The properties and relationships and biological processes that characterize the nature and function of the SKIN and its appendages.
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Diseases in any part of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the accessory organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM and DENTITION as a whole or of any of its parts.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Physiological processes and properties of the DENTITION.
Physiology of the human and animal body, male or female, in the processes and characteristics of REPRODUCTION and the URINARY TRACT.
Properties, and processes of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM or their parts.
Functional processes and properties characteristic of the BLOOD; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
Nutritional physiology related to EXERCISE or ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE.
Biological actions and events that constitute the functions of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Physiological processes, factors, properties and characteristics pertaining to REPRODUCTION.
The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.
Nutritional physiology of adults aged 65 years of age and older.
An abnormal passage communicating between any components of the digestive system, or between any part of the digestive system and surrounding organ(s).
Properties, functions, and processes of the URINARY TRACT as a whole or of any of its parts.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A histamine H1 antagonist used as the hydrogen fumarate in hay fever, rhinitis, allergic skin conditions, and pruritus. It causes drowsiness.
Processes and properties of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.
Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.
Congenital structural abnormalities of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the digestive system or its organs or demonstration of their physiological processes.
Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
Physiological processes and properties of the BLOOD.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.

Apparent ileal and total-tract nutrient digestion by pigs as affected by dietary nondigestible oligosaccharides. (1/317)

The effects of two types of nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDO), fructooligosaccharides (FOS), and transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS) were studied on growing and weanling pigs' nutrient digestion. Dietary NDO were included at the expense of purified cellulose. Twenty-five 57-d-old growing pigs, averaging 15.9+/-.6 kg on d 0 of the experiment, were fed a corn-based control diet or the control with 6.8 or 13.5 g of FOS/kg or 4.0 or 8.0 g of TOS/kg (five pigs per diet). Feces were collected on d 28 to 32, and small-intestinal digesta were collected (slaughter technique) on d 42 to 47 of the experiment. Feeds, feces, and digesta were analyzed for DM, inorganic matter, CP, ether extract, and crude fiber. Dietary NDO did not significantly affect apparent fecal and small intestinal digestion of nutrients in growing pigs. After being fed a NDO-free diet through d 10 after weaning, 38-d-old weanling pigs (n = 20), averaging 10.4+/-.8 kg on d 0 of the experiment, were fed a control diet (based on cornstarch, casein, and oat husk meal) or the control with 10 or 40 g of FOS or TOS/kg (four pigs per diet). Feces and urine were collected on d 13 to 17, and ileal digesta were collected via a postvalve T-cecum cannula on d 33 to 37 of the experiment. Feeds, feces, and digesta were analyzed for DM, inorganic matter, CP, ether extract, starch, NDF, ADF, ADL, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn. Nonstarch neutral-detergent soluble carbohydrates (NNSC) completed the mass balance for the carbohydrates. Urine was analyzed for N and minerals. The apparent fecal digestion of NNSC increased in the NDO-supplemented diets. The TOS-fed pigs tended (P<.10) to have a higher apparent fecal digestion of CP than the FOS-fed and control pigs but excreted more N via the urine (P<.01). Nitrogen and mineral balances were not affected. The FOS was nearly completely degraded prececally. Mean fiber digestion was lower at the fecal compared with the ileal level, as was the extent of NDO effects. This indicates that fiber digestion requires more than 2 wk to adapt to dietary NDO. Apparent ileal digestion of hemicellulose increased for the NDO-supplemented diets (P<.05), but that of NNSC decreased (P<.001). Thus, under the well-controlled conditions of this experiment, dietary NDO hardly affected nutrient digestion in well-kept growing and weanling pigs. However, digestion of dietary nonstarch carbohydrates may be affected.  (+info)

Passive exchanges during water vapour absorption in mealworms (Tenebrio molitor): a new approach to studying the phenomenon. (2/317)

The weights of single mealworms were continuously recorded at 20 degrees C during exposure to periods of constant humidity and to abrupt changes in atmospheric vapour pressure. Two exchange stages were recognized in each animal. Weight changes were either limited to slow losses, suggesting transpiration through the external cuticle, or showed more rapid humidity-dependent gains as well as losses. Rapid exchanges indicated that water was gained or lost through permeable barriers, from a fluid compartmet of significantly lower vapour pressure than the haemolymph, equivalent to about 90% R.H. Weight gains and losses during humidity changes provided evidence of a significant, passively exchanging fluid compartment located between the exchange surface and absorbing mechanism. Weight changes in faecal pellets following their elimination provide further support for a rectal site of atmospheric absorption.  (+info)

Noninvasive measurement of anatomic structure and intraluminal oxygenation in the gastrointestinal tract of living mice with spatial and spectral EPR imaging. (3/317)

EPR imaging has emerged as an important tool for noninvasive three-dimensional (3D) spatial mapping of free radicals in biological tissues. Spectral-spatial EPR imaging enables mapping of the spectral information at each spatial position, and, from the observed line width, the localized tissue oxygenation can be mapped. We report the development of EPR imaging instrumentation enabling 3D spatial and spectral-spatial EPR imaging of small animals. This instrumentation, along with the use of a biocompatible charcoal oximetry-probe suspension, enabled 3D spatial imaging of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, along with mapping of oxygenation in living mice. By using these techniques, the oxygen tension was mapped at different levels of the GI tract from the stomach to the rectum. The results clearly show the presence of a marked oxygen gradient from the proximal to the distal GI tract, which decreases after respiratory arrest. This technique for in vivo mapping of oxygenation is a promising method, enabling the noninvasive imaging of oxygen within the normal GI tract. This method should be useful in determining the alterations in oxygenation associated with disease.  (+info)

Gastrointestinal responses to a panel of lectins in rats maintained on total parenteral nutrition. (4/317)

Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) causes atrophy of gastrointestinal epithelia, so we asked whether lectins that stimulate epithelial proliferation can reverse this effect of TPN. Two lectins stimulate pancreatic proliferation by releasing CCK, so we asked whether lectins that stimulate gastrointestinal proliferation also release hormones that might mediate their effects. Six rats per group received continuous infusion of TPN and a once daily bolus dose of purified lectin (25 mg. rat-1. day-1) or vehicle alone (control group) for 4 days via an intragastric cannula. Proliferation rates were estimated by metaphase arrest, and hormones were measured by RIAs. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) increased proliferation by 90% in the gastric fundus (P < 0.05), doubled proliferation in the small intestine (P < 0.001), and had a small effect in the midcolon (P < 0.05). Peanut agglutinin (PNA) had a minor trophic effect in the proximal small intestine (P < 0.05) and increased proliferation by 166% in the proximal colon (P < 0.001) and by 40% in the midcolon (P < 0.001). PNA elevated circulating gastrin and CCK by 97 (P < 0.05) and 81% (P < 0.01), respectively, and PHA elevated plasma enteroglucagon by 69% and CCK by 60% (both P < 0.05). Only wheat germ agglutinin increased the release of glucagon-like peptide-1 by 100% (P < 0.05). PHA and PNA consistently reverse the fall in gastrointestinal and pancreatic growth associated with TPN in rats. Both lectins stimulated the release of specific hormones that may have been responsible for the trophic effects. It is suggested that lectins could be used to prevent gastrointestinal atrophy during TPN. Their hormone-releasing effects might be involved.  (+info)

Aquaporin water channels in gastrointestinal physiology. (5/317)

Fluid transport is a major function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract with more than 9 litres of fluid being absorbed or secreted across epithelia in human salivary gland, stomach, the hepatobiliary tract, pancreas, small intestine and colon. This review evaluates the evidence that aquaporin-type water channels are involved in GI fluid transport. The aquaporins are a family of small ( approximately 30 kDa) integral membrane proteins that function as water channels. At least seven aquaporins are expressed in various tissues in the GI tract: AQP1 in intrahepatic cholangiocytes, AQP4 in gastric parietal cells, AQP3 and AQP4 in colonic surface epithelium, AQP5 in salivary gland, AQP7 in small intestine, AQP8 in liver, pancreas and colon, and AQP9 in liver. There are functional data suggesting that some GI cell types expressing aquaporins have high or regulated water permeability; however, there has been no direct evidence for a role of aquaporins in GI physiology. Recently, transgenic mice have been generated with selective deletions of various aquaporins. Preliminary evaluation of GI function suggests a role for AQP1 in dietary fat processing and AQP4 in colonic fluid absorption. Further study of aquaporin function in the GI tract should provide new insights into normal GI physiology and disease mechanisms, and may yield novel therapies to regulate fluid movement in GI diseases.  (+info)

Electrophysiological and morphological heterogeneity of rat dorsal vagal neurones which project to specific areas of the gastrointestinal tract. (6/317)

1. The electrophysiological properties of rat dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) neurones (n = 162) were examined using whole cell patch clamp recordings from brainstem slices. Recordings were made from DMV neurones whose projections to the gastrointestinal tract had been identified by previously applying fluorescent retrograde tracers to the gastric fundus, corpus or antrum/pylorus, or to the duodenum or caecum. 2. The neuronal groups were markedly heterogeneous with respect to several electrophysiological properties. For example, neurones which projected to the fundus had a higher input resistance (400 +/- 25 Momega), a smaller and shorter after-hyperpolarization (16.7 +/- 0.49 mV and 63.5 +/- 3.9 ms) and a higher frequency of action potential firing (19.3 +/- 1.4 action potentials s-1) following injection of depolarizing current (270 pA) when compared with caecum-projecting neurones (302 +/- 22 Momega; 23. 5 +/- 0.87 mV and 81.1 +/- 5.3 ms; 9.7 +/- 1.1 action potentials s-1; P < 0.05 for each parameter). Differences between neuronal groups were also apparent with respect to the distribution of several voltage-dependent potassium currents. Inward rectification was present only in caecum-projecting neurones, for example. 3. Neurones (n = 82) were filled with the intracellular stain Neurobiotin allowing post-fixation morphological reconstruction. Neurones projecting to the caecum had the largest cell volume (5238 +/- 535 microm3), soma area (489 +/- 46 microm2) and soma diameter (24.6 +/- 1.24 microm) as well as the largest number of dendritic branch segments (23 +/- 2). 4. In summary, these results suggest that DMV neurones are heterogeneous with respect to some electrophysiological as well as some morphological properties and can be divided into subgroups according to their gastrointestinal projections.  (+info)

Stimulation of the paraventricular nucleus modulates the activity of gut-sensitive neurons in the vagal complex. (7/317)

There is good evidence that stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus excites neurons in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC), but the data regarding the role of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in vagal function are less clear. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of PVN stimulation on the activity of neurons in the DVC. We utilized extracellular and intracellular neuronal recordings with intracellular injections of a neuronal tracer to label individual, physiologically characterized neurons in the DVC of rats anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. Most (80%) of the gut-sensitive dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV) neurons characterized in this study exhibited a change in activity during electrical stimulation of the PVN. Stimulation of the PVN caused an increase in the spontaneous activity of 59% of the PVN-sensitive DMNV neurons, and the PVN was capable of modulating the response of a small subset of DMNV neurons to gastrointestinal stimuli. This study also demonstrated that the PVN was capable of influencing the activity of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST). Electrical stimulation of the PVN decreased the basal activity of 66% of the NST cells that we characterized and altered the gastrointestinal response of a very small subset of NST neurons. It is likely that these interactions play a role in the modulation of a number of gut-related homeostatic processes. Increased or decreased activity in the descending pathway from the PVN to the DVC has the potential to alter ascending satiety signals, modulate vago-vagal reflexes and the cephalic phase of feeding, and affect the absorption of nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract.  (+info)

Increase in intake with sham feeding experience is concentration dependent. (8/317)

Most sham feeding studies show that about three sham feeding tests are required for intake to reach maximum. One study, however, using a dilute solution, reported maximum sham intake in the first sham feeding test, suggesting that the progressive rise in sham intake may be concentration dependent. We tested this hypothesis with six groups of rats given five sham feeding tests each with one of six concentrations of sweetened condensed milk (0.5:1, 1:1, 2:1, 4:1, 8:1, 16:1, water-to-milk dilutions). It took three sham tests for intake to reach maximum with the three most concentrated solutions, but only one with the three weakest. Thus the intake of concentrated solutions of milk is limited by two negative feedback signals, one derived from the accumulation of fluid in the gastrointestinal tract, the other from a labile signal that loses its effectiveness with sham feeding experience. In contrast, the intake of weak concentrations is limited only by the nonlabile negative feedback signal because the labile signal is missing.  (+info)

The digestive system neoplasms are a group of abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the organs and tissues of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant, and their impact on the body can range from minimal to life-threatening.


There are several types of digestive system neoplasms, including:

1. Colorectal cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the colon or rectum.
2. Gastric cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the stomach.
3. Pancreatic cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the pancreas.
4. Small intestine cancer: A rare type of cancer that develops in the small intestine.
5. Esophageal cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the esophagus.
6. Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma): A malignant tumor that develops in the liver.
7. Anal canal cancer: A rare type of cancer that develops in the anus.
8. Gallbladder cancer: A rare type of cancer that develops in the gallbladder.

Causes and risk factors:

The exact cause of digestive system neoplasms is not always known, but certain risk factors can increase the likelihood of developing these conditions. These include:

1. Age: The risk of developing digestive system neoplasms increases with age.
2. Family history: Having a family history of these conditions can increase the risk.
3. Inflammatory bowel disease: People with inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, are at higher risk of developing colorectal cancer.
4. Diets high in fat and low in fiber: A diet high in fat and low in fiber may increase the risk of developing colon cancer.
5. Smoking: Smoking can increase the risk of developing several types of digestive system neoplasms, including colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer.
6. Alcohol consumption: Heavy alcohol consumption may increase the risk of developing liver cancer.
7. Obesity: Being overweight or obese may increase the risk of developing several types of digestive system neoplasms, including colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer.
8. Infection with certain viruses: Some viruses, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) and hepatitis B and C, can increase the risk of developing certain types of digestive system neoplasms.

Symptoms and diagnosis:

The symptoms of digestive system neoplasms vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. Some common symptoms include:

1. Blood in the stool or vomit
2. Abdominal pain or discomfort
3. Weight loss
4. Fatigue
5. Loss of appetite
6. Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)

If a patient experiences any of these symptoms, they should see a healthcare provider for further evaluation. A diagnosis of digestive system neoplasms is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, endoscopy, and biopsy. Treatment options:

The treatment of digestive system neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor. Some common treatment options include:

1. Surgery: Surgery is often the first line of treatment for many types of digestive system neoplasms. The goal of surgery is to remove the tumor and any affected tissue.
2. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells. It may be used before or after surgery, or as a palliative therapy to relieve symptoms.
3. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. It may be used alone or in combination with other treatments.
4. Targeted therapy: Targeted therapy is a type of cancer treatment that targets specific molecules involved in the growth and spread of cancer cells. Examples of targeted therapies used to treat digestive system neoplasms include bevacizumab, which targets vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and aflibercept, which targets vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2).
5. Immunotherapy: Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses the body's immune system to fight cancer cells. Examples of immunotherapies used to treat digestive system neoplasms include pembrolizumab, which targets programmed death-1 (PD-1) and nivolumab, which targets PD-1 and CTLA-4.
6. Stenting or embolization: These procedures involve placing a small tube or particles into the blood vessels to block the flow of blood to the tumor, which can cause it to shrink or stop growing.
7. Palliative care: Palliative care is a type of treatment that focuses on relieving symptoms and improving quality of life for people with advanced cancer. It may include medications, radiation therapy, or other interventions to manage pain, bleeding, or other complications.
8. Clinical trials: These are research studies that involve testing new treatments or combinations of treatments to see if they are effective and safe. Participating in a clinical trial may give patients access to innovative therapies that are not yet widely available.

It's important to note that the specific treatment plan for digestive system neoplasms will depend on the type, location, size, and stage of the cancer, as well as other individual factors such as the patient's age, overall health, and preferences. Patients should discuss their treatment options with their healthcare provider to determine the best course of action for their specific situation.

Some common examples of digestive system diseases include:

1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): This is a chronic condition characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits such as constipation or diarrhea.
2. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): This includes conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, which cause chronic inflammation in the digestive tract.
3. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): This is a condition where stomach acid flows back up into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms.
4. Peptic Ulcer: This is a sore on the lining of the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) that can cause pain, nausea, and vomiting.
5. Diverticulosis: This is a condition where small pouches form in the wall of the colon, which can become inflamed and cause symptoms such as abdominal pain and changes in bowel habits.
6. Constipation: This is a common condition where the stool is hard and difficult to pass, which can be caused by a variety of factors such as poor diet, dehydration, or certain medications.
7. Diabetes: This is a chronic condition that affects how the body regulates blood sugar levels, which can also affect the digestive system and cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
8. Celiac Disease: This is an autoimmune disorder where the immune system reacts to gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye, causing inflammation and damage to the small intestine.
9. Lipidosis: This is a condition where there is an abnormal accumulation of fat in the body, which can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting.
10. Sarcoidosis: This is a chronic inflammatory disease that can affect various organs in the body, including the digestive system, causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss.

It's important to note that this list is not exhaustive and there are many other conditions that can cause abdominal pain. If you are experiencing persistent or severe abdominal pain, it's important to seek medical attention to determine the underlying cause and receive proper treatment.

Types: There are several types of digestive system fistulae, including:

* Esophago-gastric fistula: A connection between the esophagus and stomach
* Gastric-duodenal fistula: A connection between the stomach and small intestine
* Jejuno-ileal fistula: A connection between the small intestine and large intestine
* Ileo-caecal fistula: A connection between the large intestine and the caecum, a pouch-like structure in the appendix

Causes: Digestive system fistulae can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis
* Diverticulitis, a condition in which pouches form in the wall of the GI tract and become infected
* Cancer, such as rectal cancer or colon cancer
* Radiation therapy to the pelvic area
* Infections, such as abscesses or gangrene

Symptoms: Symptoms of digestive system fistulae can include:

* Pain in the abdomen or pelvis
* Swelling in the abdomen or pelvis
* Fever
* Diarrhea or constipation
* Abdominal distension
* Weight loss

Treatment: Treatment for digestive system fistulae depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, surgery, or other interventions. In some cases, the condition may be managed with draining of the abscess or fistula, or with the use of a nasogastric tube to drain the contents of the stomach. Surgical repair of the fistula may also be necessary.

Prognosis: The prognosis for digestive system fistulae depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In general, early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes. However, if left untreated, the condition can lead to serious complications such as sepsis, organ damage, or death.

Prevention: Preventing digestive system fistulae involves managing any underlying conditions that may contribute to their development. For example, people with inflammatory bowel disease should adhere to their treatment regimens and make lifestyle changes as recommended by their healthcare providers. In addition, good hand hygiene and proper sterilization techniques can help prevent the spread of infections that can lead to fistulae.

Some common types of gastrointestinal neoplasms include:

1. Gastric adenocarcinoma: A type of stomach cancer that starts in the glandular cells of the stomach lining.
2. Colorectal adenocarcinoma: A type of cancer that starts in the glandular cells of the colon or rectum.
3. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A type of cancer that starts in the squamous cells of the esophagus.
4. Small intestine neuroendocrine tumors: Tumors that start in the hormone-producing cells of the small intestine.
5. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs): Tumors that start in the connective tissue of the GI tract.

The symptoms of gastrointestinal neoplasms can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but they may include:

* Abdominal pain or discomfort
* Changes in bowel habits (such as diarrhea or constipation)
* Weight loss
* Fatigue
* Nausea and vomiting

If you have any of these symptoms, it is important to see a doctor for further evaluation and diagnosis. A gastrointestinal neoplasm can be diagnosed through a combination of endoscopy (insertion of a flexible tube into the GI tract to visualize the inside), imaging tests (such as CT or MRI scans), and biopsy (removal of a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope).

Treatment options for gastrointestinal neoplasms depend on the type, location, and stage of the tumor, but they may include:

* Surgery to remove the tumor
* Chemotherapy (use of drugs to kill cancer cells)
* Radiation therapy (use of high-energy X-rays or other particles to kill cancer cells)
* Targeted therapy (use of drugs that target specific molecules involved in cancer growth and development)
* Supportive care (such as pain management and nutritional support)

The prognosis for gastrointestinal neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the tumor, but in general, early detection and treatment improve outcomes. If you have been diagnosed with a gastrointestinal neoplasm, it is important to work closely with your healthcare team to develop a personalized treatment plan and follow up regularly for monitoring and adjustments as needed.

Some common digestive system abnormalities include:

1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): This is a chronic condition characterized by recurring episodes of diarrhea, constipation, or both. The exact cause of IBS is not known, but it may be related to changes in gut motility, hypersensitivity to food or stress, and inflammation.
2. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): This is a group of chronic conditions that cause inflammation in the digestive tract, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The exact cause of IBD is not known, but it may be related to an abnormal immune response.
3. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): This is a condition in which stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing symptoms such as heartburn and regurgitation. GERD can be caused by a weak or relaxed lower esophageal sphincter, obesity, pregnancy, and other factors.
4. Peptic ulcer: This is a sore on the lining of the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). Peptic ulcers can be caused by infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria, excessive use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and other factors.
5. Diverticulosis: This is a condition in which small pouches form in the wall of the colon. Diverticulosis can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, fever, and changes in bowel habits.
6. Diverticulitis: This is a more serious condition in which the diverticula become inflamed. Diverticulitis can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, fever, nausea, and vomiting.
7. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): This is a chronic condition characterized by recurring abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits. The exact cause of IBS is not known, but it may be related to stress, hormonal changes, and other factors.
8. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): This is a chronic condition characterized by inflammation in the digestive tract. IBD includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
9. Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs): These are conditions that affect the function of the GI system, but do not cause any visible damage to the tissues. FGIDs include IBS, functional dyspepsia, and other conditions.
10. Gastrointestinal infections: These are infections caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can affect the GI system. Examples include food poisoning, salmonella infection, and giardiasis.
11. Radiologic pneumatosis intestinalis: This is a condition in which gas accumulates in the intestines, causing them to become inflated like a balloon. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, inflammatory conditions, and blockages.
12. Postoperative ileus: This is a condition that occurs after surgery on the GI system, characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits.

These are just a few examples of the many different conditions that can affect the gastrointestinal system. If you are experiencing symptoms that concern you, it is important to seek medical attention to determine the cause and receive appropriate treatment.

Types of Gastrointestinal Diseases:

1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A common condition characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements.
2. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): A group of chronic conditions that cause inflammation in the digestive tract, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
3. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): A condition in which stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms.
4. Peptic Ulcer Disease: A condition characterized by ulcers in the lining of the stomach or duodenum.
5. Diverticulitis: A condition in which small pouches form in the wall of the colon and become inflamed.
6. Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach lining, often caused by infection or excessive alcohol consumption.
7. Esophagitis: Inflammation of the esophagus, often caused by acid reflux or infection.
8. Rectal Bleeding: Hemorrhage from the rectum, which can be a symptom of various conditions such as hemorrhoids, anal fissures, or inflammatory bowel disease.
9. Functional Dyspepsia: A condition characterized by recurring symptoms of epigastric pain, bloating, nausea, and belching.
10. Celiac Disease: An autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to react to gluten, leading to inflammation and damage in the small intestine.

Causes of Gastrointestinal Diseases:

1. Infection: Viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections can cause gastrointestinal diseases.
2. Autoimmune Disorders: Conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis occur when the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in the GI tract.
3. Diet: Consuming a diet high in processed foods, sugar, and unhealthy fats can contribute to gastrointestinal diseases.
4. Genetics: Certain genetic factors can increase the risk of developing certain gastrointestinal diseases.
5. Lifestyle Factors: Smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, stress, and lack of physical activity can all contribute to gastrointestinal diseases.
6. Radiation Therapy: Exposure to radiation therapy can damage the GI tract and increase the risk of developing certain gastrointestinal diseases.
7. Medications: Certain medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids can cause gastrointestinal side effects.

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In the digestive system, the anterior region of the foregut has been modified to form a pharyngeal sucking pump as they need it ... This phenomenon is known as aposematism. Some caterpillars, especially members of Papilionidae, contain an osmeterium, a Y- ... as well as in certain specific morphological or physiological traits within a species. Environmental polymorphism, in which ... Instead, all the digestive enzymes, other than initial digestion, are immobilized at the surface of the midgut cells. In larvae ...
... digestive system (98 articles) A04 - respiratory system (46 articles) A05 - urogenital system (87 articles) A06 - endocrine ... cell phenomena, and immunity G05 - genetic processes G06 - biochemical phenomena, metabolism, and nutrition G07 - physiological ... stomatognathic system A15 - hemic and immune systems A16 - embryonic structures A17 - integumentary system B - Organisms B01 - ... system A07 - cardiovascular system A08 - nervous system A09 - sense organs A10 - tissues A11 - cells A12 - fluids and ...
This loss of blood flow slows the digestive system, and this slowing can be seen on the EGG. However, this response can vary ... In this study, the presence of bradygastria was able to predict trait and state disgust, which no other physiological measure ... ISBN 978-0-19-514788-9. Mintchev M. Selected Topics on Electrogastrography: Electrical phenomena in the human stomach. Kosenko ... blood flow is directed to the muscles in the arms and legs and away from the digestive system. ...
... family has the ability to decompose lignocellulose which requires assistance from microorganisms in their digestive system. ... Different species for Megascolecidae have different physiological features. However, some familiarities of physiological ... The intercontinental distribution of Megascolecidae has two different theories that explains its phenomenon: 1) land bridges ... In most cases the disturbed areas includes agricultural systems or previously areas that are lacking of earthworms would see ...
The nervous system of gastropods includes the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system. The central nervous ... This process is unrelated to the coiling of the shell, which is a separate phenomenon. Torsion is present in all gastropods, ... Additional organs of excretion, at least in some species, include pericardial glands in the body cavity, and digestive glands ... The effects of torsion are primarily physiological; the organism develops an asymmetrical growth, with the majority occurring ...
Respiratory system: the organs used for breathing, the pharynx, larynx, bronchi, lungs and diaphragm. Digestive system: ... The notion of physiological division of labor, introduced in the 1820s by the French physiologist Henri Milne-Edwards, allowed ... work incessantly to produce the phenomena that constitute the life of the individual." In more differentiated organisms, the ... Sensory systems: visual system, auditory system, olfactory system, gustatory system, somatosensory system, vestibular system. ...
In 1902 he demonstrated a link between the action of enterokinase in mobilizing pancreatic digestive enzymes and the phenomena ... In 1900 he relocated to Paris, where he worked as a lecturer in the laboratory of physiological chemistry at the École des ... demonstrating the hepatic origin of antithrombin and describing the blood coagulation system of birds. ...
They went on to discover a variety of other important physiological phenomena and principles, many of which were based on their ... The men knew that the pancreas produces digestive juices in response to increased acidity in the duodenum and jejunum, because ... A veterinarian, Alfred Sewell, said the system Bayliss was using was unlikely to be adequate, but other witnesses, including ... were using vivisection on dogs to determine whether the nervous system controls pancreatic secretions, as postulated by Ivan ...
Digestive system and abdomen, Colorectal surgery, Steatorrhea-related diseases). ... That phenomenon may be caused most commonly by greasy, hard-to-wipe-off fecal matter, but occasionally also from anal leakage ( ... Place, A. R. (1992). "Comparative aspects of lipid digestion and absorption: Physiological correlates of wax ester digestion". ... Treatments are mainly correction of the underlying cause, as well as digestive enzyme supplements. Rectal discharge Keriorrhea ...
This phenomenon is of great value especially for tonically active smooth muscle. Isolated preparations of vascular and visceral ... The reproductive, digestive, respiratory, and urinary tracts, skin, eye, and vasculature all contain this tonic muscle type. ... Renin in turn activates the renin-angiotensin system to regulate blood pressure. The mechanism in which external factors ... Sanders, KM; Ward, SM; Koh, SD (July 2014). "Interstitial cells: regulators of smooth muscle function". Physiological Reviews. ...
The action immune and digestive systems are temporarily reduced. Studies have shown an association between occupational stress ... Physiological reactions to stress can have consequences for health over time. Researchers have been studying how stress affects ... Stereotype threat is a phenomenon that can have effects on everyone, it highly depends on the situation the individual is. Some ... Activity in an area near the brain stem known as the reticular activating system increases, causing a state of keen alertness ...
... such knowledge or such a system of knowledge concerned with the physical world and its phenomena Environmental Impact of ... branch of medicine whereby the digestive system and its disorders are studied. Gynecology - medical practice dealing with the ... Pathophysiology - study of the changes of normal mechanical, physiological, and biochemical functions, either caused by a ... GIS - geographic information system is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types ...
... wanted to see if the nervous system had an impact on the digestive system. They knew that the pancreas was involved in the ... He decided to run an experiment on male roosters to examine this phenomenon. He kept a group of roosters with their testes ... In vertebrates, hormones are responsible for regulating a variety of physiological processes and behavioral activities such as ... Three broad stages of reasoning may be used to determine if a specific hormone-behavior interaction is present within a system ...
Small bowel obstructions caused by the growth of a tumor in the digestive system is another example of a 'space-occupying' ... Alternatively, they may point to non-cancerous disease processes, benign tumors, or even be within the physiological range of ... meaning they may be general phenomena that do not point directly to a specific disease process.[citation needed] In medicine, a ... These may be signs of an immune system cancer. Fever in children rarely points to malignancy, but may merit evaluation. Local ...
... and digestive tract, liver, immune system regulation as well as control of gastrointestinal sensitivity, motility and ... Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use. Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and ... A phenomenon improving pulmonary gas exchange and circulatory efficiency". Circulation. 94 (4): 842-7. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.94.4. ... Autonomic nervous system Parasympathetic nervous system Vagus nerve Vagus nerve stimulation Heart rate variability Sinus ...
This research served as a base for broad research on the digestive system. Further work on reflex actions involved involuntary ... Over a 45-year period, under his direction, the institute became one of the most important centers of physiological research in ... Tolochinov, whose own term for the phenomenon had been "reflex at a distance", communicated the results at the Congress of ... These experiments included surgically extracting portions of the digestive system from nonhuman animals, severing nerve bundles ...
In the case of the gypsy moth, adults do not possess an active digestive system and cannot feed, but can drink moisture. Mating ... In addition to physiological degradation, pacific salmon become more lethargic as mating goes on, which makes some individuals ... Cole, Lamont C. (June 1954). "The Population Consequences of Life History Phenomena". The Quarterly Review of Biology. 29 (2): ... Unlike smaller dasyurids, male die-off in D. hallucatus is not due to endocrine system changes and there was no spermatogenic ...
Toby Tyrrell's critique of the Gaia hypothesis argues that Earth's climate system does not resemble an animal's physiological ... as a typical human digestive system contains 1013 to 1014 microorganisms whose collective genome, the microbiome studied by the ... A superorganism can be defined as "a collection of agents which can act in concert to produce phenomena governed by the ... This view relates to systems theory and the dynamics of a complex system. The concept of a superorganism raises the question of ...
Examination should also exclude other causes of gross edema-especially the cardiovascular and liver system. Muehrcke's nails; ... "Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults". National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. February 2014. Retrieved 9 ... cataracts and thrombotic phenomena and/or embolisms. People with Corticosteroid dependent: proteinuria appears when the dose of ... or in cases with physiological repercussions, such as scrotal, preputial or urethral edema) or in people with one of a number ...
Chronic loneliness is often seen as a purely negative phenomena from the lens of social and medical science. Yet in spiritual ... Some doctors also recommend group therapy as a means to connect with other patients and establish a support system. Doctors ... There are a number of potential physiological mechanisms linking loneliness to poor health outcomes. In 2005, results from the ... Prolonged, high cortisol levels can cause anxiety, depression, digestive problems, heart disease, sleep problems, and weight ...
The traditional view of the autonomic nervous system presents a two-part system: the sympathetic nervous system, which is more ... such as the digestive tract. Under normal conditions, the DVC maintains regulation of these digestive processes. However, ... Polyvagal theory has not, to date, been shown to explain any phenomena or experimental data above and beyond what is explained ... Taylor, E. W.; Al-Ghamdi, M. S.; Ihmied, I. H.; Wang, T.; Abe, A. S. (November 2001). "Physiological Society Symposium - Vagal ...
He published The Work of the Digestive Glands in 1897, after 12 years of research. His experiments earned him the 1904 Nobel ... This proved that scientists could study nervous system function directly, not just indirectly. This led to a rapid increase in ... He also explained phenomena such as, insomnia, mania, hallucinations, nightmares, dementia, epilepsy, stroke, paralysis, ... Rioch originated the integration of basic anatomical and physiological research with clinical psychiatry at the Walter Reed ...
... which prevents the pathogens entering the digestive system. In the pocket, they may be mixed labial gland secretions or with ... Whilst the specific physiological mechanisms by which immunity is produced differ sharply between the individual and society, ... Social immunity differs from similar phenomena that can occur in groups that are not truly social (e.g. herding animals). These ... Social immunisation has been so far described in a dampwood termite-fungus system, a garden ant-fungus system and a carpenter ...
The allometric scaling of retention time (the time that food remains inside the digestive system) with respect to body mass: T ... Max Kleiber developed a formula that estimates this phenomenon (the exact values are not always consistent). M R = 70 ∗ W 0.75 ... general morphological and physiological adaptations. The Jarman-Bell principle was used to help organise these variables. It ... When food is passed through the digestive system (including multiple stomach chambers), it breaks down further through ...
The planarian has very simple organ systems. The digestive system consists of a mouth, pharynx, and a gastrovascular cavity. ... The organism itself does not have to be completely cut into separate pieces for the regeneration phenomenon to be witnessed. In ... The Physiological Basis of Memory. New York and London: Academic Press. pp. l-25. Shomrat T, Levin M (October 2013). "An ... The excretory system is made of many tubes with many flame cells and excretory pores on them. Also, flame cells remove unwanted ...
... and the cells in the digestive system (wall of the intestines) cause death. There is strong evidence that radioresistance can ... Also biophysical models presented general basics for this phenomenon. Many organisms have been found to possess a self-repair ... The physiological state of individuals (e.g., the tardigrade species Richtersius coronifer and Milnesium tardigradum are more ... which are the two primary sources of ionizing radiation across our solar system, and even including all documented terrestrial ...
Its physiological role is to regulate hunger by alerting the body when it is full. Studies show that lack of leptin causes ... The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases states that specific risks that may predispose an ... Elmquist JK, Maratos-Flier E, Saper CB, Flier JS (October 1998). "Unraveling the central nervous system pathways underlying ... and insulin response may well be a threshold phenomenon. The pathway's sensitivity to insulin may be blunted by many factors ...
... to food proteins recognized as foreign by the immune system which is a normal physiological response of the immune system after ... Food intolerances can be caused by enzymatic defects in the digestive system, can also result from pharmacological effects of ... This is a normal phenomenon, common to everyone. The resultant production of gas potentially results in bloating and flatulence ... A low-FODMAP diet might help to improve short-term digestive symptoms in adults with irritable bowel syndrome, but its long- ...
This type of regeneration is common in physiological situations. Examples of physiological regeneration are the continual ... In both systems, the regrowth of the new tissue delays pupation. Mechanisms underlying appendage limb regeneration in insects ... In order to prevent starvation a planarian will use their own cells for energy, this phenomenon is known as de-growth. Limb ... The first organs to regenerate, in all species documented to date, are associated with the digestive tract. Thus, most ...
Hoyle T (1997). "The digestive system: linking theory and practice". British Journal of Nursing. 6 (22): 1285-91. doi:10.12968/ ... Fell DA, Thomas S (October 1995). "Physiological control of metabolic flux: the requirement for multisite modulation". The ... Cellular phenomena Oncometabolism Reactome - Database of biological pathways KEGG - Collection of bioinformatics databases ... Living systems are not in equilibrium, but instead are dissipative systems that maintain their state of high complexity by ...
His areas of specialty are systems engineering, control systems, embedded systems and electronics. He is a registered ... Bras has specialized in the interpretation of natural phenomena as random functions. He has been recognized for his use of ... Her first assignment being as a project officer at the National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism and Digestive Diseases of ... The polymides are very strong in terms of their mechanical properties, yet degradable under standard physiological conditions ...
Wright, Day, & Howells referred to this phenomenon as the "hijacking of the cognitive system by the emotional system". Second, ... Mindfulness is also a technique used in the relaxation approach because the technique halts physiological arousal. An example ... Prolonged or intense anger and frustration contributes to physical conditions such as headaches, digestive problems, high blood ... An increase in the immune system's efficacy has also been observed as a result of the increased level of relaxation. Successful ...
Physiological enzyme inhibition can also be produced by specific protein inhibitors. This mechanism occurs in the pancreas, ... which synthesises many digestive precursor enzymes known as zymogens. Many of these are activated by the trypsin protease, so ... Behavior and Analysis of Rapid Equilibrium and Steady-State Enzyme Systems (New ed.). Wiley-Interscience. ISBN 978-0-471-30309- ... Enzyme inactivation is generally explained as a chemical process involving several phenomena like aggregation, dissociation ...
The motor theory of speech perception was proposed in 1967 by Liberman, who believed that the motor system and language systems ... The anatomical and physiological basis of human speech production: adaptations and exaptations. In M. Tallerman and K. .Gibson ... Onomatopoeia can explain the first couple of words all derived from natural phenomenon, but there is no explanation as to how ... disrupting the normal mammalian separation of the respiratory and digestive tracts during swallowing. Since this entails ...
The following carbon numbering system of porphyrins is an older numbering used by biochemists and not the 1-24 numbering system ... This phenomenon, which states that hemoglobin's oxygen binding affinity is inversely proportional to both acidity and ... However, due to its toxic properties, proteins such as Hemopexin (Hx) are required to help maintain physiological stores of ... The remainder travels down the digestive tract and is converted to stercobilinogen. This is oxidized to stercobilin, which is ...
... everything excreted during subsequent days-all so they could see which bones would dissolve inside the human digestive system, ... Han, Jiwon (June 2016). "A Study on the Coffee Spilling Phenomena in the Low Impulse Regime". Achievements in the Life Sciences ... Prochazkova, E.; Sjak-Shie, E.; Behrens, F.; Lindh, D.; Kret, M. E. (1 November 2021). "Physiological synchrony is associated ... Safety Engineering: The late Gustano Pizzo, for inventing an electro-mechanical system to trap airplane hijackers-the system ...
Pavlov's experimental study of the digestive system in dogs led to extensive experiments through which he established the basic ... In other words, behavioral or mental phenomena are typically stated in terms of cause and effect. If a phenomenon is ... In 1887, Ladd published Elements of Physiological Psychology, the first American textbook that extensively discussed ... This led to some neglect of mental phenomena within experimental psychology. In Europe, this was less the case, as European ...
Schwartzkopff, J. (1963). Morphological and physiological properties of the auditory system in birds. Proc. XIII Inter. ... The phenomena of movements that seem to be nomadic or purportedly irruptive in nature may occur as well in Europe, though given ... Ferrer, D., Molina, R., Castella, J., & Kinsella, J. M. (2004). Parasitic helminths in the digestive tract of six species of ... given the physiological differences in the way different birds of prey tend to kill their prey. While acciptrid raptors tend to ...
Once eaten they go through typically go through animal's digestive system and are dispersed away from the plant. Some seeds are ... Plant reproductive system, Plant sexuality, Periodic phenomena, Yonic symbols, Pollination). ... Since each new plant is genetically distinct, the different plants show variation in their physiological and structural ... This system of classification was published in their Genera plantarum in three volumes between 1862 and 1883. It is the most ...
The rebound phenomenon, also known as the loss of the check reflex, is also sometimes seen in patients with cerebellar ataxia, ... GHB accumulates in the nervous system and can cause ataxia as well as other neurological dysfunction. Wilson's disease is an ... The term "ataxia" is sometimes used in a broader sense to indicate lack of coordination in some physiological process. Examples ... Hadjivassiliou M, Sanders DD, Aeschlimann DP (2015). "Gluten-related disorders: gluten ataxia". Digestive Diseases (Review). 33 ...
... already carnivorous and continue to feed as predators when they are adults so few changes are needed to their digestive systems ... The progeny feed on a skin layer that is specially developed by the adult in a phenomenon known as maternal dermatophagy. The ... Physiological Zoology. 64 (1): 212-231. doi:10.1086/physzool.64.1.30158520. JSTOR 30158520. S2CID 87191067. Archived from the ... Terrestrial adults discarded their lateral line systems and adapted their sensory systems to receive stimuli via the medium of ...
... is rare in the Universe and solar system due to trace formation in the Big Bang and in stars. It is formed in minor ... Intakes of more than 0.5 grams per day for 50 days cause minor digestive and other problems suggestive of toxicity. Dietary ... It is thought that boron plays several essential roles in animals, including humans, but the exact physiological role is poorly ... for another example of this phenomenon, see phosphine). The boranes are also highly flammable and require special care when ...
digestif a digestive aid, esp., an after-dinner drink, as brandy. directeur sportif lit. "sports director". A person ... ancien régime a sociopolitical or other system that no longer exists, an allusion to pre-revolutionary France (used with ... parole 1) (in linguistics) speech, more specifically the individual, personal phenomenon of language; see langue and parole. 2 ... and its physiological capacity to ensure protective stability for the tissues and organs of multicellular living organisms. ...
They then pass down the esophagus and enter the digestive system, finishing their journey in the intestine, where the larvae ... An identical phenomenon is much more commonly seen with Ancylostoma caninum infections in dogs, where the newborn pups can even ... mainly because they have much higher physiological needs for iron (menstruation, repeated pregnancy).An interesting consequence ... The larvae are able to penetrate the skin of the foot, and once inside the body, they migrate through the vascular system to ...
The large intestine is the last part of the digestive system normally found in vertebrate animals. Its function is to absorb ... This phenomenon results in an architectural gear ratio, determined as longitudinal strain divided by fiber strain (εx / εf), ... An organism's preferred temperature is typically the temperature at which the organism's physiological processes can act at ... One of the biggest differences between the digestive systems of sharks and mammals is that sharks have much shorter intestines ...
Since the mouth, digestive system, and anus are missing, the survival of R. pachyptila is dependent on this mutualistic ... In order to avoid physiological damage some animals, including Riftia pachyptila are able to bind H2S to haemoglobin in the ... as well as preferential host-specific infection by bacteria have been both suggested as being the drivers of this phenomenon. R ... Thus, because of lack of a digestive system, R. pachyptila depends entirely on its bacterial symbiont to survive. In the first ...
Like all ruminants, sheep have a complex digestive system composed of four chambers, allowing them to break down cellulose from ... N.Z. Farmer, 98(6): 29-31 Parrott, R.F., (1990). Physiological responses to isolation in sheep. Social Stress in Domestic ... Details of that phenomenon, which I have argued elsewhere was a local process at least for sheep and cattle (Meadow 1984b, 1992 ... They are ingested during grazing, incubate within the sheep, and are expelled through the digestive system (beginning the cycle ...
Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena * Animals * Digestive System / growth & development* * Muscle Development* * ...
Digestive System and Oral Physiological Phenomena [G10]. *Digestive System Physiological Phenomena [G10.261] ...
... especially in maintaining microbial balance in the digestive and reproductive systems. On the other hand, deviation from the ... From a physiological perspective, excessive intake of noxious substances in the blood circulation causes physiological ... and this is the phenomenon associated with liver congestion. Therefore, this paper will provide a comprehensive review of liver ... From a physiological perspective, excessive intake of noxious substances in the blood circulation causes physiological ...
Digestive System Phenomena Digestive System Phenomenon Digestive System Physiological Concepts Digestive System Physiological ... Digestive System Phenomena. Digestive System Phenomenon. Digestive System Physiological Concepts. Digestive System ... Phenomenas, Digestive System Phenomenon, Digestive System Physiology, Digestive Physiology, Digestive System Digestive System ... Digestive System Process. Digestive System Processes. Phenomena, Digestive System. Phenomenas, Digestive System. Phenomenon, ...
Digestive System and Oral Physiological Phenomena. Fenómenos Fisiológicos Orales y del Sistema Digestivo. ... Integumentary System Physiological Phenomena. Fenómenos Fisiológicos del Integumento Común. Processos Fisiológicos da Pele. ... Immunogenetic Phenomena. Fenómenos Inmunogenéticos. Fenômenos do Sistema Imunológico. Immune System Phenomena. Fenómenos del ... Electrophysiological Phenomena. Fenómenos Electrofisiológicos. Fenômenos Fisiológicos. Physiological Phenomena. Fenómenos ...
Moreover, it has a noteworthy affinity for the digestive system and liver of zebrafish. Due to the unique AIEE phenomenon and ... Although nobiletin (Nob) is a promising functional food component in view of its multifaceted physiological activity, the ... Nobiletin is a natural product with multiple physiological activities and is the main ingredient of Pericarpium Citri ...
Circulatory and Respiratory Physiological Phenomena (3) * Digestive System and Oral Physiological Phenomena (1) ... Musculoskeletal and Neural Physiological Phenomena (1) * Immune System Phenomena (4) * Integumentary System Physiological ...
... it turns out that its something quite normal that happens to everyone and the explanation for it is rather physiological. ... By urine: The water we ingest is absorbed by the digestive system and passes into the blood. From there, the excess fluid is ... To begin to understand this physiological phenomenon, the first thing to know is that the body has 2 main ways of eliminating ... Also, warm weather and physical activities increase body temperature, so sweating works like a cooling system. ...
Using extracellular pH-neutral PLA2 in a cell-free system, the rate of digestive removal of DPPC is significantly greater for ... Topic #1: Physiological Fate of Asbestos and Vitreous Fibers less than 5 Microns in Length.. What is the expected physiological ... phenomena in the pasivation of kaolin in such a system.. This is a peripheral matter to the question posed, but of possible ... However, over a several day period there is a restoration of toxicity seen in the lavaged macrophage system or in vitro systems ...
... which augments the naturally occurring pH levels of the digestive system. This lowered intestinal pH. level slows down the ... The benefits are seen both on the physiological level, with an increase in the animals energy and vitality, and aesthetic ... development and growth of putrescent and anomalous fermentative phenomena (putrefying bacteria). The intestinal tract will then ... This food supplement in powder form for cats is used as a top-dressing on the daily meal to help support proper digestive ...
6. Digestive and endocrine system: taste perception changes. Metabolism accelerates, the body needs more energy in space which ... Due to microgravity, a phenomenon called ocotonia occurs in the ear, which means that the astronaut does not know which way is ... Due to the effects of physiological stress, hormonal changes occur: the increased circulation of corticosteroids and ... 1. Vestibular system: nausea that is worth alleviating, as astronauts wearing a full protective gear may drown in the stomach ...
Although it is frequent, caused by the immaturity of the digestive system (and particularly of the gastroesophageal valve). ... The phenomenon of regurgitation must be distinguished from gastroesophageal reflux. In the first case, there is a simple ... Beyond the understandable concern of parents, regurgitation in the newborn is almost always a physiological event that does not ... In fact, it is the main element that causes the terrible phenomenon of SIDS, the sudden and inexplicable sudden death of the ...
Oral changes and several changes in the digestive system are also part of the whole aging process. In the oral cavity can be ... Aging is a physiological process that involves all living things and is connected to the loss of skills, the way of life in the ... Aging is a biological and psychological phenomenon that affects the family and social level. It is a process in which there is ... The oral cavity is a major tool for social interaction, through speech, and the physiological comfort, through feeding. The ...
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of sensory, motor, and autonomic nerve fibers, support cells, and ganglia [1]. ... McQuarrie and Grafstein demonstrated this phenomenon on the mouse sciatic nerve nearly 50 years ago [137]. The authors produced ... these branches work in concert to maintain physiological homeostasis in the face of internal and external challenges [65,66]. ... branch contains sensory neurons and interneurons in addition to motor neurons and regulates the function of the digestive tract ...
... is a somewhat autonomous sector of the larger nervous system that controls certain motor functions like the digestive system. ... a phenomenon weve previously discussed. This refers to the unseen connection between your brain and your gastrointestinal ... but the specifics of this physiological process are so compelling that they are worth noting in greater detail. ... Their names might be similar, but these two key players in your digestive system claim different roles in your body, while also ...
How CBD Helps Your Digestive System? It may feel like an unending search to locate the source of your stomach and bowel issues ... Chronic fatigue syndrome and certain autoimmune disorders are common symptoms of this phenomenon. ... does this by amplifying the effect of cannabis receptors as well as certain other receptors involved in physiological function ... This combined system is useful in managing stress by controlling the endocrine system. Additionally, this system helps you ...
An important function of enzymes is in the digestive systems of animals. Enzymes such as amylases and proteases break down ... Furthermore, the normal physiological reaction an enzyme catalyzes may not be the same as under artificial conditions. This can ... Several mechanisms have been invoked to explain this phenomenon. Some proteins are believed to accelerate catalysis by drawing ... Irwin H. Segel, Enzyme Kinetics: Behavior and Analysis of Rapid Equilibrium and Steady-State Enzyme Systems. Wiley-Interscience ...
Homeostatic resilience involves a variety of physiological processes and systems, including the immune system, the endocrine ... while the coordination between the digestive system and the brain helps regulate appetite and energy balance. When these ... Hormetic Regulation refers to the bodys ability to respond positively to mild stressors, a phenomenon known as hormesis. ... system, and the nervous system, among others. For instance, when faced with an infection, the immune system responds to ...
... especially the organs of the gastrointestinal system (gallbladder, pancreas, liver, intestine) and to the nervous system. ... These adverse reactions can be headaches, digestive disorders, skin rashes, nausea …. Know then that it is without danger if ... The additional energy stimulates the physiological functions of the person who consumes it. With this natural boost, no more ... So we wanted to take a closer look at this phenomenon, and we investigated it. ...
The endocannabinoid system plays a crucial role in regulating important bodily functions. Find out more about the ECS and CBD ... The endocannabinoid system, with its complex actions in our nervous system, immune system, digestive system, and all of the ... What Is the Endocannabinoid System Responsible For?. Our endocannabinoid system is responsible for maintaining physiological ... Scientifically, this phenomenon is known as clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD).. According to cannabis researcher Dr. ...
Digestive System Phenomena. Fenômenos do Sistema Digestório. Fenómenos del Sistema Digestivo. Digestive System Processes. ... G07 - Physiological Processes. Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials. Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Inibidores. Potenciales ... C06 - Digestive System Diseases. Typhlitis. Tiflite. Tiflitis. C08 - Respiratory Tract Diseases. Respiratory Aspiration. ... A05 - Urogenital System. Foreskin. Prepúcio do Pênis. Prepucio. A06 - Endocrine System. Corticotrophs. Corticotrofos. ...
... circulatory system, the Chinese have the Liver system, and the Spleen system, and onwards. All of the total physiological ... A different language to describe the same phenomena. Nothing is lost, just mapped in a different way than our modern medical ... Note: When referring to the Spleen, the Chinese were more accurately referring to the digestive organ the pancreas. The name ... This is a traditional representation of what we now call "Systems Thinking" or "Systems Theory". Before looking at how this ...
... to the daily functioning of our many physiological systems. Our hearts beat, our digestive systems digest, and our various ... Since then, Left-Handers Day has become a worldwide event and social media phenomenon. Around the world, approximately one in ...
They increase the size of the digestive system and decrease flight muscle mass in refueling periods, and they go through the ... A sport-physiological perspective on bird migration: evidence for flight-induced muscle damage.J Exp Biol. 2001;204:2683-90. ... An additional problem is that many important phenomena in avian movements are not well researched, e.g., movements caused by ... For example, the immune system is often implicitly assumed to be a unified system that competes with other physiologic ...
In many digestive system problems such as constipation, nausea, vomiting. *Hijama can be used for treatment. ... This phenomenon is similar to the fact that sea scum is carried to the beaches due to the tides during the full moon days. ... basic physiological, pharmacological and pathological mechanisms, hygiene rules, diseases in which cupping may be risky, what ...
  • Ideally, an individual's body is said to be normal and healthy when all biological processes and organs are functioning normally under optimal physiological conditions. (
  • Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts. (
  • CB1 receptors regulate processes in the central nervous system and brain, while CB2 receptors appear to control peripheral operations in organ systems and our immune system. (
  • The body has various mechanisms to contain these perturbations, including immune responses, feedback loops in metabolic processes, and cellular repair systems. (
  • Factors considered will be organ development and structure, evolutionary processes and biological diversity, and their effects on physiological mechanisms regulating the internal environment. (
  • Before examining how probiotics and prebiotics work together, let's discuss each one individually and break down their roles in your happy gut and how their work translates to a healthy immune system, brain, and more. (
  • Less celebrated is the probiotic advantage in supporting the immune system and boosting mental health. (
  • Your immune system is constantly on high alert against invaders - and having an arsenal of good bacteria helps your body in the fight against an overabundance of yeast and fungi, along with attacks from viruses. (
  • The boost in the immune system is done by regulating the neuro-immune axis, which works by balancing the immune system. (
  • This is further supported, by new research, which discovered the relationship between the immune system and the nervous system in the gut. (
  • The endocannabinoid system, with its complex actions in our nervous system, immune system, digestive system, and all of the body's organs, is a bridge between the body and mind. (
  • For example, if a pathogen invades, the immune system works to contain the spread. (
  • The ecology of infectious diseases and the immune system is an innovative field that has stimulated the attention and interest of ecologists ( 6 ) but is still struggling to be appreciated by the biomedical community. (
  • As with other allergies, the immune system of those who are hypersensitive to some food usually has an exaggerated reaction, with symptoms that range from an uncomfortable itch or a noisy sneezing attack to abdominal pain. (
  • This was an indication that, somehow, the activity of the immune system was influencing the animals' behavior - and causing them to avoid what was bad for them. (
  • Actually, it has been known for quite a while that allergy to foods is an elaborate natural cleansing mechanism that mobilizes the circulatory, gastrointestinal and respiratory system. (
  • Topics include 1) mechanisms of infectious disease, immunity, and inflammation and 2) alterations in structure and function of the reproductive, circulatory, respiratory, and urinary systems. (
  • Most famously, probiotics are known to aid in digestion, with some studies suggesting that it could help improve the symptoms of inflamed and irritable bowels, while also possibly addressing certain autoimmune conditions that affect the digestive system. (
  • CBD and Digestion: How CBD Helps Your Digestive System? (
  • BIOL 2312 ( BIOL 1307 ) Introduction to Modern Biology II (3 semester credit hours) The overall emphasis will be on organ physiology and regulatory mechanisms involving individual organs and organ systems. (
  • B. Examination by physician A physician performed and recorded the results of a medical examination giving special attention to specified findings related to nutrition, to hearing, to the thyroid gland,and to the cardiovascular, respiratory, neurological and musculoskeletal systems. (
  • From a physiological perspective, excessive intake of noxious substances in the blood circulation causes physiological imbalances of various components including PH and nutrients availability for the cells. (
  • On the other hand, deviation from the normal state may be caused by physiological imbalances or deficiencies of essential body requirements, and this is the phenomenon associated with liver congestion. (
  • While scientists don't yet fully understand what triggers the endocannabinoids to take action, it's believed to be linked to imbalances in the system. (
  • Concomitant use of opioids with benzodiazepines or other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, including alcohol, may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. (
  • Galozyme® is able to maintain and enhance the probiotic and digestive properties of the micro-organisms far beyond any other bacterium-based pro-biotic available until now. (
  • When the organism enters the digestive tract, the gastric juices begin to break down the chitin cell wall. (
  • This causes a fermentation process to take place which helps to augment the pH of the animal's digestive tract to the appropriate levels (6 - 6.5). (
  • Maintenance of an optimum pH level in the digestive tract allows for the beneficial bacteria's, micro floras and protozoa's to develop and thrive while also restricting the growth of enteretic (or bad) bacteria growth. (
  • As food travels through the digestive tract, nutrients flow through the stomach's epithelial cells and into the body. (
  • The supplement does this by amplifying the effect of cannabis receptors as well as certain other receptors involved in physiological function. (
  • But it's believed that cannabinoids, like CBD, interact with cannabinoid receptors in the system to exert positive effects. (
  • When a system in the body is out of balance, endocannabinoids interact with receptors to help correct the problem. (
  • CBD contributes to the maintenance of this endocannabinoid system . (
  • It is possible to manage the endocannabinoid system by using cannabidiol. (
  • The endocannabinoid system (ECS) plays a crucial role in regulating important bodily functions, such as mood, sleep, memory, and appetite. (
  • We delve deeper into the endocannabinoid system and how it works below. (
  • What Is the Endocannabinoid System? (
  • The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a complex cell signaling network located throughout the body. (
  • What Is the Endocannabinoid System Responsible For? (
  • Our endocannabinoid system is responsible for maintaining physiological and biochemical balance. (
  • In our modern medicine we see the parasympathetic/sympathetic nervous system, sleep/wake cycles, and pH balance as examples of this. (
  • However, only recently, as a result of animal studies, has evidence arisen indicating that the central nervous system and the endocrinal system are also involved. (
  • The daily biorhythm also causes the harm of a nocturnal lifestyle, shift work, in which the endocrine and nervous systems are literally confused in the schedule. (
  • These lactic yeasts and enzymes enhance and favour the bio-regulation of the intestinal micro flora and the digestive functions of the animal.This in turn results in a more complete and balanced assimilation of nutrients. (
  • For instance, the so-called normal micro flora contribute to an individual's health in one way or the other, especially in maintaining microbial balance in the digestive and reproductive systems. (
  • And it makes sense, as your gut is often referred to as your body's " second brain ," with the technical term being the "gut-brain axis," a phenomenon we've previously discussed . (
  • At the Clínicas Hospital of the University of São Paulo (USP), Aline and a limited number of people - about three a month - undergo a type of therapy known as desensitization, which tries to control the response triggered by the body's defense system against food components. (
  • A significant study has been conducted on the benefits of CBD for various chronic digestive diseases and irritable bowel syndrome. (
  • Aging is a biological and psychological phenomenon that affects the family and social level. (
  • BIOL 2311 ( BIOL 1306 ) Introduction to Modern Biology I (3 semester credit hours) Presentation of some of the fundamental concepts of modern biology, with an emphasis on the molecular and cellular basis of biological phenomena. (
  • Our hearts beat, our digestive systems digest, and our various hormones, such as those deriving from the thyroid gland, adrenal gland, and pancreas, do what they do. (
  • It strives to keep your internal bodily systems stable and optimal despite what's happening in the environment around you. (
  • Besides the moment-to-moment turning and churning of your digestive system, you have literally millions of gut bacteria making a home inside of you at any given time. (
  • These live microorganisms are the perfect example of beneficial bacteria, potentially improving everything from digestive health to heart health and even possibly working to help reduce depression . (
  • The digestive system highly influences the number of bacteria in your stomach, therefore, it is critical. (
  • At some point, their functions are diminished whereas favorable or rather normal physiological conditions enhance normal functioning. (
  • Galozyme® has increased this effectiveness by including various vitamin groups (specifically the vitamin B group which has been proven to help relieve distress amongst other physiological and aesthetic issues), as well as restoring and favouring correct intestinal functions. (
  • In an attempt to merge the numerous theoretical lenses, the modern practice of acupuncture has largely been reduced to a herbal model approach (this herb/point for that imbalance) and not the original dynamic "Channel Theory" in which the channels have independent physiological functions in themselves. (
  • Aging is a physiological process that involves all living things and is connected to the loss of skills, the way of life in the past, genetics, and emotional and psychological changes. (
  • It is a process in which there is gradual and unavoidable loss of organ function, generating changes in various human systems. (
  • BIOL 1300 Body Systems with Lab (3 semester credit hours) Examines the organ systems of mammals, predominantly the human. (
  • The effects of one organ system on others are stressed. (
  • In theory, the functioning of all body organs depends on the physiological conditions in the body. (
  • Well, it turns out that it's something quite normal that happens to everyone and the explanation for it is rather physiological. (
  • This food supplement in powder form for cats is used as a top-dressing on the daily meal to help support proper digestive function, during travel, pregnancy and stressful situations. (
  • It can help relieve diarrhea, help regulate appetite, and help promote healthy skin and coat, all due to supporting proper intestinal and digestive function. (
  • Beyond the understandable concern of parents, regurgitation in the newborn is almost always a physiological event that does not represent a danger to health or a problem for the development of the child. (
  • Their names might be similar, but these two key players in your digestive system claim different roles in your body, while also complementing each other so that you can achieve a new level of overall health. (
  • Additionally, Oklahoma Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data demonstrated a significantly greater number of days of disability and poor physical health for patients with diabetes compared to control subjects without diabetes (11). (
  • Methods: We used data from health management information systems on vaccination of children aged 12 months or younger in districts supported by Partners In Health. (
  • To prevent and reduce this phenomenon, it is important to keep the baby in an anti-regurgitation position. (
  • Cell-cell contacts ( via E-cadherin) between melanocytes and keratinocytes play a key role in regulation of melanocyte proliferation and behaviour with soluble factors being less important, a phenomenon that has been investigated both in vivo and in vitro ( 3 ). (
  • An additional problem is that many important phenomena in avian movements are not well researched, e.g., movements caused by cold weather and migratory connectivity. (
  • By urine: The water we ingest is absorbed by the digestive system and passes into the blood. (
  • Scientists first identified the system in the early 1990s while investigating how cannabinoids present in the cannabis sativa (C. sativa) plant interact with the human body. (
  • You should also take into consideration the integrity of the human body as a bio-system and the impossibility of absolute specification of techniques and training methods. (
  • Since then, Left-Handers Day has become a worldwide event and social media phenomenon. (
  • Also, warm weather and physical activities increase body temperature, so sweating works like a cooling system. (
  • The physiological need dose of 3000 ml, keep track of hydrogen rich hydrogen cup through the daily drinking water, to improve the physique, let you in the imperceptibly, the edge of the body so healthy. (