Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Diseases in any part of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the accessory organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM and DENTITION as a whole or of any of its parts.
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Biological actions and events that constitute the functions of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
An abnormal passage communicating between any components of the digestive system, or between any part of the digestive system and surrounding organ(s).
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A histamine H1 antagonist used as the hydrogen fumarate in hay fever, rhinitis, allergic skin conditions, and pruritus. It causes drowsiness.
Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.
Congenital structural abnormalities of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the digestive system or its organs or demonstration of their physiological processes.
Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Surgery performed on the digestive system or its parts.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports basic and applied research for a national program in diabetes, endocrinology, and metabolic diseases; digestive diseases and nutrition; and kidney, urologic, and hematologic diseases. It was established in 1948.

The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (1/2559)

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

Diverse developing mouse lineages exhibit high-level c-Myb expression in immature cells and loss of expression upon differentiation. (2/2559)

The c-myb gene encodes a sequence specific transactivator that is required for fetal hematopoiesis, but its potential role in other tissues is less clear because of the early fetal demise of mice with targeted deletions of the c-myb gene and incomplete of knowledge about c-myb's expression pattern. In the hematopoietic system, c-Myb protein acts on target genes whose expression is restricted to individual lineages, despite Myb's presence and role in multiple immature lineages. This suggests that c-Myb actions within different cell type-specific contexts are strongly affected by combinatorial interactions. To consider the possibility of similar c-Myb actions could extend into non-hematopoietic systems in other cell and tissue compartments, we characterized c-myb expression in developing and adult mice using in situ hybridization and correlated this with stage-specific differentiation and mitotic activity. Diverse tissues exhibited strong c-myb expression during development, notably tooth buds, the thyroid primordium, developing trachea and proximal branching airway epithelium, hair follicles, hematopoietic cells, and gastrointestinal crypt epithelial cells. The latter three of these all maintained high expression into adulthood, but with characteristic restriction to immature cell lineages prior to their terminal differentiation. In all sites, during fetal and adult stages, loss of c-Myb expression correlated strikingly with the initiation of terminal differentiation, but not the loss of mitotic activity. Based on these data, we hypothesize that c-Myb's function during cellular differentiation is both an activator of immature gene expression and a suppressor of terminal differentiation in diverse lineages.  (+info)

Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency and fluorouracil-related toxicity. (3/2559)

Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is the initial and rate-limiting enzyme of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) catabolism. We report lymphocytic DPD data concerning a group of 53 patients (23 men, 30 women, mean age 58, range 36-73), treated by 5-FU-based chemotherapy in different French institutions and who developed unanticipated 5-FU-related toxicity. Lymphocyte samples (standard collection procedure) were sent to us for DPD determination (biochemical method). Among the whole group of 53 patients, 19 had a significant DPD deficiency (DD; below 150 fmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, i.e. less than 70% of the mean value observed from previous population study). There was a greater majority of women in the DD group (15 out of 19, 79%) compared with the remaining 34 patients (15 out of 34, 44%, P<0.014). Toxicity was often severe, leading to patient death in two cases (both women). The toxicity score (sum of WHO grading, theoretical range 0-20) was twice as high in patients with marked DD (below 100 pmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, n = 11, mean score = 13.2) compared with patients with moderate DD (between 150 and 100 pmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, n = 8, mean score = 6.8), P = 0.008. In the DD group, there was a high frequency of neurotoxic syndromes (7 out of 19, 37%). The two deceased patients both had severe neurotoxicity. The occurrence of cardiac toxicity was relatively rare (1 out of 19, 5%). These data suggest that women are particularly prone to DPD deficiency and allow a more precise definition of the DD toxicity profile.  (+info)

The crayfish plasma clotting protein: a vitellogenin-related protein responsible for clot formation in crustacean blood. (4/2559)

Coagulation in crayfish blood is based on the transglutaminase-mediated crosslinking of a specific plasma clotting protein. Here we report the cloning of the subunit of this clotting protein from a crayfish hepatopancreas cDNA library. The ORF encodes a protein of 1,721 amino acids, including a signal peptide of 15 amino acids. Sequence analysis reveals that the clotting protein is homologous to vitellogenins, which are proteins found in vitellogenic females of egg-laying animals. The clotting protein and vitellogenins are all lipoproteins and share a limited sequence similarity to certain other lipoproteins (e.g., mammalian apolipoprotein B and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein) and contain a stretch with similarity to the D domain of mammalian von Willebrand factor. The crayfish clotting protein is present in both sexes, unlike the female-specific vitellogenins. Electron microscopy was used to visualize individual clotting protein molecules and to study the transglutaminase-mediated clotting reaction. In the presence of an endogenous transglutaminase, the purified clotting protein molecules rapidly assemble into long, flexible chains that occasionally branch.  (+info)

Efficacy of recombinant human Hb by 31P-NMR during isovolemic total exchange transfusion. (5/2559)

The ability of recombinant human Hb (rHb1.1), which is being developed as an oxygen therapeutic, to support metabolism was measured by in vivo 31P-NMR surface coil spectroscopy of the rat abdomen in control animals and in animals subjected to isovolemic exchange transfusion to hematocrit of <3% with human serum albumin or 5 g/dl rHb1.1. No significant changes in metabolite levels were observed in control animals for up to 6 h. The albumin-exchange experiments, however, resulted in a more than eightfold increase in Pi and a 50% drop in phosphocreatine and ATP within 40 min. The tissue pH dropped from 7.4 to 6.8. The decrease in high-energy phosphates obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a Michaelis-Menten constant of 3% as the hematocrit at which a 50% drop in high-energy phosphates was observed. Exchange transfusion with rHb1.1 resulted in no significant drop in high-energy phosphates, no rise in Pi, and no change in tissue pH from 7.35 +/- 0.15 for up to 5 h after exchange. By these criteria, rHb1.1 at a plasma Hb concentration of approximately 5 g/dl after total exchange transfusion was able to sustain energy metabolism of gut tissue at levels indistinguishable from control rats with a threefold higher total Hb level in erythrocytes.  (+info)

Expression and localization of aquaporins in rat gastrointestinal tract. (6/2559)

A family of water-selective channels, aquaporins (AQP), has been demonstrated in various organs and tissues. However, the localization and expression of the AQP family members in the gastrointestinal tract have not been entirely elucidated. This study aimed to demonstrate the expression and distribution of several types of the AQP family and to speculate on their role in water transport in the rat gastrointestinal tract. By RNase protection assay, expression of AQP1-5 and AQP8 was examined in various portions through the gastrointestinal tract. AQP1 and AQP3 mRNAs were diffusely expressed from esophagus to colon, and their expression was relatively intense in the small intestine and colon. In contrast, AQP4 mRNA was selectively expressed in the stomach and small intestine and AQP8 mRNA in the jejunum and colon. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization demonstrated cellular localization of these AQP in these portions. AQP1 was localized on endothelial cells of lymphatic vessels in the submucosa and lamina propria throughout the gastrointestinal tract. AQP3 was detected on the circumferential plasma membranes of stratified squamous epithelial cells in the esophagus and basolateral membranes of cardiac gland epithelia in the lower stomach and of surface columnar epithelia in the colon. However, AQP3 was not apparently detected in the small intestine. AQP4 was present on the basolateral membrane of the parietal cells in the lower stomach and selectively in the basolateral membranes of deep intestinal gland cells in the small intestine. AQP8 mRNA expression was demonstrated in the absorptive columnar epithelial cells of the jejunum and colon by in situ hybridization. These findings may indicate that water crosses the epithelial layer through these water channels, suggesting a possible role of the transcellular route for water intake or outlet in the gastrointestinal tract.  (+info)

Tissue tropism related to vector competence of Frankliniella occidentalis for tomato spotted wilt tospovirus. (7/2559)

The development of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) infection in the midgut and salivary glands of transmitting and non-transmitting thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, was studied to elucidate tissue tropism and the virus pathway within the body of this vector. Immunohistological techniques used in this study showed that the midgut, foregut and salivary glands were the only organs in which virus accumulated. The first signals of infection, observed as randomly distributed fluorescent granular spots, were found in the epithelial cells of the midgut, mainly restricted to the anterior region. The virus subsequently spread to the circular and longitudinal midgut muscle tissues, a process which occurred late in the larval stage. In the adult stage, the infection occurred in the visceral muscle tissues, covering the whole midgut and foregut, and was abolished in the midgut epithelium. The infection of the salivary glands was first observed 72 h post-acquisition, and simultaneously in the ligaments connecting the midgut with these glands. The salivary glands of transmitting individuals appeared heavily or completely infected, while no or only a low level of infection was found in the glands of non-transmitting individuals. Moreover, the development of an age-dependent midgut barrier against virus infection was observed in second instar larvae and adults. The results show that the establishment of TSWV infection in the various tissues and the potential of transmission seems to be regulated by different barriers and processes related to the metamorphosis of thrips.  (+info)

Endogenous nitric oxide in the maintenance of rat microvascular integrity against widespread plasma leakage following abdominal laparotomy. (8/2559)

1. The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the maintenance of microvascular integrity during minor surgical manipulation has been evaluated in the rat. 2. The NO synthase inhibitors, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 5 mg kg(-1), s.c.) and N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 50 mg kg(-1), s.c.) had no effect on microvascular leakage of radiolabelled albumin over 1 h in the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, colon, lung and kidney in the un-operated conscious or pentobarbitone-anaesthetized rat. 3. In contrast, in anaesthetized rats with a midline abdominal laparotomy (5 cm), L-NAME (1-5 mg kg(-1), s.c.) or L-NMMA (12.5-50 mg kg(-1), s.c.) dose-dependently increased gastrointestinal, renal and pulmonary vascular leakage, effects reversed by L-arginine pretreatment (300 mg kg(-1), s.c., 15 min). These actions were not observed in anaesthetized rats that had only received a midline abdominal skin incision (5 cm). 4. Pretreatment with a rabbit anti-rat neutrophil serum (0.4 ml kg(-1), i.p.), 4 h before laparotomy, abolished the plasma leakage induced by L-NAME in all the organs investigated. 5. These results indicate that the following abdominal laparotomy, inhibition of constitutive NO synthase provokes vascular leakage in the general microcirculation, by a process that may involve neutrophils. Such effects could thus confound studies on the microvascular actions of NO synthase inhibitors using acute surgically prepared in vivo models. The findings thus suggest that constitutively-formed NO has a crucial role in the maintenance of acute microvascular integrity following abdominal surgical intervention.  (+info)

'Digestive System Neoplasms' refer to new and abnormal growths of tissue in the digestive system that can be benign or malignant. These growths are also known as tumors, and they can occur in any part of the digestive system, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon and rectum), liver, bile ducts, pancreas, and gallbladder. Neoplasms in the digestive system can interfere with normal digestion and absorption of nutrients, cause bleeding, obstruct the digestive tract, and spread to other parts of the body (metastasis) if they are malignant.

Benign neoplasms are not cancerous and do not usually spread to other parts of the body. They can often be removed surgically and may not require further treatment. Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can invade nearby tissues and organs and spread to other parts of the body. Treatment for malignant neoplasms in the digestive system typically involves a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

The causes of digestive system neoplasms are varied and include genetic factors, environmental exposures, lifestyle factors (such as diet and smoking), and infectious agents. Prevention strategies may include maintaining a healthy diet, avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption, practicing safe sex, getting vaccinated against certain viral infections, and undergoing regular screenings for certain types of neoplasms (such as colonoscopies for colorectal cancer).

The digestive system, also known as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, is a series of organs that process food and liquids into nutrients and waste. Digestive system diseases refer to any conditions that affect the normal functioning of this system, leading to impaired digestion, absorption, or elimination of food and fluids.

Some common examples of digestive system diseases include:

1. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): A condition where stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing symptoms such as heartburn, chest pain, and difficulty swallowing.
2. Peptic Ulcer Disease: Sores or ulcers that develop in the lining of the stomach or duodenum, often caused by bacterial infection or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
3. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): A group of chronic inflammatory conditions that affect the intestines, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
4. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits.
5. Celiac Disease: An autoimmune disorder where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine, impairing nutrient absorption.
6. Diverticular Disease: A condition that affects the colon, characterized by the formation of small pouches or sacs (diverticula) that can become inflamed or infected.
7. Constipation: A common digestive system issue where bowel movements occur less frequently than usual or are difficult to pass.
8. Diarrhea: Loose, watery stools that occur more frequently than normal, often accompanied by cramps and bloating.
9. Gallstones: Small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder, causing pain, inflammation, and potential blockages of the bile ducts.
10. Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver, often caused by viral infections or toxins, leading to symptoms such as jaundice, fatigue, and abdominal pain.

These are just a few examples of digestive system disorders that can affect overall health and quality of life. If you experience any persistent or severe digestive symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention from a healthcare professional.

The digestive system is a complex group of organs and glands that process food. It converts the food we eat into nutrients, which the body uses for energy, growth, and cell repair. The digestive system also eliminates waste from the body. It is made up of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and other organs that help the body break down and absorb food.

The GI tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus. Other organs that are part of the digestive system include the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and salivary glands.

The process of digestion begins in the mouth, where food is chewed and mixed with saliva. The food then travels down the esophagus and into the stomach, where it is broken down further by stomach acids. The digested food then moves into the small intestine, where nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream. The remaining waste material passes into the large intestine, where it is stored until it is eliminated through the anus.

The liver, pancreas, and gallbladder play important roles in the digestive process as well. The liver produces bile, a substance that helps break down fats in the small intestine. The pancreas produces enzymes that help digest proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. The gallbladder stores bile until it is needed in the small intestine.

Overall, the digestive system is responsible for breaking down food, absorbing nutrients, and eliminating waste. It plays a critical role in maintaining our health and well-being.

The digestive system is a series of organs and glands that work together to break down food into nutrients, which the body can absorb and use for energy, growth, and cell repair. The process begins in the mouth, where food is chewed and mixed with saliva, which contains enzymes that begin breaking down carbohydrates.

The oral physiological phenomena refer to the functions and processes that occur in the mouth during eating and digestion. These include:

1. Ingestion: The process of taking food into the mouth.
2. Mechanical digestion: The physical breakdown of food into smaller pieces by chewing, which increases the surface area for enzymes to act on.
3. Chemical digestion: The chemical breakdown of food molecules into simpler substances that can be absorbed and utilized by the body. In the mouth, this is initiated by salivary amylase, an enzyme found in saliva that breaks down starches into simple sugars.
4. Taste perception: The ability to detect different flavors through specialized taste buds located on the tongue and other areas of the oral cavity.
5. Olfaction: The sense of smell, which contributes to the overall flavor experience by interacting with taste perception in the brain.
6. Salivation: The production of saliva, which helps moisten food, making it easier to swallow, and contains enzymes that begin the digestion process.
7. Protective mechanisms: The mouth has several defense mechanisms to protect against harmful bacteria and other pathogens, such as the flow of saliva, which helps wash away food particles, and the presence of antibacterial compounds in saliva.

The digestive system is a complex network of organs and glands that work together to break down food into nutrients, which are then absorbed and utilized by the body for energy, growth, and cell repair. The physiological phenomena associated with the digestive system include:

1. Ingestion: This is the process of taking in food through the mouth.
2. Mechanical digestion: This involves the physical breakdown of food into smaller pieces through processes such as chewing, churning, and segmentation.
3. Chemical digestion: This involves the chemical breakdown of food molecules into simpler forms that can be absorbed by the body. This is achieved through the action of enzymes produced by the mouth, stomach, pancreas, and small intestine.
4. Motility: This refers to the movement of food through the digestive tract, which is achieved through a series of coordinated muscle contractions called peristalsis.
5. Secretion: This involves the production and release of various digestive juices and enzymes by glands such as the salivary glands, gastric glands, pancreas, and liver.
6. Absorption: This is the process of absorbing nutrients from the digested food into the bloodstream through the walls of the small intestine.
7. Defecation: This is the final process of eliminating undigested food and waste products from the body through the rectum and anus.

Overall, the coordinated functioning of these physiological phenomena ensures the proper digestion and absorption of nutrients, maintaining the health and well-being of the individual.

The digestive system is a series of organs and glands that work together to break down food into nutrients, absorb those nutrients into the body, and eliminate waste. The following are the main processes involved in the digestive system:

1. Ingestion: This is the process of taking food into the mouth and chewing it to make it easier to swallow.
2. Mechanical digestion: This involves physically breaking down food into smaller pieces through chewing, churning, and segmentation movements of the muscles in the stomach and intestines.
3. Chemical digestion: This is the process of breaking down food molecules into simpler forms that can be absorbed by the body. This is accomplished by enzymes secreted by various glands, including the salivary glands, stomach, pancreas, and small intestine.
4. Absorption: Once food molecules are broken down into simple forms, they are absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the small intestine.
5. Distribution: The absorbed nutrients are then distributed to different cells and tissues throughout the body through the circulatory system.
6. Defecation: This is the process of eliminating waste products from the body through the rectum and anus.

Overall, the digestive system plays a critical role in maintaining health and providing the necessary nutrients for the body to function properly.

A digestive system fistula is an abnormal connection or passageway that forms between the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, such as the stomach, small intestine, colon, or rectum, and another organ, tissue, or the skin. Fistulas can develop as a result of injury, surgery, infection, inflammation, or cancer.

In the digestive system, fistulas can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, nausea, vomiting, and malnutrition. The severity of these symptoms depends on the location and size of the fistula, as well as the underlying cause. Treatment for a digestive system fistula may involve antibiotics to treat infection, nutritional support, and surgical repair of the fistula.

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, also known as the digestive tract, is a continuous tube that starts at the mouth and ends at the anus. It is responsible for ingesting, digesting, absorbing, and excreting food and waste materials. The GI tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), large intestine (cecum, colon, rectum, anus), and accessory organs such as the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. The primary function of this system is to process and extract nutrients from food while also protecting the body from harmful substances, pathogens, and toxins.

Clemastine is an antihistamine medication that is used to relieve symptoms of allergies, such as runny nose, sneezing, and itchy or watery eyes. It works by blocking the action of histamine, a substance in the body that causes allergic symptoms. Clemastine is available in oral tablet and liquid forms, and is typically taken twice daily with a full glass of water.

Common side effects of clemastine include drowsiness, dry mouth, headache, and upset stomach. It is important to avoid activities that require mental alertness, such as driving or operating heavy machinery, until you know how the medication affects you. Clemastine may also cause dizziness, so it is best to avoid getting up too quickly from a sitting or lying position.

Like all medications, clemastine should be taken only as directed by your healthcare provider. It is important to inform them of any other medications you are taking, as well as any medical conditions you may have, as clemastine can interact with certain drugs and may not be suitable for everyone.

Gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the gastrointestinal tract, which can be benign or malignant. The gastrointestinal tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.

Benign neoplasms are non-cancerous growths that do not invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body. They can sometimes be removed completely and may not cause any further health problems.

Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous growths that can invade nearby tissues and organs and spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. These types of neoplasms can be life-threatening if not diagnosed and treated promptly.

GI neoplasms can cause various symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, changes in bowel habits, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and anemia. The specific symptoms may depend on the location and size of the neoplasm.

There are many types of GI neoplasms, including adenocarcinomas, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), lymphomas, and neuroendocrine tumors. The diagnosis of GI neoplasms typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies, and biopsy. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or immunotherapy.

The digestive system is a complex series of organs and glands that process food. Abnormalities in the digestive system can refer to a wide range of conditions that affect any part of the system, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder. These abnormalities can be present at birth (congenital) or acquired later in life due to various factors such as infection, inflammation, injury, or disease.

Some examples of digestive system abnormalities include:

1. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): A condition where the stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn and damage to the esophageal lining.
2. Peptic Ulcers: Open sores that develop on the lining of the stomach or duodenum, often caused by bacterial infections or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
3. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): A group of chronic inflammatory conditions of the intestine, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
4. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and altered bowel habits.
5. Celiac Disease: An autoimmune disorder where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine.
6. Diverticulosis: The presence of small pouches or sacs that form on the lining of the intestine, which can become inflamed or infected (diverticulitis).
7. Hiatal Hernia: A condition where a portion of the stomach protrudes through the diaphragm into the chest cavity.
8. Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver, often caused by viral infections or toxins.
9. Cirrhosis: A chronic liver disease characterized by scarring and loss of liver function, often due to long-term alcohol abuse or hepatitis.
10. Gallstones: Small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder and can cause pain and inflammation.

These are just a few examples of gastrointestinal disorders, and there are many others. If you are experiencing symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, or difficulty swallowing, it is important to speak with your healthcare provider to determine the cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Diagnostic techniques for the digestive system are medical tests and procedures used to diagnose and evaluate various conditions and diseases related to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and associated organs. These techniques can be categorized into invasive and non-invasive methods.

Non-invasive diagnostic techniques:

1. Imaging tests: These include X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) scans, and ultrasounds. They help visualize the structure and function of the digestive organs without requiring any invasive procedures.
2. Laboratory tests: Blood, stool, and urine samples can be analyzed to detect signs of infection, inflammation, or other abnormalities related to digestive system disorders. Examples include complete blood count (CBC), liver function tests (LFTs), coagulation studies, and fecal occult blood test (FOBT).
3. Breath tests: These are used to diagnose conditions like lactose intolerance, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), or helicobacter pylori infection by analyzing the patient's exhaled air after consuming a specific substance.

Invasive diagnostic techniques:

1. Endoscopy: A thin, flexible tube with a light and camera attached to its end is inserted through the mouth or rectum to directly visualize the GI tract's inner lining. There are different types of endoscopies, such as gastroscopy (esophagus, stomach, and duodenum), colonoscopy (colon and rectum), sigmoidoscopy (lower part of the colon), and enteroscopy (small intestine).
2. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS): This combines endoscopy with ultrasound technology to provide detailed images of the digestive organs' structure and surrounding tissues, allowing for accurate diagnosis and staging of conditions like cancer.
3. Biopsy: During an endoscopy or surgery, a small tissue sample can be taken from the affected area for further examination under a microscope to confirm a diagnosis or assess the severity of a condition.
4. Capsule endoscopy: A patient swallows a tiny camera-equipped capsule that transmits images as it passes through the GI tract, allowing doctors to diagnose conditions in the small intestine that may be difficult to reach with traditional endoscopes.
5. Imaging studies: Procedures like computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or positron emission tomography (PET) scans can provide detailed images of the digestive organs and help diagnose conditions like tumors, inflammation, or obstructions.

These diagnostic techniques help healthcare providers identify and manage various gastrointestinal conditions, ensuring appropriate treatment and improved patient outcomes.

Gastrointestinal diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which includes the organs from the mouth to the anus, responsible for food digestion, absorption, and elimination of waste. These diseases can affect any part of the GI tract, causing various symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss.

Common gastrointestinal diseases include:

1. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) - a condition where stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms.
2. Peptic ulcers - sores that develop in the lining of the stomach or duodenum, often caused by bacterial infection or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
3. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) - a group of chronic inflammatory conditions of the intestine, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
4. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) - a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and altered bowel habits.
5. Celiac disease - an autoimmune disorder where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine.
6. Diverticular disease - a condition that affects the colon, causing diverticula (small pouches) to form and potentially become inflamed or infected.
7. Constipation - a common gastrointestinal symptom characterized by infrequent bowel movements, hard stools, and difficulty passing stools.
8. Diarrhea - a common gastrointestinal symptom characterized by loose, watery stools and frequent bowel movements.
9. Food intolerances and allergies - adverse reactions to specific foods or food components that can cause various gastrointestinal symptoms.
10. Gastrointestinal infections - caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi that can lead to a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.

The intestines, also known as the bowel, are a part of the digestive system that extends from the stomach to the anus. They are responsible for the further breakdown and absorption of nutrients from food, as well as the elimination of waste products. The intestines can be divided into two main sections: the small intestine and the large intestine.

The small intestine is a long, coiled tube that measures about 20 feet in length and is lined with tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase its surface area and enhance nutrient absorption. The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is a wider tube that measures about 5 feet in length and is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from digested food, forming stool, and eliminating waste products from the body. The large intestine includes several regions, including the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus.

Together, the intestines play a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being by ensuring that the body receives the nutrients it needs to function properly.

The pancreas is a glandular organ located in the abdomen, posterior to the stomach. It has both exocrine and endocrine functions. The exocrine portion of the pancreas consists of acinar cells that produce and secrete digestive enzymes into the duodenum via the pancreatic duct. These enzymes help in the breakdown of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats in food.

The endocrine portion of the pancreas consists of clusters of cells called islets of Langerhans, which include alpha, beta, delta, and F cells. These cells produce and secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream, including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide. Insulin and glucagon are critical regulators of blood sugar levels, with insulin promoting glucose uptake and storage in tissues and glucagon stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis to raise blood glucose when it is low.

A larva is a distinct stage in the life cycle of various insects, mites, and other arthropods during which they undergo significant metamorphosis before becoming adults. In a medical context, larvae are known for their role in certain parasitic infections. Specifically, some helminth (parasitic worm) species use larval forms to infect human hosts. These invasions may lead to conditions such as cutaneous larva migrans, visceral larva migrans, or gnathostomiasis, depending on the specific parasite involved and the location of the infection within the body.

The larval stage is characterized by its markedly different morphology and behavior compared to the adult form. Larvae often have a distinct appearance, featuring unsegmented bodies, simple sense organs, and undeveloped digestive systems. They are typically adapted for a specific mode of life, such as free-living or parasitic existence, and rely on external sources of nutrition for their development.

In the context of helminth infections, larvae may be transmitted to humans through various routes, including ingestion of contaminated food or water, direct skin contact with infective stages, or transmission via an intermediate host (such as a vector). Once inside the human body, these parasitic larvae can cause tissue damage and provoke immune responses, leading to the clinical manifestations of disease.

It is essential to distinguish between the medical definition of 'larva' and its broader usage in biology and zoology. In those fields, 'larva' refers to any juvenile form that undergoes metamorphosis before reaching adulthood, regardless of whether it is parasitic or not.

In anatomical terms, the stomach is a muscular, J-shaped organ located in the upper left portion of the abdomen. It is part of the gastrointestinal tract and plays a crucial role in digestion. The stomach's primary functions include storing food, mixing it with digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid to break down proteins, and slowly emptying the partially digested food into the small intestine for further absorption of nutrients.

The stomach is divided into several regions, including the cardia (the area nearest the esophagus), the fundus (the upper portion on the left side), the body (the main central part), and the pylorus (the narrowed region leading to the small intestine). The inner lining of the stomach, called the mucosa, is protected by a layer of mucus that prevents the digestive juices from damaging the stomach tissue itself.

In medical contexts, various conditions can affect the stomach, such as gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining), peptic ulcers (sores in the stomach or duodenum), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and stomach cancer. Symptoms related to the stomach may include abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, and difficulty swallowing.

Tissue distribution, in the context of pharmacology and toxicology, refers to the way that a drug or xenobiotic (a chemical substance found within an organism that is not naturally produced by or expected to be present within that organism) is distributed throughout the body's tissues after administration. It describes how much of the drug or xenobiotic can be found in various tissues and organs, and is influenced by factors such as blood flow, lipid solubility, protein binding, and the permeability of cell membranes. Understanding tissue distribution is important for predicting the potential effects of a drug or toxin on different parts of the body, and for designing drugs with improved safety and efficacy profiles.

The "cause of death" is a medical determination of the disease, injury, or event that directly results in a person's death. This information is typically documented on a death certificate and may be used for public health surveillance, research, and legal purposes. The cause of death is usually determined by a physician based on their clinical judgment and any available medical evidence, such as laboratory test results, autopsy findings, or eyewitness accounts. In some cases, the cause of death may be uncertain or unknown, and the death may be classified as "natural," "accidental," "homicide," or "suicide" based on the available information.

Stomach neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the stomach that can be benign or malignant. They include a wide range of conditions such as:

1. Gastric adenomas: These are benign tumors that develop from glandular cells in the stomach lining.
2. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs): These are rare tumors that can be found in the stomach and other parts of the digestive tract. They originate from the stem cells in the wall of the digestive tract.
3. Leiomyomas: These are benign tumors that develop from smooth muscle cells in the stomach wall.
4. Lipomas: These are benign tumors that develop from fat cells in the stomach wall.
5. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs): These are tumors that develop from the neuroendocrine cells in the stomach lining. They can be benign or malignant.
6. Gastric carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that develop from the glandular cells in the stomach lining. They are the most common type of stomach neoplasm and include adenocarcinomas, signet ring cell carcinomas, and others.
7. Lymphomas: These are malignant tumors that develop from the immune cells in the stomach wall.

Stomach neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and difficulty swallowing. The diagnosis of stomach neoplasms usually involves a combination of imaging tests, endoscopy, and biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or targeted therapy.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

Endoscopy of the digestive system, also known as gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, is a medical procedure that allows healthcare professionals to visually examine the inside lining of the digestive tract using a flexible tube with a light and camera attached to it, called an endoscope. This procedure can help diagnose and treat various conditions affecting the digestive system, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and cancer.

There are several types of endoscopy procedures that focus on different parts of the digestive tract:

1. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD): This procedure examines the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). It is often used to investigate symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, abdominal pain, or bleeding in the upper GI tract.
2. Colonoscopy: This procedure explores the large intestine (colon) and rectum. It is commonly performed to screen for colon cancer, as well as to diagnose and treat conditions like inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulosis, or polyps.
3. Sigmoidoscopy: Similar to a colonoscopy, this procedure examines the lower part of the colon (sigmoid colon) and rectum. It is often used as a screening tool for colon cancer and to investigate symptoms like rectal bleeding or changes in bowel habits.
4. Upper GI endoscopy: This procedure focuses on the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, using a thin, flexible tube with a light and camera attached to it. It is used to diagnose and treat conditions such as GERD, ulcers, and difficulty swallowing.
5. Capsule endoscopy: This procedure involves swallowing a small capsule containing a camera that captures images of the digestive tract as it passes through. It can help diagnose conditions in the small intestine that may be difficult to reach with traditional endoscopes.

Endoscopy is typically performed under sedation or anesthesia to ensure patient comfort during the procedure. The images captured by the endoscope are displayed on a monitor, allowing the healthcare provider to assess the condition of the digestive tract and make informed treatment decisions.

I am not aware of a specific medical definition for the term "China." Generally, it is used to refer to:

1. The People's Republic of China (PRC), which is a country in East Asia. It is the most populous country in the world and the fourth largest by geographical area. Its capital city is Beijing.
2. In a historical context, "China" was used to refer to various dynasties and empires that existed in East Asia over thousands of years. The term "Middle Kingdom" or "Zhongguo" (中国) has been used by the Chinese people to refer to their country for centuries.
3. In a more general sense, "China" can also be used to describe products or goods that originate from or are associated with the People's Republic of China.

If you have a specific context in which you encountered the term "China" related to medicine, please provide it so I can give a more accurate response.

The term "Asian Continental Ancestry Group" is a medical/ethnic classification used to describe a person's genetic background and ancestry. According to this categorization, individuals with origins in the Asian continent are grouped together. This includes populations from regions such as East Asia (e.g., China, Japan, Korea), South Asia (e.g., India, Pakistan, Bangladesh), Southeast Asia (e.g., Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand), and Central Asia (e.g., Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan). It is important to note that this broad categorization may not fully capture the genetic diversity within these regions or accurately reflect an individual's specific ancestral origins.

Liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the liver that can be benign or malignant. Benign liver neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors that do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant liver neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissue and spread to other organs.

Liver neoplasms can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or secondary, meaning they have metastasized (spread) to the liver from another part of the body. Primary liver neoplasms can be further classified into different types based on their cell of origin and behavior, including hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and hepatic hemangioma.

The diagnosis of liver neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging studies, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and biopsy to confirm the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type and extent of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or liver transplantation.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Genetic predisposition to disease refers to an increased susceptibility or vulnerability to develop a particular illness or condition due to inheriting specific genetic variations or mutations from one's parents. These genetic factors can make it more likely for an individual to develop a certain disease, but it does not guarantee that the person will definitely get the disease. Environmental factors, lifestyle choices, and interactions between genes also play crucial roles in determining if a genetically predisposed person will actually develop the disease. It is essential to understand that having a genetic predisposition only implies a higher risk, not an inevitable outcome.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

The digestive system is a series of organs that work together to convert food into nutrients and energy. Digestive system surgical procedures involve operations on any part of the digestive system, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder. These procedures can be performed for a variety of reasons, such as to treat diseases, repair damage, or remove cancerous growths.

Some common digestive system surgical procedures include:

1. Gastric bypass surgery: A procedure in which the stomach is divided into two parts and the smaller part is connected directly to the small intestine, bypassing a portion of the stomach and upper small intestine. This procedure is used to treat severe obesity.
2. Colonoscopy: A procedure in which a flexible tube with a camera on the end is inserted into the rectum and colon to examine the lining for polyps, cancer, or other abnormalities.
3. Colectomy: A procedure in which all or part of the colon is removed, often due to cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, or diverticulitis.
4. Gastrostomy: A procedure in which a hole is made through the abdominal wall and into the stomach to create an opening for feeding. This is often done for patients who have difficulty swallowing.
5. Esophagectomy: A procedure in which all or part of the esophagus is removed, often due to cancer. The remaining esophagus is then reconnected to the stomach or small intestine.
6. Liver resection: A procedure in which a portion of the liver is removed, often due to cancer or other diseases.
7. Pancreatectomy: A procedure in which all or part of the pancreas is removed, often due to cancer or chronic pancreatitis.
8. Cholecystectomy: A procedure in which the gallbladder is removed, often due to gallstones or inflammation.

These are just a few examples of digestive system surgical procedures. There are many other types of operations that can be performed on the digestive system depending on the specific needs and condition of each patient.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Genetic polymorphism refers to the occurrence of multiple forms (called alleles) of a particular gene within a population. These variations in the DNA sequence do not generally affect the function or survival of the organism, but they can contribute to differences in traits among individuals. Genetic polymorphisms can be caused by single nucleotide changes (SNPs), insertions or deletions of DNA segments, or other types of genetic rearrangements. They are important for understanding genetic diversity and evolution, as well as for identifying genetic factors that may contribute to disease susceptibility in humans.

Digestion is the complex process of breaking down food into smaller molecules that can be absorbed and utilized by the body for energy, growth, and cell repair. This process involves both mechanical and chemical actions that occur in the digestive system, which includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and accessory organs such as the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder.

The different stages of digestion are:

1. Ingestion: This is the first step in digestion, where food is taken into the mouth.
2. Mechanical digestion: This involves physically breaking down food into smaller pieces through chewing, churning, and mixing with digestive enzymes.
3. Chemical digestion: This involves breaking down food molecules into simpler forms using various enzymes and chemicals produced by the digestive system.
4. Absorption: Once the food is broken down into simple molecules, they are absorbed through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream and transported to different parts of the body.
5. Elimination: The undigested material that remains after absorption is moved through the large intestine and eliminated from the body as feces.

The process of digestion is essential for maintaining good health, as it provides the necessary nutrients and energy required for various bodily functions.

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