Diseases in any part of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the accessory organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM and DENTITION as a whole or of any of its parts.
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Biological actions and events that constitute the functions of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
An abnormal passage communicating between any components of the digestive system, or between any part of the digestive system and surrounding organ(s).
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.
A histamine H1 antagonist used as the hydrogen fumarate in hay fever, rhinitis, allergic skin conditions, and pruritus. It causes drowsiness.
An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.
Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.
Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.
Congenital structural abnormalities of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the digestive system or its organs or demonstration of their physiological processes.
Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
A rare, slowly progressive encephalitis caused by chronic infection with the MEASLES VIRUS. The condition occurs primarily in children and young adults, approximately 2-8 years after the initial infection. A gradual decline in intellectual abilities and behavioral alterations are followed by progressive MYOCLONUS; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; autonomic dysfunction; and ATAXIA. DEATH usually occurs 1-3 years after disease onset. Pathologic features include perivascular cuffing, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions, neurophagia, and fibrous gliosis. It is caused by the SSPE virus, which is a defective variant of MEASLES VIRUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp767-8)
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)
A subclass of developmentally regulated lamins having a neutral isoelectric point. They are found to disassociate from nuclear membranes during mitosis.
A strain of ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS, a species of CARDIOVIRUS, usually causing an inapparent intestinal infection in mice. A small number of mice may show signs of flaccid paralysis.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.
Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.

Hematocrit level and associated mortality in hemodialysis patients. (1/162)

Although a number of clinical studies have shown that increased hematocrits are associated with improved outcomes in terms of cognitive function, reduced left ventricular hypertrophy, increased exercise tolerance, and improved quality of life, the optimal hematocrit level associated with survival has yet to be determined. The association between hematocrit levels and patient mortality was retrospectively studied in a prevalent Medicare hemodialysis cohort on a national scale. All patients survived a 6-mo entry period during which their hematocrit levels were assessed, from July 1 through December 31, 1993, with follow-up from January 1 through December 31, 1994. Patient comorbid conditions relative to clinical events and severity of disease were determined from Medicare claims data and correlated with the entry period hematocrit level. After adjusting for medical diseases, our results showed that patients with hematocrit levels less than 30% had significantly higher risk of all-cause (12 to 33%) and cause-specific death, compared to patients with hematocrits in the 30% to less than 33% range. Without severity of disease adjustment, patients with hematocrit levels of 33% to less than 36% appear to have the lowest risk for all-cause and cardiac mortality. After adjusting for severity of disease, the impact of hematocrit levels of 33% to less than 36% is vulnerable to the patient sample size but also demonstrates a further 4% reduced risk of death. Overall, these findings suggest that sustained increases in hematocrit levels are associated with improved patient survival.  (+info)

Induction of parturition in bitches with minimal side effects by two injections of a low dose of fenprostalene, a prostaglandin F2alpha analogue, and pretreatment with prifinium bromide. (2/162)

An experiment using 16 Beagle bitches (aged 11 months to 6 years and 2 months) in their 56th to 58th day of pregnancy was carried out to investigate the effects of two injections of a low dose of fenprostalene, a long-acting prostaglandin F2alpha analogue, and pretreatment with prifinium bromide, a parasympathetic nerve blocking agent, on the induction of parturition and severity of side effects. The bitches were divided into three treatment groups: one injection of 5 microg/kg of fenprostalene (group I, n=5); one injection of 7.5 mg/head of prifinium bromide followed by one injection of 5 microg/kg of fenprostalene at 5 min after prifinium bromide injection (group II, n=6); and one injection of 7.5 mg/head of prifinium bromide followed by two injections of 2.5 microg/kg of fenprostalene, one injection at 5 min after prifinium bromide injection and the next at 1 hr after the fenprostalene first injection (group III, n=5). Following the injection of fenprostalene, side effects such as salivation, vomiting, colic symptoms, and watery diarrhea occurred most frequently (80-100% of cases) in group I bitches. Apart from colic symptoms, no side effects were observed in group III bitches. Group III bitches also showed the smallest increase in plasma cortisol concentration. No significant difference in the time to initiation of parturition was found between the three groups. The one-week survival rate of newborn puppies was highest in group III. The results showed that pretreatment with prifinium bromide and two injections of 2.5 microg/kg of fenprostalene can alleviate side effects following fenprostalene administration and have no adverse effect on the survival of newborn puppies, indicating that this method is a reliable and safe way of inducing parturition in bitches.  (+info)

Evaluation and management of dyspepsia. (3/162)

Dyspepsia, often defined as chronic or recurrent discomfort centered in the upper abdomen, can be caused by a variety of conditions. Common etiologies include peptic ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux. Serious causes, such as gastric and pancreatic cancers, are rare but must also be considered. Symptoms of possible causes often overlap, which can make initial diagnosis difficult. In many patients, a definite cause is never established. The initial evaluation of patients with dyspepsia includes a thorough history and physical examination, with special attention given to elements that suggest the presence of serious disease. Endoscopy should be performed promptly in patients who have "alarm symptoms" such as melena or anorexia. Optimal management remains controversial in young patients who do not have alarm symptoms. Although management should be individualized, a cost-effective initial approach is to test for Helicobacter pylori and treat the infection if the test is positive. If the H. pylori test is negative, empiric therapy with a gastric acid suppressant or prokinetic agent is recommended. If symptoms persist or recur after six to eight weeks of empiric therapy, endoscopy should be performed.  (+info)

Management of co-existing intra-abdominal disease in aortic surgery. (4/162)

OBJECTIVES: the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms more than 5 cm in diameter is well accepted, but controversy surrounds the management of concomitant serious intra-abdominal lesions diagnosed in the perioperative period. This study was undertaken to demonstrate that synchronous surgery is feasible and safe in this group of patients. DESIGN: in 1978 a decision was made to undertake combined operations on all patients with an aortic aneurysm of 5 cm or more in diameter and a significant non-vascular intra-abdominal lesion requiring surgery. METHODS: the case records of 676 patients who had aortic grafting for aneurysmal disease or the urgent management of occlusive disease between 1978 and 1998 were analysed retrospectively. SETTING: district general hospital. RESULTS: fifty-six (8%) patients had co-existing intra-abdominal disease treated at the time of aortic graft surgery. There were three (5%) hospital deaths and seven patients required early reoperation. One patient developed a subphrenic abscess and there were three superficial wound infections. There has been no clinical evidence of aortic graft infection in this series. CONCLUSION: this single centre experience with synchronous surgery demonstrates that it is safe and does not appear to predispose to an increased risk of graft infection.  (+info)

Sigmoid endometriosis and ovarian stimulation. (5/162)

In-vitro fertilization (IVF) and ovarian stimulation are frequently performed in patients with endometriosis. Although endometriosis is a hormone-dependent disease, the rate of IVF complications related to endometriosis is low. We report four cases of severe digestive complications due to the rapid growth of sigmoid endometriosis under ovarian stimulation. In three patients, sigmoid endometriosis was diagnosed at laparoscopy for sterility. Because of the absence of digestive symptoms or repercussion on the bowel, no bowel resection was performed before ovarian stimulation. All patients experienced severe digestive symptoms during ovarian stimulation, and a segmental sigmoid resection had to be performed. Analysis of endoscopic and radiological data demonstrated that bowel lesions of small size may rapidly enlarge and become highly symptomatic under ovarian stimulation. At immunohistochemistry, these infiltrating lesions displayed high populations of steroid receptors and a high proliferative index (Ki-67 activity), suggesting a strong dependence on circulating ovarian hormones and a potential for rapid growth under supraphysiological oestrogen concentrations. Clinicians should be aware of this rare but severe digestive complication of ovarian stimulation. The early diagnosis of such lesions may help the patients to avoid months of morbidity falsely attributed to ovarian stimulation side effects. Further experience is necessary to determine the optimal attitude when diagnosing a small and asymptomatic endometriotic bowel lesion before ovarian stimulation.  (+info)

Defective dietary fat processing in transgenic mice lacking aquaporin-1 water channels. (6/162)

Immunocytochemistry showed expression of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) water channels at sites involved in dietary fat processing, including intrahepatic cholangiocytes, gallbladder, pancreatic microvascular endothelium, and intestinal lacteals. To determine whether AQP1 has a role in dietary fat digestion and/or absorption, mice were placed on a diet that contained 50% fat. Whereas wild-type mice (3-3.5 wk of age, 10-12 g) gained 49 +/- 5% (SE, n = 50) body weight in 8 days, and heterozygous mice gained 46 +/- 4%, AQP1 null mice gained only 4 +/- 3%; weights became similar after return to a 6% fat diet after 6 days. The null mice on a high-fat diet acquired an oily appearance, developed steatorrhea with increased stool triglyceride content, and manifested serum hypotriglyceridemia. Supplementation of the high-fat diet with pancreatic enzymes partially corrected the decreased weight gain in null mice. Absorption of [(14)C]oleic acid from small intestine was not affected by AQP1 deletion, as determined by blood radioactivity after duodenal infusion. Lipase activity in feces and small intestine was remarkably greater in AQP1 null than wild-type mice on low- and high-fat diets. Fluid collections done in older mice (that are less sensitive to a high-fat diet) by ductal cannulation showed threefold increased pancreatic fluid flow in response to secretin/cholecystokinin, but volumes, pH, and amylase activities were affected little by AQP1 deletion, nor were bile flow rates and bile salt concentrations. Together, these results establish a dietary fat misprocessing defect in AQP1 null mice.  (+info)

Treatment of cystic fibrosis in the adult. (7/162)

There has been a dramatic increase in the life expectancy of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) over the last 20 years. CF used to be fatal in childhood but now, over a third of the patients are adults. The reasons for improved survival are multi-factorial. The disease affects most systems of the body although the majority of morbidity and mortality is due to lung disease. As in any life-threatening disease, in addition to medical issues, there are many psychosocial and spiritual issues, which need attention. Transition from paediatric to adult care needs to be handled very sensitively. Arranging a balanced and reliable system of care - out-patient, in-patient and home care - is essential to ensure the patient's survival and quality of life is as good as possible.  (+info)

[Comparison of endoscopic ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in severe pelvic endometriosis]. (8/162)

Deep pelvic endometriosis may lead to severe pain, the treatment of which may require complete surgical resection of lesions. Digestive infiltration is a difficult therapeutic problem. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult and digestive infiltration may remain unknown with incomplete resection and sometimes repeated surgery. Both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endoscopic ultrasonography are able to detect rectosigmoid infiltration but their usefulness in the preoperative staging is still to be evaluated. The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare both techniques in the preoperative detection of deep pelvic endometriosis, particularly digestive infiltration. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1996 to 1998, 48 women with painful deep pelvic endometriosis had preoperative imaging exploration with endoscopic ultrasonography and MRI, and were operated on in order to attempt complete endometriosis resection. Patients were proposed for laparoscopic resection if endoscopic ultrasonography and/or MRI did not reveal digestive infiltration or for open resection if endoscopic ultrasonography and/or MRI were positive for digestive infiltration. RESULTS: Endoscopic ultrasonography and/or MRI led to suspicion of digestive endometriosis in 16 patients. Surgical resection was performed in 12 and digestive wall invasion was histologically demonstrated. At final follow-up, all patients had a dramatic decrease of their symptoms. The remaining 4 patients refused digestive resection and had only laparoscopic gynecologic resection. Infiltration although not histologically proven was very likely both on operative findings and clinical evolution. Digestive infiltration was preoperatively excluded in the 32 other patients. All had a laparoscopic treatment without digestive resection and pain diminished in all patients. In the 12 patients group who had digestive resection, digestive infiltration was correctly diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasonography in all cases (no false negative) whereas MRI, even with the use of endocoil antenna, led to correct diagnosis in 8 out of 12 cases. When endoscopic ultrasonography was negative for digestive infiltration, laparoscopic resection of lesions at surgery appeared complete in all cases. For the 16 patients with presumed digestive infiltration, sensitivity of endoscopic ultrasonography and MRI was 100 and 75% respectively, with a 100% specificity in both cases. MRI appeared very accurate for the detection of ovarian endometriotic locations. MRI was more sensitive but less specific than endoscopic ultrasonography for the diagnosis of isolated endometriotic recto-vaginal septum and utero-sacral ligaments lesions. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic ultrasonography was the best technique for the diagnosis of digestive endometriotic infiltration, which complicates the therapeutic strategy. MRI, however, allows more complete staging of other pelvic endometriotic lesions.  (+info)

The digestive system, also known as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, is a series of organs that process food and liquids into nutrients and waste. Digestive system diseases refer to any conditions that affect the normal functioning of this system, leading to impaired digestion, absorption, or elimination of food and fluids.

Some common examples of digestive system diseases include:

1. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): A condition where stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing symptoms such as heartburn, chest pain, and difficulty swallowing.
2. Peptic Ulcer Disease: Sores or ulcers that develop in the lining of the stomach or duodenum, often caused by bacterial infection or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
3. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): A group of chronic inflammatory conditions that affect the intestines, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
4. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits.
5. Celiac Disease: An autoimmune disorder where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine, impairing nutrient absorption.
6. Diverticular Disease: A condition that affects the colon, characterized by the formation of small pouches or sacs (diverticula) that can become inflamed or infected.
7. Constipation: A common digestive system issue where bowel movements occur less frequently than usual or are difficult to pass.
8. Diarrhea: Loose, watery stools that occur more frequently than normal, often accompanied by cramps and bloating.
9. Gallstones: Small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder, causing pain, inflammation, and potential blockages of the bile ducts.
10. Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver, often caused by viral infections or toxins, leading to symptoms such as jaundice, fatigue, and abdominal pain.

These are just a few examples of digestive system disorders that can affect overall health and quality of life. If you experience any persistent or severe digestive symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention from a healthcare professional.

'Digestive System Neoplasms' refer to new and abnormal growths of tissue in the digestive system that can be benign or malignant. These growths are also known as tumors, and they can occur in any part of the digestive system, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon and rectum), liver, bile ducts, pancreas, and gallbladder. Neoplasms in the digestive system can interfere with normal digestion and absorption of nutrients, cause bleeding, obstruct the digestive tract, and spread to other parts of the body (metastasis) if they are malignant.

Benign neoplasms are not cancerous and do not usually spread to other parts of the body. They can often be removed surgically and may not require further treatment. Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can invade nearby tissues and organs and spread to other parts of the body. Treatment for malignant neoplasms in the digestive system typically involves a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

The causes of digestive system neoplasms are varied and include genetic factors, environmental exposures, lifestyle factors (such as diet and smoking), and infectious agents. Prevention strategies may include maintaining a healthy diet, avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption, practicing safe sex, getting vaccinated against certain viral infections, and undergoing regular screenings for certain types of neoplasms (such as colonoscopies for colorectal cancer).

The digestive system is a complex group of organs and glands that process food. It converts the food we eat into nutrients, which the body uses for energy, growth, and cell repair. The digestive system also eliminates waste from the body. It is made up of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and other organs that help the body break down and absorb food.

The GI tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus. Other organs that are part of the digestive system include the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and salivary glands.

The process of digestion begins in the mouth, where food is chewed and mixed with saliva. The food then travels down the esophagus and into the stomach, where it is broken down further by stomach acids. The digested food then moves into the small intestine, where nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream. The remaining waste material passes into the large intestine, where it is stored until it is eliminated through the anus.

The liver, pancreas, and gallbladder play important roles in the digestive process as well. The liver produces bile, a substance that helps break down fats in the small intestine. The pancreas produces enzymes that help digest proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. The gallbladder stores bile until it is needed in the small intestine.

Overall, the digestive system is responsible for breaking down food, absorbing nutrients, and eliminating waste. It plays a critical role in maintaining our health and well-being.

Central nervous system (CNS) diseases refer to medical conditions that primarily affect the brain and spinal cord. The CNS is responsible for controlling various functions in the body, including movement, sensation, cognition, and behavior. Therefore, diseases of the CNS can have significant impacts on a person's quality of life and overall health.

There are many different types of CNS diseases, including:

1. Infectious diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites that infect the brain or spinal cord. Examples include meningitis, encephalitis, and polio.
2. Neurodegenerative diseases: These are characterized by progressive loss of nerve cells in the brain or spinal cord. Examples include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease.
3. Structural diseases: These involve damage to the physical structure of the brain or spinal cord, such as from trauma, tumors, or stroke.
4. Functional diseases: These affect the function of the nervous system without obvious structural damage, such as multiple sclerosis and epilepsy.
5. Genetic disorders: Some CNS diseases are caused by genetic mutations, such as spinal muscular atrophy and Friedreich's ataxia.

Symptoms of CNS diseases can vary widely depending on the specific condition and the area of the brain or spinal cord that is affected. They may include muscle weakness, paralysis, seizures, loss of sensation, difficulty with coordination and balance, confusion, memory loss, changes in behavior or mood, and pain. Treatment for CNS diseases depends on the specific condition and may involve medications, surgery, rehabilitation therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

The digestive system is a series of organs and glands that work together to break down food into nutrients, which the body can absorb and use for energy, growth, and cell repair. The process begins in the mouth, where food is chewed and mixed with saliva, which contains enzymes that begin breaking down carbohydrates.

The oral physiological phenomena refer to the functions and processes that occur in the mouth during eating and digestion. These include:

1. Ingestion: The process of taking food into the mouth.
2. Mechanical digestion: The physical breakdown of food into smaller pieces by chewing, which increases the surface area for enzymes to act on.
3. Chemical digestion: The chemical breakdown of food molecules into simpler substances that can be absorbed and utilized by the body. In the mouth, this is initiated by salivary amylase, an enzyme found in saliva that breaks down starches into simple sugars.
4. Taste perception: The ability to detect different flavors through specialized taste buds located on the tongue and other areas of the oral cavity.
5. Olfaction: The sense of smell, which contributes to the overall flavor experience by interacting with taste perception in the brain.
6. Salivation: The production of saliva, which helps moisten food, making it easier to swallow, and contains enzymes that begin the digestion process.
7. Protective mechanisms: The mouth has several defense mechanisms to protect against harmful bacteria and other pathogens, such as the flow of saliva, which helps wash away food particles, and the presence of antibacterial compounds in saliva.

The digestive system is a complex network of organs and glands that work together to break down food into nutrients, which are then absorbed and utilized by the body for energy, growth, and cell repair. The physiological phenomena associated with the digestive system include:

1. Ingestion: This is the process of taking in food through the mouth.
2. Mechanical digestion: This involves the physical breakdown of food into smaller pieces through processes such as chewing, churning, and segmentation.
3. Chemical digestion: This involves the chemical breakdown of food molecules into simpler forms that can be absorbed by the body. This is achieved through the action of enzymes produced by the mouth, stomach, pancreas, and small intestine.
4. Motility: This refers to the movement of food through the digestive tract, which is achieved through a series of coordinated muscle contractions called peristalsis.
5. Secretion: This involves the production and release of various digestive juices and enzymes by glands such as the salivary glands, gastric glands, pancreas, and liver.
6. Absorption: This is the process of absorbing nutrients from the digested food into the bloodstream through the walls of the small intestine.
7. Defecation: This is the final process of eliminating undigested food and waste products from the body through the rectum and anus.

Overall, the coordinated functioning of these physiological phenomena ensures the proper digestion and absorption of nutrients, maintaining the health and well-being of the individual.

The digestive system is a series of organs and glands that work together to break down food into nutrients, absorb those nutrients into the body, and eliminate waste. The following are the main processes involved in the digestive system:

1. Ingestion: This is the process of taking food into the mouth and chewing it to make it easier to swallow.
2. Mechanical digestion: This involves physically breaking down food into smaller pieces through chewing, churning, and segmentation movements of the muscles in the stomach and intestines.
3. Chemical digestion: This is the process of breaking down food molecules into simpler forms that can be absorbed by the body. This is accomplished by enzymes secreted by various glands, including the salivary glands, stomach, pancreas, and small intestine.
4. Absorption: Once food molecules are broken down into simple forms, they are absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the small intestine.
5. Distribution: The absorbed nutrients are then distributed to different cells and tissues throughout the body through the circulatory system.
6. Defecation: This is the process of eliminating waste products from the body through the rectum and anus.

Overall, the digestive system plays a critical role in maintaining health and providing the necessary nutrients for the body to function properly.

Nervous system diseases, also known as neurological disorders, refer to a group of conditions that affect the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles. These diseases can affect various functions of the body, such as movement, sensation, cognition, and behavior. They can be caused by genetics, infections, injuries, degeneration, or tumors. Examples of nervous system diseases include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, migraine, stroke, and neuroinfections like meningitis and encephalitis. The symptoms and severity of these disorders can vary widely, ranging from mild to severe and debilitating.

A digestive system fistula is an abnormal connection or passageway that forms between the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, such as the stomach, small intestine, colon, or rectum, and another organ, tissue, or the skin. Fistulas can develop as a result of injury, surgery, infection, inflammation, or cancer.

In the digestive system, fistulas can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, nausea, vomiting, and malnutrition. The severity of these symptoms depends on the location and size of the fistula, as well as the underlying cause. Treatment for a digestive system fistula may involve antibiotics to treat infection, nutritional support, and surgical repair of the fistula.

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, also known as the digestive tract, is a continuous tube that starts at the mouth and ends at the anus. It is responsible for ingesting, digesting, absorbing, and excreting food and waste materials. The GI tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), large intestine (cecum, colon, rectum, anus), and accessory organs such as the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. The primary function of this system is to process and extract nutrients from food while also protecting the body from harmful substances, pathogens, and toxins.

Central nervous system (CNS) viral diseases refer to medical conditions caused by the infection and replication of viruses within the brain or spinal cord. These viruses can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the specific virus and the location of the infection within the CNS. Some common examples of CNS viral diseases include:

1. Meningitis: This is an inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord (meninges) caused by viruses such as enteroviruses, herpes simplex virus, or HIV. Symptoms may include fever, headache, stiff neck, and altered mental status.
2. Encephalitis: This is an inflammation of the brain parenchyma caused by viruses such as herpes simplex virus, West Nile virus, or rabies virus. Symptoms may include fever, headache, confusion, seizures, and focal neurologic deficits.
3. Poliomyelitis: This is a highly infectious disease caused by the poliovirus that can lead to paralysis of the muscles used for breathing, swallowing, and movement. It primarily affects children under 5 years old.
4. HIV-associated neurological disorders (HAND): HIV can cause various neurologic symptoms such as cognitive impairment, peripheral neuropathy, and myopathy.
5. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML): This is a rare but serious demyelinating disease of the CNS caused by the JC virus that primarily affects individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or those receiving immunosuppressive therapy.

Treatment for CNS viral diseases depends on the specific virus and may include antiviral medications, supportive care, and management of symptoms. Prevention measures such as vaccination, avoiding contact with infected individuals, and practicing good hygiene can help reduce the risk of these infections.

Clemastine is an antihistamine medication that is used to relieve symptoms of allergies, such as runny nose, sneezing, and itchy or watery eyes. It works by blocking the action of histamine, a substance in the body that causes allergic symptoms. Clemastine is available in oral tablet and liquid forms, and is typically taken twice daily with a full glass of water.

Common side effects of clemastine include drowsiness, dry mouth, headache, and upset stomach. It is important to avoid activities that require mental alertness, such as driving or operating heavy machinery, until you know how the medication affects you. Clemastine may also cause dizziness, so it is best to avoid getting up too quickly from a sitting or lying position.

Like all medications, clemastine should be taken only as directed by your healthcare provider. It is important to inform them of any other medications you are taking, as well as any medical conditions you may have, as clemastine can interact with certain drugs and may not be suitable for everyone.

Meningoencephalitis is a medical term that refers to an inflammation of both the brain (encephalitis) and the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord (meninges), known as the meninges. It is often caused by an infection, such as bacterial or viral infections, that spreads to the meninges and brain. In some cases, it can also be caused by other factors like autoimmune disorders or certain medications.

The symptoms of meningoencephalitis may include fever, headache, stiff neck, confusion, seizures, and changes in mental status. If left untreated, this condition can lead to serious complications, such as brain damage, hearing loss, learning disabilities, or even death. Treatment typically involves antibiotics for bacterial infections or antiviral medications for viral infections, along with supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the gastrointestinal tract, which can be benign or malignant. The gastrointestinal tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.

Benign neoplasms are non-cancerous growths that do not invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body. They can sometimes be removed completely and may not cause any further health problems.

Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous growths that can invade nearby tissues and organs and spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. These types of neoplasms can be life-threatening if not diagnosed and treated promptly.

GI neoplasms can cause various symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, changes in bowel habits, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and anemia. The specific symptoms may depend on the location and size of the neoplasm.

There are many types of GI neoplasms, including adenocarcinomas, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), lymphomas, and neuroendocrine tumors. The diagnosis of GI neoplasms typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies, and biopsy. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or immunotherapy.

Central nervous system (CNS) infections refer to infectious processes that affect the brain, spinal cord, and their surrounding membranes, known as meninges. These infections can be caused by various microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Examples of CNS infections are:

1. Meningitis: Inflammation of the meninges, usually caused by bacterial or viral infections. Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment.
2. Encephalitis: Inflammation of the brain parenchyma, often caused by viral infections. Some viruses associated with encephalitis include herpes simplex virus, enteroviruses, and arboviruses.
3. Meningoencephalitis: A combined inflammation of both the brain and meninges, commonly seen in certain viral infections or when bacterial pathogens directly invade the brain.
4. Brain abscess: A localized collection of pus within the brain caused by a bacterial or fungal infection.
5. Spinal epidural abscess: An infection in the space surrounding the spinal cord, usually caused by bacteria.
6. Myelitis: Inflammation of the spinal cord, which can result from viral, bacterial, or fungal infections.
7. Rarely, parasitic infections like toxoplasmosis and cysticercosis can also affect the CNS.

Symptoms of CNS infections may include fever, headache, stiff neck, altered mental status, seizures, focal neurological deficits, or meningeal signs (e.g., Brudzinski's and Kernig's signs). The specific symptoms depend on the location and extent of the infection, as well as the causative organism. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term neurological complications or death.

The digestive system is a complex series of organs and glands that process food. Abnormalities in the digestive system can refer to a wide range of conditions that affect any part of the system, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder. These abnormalities can be present at birth (congenital) or acquired later in life due to various factors such as infection, inflammation, injury, or disease.

Some examples of digestive system abnormalities include:

1. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): A condition where the stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn and damage to the esophageal lining.
2. Peptic Ulcers: Open sores that develop on the lining of the stomach or duodenum, often caused by bacterial infections or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
3. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): A group of chronic inflammatory conditions of the intestine, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
4. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and altered bowel habits.
5. Celiac Disease: An autoimmune disorder where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine.
6. Diverticulosis: The presence of small pouches or sacs that form on the lining of the intestine, which can become inflamed or infected (diverticulitis).
7. Hiatal Hernia: A condition where a portion of the stomach protrudes through the diaphragm into the chest cavity.
8. Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver, often caused by viral infections or toxins.
9. Cirrhosis: A chronic liver disease characterized by scarring and loss of liver function, often due to long-term alcohol abuse or hepatitis.
10. Gallstones: Small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder and can cause pain and inflammation.

These are just a few examples of gastrointestinal disorders, and there are many others. If you are experiencing symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, or difficulty swallowing, it is important to speak with your healthcare provider to determine the cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Diagnostic techniques for the digestive system are medical tests and procedures used to diagnose and evaluate various conditions and diseases related to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and associated organs. These techniques can be categorized into invasive and non-invasive methods.

Non-invasive diagnostic techniques:

1. Imaging tests: These include X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) scans, and ultrasounds. They help visualize the structure and function of the digestive organs without requiring any invasive procedures.
2. Laboratory tests: Blood, stool, and urine samples can be analyzed to detect signs of infection, inflammation, or other abnormalities related to digestive system disorders. Examples include complete blood count (CBC), liver function tests (LFTs), coagulation studies, and fecal occult blood test (FOBT).
3. Breath tests: These are used to diagnose conditions like lactose intolerance, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), or helicobacter pylori infection by analyzing the patient's exhaled air after consuming a specific substance.

Invasive diagnostic techniques:

1. Endoscopy: A thin, flexible tube with a light and camera attached to its end is inserted through the mouth or rectum to directly visualize the GI tract's inner lining. There are different types of endoscopies, such as gastroscopy (esophagus, stomach, and duodenum), colonoscopy (colon and rectum), sigmoidoscopy (lower part of the colon), and enteroscopy (small intestine).
2. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS): This combines endoscopy with ultrasound technology to provide detailed images of the digestive organs' structure and surrounding tissues, allowing for accurate diagnosis and staging of conditions like cancer.
3. Biopsy: During an endoscopy or surgery, a small tissue sample can be taken from the affected area for further examination under a microscope to confirm a diagnosis or assess the severity of a condition.
4. Capsule endoscopy: A patient swallows a tiny camera-equipped capsule that transmits images as it passes through the GI tract, allowing doctors to diagnose conditions in the small intestine that may be difficult to reach with traditional endoscopes.
5. Imaging studies: Procedures like computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or positron emission tomography (PET) scans can provide detailed images of the digestive organs and help diagnose conditions like tumors, inflammation, or obstructions.

These diagnostic techniques help healthcare providers identify and manage various gastrointestinal conditions, ensuring appropriate treatment and improved patient outcomes.

Gastrointestinal diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which includes the organs from the mouth to the anus, responsible for food digestion, absorption, and elimination of waste. These diseases can affect any part of the GI tract, causing various symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss.

Common gastrointestinal diseases include:

1. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) - a condition where stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms.
2. Peptic ulcers - sores that develop in the lining of the stomach or duodenum, often caused by bacterial infection or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
3. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) - a group of chronic inflammatory conditions of the intestine, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
4. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) - a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and altered bowel habits.
5. Celiac disease - an autoimmune disorder where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine.
6. Diverticular disease - a condition that affects the colon, causing diverticula (small pouches) to form and potentially become inflamed or infected.
7. Constipation - a common gastrointestinal symptom characterized by infrequent bowel movements, hard stools, and difficulty passing stools.
8. Diarrhea - a common gastrointestinal symptom characterized by loose, watery stools and frequent bowel movements.
9. Food intolerances and allergies - adverse reactions to specific foods or food components that can cause various gastrointestinal symptoms.
10. Gastrointestinal infections - caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi that can lead to a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.

The "cause of death" is a medical determination of the disease, injury, or event that directly results in a person's death. This information is typically documented on a death certificate and may be used for public health surveillance, research, and legal purposes. The cause of death is usually determined by a physician based on their clinical judgment and any available medical evidence, such as laboratory test results, autopsy findings, or eyewitness accounts. In some cases, the cause of death may be uncertain or unknown, and the death may be classified as "natural," "accidental," "homicide," or "suicide" based on the available information.

The intestines, also known as the bowel, are a part of the digestive system that extends from the stomach to the anus. They are responsible for the further breakdown and absorption of nutrients from food, as well as the elimination of waste products. The intestines can be divided into two main sections: the small intestine and the large intestine.

The small intestine is a long, coiled tube that measures about 20 feet in length and is lined with tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase its surface area and enhance nutrient absorption. The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is a wider tube that measures about 5 feet in length and is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from digested food, forming stool, and eliminating waste products from the body. The large intestine includes several regions, including the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus.

Together, the intestines play a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being by ensuring that the body receives the nutrients it needs to function properly.

The pancreas is a glandular organ located in the abdomen, posterior to the stomach. It has both exocrine and endocrine functions. The exocrine portion of the pancreas consists of acinar cells that produce and secrete digestive enzymes into the duodenum via the pancreatic duct. These enzymes help in the breakdown of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats in food.

The endocrine portion of the pancreas consists of clusters of cells called islets of Langerhans, which include alpha, beta, delta, and F cells. These cells produce and secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream, including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide. Insulin and glucagon are critical regulators of blood sugar levels, with insulin promoting glucose uptake and storage in tissues and glucagon stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis to raise blood glucose when it is low.

Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, progressive, and fatal inflammatory disease of the brain characterized by seizures, cognitive decline, and motor function loss. It is caused by a persistent infection with the measles virus, even in individuals who had an uncomplicated acute measles infection earlier in life. The infection results in widespread degeneration and scarring (sclerosis) of the brain's gray matter.

The subacute phase of SSPE typically lasts for several months to a couple of years, during which patients experience a decline in cognitive abilities, behavioral changes, myoclonic jerks (involuntary muscle spasms), and visual disturbances. As the disease progresses, it leads to severe neurological impairment, coma, and eventually death.

SSPE is preventable through early childhood measles vaccination, which significantly reduces the risk of developing this fatal condition later in life.

A larva is a distinct stage in the life cycle of various insects, mites, and other arthropods during which they undergo significant metamorphosis before becoming adults. In a medical context, larvae are known for their role in certain parasitic infections. Specifically, some helminth (parasitic worm) species use larval forms to infect human hosts. These invasions may lead to conditions such as cutaneous larva migrans, visceral larva migrans, or gnathostomiasis, depending on the specific parasite involved and the location of the infection within the body.

The larval stage is characterized by its markedly different morphology and behavior compared to the adult form. Larvae often have a distinct appearance, featuring unsegmented bodies, simple sense organs, and undeveloped digestive systems. They are typically adapted for a specific mode of life, such as free-living or parasitic existence, and rely on external sources of nutrition for their development.

In the context of helminth infections, larvae may be transmitted to humans through various routes, including ingestion of contaminated food or water, direct skin contact with infective stages, or transmission via an intermediate host (such as a vector). Once inside the human body, these parasitic larvae can cause tissue damage and provoke immune responses, leading to the clinical manifestations of disease.

It is essential to distinguish between the medical definition of 'larva' and its broader usage in biology and zoology. In those fields, 'larva' refers to any juvenile form that undergoes metamorphosis before reaching adulthood, regardless of whether it is parasitic or not.

In anatomical terms, the stomach is a muscular, J-shaped organ located in the upper left portion of the abdomen. It is part of the gastrointestinal tract and plays a crucial role in digestion. The stomach's primary functions include storing food, mixing it with digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid to break down proteins, and slowly emptying the partially digested food into the small intestine for further absorption of nutrients.

The stomach is divided into several regions, including the cardia (the area nearest the esophagus), the fundus (the upper portion on the left side), the body (the main central part), and the pylorus (the narrowed region leading to the small intestine). The inner lining of the stomach, called the mucosa, is protected by a layer of mucus that prevents the digestive juices from damaging the stomach tissue itself.

In medical contexts, various conditions can affect the stomach, such as gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining), peptic ulcers (sores in the stomach or duodenum), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and stomach cancer. Symptoms related to the stomach may include abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, and difficulty swallowing.

AIDS Dementia Complex (ADC) is a neurological disorder that occurs in people with advanced HIV infection or AIDS. It is also known as HIV-associated dementia (HAD) or HIV encephalopathy. ADC is characterized by cognitive impairment, motor dysfunction, and behavioral changes that can significantly affect the individual's daily functioning and quality of life.

The symptoms of AIDS Dementia Complex may include:
- Difficulty with concentration and memory
- Slowness in thinking, processing information, or making decisions
- Changes in mood or personality, such as depression, irritability, or apathy
- Difficulty with coordination, balance, or speech
- Progressive weakness and wasting of muscles
- Difficulty with swallowing or speaking

The exact cause of ADC is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to the direct effects of HIV on the brain. The virus can infect and damage nerve cells, leading to inflammation and degeneration of brain tissue. Treatment for ADC typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART) to control HIV replication, as well as medications to manage specific symptoms. In some cases, supportive care such as physical therapy or occupational therapy may also be recommended.

Lamin Type A, also known as LMNA, is a gene that provides instructions for making proteins called lamins. These proteins are part of the nuclear lamina, a network of fibers that lies just inside the nuclear envelope, which is the membrane that surrounds the cell's nucleus. The nuclear lamina helps maintain the shape and stability of the nucleus and plays a role in regulating gene expression and DNA replication.

Mutations in the LMNA gene can lead to various diseases collectively known as laminopathies, which affect different tissues and organs in the body. These conditions include Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy with conduction system disease, and a type of premature aging disorder called Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. The specific symptoms and severity of these disorders depend on the particular LMNA mutation and the tissues affected.

I'm sorry for the confusion, but "Maus Elberfeld virus" doesn't seem to be a recognized term in current medical or scientific literature. It is possible that there may be some mistake or misunderstanding in the spelling or the name of the virus you are looking for.

Elberfeld is a city in Germany and "Maus" means mouse in German, so it might be referring to some virus affecting mice in Elberfeld. However, I cannot find any specific information about a virus with this exact name.

If you have more context or details, I'd be happy to help you try to find the information you need!

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Brain diseases, also known as neurological disorders, refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the brain and nervous system. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as genetics, infections, injuries, degeneration, or structural abnormalities. They can affect different parts of the brain, leading to a variety of symptoms and complications.

Some examples of brain diseases include:

1. Alzheimer's disease - a progressive degenerative disorder that affects memory and cognitive function.
2. Parkinson's disease - a movement disorder characterized by tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with coordination and balance.
3. Multiple sclerosis - a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the nervous system and can cause a range of symptoms such as vision loss, muscle weakness, and cognitive impairment.
4. Epilepsy - a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures.
5. Brain tumors - abnormal growths in the brain that can be benign or malignant.
6. Stroke - a sudden interruption of blood flow to the brain, which can cause paralysis, speech difficulties, and other neurological symptoms.
7. Meningitis - an infection of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
8. Encephalitis - an inflammation of the brain that can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or autoimmune disorders.
9. Huntington's disease - a genetic disorder that affects muscle coordination, cognitive function, and mental health.
10. Migraine - a neurological condition characterized by severe headaches, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.

Brain diseases can range from mild to severe and may be treatable or incurable. They can affect people of all ages and backgrounds, and early diagnosis and treatment are essential for improving outcomes and quality of life.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord. It acts as a shock absorber for the central nervous system and provides nutrients to the brain while removing waste products. CSF is produced by specialized cells called ependymal cells in the choroid plexus of the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces) inside the brain. From there, it circulates through the ventricular system and around the outside of the brain and spinal cord before being absorbed back into the bloodstream. CSF analysis is an important diagnostic tool for various neurological conditions, including infections, inflammation, and cancer.

The meninges are the protective membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. They consist of three layers: the dura mater (the outermost, toughest layer), the arachnoid mater (middle layer), and the pia mater (the innermost, delicate layer). These membranes provide protection and support to the central nervous system, and contain blood vessels that supply nutrients and remove waste products. Inflammation or infection of the meninges is called meningitis, which can be a serious medical condition requiring prompt treatment.

Demyelinating diseases are a group of disorders that are characterized by damage to the myelin sheath, which is the protective covering surrounding nerve fibers in the brain, optic nerves, and spinal cord. Myelin is essential for the rapid transmission of nerve impulses, and its damage results in disrupted communication between the brain and other parts of the body.

The most common demyelinating disease is multiple sclerosis (MS), where the immune system mistakenly attacks the myelin sheath. Other demyelinating diseases include:

1. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM): An autoimmune disorder that typically follows a viral infection or vaccination, causing widespread inflammation and demyelination in the brain and spinal cord.
2. Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) or Devic's Disease: A rare autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the optic nerves and spinal cord, leading to severe vision loss and motor disability.
3. Transverse Myelitis: Inflammation of the spinal cord causing damage to both sides of one level (segment) of the spinal cord, resulting in various neurological symptoms such as muscle weakness, numbness, or pain, depending on which part of the spinal cord is affected.
4. Guillain-Barré Syndrome: An autoimmune disorder that causes rapid-onset muscle weakness, often beginning in the legs and spreading to the upper body, including the face and breathing muscles. It occurs when the immune system attacks the peripheral nerves' myelin sheath.
5. Central Pontine Myelinolysis (CPM): A rare neurological disorder caused by rapid shifts in sodium levels in the blood, leading to damage to the myelin sheath in a specific area of the brainstem called the pons.

These diseases can result in various symptoms, such as muscle weakness, numbness, vision loss, difficulty with balance and coordination, and cognitive impairment, depending on the location and extent of the demyelination. Treatment typically focuses on managing symptoms, modifying the immune system's response, and promoting nerve regeneration and remyelination when possible.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

This is a shortened version of the ninth chapter of the ICD-9: Diseases of the Digestive System. It covers ICD codes 520 to 579 ... and unspecified diseases of the oral soft tissues 529 Diseases and other conditions of the tongue 529.0 Glossitis 530 Diseases ... 572 Liver abscess and sequelae of chronic liver disease 572.2 Coma, hepatic 572.4 Hepatorenal syndrome 573 Other disorders of ... peritonitis 540.9 Appendicitis, acute w/o peritonitis 541 Appendicitis, unqualified 542 Other appendicitis 543 Other diseases ...
Nielsen, Martin K. (December 2019). "Strongyloides westeri-associated Disease in Horses - Digestive System". MSD Veterinary ... Coughing is only a short term effect during the migration of the S. westeri from the lung to the digestive system, the ... On breeding farms foals are often dewormed at about two weeks of age, so that clinical diseases are avoided. There are only two ... From the 80th day post partum onwards, a resistance is developed, so older animals would no longer contract the disease. This ...
Ding L, Yang L, Wang Z, Huang W (March 2015). "Bile acid nuclear receptor FXR and digestive system diseases". Acta ... The disease has an incidence is 0.4-2.0 cases/100,000 and a prevalence of 16.2 cases/100,000, making it a rare disease. ... In several chronic liver diseases, the gut microbiome, which regulates both the innate and adaptive immune systems, is ... Bethesda (MD): National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. 2012. PMID 31689040. Retrieved 2021-11-16. ...
Diseases of the digestive system and liver in primary care. Pillars of Culture, Belgrade, 2007a. Milosavljevic T. Primary ... Endoscopic intervention methods in biliary diseases. In : R. Čolović Surgery of the biliary system, the Institute for textbooks ... Diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the digestive tract associated with increased secretion of hydrochloric acid, Prosveta ... Diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the digestive tract associated with increased secretion of hydrochloric acid, Prosveta ...
"Experimental ulcerative colitis impairs antioxidant defense system in rat intestine". Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 45 (9): ... "Wholegrain cereals and bread: a duet of the Mediterranean diet for the prevention of chronic diseases". Public health nutrition ... "Experimental ulcerative colitis impairs antioxidant defence system in rat intestine". Angel Gil, Rosa M Ortega, José Maldonado ... a duet of the Mediterranean diet for the prevention of chronic diseases". Public Health Nutrition. 14 (12A): 2316-2322. doi: ...
... -Fatty Liver Disease in Cats "Feline Hepatic Lipidosis - Digestive System". Sarah Wootten DVM, " Why Is ... The disease officially has no known cause, though obesity is known to increase the risk. The disease begins when the cat stops ... Blood tests and a liver biopsy will confirm the presence of the disease. Untreated, the disease has a mortality rate upwards of ... The disease is reversible through intense feeding. Treatment may involve the insertion of a temporary feeding tube to ensure ...
Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 42 (5): 1094-9. doi:10.1023/A:1018865809556. PMID 9149069. S2CID 22902185. Jones, EA; Bergasa ... To date, the most currently used system is the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS), which is based on the selective ... Several types of BALs are being developed, including hollow fiber systems and flat membrane sheet systems. Various types of ... Digestive system procedures, Hepatology, Medical equipment, Membrane technology). ...
Digestive Wellness for Children: How to Strengthen the Immune System & Prevent Disease Through Healthy Digestion. Basic Health ... ISBN 978-1-60961-945-9. Digestive Wellness: Strengthen the Immune System and Prevent Disease Through Healthy Digestion (4 ed ... Lipski, Elizabeth (2013). Digestion Connection: The Simple, Natural Plan to Combat Diabetes, Heart Disease, Osteoporosis, ... Heart Disease, Osteoporosis, Arthritis, Acid Reflux--And More!. Rodale, Inc. 2013. ...
During the First World War he described numerous diseases involving the human digestive system. He wrote the illustrated ...
Holzer P (July 2011). "Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels as drug targets for diseases of the digestive system". ... TRPM5 is a key component of taste transduction in the gustatory system of bitter, sweet and umami tastes being activated by ...
Lipski, Elizabeth (2012). Digestive wellness : strengthen the immune system and prevent disease through healthy digestion (4th ... "World Digestive Health Day 2017 Inflammatory Bowel Disease". Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. 51 (5): i-ii. 2017. doi: ... "Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Diseases and Disorders in Digestive Tract: Basic to Clinics". Evidence-Based ... Whenever possible, it is easier for a person to prevent digestive problems from happening rather than to seek to treat them ...
ISBN 978-0-19-513164-2. Skumin VA (24 January 1991). "[Borderline mental disorders in chronic diseases of the digestive system ... The term psychosomatic disease was most likely first used by Paul D. MacLean in his 1949 seminal paper 'Psychosomatic disease ... PNI integrates the mental/psychological, nervous, and immune system, and these systems are further linked together by ligands, ... Some physical diseases are believed to have a mental component derived from stresses and strains of everyday living. This has ...
She specialized in the pathology of the lymph nodes and diseases of the digestive system. In the 1970s, she and Chen Minzhang ...
C stands for Diseases, C06 for Digestive System Diseases and C06.301 for Digestive System Neoplasms; C04 for Neoplasms, C04.588 ... For example, the descriptor "Digestive System Neoplasms" has the tree numbers C06.301 and C04.588.274; ... and C04.588.274 also for Digestive System Neoplasms. The tree numbers of a given descriptor are subject to change as MeSH is ... MeSH is also used by ClinicalTrials.gov registry to classify which diseases are studied by trials registered in ClinicalTrials ...
... emerging and infectious zoonotic diseases; and diseases of the lung, respiratory tract, skin, and digestive system are ... In the segregated system, it was open only to white students. As a land-grant college, North Carolina A&M would provide a ... The UNC system Board of Governors elects eight of the trustees and the Governor of North Carolina appoints four. The student ... The UNC system also elects the Chancellor of NC State, currently Randy Woodson. The Board of Trustees administers NC State's ...
v t e v t e (Abdominal pain, All stub articles, Disease stubs, Digestive system stubs). ... Large intestine Kleinman, Ronald E. (1998). Atlas of Pediatric Gastrointestinal Disease. PMPH-USA. p. 209. ISBN 978-1-55009-038 ...
v t e (All stub articles, Neoplasm stubs, Digestive system neoplasia, Hepatology, Diseases of liver, Oncology). ...
Retrieved on 2010-02-01 Diseases of the Digestive System The oral cavity FAQ's Health Portal. Retrieved on 2010-02-01 Zadik Y, ... Treatment of gingivitis is dependent on how severe and how far the disease has progressed. If the disease is not too severe it ... Different disease processes affect different tissues within this region with various outcomes. A great many diseases involve ... Medicine portal Tongue disease Salivary gland disease Head and neck cancer Oral surgery Tooth pathology "gnath(o)-". ...
Gallstone disease is considered to be one of the most common digestive diseases. It is prevalent regardless of ethnicity with ... Sung JY, Costerton JW, Shaffer EA (May 1992). "Defense system in the biliary tract against bacterial infection". Digestive ... "Definition & Facts for Gallstones , NIDDK". National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Retrieved 2020-04 ... The prevalence of this disease is 0.05% in industrialised countries. This disease often develops in patients between the ages ...
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. C. Dugdale, David (16 September 2011). "Female urinary tract ... The urinary system is under influence of the circulatory system, nervous system, and endocrine system. Aldosterone plays a ... Diseases of other bodily systems also have a direct effect on urogenital function. For instance, it has been shown that protein ... Urologic disease can involve congenital or acquired dysfunction of the urinary system. As an example, urinary tract obstruction ...
This is a shortened version of the seventeenth chapter of the ICD-9: Diseases of the Digestive System. It covers ICD codes 800 ... anus/rectum 938 Foreign body in digestive system, unspecified 939 Foreign body in genitourinary tract 940 Burn confined to eye ... 970 Poisoning by central nervous system stimulants 971 Poisoning by drugs primarily affecting the autonomic nervous system 972 ... by agents primarily affecting the cardiovascular system 973 Poisoning by agents primarily affecting the gastrointestinal system ...
In 1999, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) devised a new classification system. For ... "Prostatitis: Benign Prostate Disease: Merck Manual Professional". Retrieved 2011-07-11. Prostatitis Self Assessment Calculator ... Interstitial cystitis - a related disease Granulomatous prostatitis IgG4-related prostatitis Male accessory gland infection ( ...
... chronic disease of the digestive system) and depression. Serbia in the Yugoslav Wars State Security Service (SDB) Special ...
v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Digestive system, All stub articles, Disease stubs) ...
It is a medicinal plant used against diabetes and against diseases of the digestive system, among other uses. The plant is ...
Also common in chronic Chagas disease is damage to the digestive system, which affects 10-21% of people. Enlargement of the ... Chagas disease is classified as a neglected tropical disease. Chagas disease occurs in two stages: an acute stage, which ... determinate chronic Chagas disease), which most often affects the heart or digestive system. The most common long-term ... Centers for Disease Control Chagas information from the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative Chagas disease information for ...
During this period Skumin investigated mental health disorder in chronic diseases of the digestive system in children and ... Skumin, V. A. (1991). "Borderline mental disorders in chronic diseases of the digestive system in children and adolescents" ... Skumin, VA (1987). "Psychological aspects of diet therapy of children and adolescents suffering from digestive system diseases ... The use of psychotherapy in the treatment of chronic diseases of the digestive system in children: Methodical recommendations ...
CAID can also impact organs beyond the respiratory (breathing) and digestive systems. Heart disease, stroke, infertility, ... "Chronic Airway-Digestive Inflammatory Disease" (CAID) is a phrase which has been coined by Dr. Jordan S. Josephson, M.D., F.A.C ... gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPRD) and/or snoring or sleep apnea are often present ... Sinus disease, allergies, and asthma have been shown to be intimately related through recent research[citation needed]. ...
Surgery could be required to remedy or treat certain problems or diseases that affect the digestive tract. There are many ... Esophagectomy Liver resection Surgery on the digestive system's organs is referred to as digestive system surgery, ... Surgery of the digestive system is a complicated topic that calls for specialized education and experience. To make educated ... Digestive system surgery, or gastrointestinal surgery, can be divided into upper GI surgery and lower GI surgery. Upper ...
Digestive system and abdomen, Rectum). ... These may be the result of a sexually transmitted disease. ... ISBN 978-88-470-1542-5. (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Pain, Diseases of intestines, ...
A wide variety of diseases and disorders occur in the large intestine. Abnormal rotation of the colon is fairly frequent and ... Home Health & Medicine Conditions & Diseases Digestive & Renal System Diseases Large intestine. A wide variety of diseases and ... Brain disease, metabolic failure, or drugs can dull the normal signals that give rise to the urge to defecate. Poor abdominal ... This pain can be incorrectly thought to be associated with diseases of these organs, whereas it is actually caused by increased ...
This is a shortened version of the ninth chapter of the ICD-9: Diseases of the Digestive System. It covers ICD codes 520 to 579 ... and unspecified diseases of the oral soft tissues 529 Diseases and other conditions of the tongue 529.0 Glossitis 530 Diseases ... 572 Liver abscess and sequelae of chronic liver disease 572.2 Coma, hepatic 572.4 Hepatorenal syndrome 573 Other disorders of ... peritonitis 540.9 Appendicitis, acute w/o peritonitis 541 Appendicitis, unqualified 542 Other appendicitis 543 Other diseases ...
Digestive system diseases in pregnancy. Australia - Canada - Denmark - Europe - France - Germany - India - International - ... Digestive and Liver Disease * AISF position paper on liver transplantation and pregnancy [2016] ... Association of Preterm Birth with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Salivary Gland Disease: Machine Learning Analysis Using ... Inflammatory bowel disease in pregnancy: management strategy based on best evidence and European guidelines [2014] ...
The Icd-10 code range for Diseases of the digestive system K00-K95 is medical classification list by the World Health ... Diseases of the digestive system contains ICD-10 codes for Diseases of oral cavity and salivary glands, Diseases of esophagus, ... Diseases of liver, Disorders of gallbladder, biliary tract and pancreas, Other diseases of the digestive system ... The ICD-10 code range for Diseases of the digestive system K00-K95 is medical classification list by the World Health ...
In most cases, the worms multiply in the system, and when the worm bu ... Parasitic diseases of the digestive system usually involve worms, also known as helminths. ... Diseases Cardiovascular Lymphatic Systems * Protozoal and Parasitic Diseases * Bacterial Diseases of the Cardiovascular and ... Diseases of the Respiratory System * Fungal and Protozoal Diseases of the Respiratory System ...
Lymphatics in Health and Disease in the Digestive System (R01 Clinical Trial Not Allowed) RFA-DK-18-021. NIDDK ... What is the role of lymphedema in diseases of the digestive system? Can we learn how to regulate the digestive system lymphatic ... 8) What is the role of the autonomic nervous system in digestive system lymphatic vessels contraction in health and disease ... How obesity affects lymphatic function in the digestive system?. 7) How does the milieu of the digestive system lymphatic ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Coagulation Tests in Hepatic Disease in Small Animals. Find specific details on this topic ... Laboratory Analyses and Imaging in Hepatic Disease in Small Animals / * Coagulation Tests in Hepatic Disease in Small Animals / ... Fibrinogen in Hepatic Disease in Small Animals Studies in humans and observational data in dogs deem fibrinogen concentration ... Blood Component Therapy in Hepatic Disease in Small Animals Finding PT or aPTT > 1.5× the upper reference interval in an animal ...
... digestive system diseases, Categories: Morbidity, disability and hospital discharges ... Hospital discharges, digestive system diseases. Indicator code: E992975.T. See 992971. Chapter IX of ICD-9 and chapter XI of ... digestive system diseases Hospital discharges, digestive system diseases. Indicator full name: Hospital discharges, digestive ... Division of Country Health Policies and Systems. World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe UN City. Marmorvej 51. DK ...
Digestive diseases are disorders of the digestive tract, which is sometimes called the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. ... Digestive system disorders. In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of ... A digestive disease is any health problem that occurs in the digestive tract. Conditions may range from mild to serious. Some ... Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcer disease, and hiatal hernia. Tests for digestive problems can include ...
Digestive Health Articles. / Facts and Fallacies About Digestive Diseases. Facts and Fallacies About Digestive Diseases. By Dr ... Researchers have only recently begun to understand the many, often complex, diseases that affect the digestive system. ... Celiac disease is a rare childhood disease. False. Celiac disease affects children and adults. At least 1 in 1,000 people and, ... Inflammatory bowel disease is the general name for two diseases that cause inflammation in the intestines, Crohns disease and ...
This lesson provides helpful information on Viral Infections of the Digestive System in the context of Digestive System ... Diseases to help students study for a college level Microbiology course. ... Bacterial Infections of the Digestive System,Fungal, Protozoan, and Helminth Infections of the Digestive System ... Microbiology/Digestive System Diseases/Viral Infections of the Digestive System. Digestive System Diseases. ...
Colic and Diseases of the Digestive System.1. 57 a;eneral Brticles. COLIC AND DISEASES OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.l By GENERAL ... A system of collecti ve investigation has been adopted, every case of colic o r fatal disease of the digestive system being ... If th e colic and fatal di seases of the digestive system b e e xa m in ed by bra nche s of the Serv ice, the followin g ta ble ... COLIC AND DISEASES OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.l By GENERAL FRED SMITH, D.S.O., Di netor -Generalof tlie A 1"I"Y VelerillalY ...
Autoimmune diseases of the digestive system during pregnancy. Kamilė Piesliakaitė1, Živilė Sabonytė - Balšaitienė2, 3, Diana ... Most common of these diseases are celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune hepatitis, primary sclerosing ... Background. Autoimmune diseases of the digestive tract are more prevalent in women and have a negative impact on maternal or ... Conclusions. Autoimmune diseases of the digestive tract are not common in pregnancy and most cases will be in remission. ...
Number of visits to physician offices with diseases of the digestive system as the primary diagnosis: 35.4 million ... Number of visits to emergency departments with diseases of the digestive system as the primary diagnosis: 8.4 million ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. *National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. ...
... and treatment of celiac disease, a condition in which the immune system reacts abnormally to gluten, damaging the small ... Your Digestive System & How It Works The digestive system is made up of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract-also called the ... Celiac Disease. View or Print All Sections Definition & Facts Celiac disease is a chronic digestive and immune disorder that ... The disease is triggered by eating foods containing gluten. The disease can cause long-lasting digestive problems and keep your ...
Diseases of the digestive system. Upper GI tract. Esophagus. *Esophagitis *Candidal. *Eosinophilic ... Behçets disease, connective tissue disease, mastocytosis, inflammatory bowel disease HIV infection, sarcoidosis or myeloma.[2] ... A system of venous collaterals may form around the occlusion which may be seen on imaging as a "spiders web". Patients may ... Budd G (1845). On diseases of the liver. London: John Churchill. p. 135. Brit Lib. 000518193.. ...
Disorders of gallbladder, biliary tract and pancreas in diseases classified elsewhere. K92.9. Disease of digestive system, ... When reported reason was a symptom due to an underline disease, a disease code was used (e.g., I51.9 for fluid retention due to ... When reported reason was for disease prevention, an appropriate ICD-10-CM code followed by a letter "P" was used. (e.g., A49.9P ... The ICD-10-CM is a system used by physicians and other healthcare providers to classify and code all diagnoses, symptoms and ...
Endocrine system diseases. 11 (22.0). Nervous system diseases. 5 (10.0). Digestive system diseases. 4 (8.0). ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People ... Territorywide Study of Early Coronavirus Disease Outbreak, Hong Kong, China Kenneth Siu-Sing Leung, Timothy Ting-Leung Ng, Alan ...
La Peer Health Systems Digestive Disease Program, Gastroenterologists Beverly Hills, Los Angeles. DEPARTMENT OF ... Digestive diseases can be severely disruptive to daily life. The digestive tract is very complex and there is a wide array of ... La Peer Surgery Center- La Peer Health Systems Digestive Disease Program. (855) 360-9119. 8920 Wilshire Blvd #101. Beverly ... La Peer Health Systems was also named one of the 100 Greatest Places To Work by Beckers ASC Review. We take great pride in our ...
Log in with either your Library Card Number or EZ ...
Digestive System Diseases & Conditions. How to Recognize Appendicitis Symptoms. 10 years ago ... TV-G: The US TV Rating System. 10 years ago. TV programming has had a Rating system since the late 1990s. The ratings are ... Parkinsons Disease: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and Prognosis. 10 years ago. Parkinsons Disease is not a diagnosis of ... However, the USGS as a system in place to monitor river systems and provide early warnings of imminent major flods. ...
... the most common affliction of the biliary system. ... Diseases of the digestive system: gallbladder and extrahepatic ... 1] The condition can result from gallstone disease, the most common affliction of the biliary system. Gallstone disease affects ... Gallstone disease. Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtrans Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 11th ... CAR-T Therapy for NHL Treats Concurrent Rheumatic Disease * Rethinking Approach to Manage Fever in ED for Children With Sickle ...
... diseases of the digestive system, including alcoholic liver disease (18%); diseases of the nervous system (15%); and deaths ... UK biobank: an open access resource for identifying the causes of a wide range of complex diseases of middle and old age. PLoS ... One approach for investigating this is mendelian randomisation, in which the association between a disease outcome and ... We also investigated the shape of the relation of BMI with disease specific mortality and morbidity. ...
CDC WONDER is a system for disseminating Public Health data and information ... Diseases of the Digestive System....... ,2650-2699, Diseases of the Genitourinary System... ,2700-2799, Diseases of the Skin ... disease Diseases of the Digestive System (2650-2699) ____________________________________________ 2650.0 Diseases of the ... Liver diseases Cholelithiasis (gallstones) Cholecystitis Pancreatitis 2675.0 Other diseases of digestive system Includes: ...
DISEASES OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM (K00-K93). Diseases of the Digestive System (K00-K93) were the underlying cause of death for ... The most common types of digestive disease that contributed to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander deaths were Diseases of ... The age standardised death rate for Diseases of the liver was four times higher (rate ratio of 4.1) for Aboriginal and Torres ... Heart disease deaths still falling, but dementia on the rise (Media Release) ...
Digestive Wellness for Children: How to Stengthen the Immune System & Prevent Disease Through Healthy Digestion ... Digestive Wellness for Children: How to Stengthen the Immune System & Prevent Disease Through Healthy Digestion by Elizabeth ... A perfect primer for all parents who are interested in learning about, and supporting, their childrens digestive health. ...
Sporadic disease due to N risticii has been reported in dogs and cats; cattle appear to be resistant to infection. PHF has been ... The disease occurs in spring, summer, and early fall and is associated with pastures bordering creeks or rivers. ... Several months after clinical disease in pregnant mares, abortion due to fetal infection with N risticii may occur. ... Transmission studies using N risticii-infected caddisflies have reproduced the clinical disease. One route of exposure is ...
Digestive System Diseases [C06]. *Gastrointestinal Diseases [C06.405]. *Esophageal Diseases [C06.405.117]. *Esophageal ...
Categories: Digestive System Diseases Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People ...
  • Eggs are ingested in food and water, and they hatch in the digestive tract to become adults. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • The gastrointestinal tract is a system with multiple functions. (nih.gov)
  • Digestive diseases are disorders of the digestive tract, which is sometimes called the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A digestive disease is any health problem that occurs in the digestive tract. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Many surgical procedures are performed on the digestive tract. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Although the syndrome can cause considerable pain and discomfort, it does not damage the digestive tract as diseases do. (jeffreymarkmd.com)
  • Autoimmune diseases of the digestive tract are more prevalent in women and have a negative impact on maternal or fetal health. (medicsciences.com)
  • Autoimmune diseases of the digestive tract are not common in pregnancy and most cases will be in remission. (medicsciences.com)
  • The digestive system is made up of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract - also called the digestive tract - and the liver, pancreas, and the gallbladder. (nih.gov)
  • The digestive tract is very complex and there is a wide array of symptoms that can indicate disease. (lapeerhealth.com)
  • Structural gastrointestinal diseases occur when parts of the digestive tract appear physically abnormal, and they don't function properly. (bodybio.com)
  • Crohn's disease affects your GI tract, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea and bloody stool. (healthline.com)
  • Crohn's is typically diagnosed based on the results of tissue samples taken from your digestive tract during an upper or lower endoscopy . (healthline.com)
  • Crohn's disease is a chronic, autoimmune disorder that affects someone's entire gastrointestinal tract (GI). (healthline.com)
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) represents a group of intestinal disorders that cause inflammation of the digestive tract. (healthline.com)
  • The key difference between the two is that ulcerative colitis involves only the colon, while Crohn's involves the entire digestive tract, from the mouth all the way to the anus, leaving people with Crohn's susceptible to battling far more diverse physical and emotional complications. (healthline.com)
  • Crohn's mainly affects the digestive tract. (healthline.com)
  • Ulcers can also develop anywhere in the digestive tract, including deep in the bowel wall . (healthline.com)
  • They result from inflammation, damage,and interference with normal function caused by gluten exposure in the digestive tract itself and/or nutritional deficiencies. (glutenfreeworks.com)
  • Diverticular disease is characterized by small, balloon-like sacs (diverticula) protruding through the layers of particular structures in the gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Non-blood-borne causes often originate from nasal and upper respiratory tract infections and diseases. (medscape.com)
  • Irritable bowel syndrome is a disease. (jeffreymarkmd.com)
  • Also, irritable bowel syndrome does not lead to more serious digestive diseases later. (jeffreymarkmd.com)
  • Gut health is a popular topic today, partly because digestive diseases--like irritable bowel syndrome, GERD, constipation, and others--are so prevalent. (bodybio.com)
  • In most cases, the worms multiply in the system, and when the worm burden becomes high, the symptoms of disease ensue. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • But the disease can also first cause symptoms in adults. (jeffreymarkmd.com)
  • Celiac disease may cause such nonspecific symptoms for several years before being correctly diagnosed and treated. (jeffreymarkmd.com)
  • People with celiac disease should not eat any foods containing gluten, a protein in wheat, rye, barley, and possibly oats, regardless of whether or not they have symptoms. (jeffreymarkmd.com)
  • After infection the hepatitis virus can remain dormant in the infected individual for one to three months before symptoms of the disease emerge. (coursehero.com)
  • If you have celiac disease, you may experience digestive symptoms or symptoms in other parts of your body. (nih.gov)
  • Digestive symptoms are more common in children than adults. (nih.gov)
  • Some people with celiac disease have no symptoms. (nih.gov)
  • Following a gluten-free diet can relieve celiac disease symptoms and heal damage to the small intestine. (nih.gov)
  • [4] Other conditions that produce similar symptoms include appendicitis , stomach ulcers , pancreatitis , and gastroesophageal reflux disease . (wikipedia.org)
  • The symptoms of Crohn's disease often develop gradually. (healthline.com)
  • The symptoms may become more severe as the disease progresses. (healthline.com)
  • Other tests may also point to Crohn's disease, and their results - combined with your symptoms and history - will be taken into consideration. (healthline.com)
  • Once the doctor reviews the results of all the tests and gets a clear picture of your symptoms, they may conclude you have Crohn's disease. (healthline.com)
  • CF is a complex disease, where the types and severity of symptoms can differ widely from person to person. (bartleby.com)
  • Fifth disease begins with mild symptoms , including a fever, muscle aches, headache and decreased activity for a few days. (mamapedia.com)
  • Common symptoms of Crohn's are digestive complications, abdominal pain, and weight loss. (healthline.com)
  • Symptoms of CF can be classified into two main categories: respiratory and digestive. (xshotpix.com)
  • Symptoms might not always be correlated with the severity of the disease. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • The following digestive symptoms in this section may be present alone or in any combination in celiac disease. (glutenfreeworks.com)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (cdc.gov)
  • The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (cdc.gov)
  • Inflammatory bowel disease is the general name for two diseases that cause inflammation in the intestines, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. (jeffreymarkmd.com)
  • The five hepatitis viruses are characterized by liver inflammation and may cause chronic debilitating disease. (coursehero.com)
  • Hepatitis is any of a group of diseases characterized by inflammation of the liver triggered by wide-ranging causative agents. (coursehero.com)
  • This is a type of condition in which your immune system mistakenly attacks your body, sometimes causing inflammation. (healthline.com)
  • Though the immune system could be a potential contributor to inflammation in Crohn's, it has not yet been classified as an autoimmune condition as the causes are still not fully understood. (healthline.com)
  • Inflammation is an immune system response, and while it helps us fight injury and infection, long-term, chronic inflammation is linked with various health issues. (qualityhealth.com)
  • Crohn's disease doesn't generally weaken bones, but patients can have related issues, with or without inflammation. (healthline.com)
  • Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterised by chronic inflammation and infection. (xshotpix.com)
  • Gastritis is a group of diseases that cause inflammation of the lining of the stomach. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Celiac disease is a rare childhood disease. (jeffreymarkmd.com)
  • Celiac disease affects children and adults. (jeffreymarkmd.com)
  • At least 1 in 1,000 people and, in some populations, 1 in 200 people have celiac disease. (jeffreymarkmd.com)
  • Most common of these diseases are celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune hepatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and primary biliary cholangitis. (medicsciences.com)
  • Celiac disease poses a risk of cesarean section, recurrent miscarriages, low birth weight and preterm delivery, especially for untreated women. (medicsciences.com)
  • Celiac disease is a chronic digestive and immune disorder that damages the small intestine. (nih.gov)
  • Doctors use information from your medical and family history, a physical exam, and medical test results to look for signs that you could have celiac disease. (nih.gov)
  • Doctors diagnose celiac disease with blood tests, biopsies of the small intestine, skin biopsies, and genetic tests. (nih.gov)
  • To treat celiac disease, you will need to follow a gluten-free diet. (nih.gov)
  • Your doctor will explain the gluten-free diet and may refer to you a registered dietitian who specializes in treating people who have celiac disease. (nih.gov)
  • If you have celiac disease, you will need to remove foods and drinks that contain gluten from your diet. (nih.gov)
  • People with celiac disease need to follow a gluten-free diet for life. (nih.gov)
  • This study is to evaluate the Pharmacodynamic (PD), safety, tolerability, Pharmacokinetic (PK), and plasma biomarker response of KAN-101 in participants with Celiac Disease (CeD). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The study is a 2-part, multicenter Phase 1b/2 study of KAN-101 in participants with Celiac Disease (CeD) on a gluten free diet (GFD). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It can be difficult to diagnose many problems that affect the digestive system, including conditions such as Crohn's disease, coeliac/celiac disease and colitis as well as cancer. (spirehealthcare.com)
  • In 2020, thirty-three per cent of deaths of Finns were caused by diseases of the circulatory system and 24 per cent by neoplasms. (stat.fi)
  • Working-age people died most from neoplasms and from diseases of the circulatory system (Table 2). (stat.fi)
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 2023, 29: 837-838. (yale.edu)
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 2023 PMID: 36810663 , DOI: 10.1093/ibd/izad030 . (yale.edu)
  • Digestive Medicine Research 2023, 0: 0-0. (yale.edu)
  • 5:00 PM - 6:00 PM The 2023 Digestive Health Virtual CME Series is designed to. (borreliosidilyme.it)
  • Cystic Fibrosis, commonly known as CF, is a life-threatening, lethal genetic disease that mostly affects the lungs and digestive system (O'Sullivan & Freedman, 2009). (bartleby.com)
  • Cystic Fibrosis is a life threatening condition that causes severe damage to the lungs and digestive system. (bartleby.com)
  • Cystic fibrosis is a disease affecting the lungs and digestive system. (xshotpix.com)
  • I N the last Annual Report prominence was g iven to the important subject of colic and fatal disorders of the digestive system. (coek.info)
  • During the year under review there occurred 77 7 cases of colic, and ninety·two fatal disorders of the digestive canal. (coek.info)
  • The explanation of the higher admission and mortality rate in summer is that colic and fatal disorders of the digestive system are not entirely brought about by water or food, but that work is a factor. (coek.info)
  • The inflammatory bowel diseases--Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis--have become some of the most devastating and difficult to treat gut disorders, and yet they were not nearly as commonplace just a few generations ago. (bodybio.com)
  • This report also noted that the inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, have increased significantly across Europe in the last 30 years, especially in the United Kingdom and the Scandinavian countries. (bodybio.com)
  • The most notable of these conditions include ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. (healthline.com)
  • 572 Liver abscess and sequelae of chronic liver disease 572.2 Coma, hepatic 572.4 Hepatorenal syndrome 573 Other disorders of liver 573.3 Hepatitis, toxic 574 Cholelithiasis 574.3 Choledocholithiasis 575 Other disorders of gallbladder 575.0 Cholecystitis, acute 575.9 Gallbladder disease, unspec. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common types of digestive disease that contributed to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander deaths were Diseases of the liver (K70-K76), which was the underlying cause of 72 deaths in 2012. (abs.gov.au)
  • Prebiotic fiber helps nourish the growth of good bacteria that exist naturally in your gut by contributing to an environment that is optimal for good digestive health. (benefiber.com)
  • Not only does prebiotic fiber strengthen and nourish the good bacteria, it helps suppress the bad bacteria, promoting an optimal environment for good digestive health. (benefiber.com)
  • Your large intestine contains trillions of bacteria, and much of it is important for good digestive health . (benefiber.com)
  • Tests and procedures for good digestive health. (spirehealthcare.com)
  • A wide variety of diseases and disorders occur in the large intestine. (britannica.com)
  • Aganglionic megacolon , or Hirschsprung disease, is a condition of unknown cause that is characterized by the absence of ganglion cells and normal nerve fibres from the distal (or lower) 3 to 40 cm (1 to 16 inches) of the large intestine. (britannica.com)
  • Digestive diseases encompass all parts of the digestive system, from the esophagus all the way down through the large intestine. (bodybio.com)
  • Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). (healthline.com)
  • More research on Crohn's disease is necessary. (healthline.com)
  • Crohn's disease most commonly occurs in the small intestine and the colon. (healthline.com)
  • Here's everything you need to know about Crohn's disease. (healthline.com)
  • What are the variations of Crohn's disease? (healthline.com)
  • There are five variations of Crohn's disease, all based on location in the digestive system. (healthline.com)
  • In addition, Crohn's disease can present as perianal disease , which involves fistulas (abnormal connections between tissues), deep tissue infections, as well as sores and ulcers on the outer skin around the anus. (healthline.com)
  • What causes Crohn's disease? (healthline.com)
  • It isn't clear what causes Crohn's disease. (healthline.com)
  • A cure for Crohn's disease isn't available yet, but the disease can be managed. (healthline.com)
  • Hi I am a mother that has crohn's disease . (mamapedia.com)
  • There's no cure for Crohn's disease, but there are several lifestyle adjustments and treatments that can improve quality of life and increase the chances for a longer remission. (healthline.com)
  • Crohn's disease increases the risk of developing kidney stones, gallstones, fever, and liver disease. (healthline.com)
  • La Peer Health Systems' Gastroenterology Department has a team of expert gastroenterologists and surgeons to diagnose, treat, and follow up on your GI condition so you can make the most of life. (lapeerhealth.com)
  • Assessment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Training Among Gastroenterology Fellows. (yale.edu)
  • Gastroenterology is a rapidly evolving field of medicine that focuses on digestive system disorders and diseases. (waset.org)
  • Whether it be learning about the newest drugs in development or exploring emerging techniques in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, 2024 Gastroenterology conferences are sure to provide the latest information to help practitioners stay ahead in their profession. (waset.org)
  • Gallstone disease affects 15-20% of the US population, with nearly 1 million new cases reported annually. (medscape.com)
  • Shigella infection, also called shigellosis, is a condition that affects your digestive system. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Shigellosis, or Shigella infection caused by Shigella bacteria, is a disease that affects your digestive system. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Tests for digestive problems can include colonoscopy , upper GI endoscopy , capsule endoscopy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), and endoscopic ultrasound . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Biliary pain in the absence of gallstones, known as postcholecystectomy syndrome , may severely affect the patient's quality of life, even in the absence of disease progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the presence of gallstones is a frequent incidental finding and does not always necessitate treatment, in the absence of identifiable disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infectious hepatitis can be caused by any one of the five unrelated hepatitis viruses, A, B, C, D, or E. These are the viruses that cause liver diseases of the same names, and most cases of hepatitis are caused by viral infection. (coursehero.com)
  • Among women, 51 suffered from cardiovascular diseases, 11 from cerebrovascular diseases, and 3 from digestive system diseases. (medline.ru)
  • Alcoholic hepatitis is caused by chronic alcohol consumption, autoimmune hepatitis is caused when the body's immune system attacks the liver, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis happens when excessive fat storage in the liver results in fatty liver disease. (coursehero.com)
  • The answer lies in the immune system, which is how the body defends itself. (qualityhealth.com)
  • 557 Vascular insufficiency of intestine 557.0 Vascular insufficiency, acute, intestine 557.9 Ischemic bowel disease, unspec. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatitis caused by viral infection can be a chronic or acute disease. (coursehero.com)
  • 5. Acute or chronic decompensated lung diseases. (who.int)
  • A gastroenterologist is a physician specialist who has received extra training in the diagnosis and treatment of the digestive disorders. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Diagnosis of stool samples is one way of determining the presence of digestive diseases caused by viruses. (coursehero.com)
  • Saudi Arabia consensus guidance for the diagnosis and management of adults with inflammatory bowel disease. (yale.edu)
  • Attendees can expect to hear speakers introduce new treatments, discuss the latest trends in the field, and learn about potential breakthroughs in the diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal diseases. (waset.org)
  • 12] Unusually viscous emissions in the airway of the lungs and in ducts of the pancreas in people with cystic fibrosis cause hindrances that prompt aggravation, tissue harm and destruction of both organ systems. (bartleby.com)
  • But developing countries are seeing growing rates of digestive illnesses too. (bodybio.com)
  • Among diverse populations with different cultures, diets, and genetics, how did these digestive illnesses become so common around the world? (bodybio.com)
  • This content is provided as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health. (nih.gov)
  • See TABLE 1 for the prostatitis classification system used by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (uspharmacist.com)
  • You might also be referred to a gastroenterologist (a doctor who treats digestive system diseases) for further tests and treatment. (cancer.org)
  • www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2022/22_0200.htm Preventing Chronic Disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Some of these conditions include inflammatory bowel disease, strictures in the intestines, diverticular disease, and colon cancer. (bodybio.com)
  • The most common disease of the circulatory system was ischaemic heart disease, which caused nearly every sixth death. (stat.fi)
  • [ 1 ] The condition can result from gallstone disease, the most common affliction of the biliary system. (medscape.com)
  • The most common area of disease activity involves the lower part of the small intestine (ileum). (healthline.com)
  • is a common diverticular disease of the small intestine. (msdmanuals.com)
  • the aim of the study is to analyze and review the evidence-based scientific literature describing the relationship between autoimmune diseases and pregnancy, maternal or fetal complications. (medicsciences.com)
  • Inflammatory bowel disease may cause hemostatic complications in women, preterm birth, small for gestational age birth weight, or stillbirth. (medicsciences.com)
  • In severe cases, the disease can lead to life threatening flares and complications. (healthline.com)
  • The digestive enzymes being released is prevented, affecting the breakdown of food and nutrients being absorbed. (bartleby.com)
  • Studies to understand the factors that control local lymphatic vessel functional anatomy and physiology and development during health or disease in this system and its organs, and the mechanisms by which alterations of lymphatic vessel function affect organ function, are of interest. (nih.gov)
  • However, studies with the major focus on immune mechanisms, role of lymphatics in cancer metastasis and study of lymphatic vessels in organs other than those from the digestive system will not be considered responsive. (nih.gov)
  • But the Swiss study suggests that dietary fiber's effects on the inflammatory process can benefit not just the digestive system but the lungs, and possibly other vital organs as well. (qualityhealth.com)
  • The mortality from cardiovascular diseases was the highest across genders (total of 117 cases). (medline.ru)
  • The ICD-10 code range for Diseases of the digestive system K00-K95 is medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO). (aapc.com)
  • The purpose of this FOA is to invite applications that investigate aspects of lymphatic vessel physiology, development and pathophysiology related to health and diseases of the digestive system. (nih.gov)
  • Lymphatic vessels perform critical roles in organ functions, yet their roles in health and disease are poorly understood and understudied. (nih.gov)
  • Many of these functions include key roles of lymphatic vessels, yet the roles of lymphatics, the character of the vessels in the intestinal environment and key regulators of lymphatic function in intestinal health and disease remain understudied. (nih.gov)
  • Many health care providers can help diagnose and treat digestive problems. (medlineplus.gov)
  • NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public. (nih.gov)
  • La Peer Health Systems was also named one of the 100 Greatest Places To Work by Becker's ASC Review. (lapeerhealth.com)
  • implying that the provision of health services is not just mere curing the sick but also to promoting healthy lifestyle in order to prevent diseases/ill- conditions for all people living in Botswana. (who.int)
  • The Policy covers all the six building blocks of health systems with specific direction for each of them. (who.int)
  • A perfect primer for all parents who are interested in learning about, and supporting, their children's digestive health. (turnerpublishing.com)
  • Digestive diseases are among the most debilitating and costly health conditions, accounting for around 3 million hospitalizations in the U.S. per year. (bodybio.com)
  • Medical Director, Yale New Haven Health System Hernia Program Andrew Kenler, MD Guadalupe Garcia-Tsao, MD, FRCP Professor of Medicine (Digestive Diseases) Contacts Farrah Nettleton farrah. (borreliosidilyme.it)
  • Request access to Yale New Haven Health Clinical and ITS Systems Physician Portal Password Reset (EPIC/Outlook/Network) Y Access Transfer Center Y Access Transfer Center offers a streamlined patient transfer service that ensures quick and easy admission to a Yale New Haven Health hospital. (borreliosidilyme.it)
  • About Digestive Health: What Is Prebiotic Fiber? (benefiber.com)
  • 2 When in balance, your digestive system contributes to your health in several ways. (benefiber.com)
  • https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/digestive-system-how-it-works. (benefiber.com)
  • The physicians on the Methodist Health System medical staff are independent practitioners who are not employees or agents of Methodist Health System, or any of its affiliated hospitals. (methodisthealthsystem.org)
  • The physicians and staff who provide service at this site are not employees or agents of Methodist Health System or any of its affiliated hospitals. (methodisthealthsystem.org)
  • The disease is triggered by eating foods containing gluten. (nih.gov)
  • The NIDDK conducts and supports clinical trials in many diseases and conditions, including digestive diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Besides issues directly within the gastrointestinal system, digestive diseases can also be greatly affected by the nervous system. (bodybio.com)
  • This may be at least partly due to an imbalanced nervous system, such as when you are under chronic stress for an extended period of time. (bodybio.com)
  • 6. Previous history of demyelinating or inflammatory diseases of the central (CNS) or peripheral (PNS) nervous system. (who.int)
  • Hookworm disease is common where people go barefoot. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Listed below are some common misconceptions (fallacies), about digestive diseases, followed by the facts as professionals understand them today. (jeffreymarkmd.com)
  • Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase are usually suggestive of liver disease whereas elevation of bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase suggests common bile duct obstruction. (wikipedia.org)
  • What Are the Most Common Digestive Diseases? (bodybio.com)
  • There are three noninfectious hepatitis diseases: alcoholic hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). (coursehero.com)
  • In severe cases, the disease can become life-threatening. (healthline.com)
  • In more severe cases of shigellosis, and for people with weak immune systems, doctors may prescribe an antibiotic to treat the infection. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • P. aeruginosa is the dominant pathogen in end-stage CF lung disease, and chronic infection with P. aeruginosa is correlated with more severe reductions in pulmonary function measures (27) and mortality in CF patients. (xshotpix.com)
  • Don't take loperamide (Imodium®) or diphenoxylate with atropine (Lomotil®) because these drugs slow bowel function and keep the bacteria in your system. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • My main research interest revolves around clinical outcomes of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. (yale.edu)
  • With the exception of hepatitis viruses, viral digestive diseases are commonly fast acting and self-limiting. (coursehero.com)