
  • Plant-derived mono and diglycerides are commonly found in a wide range of vegan products, including baked goods, dairy-free spreads, and plant-based ice creams. (vegetarian-vacations.com)
  • Some mono and diglycerides are derived from plant-based oils, such as soybean, sunflower, or palm oil, making them potentially suitable for vegans. (vegetarian-vacations.com)
  • It's important to note that mono and diglycerides are considered safe for consumption by regulatory authorities, such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). (vegetarian-vacations.com)
  • Ingredients like mono and diglycerides have become a source of confusion for those trying to follow a vegan diet. (vegetarian-vacations.com)
  • However, if you follow a vegan diet, it's advisable to look for products that explicitly state they are free from animal-derived mono and diglycerides or seek alternative vegan-friendly options. (vegetarian-vacations.com)
  • Animal-derived mono and diglycerides are not considered vegan-friendly as they involve the use of animal products in their production. (vegetarian-vacations.com)
  • Mono and diglycerides have numerous applications in the food industry due to their emulsifying properties. (vegetarian-vacations.com)
  • Most mono and diglycerides in processed foods are derived from plants and technically vegan, but some can come from animal sources. (vegetarian-vacations.com)
  • However, it's essential to note that not all mono and diglycerides are vegan-friendly, as they can also be derived from animal sources, such as lard or tallow. (vegetarian-vacations.com)
  • On the other hand, some mono and diglycerides are derived from animal sources, making them unsuitable for vegans. (vegetarian-vacations.com)
  • Determining the source of mono and diglycerides can be challenging as they are often listed simply as "mono and diglycerides" on ingredient labels. (vegetarian-vacations.com)
  • The values given in the nutritional labels for total fat, saturated fat, and trans fat do not include those present in mono- and diglycerides. (wikipedia.org)
  • It's worth mentioning that some manufacturers utilize hydrogenation, a process that involves the addition of hydrogen atoms to unsaturated fatty acids, to modify the properties of mono and diglycerides. (vegetarian-vacations.com)
  • Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids, or simply DATEM, is an emulsifier used in breadmaking to strengthen the dough structure so that it can successfully expand during proofing and baking. (asbe.org)
  • DATEM is a food additive that is commercially produced from mono- and diglycerides derived from vegetable oils and/or fats that have been esterified with organic acids. (asbe.org)
  • The esterification of mono- and diglycerides with tartaric and acetic acids in the presence of acetic acid anhydride. (asbe.org)
  • The reaction of diacetyl tartaric acid in the presence of acetic acid with mono- and diglycerides. (asbe.org)
  • ii) Mono- and diglycerides of fat-forming fatty acids, diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fat-forming fatty acids, propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fat-forming fatty acids, and other ingredients that perform a similar function. (fda.gov)
  • Lipids are a broad group of organic compounds which include fats , waxes , sterols , fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A , D , E and K ), monoglycerides , diglycerides , phospholipids , and others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antitoxin was added to the left side of this plate, thereby, inhibiting the lecithinase reaction, which occurred on the right, antitoxin-free region of the plate, where this reaction was allowed to occur, and where egg yolk lecithin was broken down to an opaque, insoluble diglyceride. (cdc.gov)