Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Colony-Stimulating Factors: Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).Interleukin-3: A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Colony-Forming Units Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: A receptor for MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR encoded by the c-fms proto-oncogene (GENES, FMS). It contains an intrinsic protein-tyrosine kinase activity. When activated the receptor undergoes autophosphorylation, phosphorylation of down-stream signaling molecules and rapid down-regulation.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Mice, Inbred C57BLRecombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Receptors, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: Receptors that bind and internalize the granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor. Their MW is believed to be 84 kD. The most mature myelomonocytic cells, specifically human neutrophils, macrophages, and eosinophils, express the highest number of affinity receptors for this growth factor.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred BALB CTumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Mice, Inbred C3HOsteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Granulocyte-Macrophage Progenitor Cells: The parent cells that give rise to both cells of the GRANULOCYTE lineage and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis: A PULMONARY ALVEOLI-filling disease, characterized by dense phospholipoproteinaceous deposits in the alveoli, cough, and DYSPNEA. This disease is often related to, congenital or acquired, impaired processing of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS by alveolar macrophages, a process dependent on GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR.Receptors, Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: Receptors that bind and internalize GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR. Their MW is believed to be 150 kD. These receptors are found mainly on a subset of myelomonocytic cells.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Hematopoietic Cell Growth Factors: These growth factors comprise a family of hematopoietic regulators with biological specificities defined by their ability to support proliferation and differentiation of blood cells of different lineages. ERYTHROPOIETIN and the COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS belong to this family. Some of these factors have been studied and used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and bone marrow failure syndromes.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Receptors, Interleukin-3: High affinity receptors for INTERLEUKIN-3. They are found on early HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR CELLS; progenitors of MYELOID CELLS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS. Interleukin-3 receptors are formed by the dimerization of the INTERLEUKIN-3 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Myeloid Progenitor Cells: Stem cells derived from HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS. Derived from these myeloid progenitor cells are the MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; MYELOID CELLS; and some DENDRITIC CELLS.Stem Cell Factor: A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Interleukin-5: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cell SeparationBone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Granulocyte Precursor Cells: The cells in the granulocytic series that give rise to mature granulocytes (NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS). These precursor cells include myeloblasts, promyelocytes, myelocytes and metamyelocytes.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Leukemia, Myeloid: Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Receptors, Colony-Stimulating Factor: Cell surface receptors for colony stimulating factors, local mediators, and hormones that regulate the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hemopoietic cells.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Erythroid Precursor Cells: The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.Erythropoiesis: The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Myeloid Cells: The classes of BONE MARROW-derived blood cells in the monocytic series (MONOCYTES and their precursors) and granulocytic series (GRANULOCYTES and their precursors).Megakaryocytes: Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors: Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Receptors, Interleukin-5: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-5. They are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT. Signaling from interleukin-5 receptors can occur through interaction of their cytoplasmic domains with SYNTENINS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute: Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Blood Cells: The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Genes, fms: Family of genes originally isolated from the Susan McDonough strain of feline sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE). The proto-oncogene fms (c-fms) codes for the MCSF receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR). The oncogene fms (v-fms) codes for ONCOGENE PROTEIN GP140(V-FMS) which is a mutated form of the MCSF. The human c-fms gene is located between 5q33.2 and 5q33.3.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Peritoneal Cavity: The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.Mice, Inbred CBAAntibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.N-Formylmethionine Leucyl-Phenylalanine: A formylated tripeptide originally isolated from bacterial filtrates that is positively chemotactic to polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and causes them to release lysosomal enzymes and become metabolically activated.Ascitic Fluid: The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.Dimethyl Sulfoxide: A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Thioglycolates: Organic esters of thioglycolic acid (HS-CH2COOH).Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Mice, Inbred DBAThymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Cytokine Receptor Common beta Subunit: A receptor subunit that is a shared component of the INTERLEUKIN-3 RECEPTOR; the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR; and the GM-CSF RECEPTOR. High affinity receptor complexes are formed with each of these receptors when their respective alpha subunits are combined with this shared beta subunit.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.ZymosanAdipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Secondary structure analysis has suggested similarity to IL4 and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF). ... They promote the development and differentiation of T and B lymphocytes, and hematopoietic cells. Interleukin receptors on ... These include granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) and myelomonocytic growth factor (MGF). GCSF acts in hematopoiesis ... "Disulfide structures of human interleukin-6 are similar to those of human granulocyte colony stimulating factor". Archives of ...
"Interleukin-3 and Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor Inhibits Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α-induced Osteoclast ... Inhibits Receptor Activator of NF-κB Ligand-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation by Diverting the Cells to Macrophage Lineage". ... Differentiation by Down-regulation of Expression of TNF Receptors 1 and 2". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 (12): 11759- ... Interleukin 3 Granulocyte India portal Biology portal Medicine portal Please see Selected bibliography section "Mohan R. Wani ...
... a neurologic disease associated with mutations in the macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor gene. In vitro, monocytes ... can differentiate into dendritic cells by adding the cytokines granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and ... and differentiation into macrophages or dendritic cells to effect an immune response. In an adult human, half of the monocytes ... Many factors produced by other cells can regulate the chemotaxis and other functions of monocytes. These factors include most ...
Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and IL-6. It is secreted by basophils and activated T cells to ... It acts by binding to the interleukin-3 receptor. Interleukin 3 stimulates the differentiation of multipotent hematopoietic ... "Molecular characterization of colony-stimulating factors and their receptors: human interleukin-3". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 554: ... colony-stimulating factor, multiple)". Yang YC, Ciarletta AB, Temple PA, Chung MP, Kovacic S, Witek-Giannotti JS, Leary AC, ...
The gene is flanked by the genes for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor ... Cluster of differentiation Platelet-derived growth factor receptor Kosaki overgrowth syndrome GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... those for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, PDGFRB, and Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor, cause the ... also termed macrophage-colony stimulating factor receptor), all three of which may be lost together by a single deletional ...
Cluster of Differentiation 116), is a receptor for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, which stimulates the ... Lia F, Rajotte D, Clark SC, Hoang T (Nov 1996). "A dominant negative granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor ... The granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor also known as CD116 ( ... It is associated with Surfactant metabolism dysfunction type 4. The granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor ...
Receptor tyrosine kinase. *Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). *Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM ... stimulate the repair of injured skin and mucosal tissues by stimulating the proliferation, migration and differentiation of ... ReceptorsEdit. The mammalian fibroblast growth factor receptor family has 4 members, FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, and FGFR4. The FGFRs ... Members FGF1 through FGF10 all bind fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs). FGF1 is also known as acidic fibroblast growth ...
... or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. A more recent study used a more sensitive assay for interleukin 5 to ... Each of these genes functions to promote the proliferation and differentiation of eosinophil precursor cells. Nonetheless, no ... elevated serum levels of interleukin 5 as well as soluble Interleukin 5 receptor alpha subunit; and c) innate lymphoid cells ( ... and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. ...
... granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor, Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor, Interleukin-3 ... The FLT3 gene codes for the cluster of differentiation antigen 135 (i.e. CD135) protein or FLT3 protein. This protein is a ... FGFR1 is the gene for the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, a cell surface receptor that similar to PDGFRA and PDGFRB, is ... It mediates at least in part the cell proliferating signaling stimulated by PDGF receptors as well as by antigen receptors on T ...
... initiates cell proliferation and differentiation into mature neutrophilic granulocytes and macrophages. The G-CSF-R is a ... The granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor (G-CSF-R) also known as CD114 (Cluster of Differentiation 114) is a protein ... Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor has been shown to interact with Grb2, HCK and SHC1. Cluster of differentiation ... G-CSF-R is a cell-surface receptor for the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). The G-CSF receptors belongs to a ...
... and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), are inhibited by IL-27 through STAT1 and expression of ... This receptor consists of two proteins, IL-27ɑ and gp130. IL-27 induces differentiation of the diverse populations of T cells ... Also involved are the STAT1 and STAT3 transcription factors that bind specifically to the receptor subunits, IL-27ɑ and ... 27 is expressed by antigen presenting cells and interacts with a specific cell-surface receptor complex known as IL-27 receptor ...
... macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and neurotactin. " ... Nerve growth factor (NGF) uses the high-affinity receptor TrkA to promote myelination and the differentiation of neurons. ... The ephrins are a family of neurotrophic factors that signal through eph receptors, a class of receptor tyrosine kinases; the ... The CNTF family of neurotrophic factors includes ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), ...
... granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IL-1 and IL-6. Additionally it has been shown that adipose tissue ... CD36 and macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (MSR1)) and lipid-handling genes (i.e. adipose differentiation-related protein (Adfp ... For example, macrophages stimulated with IL-4 and IL-13 are defined as M2a, whereas macrophages stimulated with LPS and ... M1 macrophages are microbicidal and tumoricidal, and stimulate adaptive immune response. M2 macrophages are associated with ...
... granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and pegylated granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on dendritic cell subsets ... "Human acute stem cell leukemia with multilineage differentiation potential via cascade activation of growth factor receptors". ... and colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1). In synergy with other growth factors, Flt3 ligand stimulates the proliferation and ... differentiation of various blood cell progenitors. For example, it is a major growth factor stimulating the growth of dendritic ...
... is maintained by granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor plus interleukin 4 and downregulared by tumor necrosis factor ... Role of chemokine receptors in positioning T cells for priming and Th1- or Th2-mediated responses. Immunol Today 1998, 19: 568- ... Geginat J, Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F. Proliferation and differentiation potential of human CD8+ T-cell subsets in response to ... Chemoattractants and their receptors in homeostasis and inflammation. Curr Opin Immunol 2004, 16:724-731. Rivino L, Messi M, ...
... and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) leads to differentiation to immature dendritic cells (iDCs) in ... Simultaneously, they upregulate cell-surface receptors that act as co-receptors in T-cell activation such as CD80 (B7.1), CD86 ... Histiocyte Macrophage List of human clusters of differentiation for a list of CD molecules (such as CD80 and CD86) Steinman, R ... This is done through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as the toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLRs recognize specific ...
Receptor tyrosine kinase Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF ... Growth Differentiation factor-9 (GDF9) Gyrification Neurogenesis Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) Fibroblast growth factor 1(FGF1 ... Fibroblast growth factor 2(FGF2) Fibroblast growth factor 3(FGF3) Fibroblast growth factor 4(FGF4) Fibroblast growth factor 5( ... Fibroblast growth factor 7(FGF7) Fibroblast growth factor 8(FGF8) Fibroblast growth factor 9(FGF9) Fibroblast growth factor 10( ...
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor Leukocyte extravasation Birbrair, ... Growth factors elicit different outcomes depending on the combination of factors and the cell's stage of differentiation. For ... which binds to the c-kit receptor on the HSC. Absence of SCF is lethal. There are other important glycoprotein growth factors ... Three CSFs are granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF), granulocyte CSF (G-CSF) and macrophage CSF (M-CSF). These stimulate ...
... differentiation, and function of neutrophil precursors and mature neutrophils. G-CSF is produced by endothelium, macrophages, ... "Expression of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and its receptor is regulated during the development of the human placenta ... "Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) secretion by ... Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF or GCSF), also known as colony-stimulating factor 3 (CSF 3), is a glycoprotein ...
... and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which are often co-expressed in TH2 cells. Interleukin-5 is also ... "Murine eosinophil differentiation factor. An eosinophil-specific colony-stimulating factor with activity for human cells". J. ... Through binding to the interleukin-5 receptor, interleukin 5 stimulates B cell growth and increases immunoglobulin secretion. ... and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Glycosylation of the Asn196 residue of the Rα subunit appears to ...
... induced by Chikungunya virus infection is associated with interleukin-6 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor". ... "Scatter factor and hepatocyte growth factor are indistinguishable ligands for the MET receptor". The EMBO Journal. 10 (10): ... positive regulation of osteoblast differentiation. • activation of MAPK activity. • myoblast proliferation. • negative ... Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) or scatter factor (SF) is a paracrine cellular growth, motility and morphogenic factor. It is ...
"Lymphocyte activation gene-3 fusion protein increases the potency of a granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor- ... Later, the same authors showed that soluble LAG-3 would reduce the differentiation of macrophages and dendritic cells from ... protein as a prognostic factor in human breast cancer expressing estrogen or progesterone receptors". Cancer Lett. 235 (1): 147 ... Buisson S; Triebel F. (March 1, 2005). "LAG-3 (CD223) reduces macrophage and dendritic cell differentiation from monocyte ...
... that I should purify a colony-stimulating factor (CSF), a substance that stimulates the proliferation of blood cells in the ... Methods for stimulating granulocyte-macrophage lineage using thrombopoietin. 1999 US Patent #6,099,830: Inventors: Kaushansky K ... YRRL motifs in the cytoplasmic domain of the thrombopoietin receptor regulate receptor internalization and degradation. Blood ... his team has cloned several of the genes important in the growth and differentiation of blood cells, including thrombopoietin, ...
Colony-stimulating factors Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (m-CSF) Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) ... while fibroblast growth factors and vascular endothelial growth factors stimulate blood vessel differentiation (angiogenesis). ... Angiogenesis Bone growth factor Cytokine Growth factor receptor Human Genome Organisation Mitogen Neurotrophic factor Receptor ... Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) Epidermal growth factor (EGF) Ephrins Ephrin A1 Ephrin A2 Ephrin A3 ...
... and recombinant human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF), and mature dendritic cells using rhIL-4, ... Some of their characteristics are: They have Fc receptor and C3b receptors and lack surface and cytoplasmic immunoglobulins. ... "A cell line model for the differentiation of human dendritic cells". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 333 ( ... Genin, Marie; Clement, Francois; Fattaccioli, Antoine; Raes, Martine; Michiels, Carine (2015-08-08). "M1 and M2 macrophages ...
Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. *Milodistim. *Molgramostim. *Regramostim. *Sargramostim. *Antibodies: ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. ... Proteins: clusters of differentiation (see also list of human clusters of differentiation) ... transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • tumor necrosis factor-activated receptor activity. • nerve growth factor binding. ...
Cluster of Differentiation 116), is a receptor for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, which stimulates the ... Lia F, Rajotte D, Clark SC, Hoang T (Nov 1996). "A dominant negative granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor ... The granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor also known as CD116 ( ... It is associated with Surfactant metabolism dysfunction type 4. The granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor ...
Although erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EPOR) are crucial for the proliferation, survival, and terminal differentiation ... To address this issue, human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) receptor (hGMR)-transgenic mice and ... To address this issue, human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) receptor (hGMR)-transgenic mice and ... To address this issue, human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) receptor (hGMR)-transgenic mice and ...
Differentiation-linked changes in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor mediated signalling in the HL-60 ... Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induces the proliferation and maturation of immature myeloid ... To investigate whether the biochemical events following the binding of GM-CSF to its receptor are differentiation dependent we ... differentiation modulates the activation of signalling molecules downstream of the GM-CSF receptor. ...
Receptors for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-3, and interleukin-5. Blood 82: 1960. ... Interleukin-3, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor and interleukin-5 transduce signals through two STAT5 homologs ... Differential expression of the transcription factor NF-κB during human mononuclear phagocyte differentiation to macrophages and ... Molecular cloning of APRF, a novel IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 p91-related transcription factor involved in the gp130-mediated ...
Asthma is characterized by the dominant presence of eosinophils, mast cells, and clusters of differentiation (CD)4+ T cells in ... These diseases can be induced by several exogenous factors, such as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) (e.g., ... macrophages, and CD8+ T cells in the airways. In both asthma and COPD, in the respiratory tract, TLRs are the primary proteins ... Asthma is characterized by the dominant presence of eosinophils, mast cells, and clusters of differentiation (CD)4+ T cells in ...
H1 2019According to the recently published report Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Receptor Subunit. ... Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Receptor Subunit Alpha (CDw116 or CD116 or CSF2RA) - Pipeline Review, ... It plays an important role in controls the production, differentiation, and function of granulocytes and macrophages. The ... Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Receptor Subunit Alpha (CDw116 or CD116 or CSF2RA) - Granulocyte macrophage ...
JAK2 associates with the beta c chain of the receptor for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and its activation ... RhoH null mice showed impaired T cell differentiation due to defective T cell receptor signalling [9,16]. However, other ... Mui AL, Wakao H, OFarrell AM, Harada N, Miyajima A. Interleukin-3, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor and ... granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor; HCL: hairy cell leukaemia; IL3: interleukin 3; IRF: interferon regulatory ...
... interleukin-5 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. [CSF2R_HUMAN] Low affinity receptor for granulocyte- ... macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Transduces a signal that results in the proliferation, differentiation, and functional ... CSF2_HUMAN] Cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of hematopoietic precursor cells from various lineages, ... macrophages, eosinophils and erythrocytes. Publication Abstract from PubMed The GM-CSF, IL-3, and IL-5 receptors constitute the ...
... stress can stimulate myeloid differentiation by increasing the myelopoietic growth factor, granulocyte-macrophage colony- ... For instance, BBB endothelial cells express key cytokine receptors (IL-1R1, IL-6, TNF receptor), and binding of these receptors ... stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Specifically, GM-CSF signaling mediates differentiation of granulocytes and monocytes from their ... Hamilton JA, Achuthan A (2013). Colony stimulating factors and myeloid cell biology in health and disease. Trends Immunol 34: ...
... heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells can strongly inhibit anti-tumor activities of T and NK cells and stimulate ... heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells can strongly inhibit anti-tumor activities of T and NK cells and stimulate ... granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-10, M-CSF, G-CSF, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) ... In a B16 melanoma mouse model expressing IDO, it has been shown that the blockade of colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF- ...
Toll-like receptor-mediated eosinophil-basophil differentiation: autocrine signalling by granulocyte-macrophage colony- ... stimulating factor in cord ... Reece Pia P Division of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, - - ... The M6P (mannose 6-phosphate)/IGF2R (insulin-like growth factor II receptor) interacts with a variety of factors that impinge ... Protease-activated receptor-2 signalling by tissue factor on dendritic cells suppresses antigen-specific CD4+ ... ...
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is often used to treat leucopenia. Other haematopoietins may increase ... colony-stimulating factor receptor alpha subunit mediate activation of Jak/Stat signalling and differentiation. Blood. 2001;97: ... Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for sepsis: a meta- ... Macrophage tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces epithelial expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: ...
Secondary structure analysis has suggested similarity to IL4 and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF). ... They promote the development and differentiation of T and B lymphocytes, and hematopoietic cells. Interleukin receptors on ... These include granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) and myelomonocytic growth factor (MGF). GCSF acts in hematopoiesis ... "Disulfide structures of human interleukin-6 are similar to those of human granulocyte colony stimulating factor". Archives of ...
... and combined with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), with potential antineoplastic and immunoadjuvant ... Acitretin activates nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RAR), resulting in induction of cell differentiation, inhibition of cell ... replication-defective adenoviral vector expressing the fusion gene granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) ... formulation containing a yeast-derived glycosylated recombinant form of human granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor ...
... colony stimulating factor 2 receptor alpha subunit; granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor alpha chain. ... Transduces a signal that results in the proliferation, differentiation, and functional activation of hematopoietic cells.. ... CSF2RA; colony stimulating factor 2 receptor, alpha, low-affinity (granulocyte-macrophage); GMR; CD116; CSF2R; SMDP4; CDw116; ... CSF2RA colony stimulating factor 2 receptor, alpha, low-affinity (granulocyte-macrophage) [ Homo sapiens ]. ...
... to form the high-affinity IL-3 receptor. The IL-3 receptor is involved in cell signaling for cell growth and differentiation. ... the CD123 antigen is expressed at high levels only on plasmacytoid dendritic cells and basophilic granulocytes but at low ... CD123 associates with CD131, the common β-chain of the IL-3, IL-5, and GM-CSF receptor, ... Additional information: Clone REA918 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - USA ...
... is a cytokine/growth factor produced by epithelial cells that exerts embryotrophic effects during the early stages of embryo ... which promotes hematopoiesis through monocyte and granulocyte proliferation and differentiation [3, 9]. Both the cytokine and ... the mRNA for its receptor are expressed and secreted by cells within the human ovary such that a main role for GM-CSF in the ... Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a cytokine/growth factor produced by epithelial cells that exerts ...
The laminin receptor modulates granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor complex formation and modulates its ... receptor (GMR) transduces a signal that results in the proliferation, differentiation, and functional activation of ... Crucial role of the residue R280 at the F-G loop of the human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor alpha ... Differential expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-3 receptor subunits on human CD34+ cells and ...
Endothelial cells produce several hematopoietic growth factors such as SCF, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor ( ... Migration of human monocytes in response to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is mediated via the VEGF receptor flt-1. ... cells and synergizes with tumor necrosis factor for enhanced production of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. ... colony-forming unit granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM), CFU-M, CFU-G, and mixed CFU-GEMM colonies (Methocult M3434; Stemcell ...
Toll-like receptor-mediated eosinophil-basophil differentiation: autocrine signalling by granulocyte-macrophage colony- ... Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell-derived Factors from Severe Asthmatic Subjects Stimulate Eosinophil Differentiation ... Toll-like receptor-induced expression of epithelial cytokine receptors on haemopoietic progenitors is altered in allergic ... The orphan nuclear receptor RORα and group 3 innate lymphoid cells drive fibrosis in a mouse model of Crohns disease ...
1999) PU.1 and the granulocyte- and macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptors play distinct roles in late-stage myeloid ... 2010) FLIP: a novel regulator of macrophage differentiation and granulocyte homeostasis. Blood. 116: 4968-77.. 20. Lu, M. and ... CD169 is a macrophage receptor expressed on stromal macrophages in many tissues, particularly found in lymph nodes, bone marrow ... 2005) The macrophage F4/80 receptor is required for the induction of antigen-specific efferent regulatory T cells in peripheral ...
... macrophages, fibroblasts, and ECs and stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of granulocyte/macrophage progenitor ... 2 Specific GM-CSF receptors have been detected on the surface of ECs, fibroblasts, trophoblasts, and keratinocytes,3 with ECs ... Dedhar S, Gaboury L, Galloway P, Eaves C. Human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor is a growth factor active on a ... exchanger in human endothelial cells activated by granulocyte - and granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor: evidence ...
Interleukin-3 receptor binding. Specific Function. Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factors are cytokines that act in ... Plays an important role in the regulation of cell survival, cell division, angiogenesis, cell differentiation and cell ... S100A13 is involved in the regulation of fibroblast growth factor-1 and p40 synaptotagmin-1 release in vitro. J Biol Chem. 1998 ... they release an inactive form of human fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1), a potent mitogen (entity that causes mitosis). ...
positive regulation of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor biosynthetic process Source: Ensembl ... positive regulation of receptor internalization Source: Ensembl. *positive regulation of type I interferon production Source: ... positive regulation of alpha-beta T cell differentiation Source: Ensembl. *positive regulation of alpha-beta T cell ... macrophage activation involved in immune response Source: Ensembl. *neutrophil activation involved in immune response Source: ...
stem cell factor;. IL-3,. interleukin 3;. GM-CSF,. granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor;. wt,. wild type. ... How these receptors interact to generate an appropriate response-be it survival, proliferation, or differentiation-is an ... Previous studies suggested that stem cell factor (SCF), interleukin 3 (IL-3), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating ... Functional interaction of erythropoietin and stem cell factor receptors is essential for erythroid colony formation. Hong Wu, ...
  • On the other hand, in E8.0 yolk sac erythropoiesis, both substances had a similar effect on erythroid colony formation, but hGM-CSF induced an increase of β-major globin expression, while EPO did not. (elsevier.com)
  • We have previously shown that hyperactivation of the Janus-activated kinase 2/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (JAK2/STAT3) induced by tumor-derived factors (TDF) is responsible for abnormal dendritic cell differentiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although dramatic advances have been made through the use of kinase inhibitors such as Bcr-Abl inhibitors in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer, a number of hurdles have arisen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For example, many kinase and cell-surface receptor-triggered pathways converge on transcription factors such as NF-κB or STAT family members. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Numerous studies have implicated a variety of intracellular signaling pathways, including PI-3 kinase/Akt, Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase, and Jak/signal transducers and activators of transcription, as effectors of these extracellular trophic factors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Subsequent autocrine or paracrine signaling through the alpha/beta interferon receptor results in the induction of more than 50 genes that promote an antiviral cellular environment, including the double-stranded RNA protein kinase and the alpha and beta interferon genes themselves (reviewed in references 53 and 57 to 59 ). (asm.org)
  • Here we show that sustained extracellular signal-related kinase activity induced by BRAFV600E inhibits C-C motif chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7)-mediated DC migration, trapping DCs in tissue lesions. (mskcc.org)
  • Guided by these differences we performed mutational and functional studies that, importantly, show GMRalpha interactions playing a major role in receptor signaling while betac interactions control high-affinity binding. (proteopedia.org)
  • The present study demonstrates that patients with CAD revealed reduced levels and functional impairment of EPCs, which correlated with risk factors for CAD. (ahajournals.org)
  • Therefore, we investigated the influence of atherosclerotic risk factors on the number and functional activity of EPCs. (ahajournals.org)
  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Combined with Methylprednisolone Improves Functional Outcomes in Rats with Experimental Acute Spinal Cord Injury. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This increasing incidence may be attributed to the high prevalence of hepatitis C virus with its complications, so this study aimed to investigate the association between the potentially functional polymorphisms of IL12A and IL12B genes as a risk factor of development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on top of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in an Egyptian population. (cancerindex.org)
  • Although these factors possess remarkably similar sequence homology, they do not bind FGFRs and are involved in intracellular processes unrelated to the FGFs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, by screening the effect of 27 candidate factors, we reveal two groups of transcriptional regulators capable of inducing distinct haematopoietic programs from hPSCs: pan-myeloid (ETV2 and GATA2) and erythro-megakaryocytic (GATA2 and TAL1). (stemcell.com)
  • Members FGF11 , FGF12 , FGF13 , and FGF14 , also known as FGF homologous factors 1-4 (FHF1-FHF4), have been shown to have distinct functions compared to the FGFs. (wikipedia.org)