Cell Enlargement: Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mice, Inbred C57BLDNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Myoblasts: Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Dimethyl Sulfoxide: A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute: A myeloproliferative disorder characterized by neoplastic proliferation of erythroblastic and myeloblastic elements with atypical erythroblasts and myeloblasts in the peripheral blood.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Nerve Tissue ProteinsMyoD Protein: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Myogenin: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Inhibitor of Differentiation Proteins: Inhibitor of differentiation proteins are negative regulators of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. They inhibit CELL DIFFERENTIATION and induce CELL PROLIFERATION by modulating different CELL CYCLE regulators.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 2: A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. It plays a role in regulating IMMUNOGLOBULIN E expression.Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1: A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that blocks activation of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and is de-regulated in a variety of NEOPLASMS.Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The CSF1 receptor protein primarily functions in regulation, survival, proliferation, and differentiation of microglial cells. ... In HDLS, there is enlargement of the lateral ventricles and marked thinning or weakening of cerebral white matter. The loss of ... microglial cells from HDLS kindred can be cultured from autopsy brain and analyzed in comparison to normal microglial cells on ... globoid cell leukodystrophy), and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ADL). Many neuropsychiatric symptoms have been identified in ...
The cell of origin is postulated to be a post-germinal center B-cell with an unknown degree of differentiation. SMZL is a form ... of cancer known to be associated with Hepatitis C virus infection.[citation needed] Enlargement of the spleen is a requirement ... and they occasionally show short villi at the poles of cells and plasmacytoid differentiation. Autoimmune thrombocytopenia and ... and plasmacytic differentiation of neoplastic cells. Involved hilar lymph nodes adjacent to the spleen show an effaced ...
Cell differentiation[change , change source]. Differentiation is the formation of cell types, from what is originally one cell ... Growth continues after the embryonic stage, and occurs through cell division, enlargement of cells or accumulation of ... The formation of cell types like nerve cells occurs with a number of intermediary, less differentiated cell types. A cell stays ... The dividing cells tend to be distinct from differentiated cells (see stem cell). ...
There is an enlargement of the nucleus in infected orchid cortical cells and in non-infected cortical cells near an infected ... The increased DNA content has been correlated with the differentiation of parenchyma cells suggesting its role in orchid growth ... Orchid cells with degenerating pelotons lack starch grains, whereas the newly invaded orchid cells contain large starch grains ... The cortical cells of older roots tend to have more lysed pelotons than young pelotons. Although pelotons are lysed, new ...
... overactive PI3K-delta has an effect on the B and T cell differentiation (the process by which cells eventually are different ... Furthermore, overproduction of said signal can cause lymphadenopathy (which is an enlargement of lymph nodes) due to excess ... Prasad, Keder N. (2012-12-06). Regulation of Differentiation in Mammalian Nerve Cells. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 2 ... P110δ effect is not limited to the immune system; P110δ has a presence in transformed epithelial cells and cell adhesion ...
Deepening of the voice Growth of facial and body hair Male-pattern baldness Enlargement of the clitoris Breast atrophy - ... Virilization is most commonly used in three medical and biology of gender contexts: prenatal sexual differentiation, the ... Increased red blood cell count Ambiguous genitalia Androgen Clitoromegaly Feminization (biology) Hirsutism Secondary sex ... Virilization in a woman can manifest as clitoral enlargement, increased muscle strength, acne, hirsutism, frontal hair thinning ...
Rarely, enlargement of the liver and spleen and nervous system involvement resembling meningitis are seen. Often a bout of ... KFD may represent an exuberant T-cell-mediated immune response in a genetically susceptible individual to a variety of ... and may help in differentiation from systemic lupus erythematosus. The differential diagnosis of Kikuchi disease includes ... The signs and symptoms of Kikuchi disease are fever, enlargement of the lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), skin rashes, and ...
"Endoplasmic reticulum stress controls M2 macrophage differentiation and foam cell formation". Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... If the muscular wall enlargement eventually fails to keep up with the enlargement of the atheroma volume, or a clot forms and ... If the muscular wall enlargement is overdone over time, then a gross enlargement of the artery results, usually over decades of ... Type I: Isolated macrophage foam cells Type II: Multiple foam cell layers Type III: Preatheroma, intermediate lesion Type IV: ...
Disturbance of proliferation and differentiation of stem cells *Pure red cell aplasia[17] ... enlargement). There may be signs of heart failure. Pica, the consumption of non-food items such as ice, but also paper, wax, or ... It can also be classified based on the size of red blood cells and amount of hemoglobin in each cell.[1] If the cells are small ... Red blood cell sizeEdit. In the morphological approach, anemia is classified by the size of red blood cells; this is either ...
... or a differentiation inducer (all-trans retinoic acid) in HL-60 human leukemic cells. The mouse G2A receptor, encoded by Gpr132 ... slowly progressive wasting and autoimmune disease characterized by lymphoid organ enlargement, lymphocytic infiltration into ... movement from the cell interior to the cell surface and/or by preventing its movement away from the cell surface to the cell ... by transfecting the cells with the human oncogene (i.e., cancer causing) BCR-ABL or by treating the cells with DNA damaging ...
Other sources classify all enlarged cingula as talon cusps and classify them according to the degree of enlargement. The ... This occurs during the morphological differentiation stage of tooth development. During the developmental stages of tooth ... formation, certain dental follicle cells were differentiated incorrectly which formed the excess enamel and incorrect ...
Brassinosteroids control cell elongation and division, gravitropism, resistance to stress, and xylem differentiation. They ... Auxins are compounds that positively influence cell enlargement, bud formation and root initiation. They also promote the ... They affect cell elongation by altering cell wall plasticity. They stimulate cambium, a subtype of meristem cells, to divide ... induced death in lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Methyl jasmonate has been found to induce cell death in a number of cancer cell ...
Replacement of lost cells is facilitated by transplants with embryonic stem cells, stem cells from the spinal cord, and spinal ... The vertebral levels of the enlargement are roughly the same (C4 to T1). Lumbar enlargement - corresponds to the lumbosacral ... Neural differentiation occurs within the spinal cord portion of the tube. As the neural tube begins to develop, the notochord ... Treatments need to focus on limiting post-injury cell death, promoting cell regeneration, and replacing lost cells. ...
An extensive panel of monoclonal antibodies to cell surface markers, particularly CD or cluster of differentiation markers, are ... T cell or pre-B cell Large and heterogeneous (varied) cells ALL - L3 B cell Large and varied cells with vacuoles Mature B-cell ... The cancerous cell in ALL is the lymphoblast. Normal lymphoblasts develop into mature, infection-fighting B-cells or T-cells, ... Hyperdiploid cells are defined as cells with more than 50 chromosomes, while hypodiploid is defined as cells with less than 44 ...
It works in two ways, first by disrupting cell membranes and mitochondria resulting cell death, and then by inducing antibody- ... rapid enlargement), B (bleeding), E (erythema) and U (ulceration).[21] AKs are usually diagnosed clinically, but because they ... this is suspected to be related to the abnormal keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation in AKs which provide a ... These cells have been observed to proliferate into the dermis as buds and duct-like structures.[22] ...
It activates genes in Sertoli cells, which promote differentiation of spermatogonia. It regulates acute HPA (hypothalamic- ... Enlargement of sebaceous glands. This might cause acne, subcutaneous fat in face decreases. Pubic hair extends to thighs and up ... In males, testosterone is synthesized primarily in Leydig cells. The number of Leydig cells in turn is regulated by luteinizing ... testosterone is produced by the Leydig cells.[123] The male generative glands also contain Sertoli cells, which require ...
... spermatocytic seminomas may show sarcomatoid differentiation, most commonly as undifferentiated spindled cells intermingled ... Most present with slow, painless testicular enlargement, which may involve both testes. Spermatocytic seminomas are diagnosed ... medium-sized cells with prominent nucleoli (15-18 µm) and, large cells (50-100 µm). The cells are generally packed into nodules ... Cells undergoing mitosis are common, as are cells undergoing apoptosis. Intratubular growth of spermatocytic seminoma can be ...
... is expressed by post-meiotic testicular germ cells and CIS cells but not by human testicular germ cell tumors". Oncogene. 20 ( ... Liver enlargement was attributed to higher fatty acid uptake and triacylglycerol content. Insulin stimulated glucose uptake and ... while adipocyte differentiation did not play a role in reduced adipose tissue despite the effects of prostaglandins on ... These results were based on a mouse model and although they are mammalian cells, it has not been shown to apply to human cells ...
Growth regulators (IAA) are thought to have a role in cell enlargement since they increases cell wall plasticity. M. arenaria ... and migrates back to the vascular cylinder in the zone of cell differentiation. Once the J2 is in the root, they migrate ... The female feeds from the giant cell as it expands further posteriorly accumulating eggs. After formation of the giant cells, ... The nematode initiates formation of the giant cell (also called a nurse cell) from potential vascular tissue. Sub ventral gland ...
... cell enlargement MeSH G07.382.843.750 --- cell proliferation MeSH G07.382.843.750.500 --- cell division MeSH G07.382.843.750. ... cell differentiation MeSH G07.382.750.324 --- adipogenesis MeSH G07.382.750.650 --- gametogenesis MeSH G07.382.750.650.249 --- ... cell enlargement MeSH G07.574.249.410.750 --- cell proliferation MeSH G07.574.249.410.750.500 --- cell division MeSH G07.574. ... cell lineage MeSH G07.382.968 --- cell shape MeSH G07.382.984 --- cell size MeSH G07.450.125 --- biological clocks MeSH G07.450 ...
... is a disorder where there is enlargement of both legs due to deposits of fat under the skin. Typically it gets worse ... In November 2012 the UK's Health service the NHS first listed lipedema as the abnormal build-up of fat cells in the legs, ... Lipedema / Dercum's Disease Differentiation These conditions may co-exist. Dercum's Disease is characterized by painful lipomas ... The additional, expanding fat cells interfere with the pathways of lymphatic vessels, and patients can develop secondary ...
This cellular pathway is critical in the regulation of diverse cell functions including, cell growth, proliferation, metabolism ... In differentiation to MCAP, MPPH lacks consistent somatic features other than postaxial polydactly. Furthermore, brain and body ... "The test characteristics of head circumference measurements for pathology associated with head enlargement: a retrospective ... Studies have shown that reducing epilepsy can increase cell apoptosis and reduce the proliferation of neurons that ultimately ...
... a guanine nucleotide-exchange factor that functions in the transduction of signals that control cell growth and differentiation ... nor clinical symptoms that can be associated with gingival enlargement. Although, enlargement of gingiva, interdental papilla, ... Fibrous enlargement is most common in areas of maxillary and mandibular tissues of both arches in the mouth. Phenotype and ... HGF is characterized as a benign, slowly progressive, nonhemorrhagic, fibrous enlargement of keratinized gingiva. It can cover ...
... is an increase in the amount of organic tissue that results from cell proliferation.[4] It may lead to the gross enlargement of ... Anaplasia (structural differentiation loss within a cell or group of cells).. *Aplasia (organ or part of organ missing) ... cells resemble normal cells but are increased in numbers. Sometimes cells may also be increased in size (hypertrophy).[7] ... Whereas hypertrophy stems from an increase in cell size, hyperplasia results from an increase in cell number. ...
... patterning and differentiation. Stellate cells express smoothened (Smo) and patched-1 (Ptch1) proteins, which are significant ... Several morphological changes take place including nuclear enlargement and increased growth of the endoplasmic reticulum ... Watari likened these cells to hepatic stellate cells. The publication of two seminal research papers in 1998 outlining the ... Pancreatic stellate cells (PaSCs) are classified as myofibroblast-like cells that are located in exocrine regions of the ...
... s promote the enlargement of skeletal muscle cells and probably act in a coordinated manner to function by acting on ... promotes the differentiation of Leydig cells and their production of androgens at week 8. Androgen action in target tissues ... The mesoderm-derived epithelial cells of the sex cords in developing testes become the Sertoli cells, which will function to ... These are Leydig cells. Soon after they differentiate, Leydig cells begin to produce androgens. ...
... growth and differentiation of infected plant cells involve extreme cell enlargement. This cell enlargement is predominantly ... These polyploid cells are highly elongated, sometimes branched, and at a dead end of differentiation by loosing their cell ... Differentiation of infected cells occurs synchronously and the mature nodule contains symbiotic cells with a homogenous ... Moreover, in many cell types endoreduplication is tightly linked to cell differentiation, and inhibition of endoreduplication ...
Tissue Growth• Hyperplasia is tissue growth through cell multiplication• Hypertrophy is enlargement of preexisting cells - ... Changes in Tissue Types• Tissues are capable of changing from one type to another• Differentiation - unspecialized tissues of ... Blood• Variety of cells and cell fragments; some with nuclei & some without• Nonnucleated pale pink cells or nucleated white ... Pseudostratified Epithelium Cilia Goblet cell Basal cell• Single row of cells not all of which reach the free surface - nuclei ...
cell division. *cell enlargement. *Primary growth. *Meristems. *Cell expansion and elongation. *Cell differentiation ...
Endoreduplication is associated with the differentiation of many specialized cell types. In the Arabidopsis thaliana sepal ... Endoreduplication is associated with the differentiation of many specialized cell types. In the Arabidopsis thaliana sepal ... We show that overexpression of LGO in the epidermis (LGOoe) drives giant cell formation even in atml1 mutant sepals. Using RNA- ... We show that overexpression of LGO in the epidermis (LGOoe) drives giant cell formation even in atml1 mutant sepals. Using RNA- ...
1. cell enlargement ?? ?? ????? ?? ?? ?????С???? ⵢͧ?? 2. cell division ?? ?? ????? ???? ???? ͧ cambium 3. vascular tissue ... ҹ ͧ vascular cell differentiation ͧ????????͹?? ??? ͡ ҡ ?? ??á????????? ??????? ???? (delay senescence) ͧ ѡ??? ???? ??? (?????͹ح ... 1. ?? ?? ????? cell division ??? cell hyperelongation 2. induce seed germination 3. flower inhibition or stimulate vegetative ... 1. ????? cell division 2. induce bud formation ???? ???????? morphogenesis 3. ?????? Ң?ҧ?? ????ԭ?? ???? 鹨ҡ?? ԾŢͧ apical ...
P3k induces transformation of cells in culture, formation of hemangiosarcomas in young chickens, and myogenic differentiation ... This process is characterized by extensive sprouting of new blood vessels and enlargement of preexisting vessels. ... chicken chorioallantoic membrane-derived endothelial cells;. VEGF,. vascular endothelial growth factor;. PTEN,. phosphatase and ... VEGF mRNA levels are decreased in cells treated with the PI 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 and restored by overexpression of v-P3k ...
... or cellular differentiation. Rather, l7Rn64234SB/4234SB lungs demonstrated an emphysematous enlargement of the terminal ... THE highly secretory Clara cells represent nonciliated columnar cells, which, along with ciliated cells, line the bronchiolar ... 1992 Surfactant protein C is expressed in alveolar type II cells but not in Clara cells of rat lung. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. ... Clara cell pathophysiology was evident from decreased cytoplasmic CCSP and SP-B protein levels, enlargement and disorganization ...
... which promote cell division and differentiation, tumour suppressors ... ... Enlargement of the tonsils as a result of .... * Chromosomal translocation. from the article Cancer ... Tumour suppressor genes, like proto-oncogenes, are involved in the normal regulation of cell growth; but unlike proto-oncogenes ...
1999) Cell cycling and cell enlargement in developing leaves of Arabidopsis. Dev Biol 215: 407-419. ... Cell production rates are calculated by expressing the net gain of cells relative to the total number of cells in the organ and ... DELLAs induce cell differentiation in the root, thereby making the root meristem smaller and thus decreasing cell production ... cells start the transition to cell expansion by exiting the mitotic cell cycle in favor of endoreduplication. Here, we show ...
... cell biology (sco); Эсийн биологи (mn); cellebiologi (nn); cytologi (nb); sitologiya (az); cell biology (en); علم الأحياء ... Comparison of single cell methylation sequencing methods in terms of coverage as at 2015.png 823 × 871; 112 KB. ... Media in category "Cell biology". The following 200 files are in this category, out of 474 total. ... Cell-type specificity of TIP-YFP expression in the root axis cropped.jpg 1,050 × 565; 120 KB. ...
biología celular (es); frumulíffræði (is); biologi sel (ms); cell biology (en-gb); Клетъчна биология (bg); Cell biology (simple ... cell biology (sco); Эсийн биологи (mn); cellebiologi (nn); cytologi (nb); sitologiya (az); cell biology (en); علم الأحياء ... File nella categoria "Cell biology". Questa categoria contiene 200 file, indicati di seguito, su un totale di 465. ... Comparison of single cell methylation sequencing methods in terms of coverage as at 2015.png 823 × 871; 112 KB. ...
... cell proliferation within tissues, and (3) cell differentiation. In this study we use a cyclin::beta-glucuronidase reporter ... Cell cycling and cell enlargement in developing leaves of Arabidopsis.. Donnelly PM1, Bonetta D, Tsukaya H, Dengler RE, Dengler ... Our results indicate that cell cycling related to leaf morphogenesis, tissue-specific patterns of cell proliferation, and cell ... Tissue layers differ in pattern of proliferative cell divisions: cell cycling of palisade mesophyll precursors is prolonged in ...
Enlargement of differentiation zone cell showing rupture in trichoblast cell wall (arrowhead). All images are maximum ... B, Enlargement of root tip cells showing fibrillar staining. C, Enlargement of lateral root cap cells showing large gaps in ... D, Differentiation zone cells showing rupture in trichoblast cell wall (arrowhead); note lack of bright staining at root hair ... These requirements are met by constructing primary cell walls that can expand along with growing cells, whereas secondary cell ...
Promotes RNA synthesis in genetic programs for cell growth, differentiation and viral pathogenesis. P-TEFb is also involved in ... Promotes cardiac myocyte enlargement. RPB1/POLR2A phosphorylation on Ser-2 in CTD activates transcription. AR phosphorylation ... thereby inducing severe cell dysfunctions ranging from cell activation to cell death. Through its interaction with nuclear HATs ... Mol Cell Biol. 2002 Feb;22(4):1079-93. PMID:11809800 *↑ Simone C, Stiegler P, Bagella L, Pucci B, Bellan C, De Falco G, De Luca ...
... ectopic mesenchymal cell differentiation. Finally, Bmp4 downregulated Epfn expression during dental morphogenesis. Conclusions ... ectopic mesenchymal cell differentiation. Finally, Bmp4 downregulated Epfn expression during dental morphogenesis. Conclusions ... Additionally, the odontoblast differentiation markers Nestin and Epfn showed ectopic overexpression in the dental mesenchyme of ... Bmp and Epfn that would critically determine the correct patterning of dental cusps and the differentiation of odontoblasts and ...
... and recent evidence supports a role of β-cell oxidative stress in mediating FA-induced β-cell dysfunction (11). Local ... The perfusion defect may be due, in part, to adipocyte enlargement, which cannot be compensated by adequate angiogenesis (30). ... Hypoxia may inhibit adipocyte differentiation and adiponectin expression, promote formation of free radicals and inflammation ( ... In Pima Indians, large fat cell volume and circulating FA levels are an independent predictor of the future development of ...
Enlargement of organ/ tissue due to proliferation of cells of an abnormal type ... Enlargement of organ/ tissue due to increased rate of reproduction of cells ...
In a process called differentiation, cardiac stem cells may develop into rhythmically contracting muscle cells, smooth muscle ... weakening and enlargement of the heart; and various congenital malformations. Recent research has shown that several types of ... Medical Wellness »Medicine »Stem cell »adult cells »adult stem cell »animal models »congenital heart disease »endothelial cell ... Further reports about: , Medical Wellness , Medicine , Stem cell , adult cells , adult stem cell , animal models , congenital ...
Donnelly, P.M., Bonetta, D., Tsukaya, H., Dengler, R.E., and Dengler, N.G. (1999). Cell cycling and cell enlargement in ... promoting cell proliferation and preventing cell cycle exit and subsequent differentiation. Therefore, some CYCD3;1 OE cells do ... In cell cultures, CYCD3;1 mRNA levels do not depend strongly on the position of cells in the cell cycle, in contrast to the ... Associated with this promotion of mitotic cell cycles, CYCD3;1 prevents cell cycle exit and inhibits normal differentiation ...
Donnelly, P.M., Bonetta, D., Tsukaya, H., Dengler, R.E., and Dengler, D.G. (1999). Cell cycling and cell enlargement in ... This suggests a mechanism whereby cell differentiation patterns, including vascular pattern, and cell divisions may be ... cell differentiation and cell division patterns are disrupted, resulting in abnormal venation patterns and leaf outgrowth, ... Our data support the notion that the gradient is critical to both cell division and cell differentiation because leaf primordia ...
But differentiation of one cell type into another is only possible if the initial cell (mother cell) is not very specialized. ... Some enlargement in size is always possible by elongation or enlargement of existing cells, or by existing cells simply ... Tissues composed of cells that remain undifferentiated and supply, by their divisions, cells to form new tissues and organs, ... Note that in simple tissues at least (tissues comprised mostly of one cell type), the tissue name follows from the cell type. ...
1975) Cell enlargement and tissue differentiation during leaf expansion in beech, Fagus grandiflora. Can. J. Bot 53, 2846-2865 ... 1993) Cell type-preferred expression of maize cab-m1: Repression in bundle sheath cells and enhancement in mesophyll cells. ... 1996) Differentiation of bundle sheath, mesophyll, and distinctive cells in the C4grass, Arundinella hirta. Am. J. Bot 83, 1391 ... Bundle sheath cells and cell-specific plastid development in Arabidopsis leaves Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ...
Contributors KO: cell culture, biochemical studies, immunohistochemical analysis, interpretation of results. HS: design of the ... Daily GDF11 treatment attenuated cellular senescence and airspace enlargement in an elastase-induced mouse model of emphysema. ... Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) belongs to the transforming growth factor β superfamily and was recently reported to ... The mRNA expression of GDF11 in mesenchymal cells from the COPD group was decreased. Chronic exposure to CSE decreased the ...
All in all, at the cellular level, these are associated with alterations in neuronal differentiation and patterns of cell death ... ventricular enlargement and demyelination lead to cognitive impairment, seizures and cerebral palsy. The mechanisms leading to ...
The diploid (2n) cells formed by the enlargement and differentiation of the spermatogonia; they give rise by meiotic division ... suppressor T cell (TS). A type of T cell that causes B cells as well as other cells to ignore antigens. ... stem cells. The common, self-regenerating cells in the marrow of long bones that give rise, by differentiation and division, to ... The unspecialized diploid (2n) cells on the walls of the seminiferous tubules that, by enlargement, differentiation, and ...
  • During late gestation, l7Rn6 was widely expressed in the cytoplasm of lung epithelial cells, whereas perinatal expression was restricted to the bronchiolar epithelium. (genetics.org)
  • 1993 ). Delivery of Na+,K+-ATPase in polarized epithelial cells. (biologists.org)
  • 1991 ). Mechanism for regulating cell surface distribution of Na+,K+-ATPase in polarized epithelial cells. (biologists.org)
  • Smoke causes an increase in the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) and neutrophilic elastase from epithelial cells and neutrophils, which are responsible for mucin production and destruction of the lung. (springer.com)
  • Initially, cigarette smoke influences the expression of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the intracellularly located nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), and receptors for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) on lung epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and leukocytes in the lung. (springer.com)
  • The epithelial cells are composed of two principal cell types―ciliated and secretory cells. (springer.com)
  • In the sixth patient, only bland-looking epithelial cells, indicative of ductal differentiation suspicious of neoplasm were noted. (hkmj.org)
  • Epithelial cells represent the first barrier of the upper and lower respiratory tracts and thus are logical targets for a comprehensive integrated therapeutic approach. (bmj.com)
  • For a time the vagina is represented by a solid rod of epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that cells appearing in atherosclerotic lesions, such as ASMCs, endothelial cells, and monocytes/macrophages, expressed mRNAs for both PDGF A and B chains in vitro, with the highest expression in endothelial cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Since a polarised expression and secretion of galectin-3 was observed in monolayer-cultured MDCK cells, an understanding of the secretion and distribution of this lectin in a three-dimensional in vitro model would help to uncover its role(s) in the interplay between cell-surface adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix components occurring during cell aggregation and polarisation in tissue formation. (biologists.org)
  • Our previous in vitro studies indicated that Notch3, which is expressed in mural cells, mediates these cell-cell interactions. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 , 2 A host of reports have implied that endothelial cells and mural cells are closely associated, and the interactions between them are required for the regulation of vessel formation, stabilization, remodeling and function in vivo and in vitro. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the present study, we have used the murine embryonic stem (ES, D3 cell line) cell system for the in vitro differentiation of cardiomyocytes. (rupress.org)
  • First, they must expand to accommodate cell growth, which is anisotropic in many tissues and determines organ morphology. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Most plant cells are specialized to a greater or lesser degree, and arranged together in tissues . (wikibooks.org)
  • Note that in simple tissues at least (tissues comprised mostly of one cell type), the tissue name follows from the cell type. (wikibooks.org)
  • Tissues composed of cells that remain undifferentiated and supply, by their divisions, cells to form new tissues and organs, are called meristems . (wikibooks.org)
  • The developmentally regulated presence of galectin-3 in tissues, for example kidney, and an affinity for many cell-surface and matrix glycoproteins indicate its importance in extracellular biological processes. (biologists.org)
  • The sieve elements (SE) in the phloem are the main cells transporting photosynthates from source tissues, such as leaves, towards the parts of the plant where they are consumed, also referred to as sink tissues. (springer.com)
  • Apical meristems, or zones of cell division, occur in the tips of both roots and stems of all plants and are responsible for increases in the length of the primary plant body as the primary tissues differentiate from the meristems. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Abnormal development or growth of tissues, organs, or cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In some tissues dividing cells are restricted to special areas, such as the growth plates of bones . (wikipedia.org)
  • The acquisition of particular structures and characteristics by cells or tissues which allows them to perform specific functions. (commonweal.org)
  • A malignant condition of the lymphoid tissues which results in the enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and liver, and sometimes fever and weight loss. (commonweal.org)
  • The present invention relates to PTP05 polypeptides and PTP10 polypeptides, nucleic acids encoding such polypeptides, cells, tissues and animals containing such nucleic acids, antibodies to such polypeptides, assays utilizing such polypeptides, and methods relating to all of the foregoing. (google.com)
  • The levels of mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are elevated in cells expressing activated PI 3-kinase or Myr-Akt. (pnas.org)
  • VEGF mRNA levels are decreased in cells treated with the PI 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 and restored by overexpression of v-P3k or Myr-Akt. (pnas.org)
  • Herein, lncRNA and mRNA expression in preadipocytes at different stages of differentiation were analyzed using RNA sequencing. (g3journal.org)
  • The transgenic overexpression of SREBP-1a in liver, driven by the phospho enol pyruvate carboxykinase promoter, developed into progressive and massive enlargement of the liver owing to the engorgement of the hepatocytes with TGs and cholesterol, accompanied by markedly elevated mRNA levels for acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 ( 16 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • TSH-R mRNA signals for additional fibroblast differentiation in the orbit. (uiowa.edu)
  • Adult and neonate stem cell activity was observed both in the laboratory and in animal models. (innovations-report.com)
  • Dr. Kaushal and his team will soon begin the first clinical trial in the United States to determine whether the damage to hearts of babies with HLHS can be reversed with stem cell therapy. (innovations-report.com)
  • Current knowledge of the spatiotemporal control of brassinosteroid function in plants, focusing on primary root development and growth, stem cell self-renewal and death, and adaptation to environmental stress, is summarized in this Review from Ana Caño-Delgado and team. (biologists.org)
  • Protophloem differentiation is unique in being complete only 20-25 cells away from the first stem cell, and during the differentiation process the cells lose several organelles, including the nucleus, while the remaining organelles are rearranged. (springer.com)
  • The root meristem resides at the root tip and consists of the stem cell niche, a collective term for the mitotically less active quiescent center and the surrounding stem cells, and transit amplifying cells (Dolan et al. (springer.com)
  • In this proposal, we will generate human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) from patients with HCM. (ca.gov)
  • The dividing cells tend to be distinct from differentiated cells (see stem cell ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Each one of them also known as the stem cell can become any type of cell that is needed. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • We derived human oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from the human embryonic stem cell line H9, purified and characterized them. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Stem cell therapy presents a promising treatment approach for traumatic brain injury (TBI). (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2008) Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Is Dispensable for Maintenance of Embryonic Stem Cell Pluripotency. (patentgenius.com)
  • 2006) Spatial Organization of Embryonic Stem Cell Responsiveness to Autocrine Gp130 Ligands Reveals an Autoregulatory Stem Cell Niche. (patentgenius.com)
  • Here, we show that transplantation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) into adult rat spinal cord injuries enhances remyelination and promotes improvement of motor function. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we undertook a proof of concept experiment to determine the feasibility and efficacy of using human stem cell derivatives to promote remyelination and functional recovery in the injured adult rat spinal cord. (jneurosci.org)
  • Objective- Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are a novel stem cell population derived from human adult somatic cells through reprogramming using a defined set of transcription factors. (scialert.net)
  • Differentiation of infected cells occurs synchronously and the mature nodule contains symbiotic cells with a homogenous population of nitrogen-fixing bacteroids ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Endoreduplication is a specialized cell cycle in which DNA replication occurs, but mitosis is skipped creating enlarged polyploid cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • This demonstrates that differential chloroplast development occurs between the bundle sheath and mesophyll cells in the Arabidopsis leaf. (biologists.org)
  • Considering the fact that altered glucose metabolism occurs in both cases, and hyperinsulinemia with reduced insulin sensitivity is involved, an obvious potential factor affecting the lung is insulin itself, particularly a direct effect on structural cells as well as immune cells in the airway. (hindawi.com)
  • The formation of cell types like nerve cells occurs with a number of intermediary, less differentiated cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth continues after the embryonic stage, and occurs through cell division , enlargement of cells or accumulation of extracellular material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptotic attrition of bystander T cells may make room for the antigen-specific expansion of T cells during infection and may, in part, account for the loss of T-cell memory that occurs when the host undergoes subsequent infections. (asm.org)
  • In addition, understanding the interplay between the PLETHORA (PLT) gradient, which is known to govern the root zonation, and phloem development within the root meristem could shed light on the rapidity of SE differentiation and its importance to the meristem. (springer.com)
  • The CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells were extracted from umbilical cord blood in term parturition, and Lin-CD45RA-DC precusors were separated and induced mature. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the case of determinate nodules, the initial cell division activity required for nodule primordium formation ceases rapidly and therefore the determinate nodules contain no meristem. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast, cell division activity in the indeterminate nodules is maintained and forms an apical meristem (nodule zone I). Because the size of the meristem is constant, cell division activity and production of new sets of meristematic cells are balanced with the exit of the same number of cells from the mitotic cell cycle. (pnas.org)
  • Both the transcription factor Arabidopsis thaliana MERISTEM LAYER1 (ATML1) and the plant-specific cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor LOSS OF GIANT CELLS FROM ORGANS (LGO)/SIAMESE RELATED1 (SMR1) are required for the formation of giant cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • A balance between creation of new meristematic cells by division and departure of cells from the meristem by differentiation is required to maintain a functional SAM. (sciencemag.org)
  • B-cell lymphoma usually appears as a painless lymph node enlargement, although extranodal sites of origin are not uncommon. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • follicular lymphoma malignant lymphoma in which the lymphomatous cells are clustered into identifiable nodules within the lymph nodes that somewhat resemble the germinal centers of lymphatic nodules . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Following preoperative ultrasonography in six of the patients, tumours were suspected in two, an enlarged lymph node in one, and diffuse enlargement was visualised in the other three. (hkmj.org)
  • Mitotic exit and onset of endoreduplication do not correlate with an up-regulation of known cell cycle inhibitors but are the result of reduced levels of DP-E2F-LIKE1/E2Fe and UV-B-INSENSITIVE4, both inhibitors of the developmental transition from mitosis to endoreduplication by modulating anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome activity, which are down-regulated rapidly after DELLA stabilization. (plantphysiol.org)
  • These results provide compelling evidence that Notch3 is important for the investment of mural cells and is a critical regulator of developmental and pathological blood vessel formation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Triacylglyceride (TG) accumulation in pancreatic β-cells is associated with impaired insulin secretion, which is called lipotoxicity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • On a high-fat diet, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was decreased in association with increased TG content in the islets, which might be mediated through the elevated serum free fatty acid levels and their passive transport into β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Mature Th17 cells are seen as a the secretion of copious levels of IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, and IL-22[22- (antibodyassay.com)
  • The clv3-3 allele is caused by transferred DNA (T-DNA) integration ( 10 ) and confers a weak clv3 phenotype, whereas the clv3-7 allele is caused by integration of the maize transposable element En-1 ( 11 ) and confers a strong phenotype. (sciencemag.org)
  • A newly discovered B cell subset, age-associated B cells, expresses the transcription factor T-bet, has a unique surface phenotype, and accumulates progressively with age. (jimmunol.org)
  • In accord with this notion, the ratio of T cells displaying naive versus memory phenotype inverts with age. (jimmunol.org)
  • As a consequence, neural progenitor cells derived from these kids proliferate faster than controls, explaining the big brain phenotype. (ucsd.edu)
  • In phan mutants, the leaf margin, a region of distinct epidermal cells at the leaf edge, does not form. (plantcell.org)
  • Bundle sheath cells form a sheath around the entire vascular tissue in Arabidopsis leaves and constitute a distinct leaf cell type, as defined by their elongate morphology, their position adjacent to the vein and by differences in their chloroplast development compared to mesophyll cells. (biologists.org)
  • Following fertilization, fruits typically undergo a dramatic enlargement that is accompanied by differentiation of numerous distinct cell types. (biologists.org)
  • Recent work suggests that in addition to the raptor-mTOR-GbL complex (now called mTORC1, for mTOR complex 1), mTOR also exists in the cell in a distinct complex that instead of raptor contains the novel proteins rictor and mSin1 (this complex is called mTORC2, for mTOR complex 2). (mit.edu)
  • Selective virus-induced activation of T cells with a distinct allospecificity can be shown in mice having comparable frequencies of T-cell precursors to either of two alloantigens ( 28 , 53 ). (asm.org)
  • Clara cells were first described as a morphologically distinct cell type by Kolliker in 1881, but take their name from the seminal study of human and rabbit bronchioles by Max Clara in 1937. (acmbcb.org)
  • Phenotypic and marker gene expression analysis revealed a pivotal role for l7Rn6 in Clara cell function in mouse lung development. (genetics.org)
  • 1988 ) Cell position and light influence C4versus C3patterns of photosynthetic gene expression in maize. (biologists.org)
  • beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression in the enhancer trap line is observed specifically in all cell layers of the valve tissue, but not in the replum, the septum or the seeds, and faithfully mimics RNA in situ hybridization data reported previously. (biologists.org)
  • (1) identified the first melanoma antigen gene, MAGE-1 3 ( MAGE-A1 ), in a human melanoma cell line. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, knockdown of endogenous FoxO1 in T37i cells increased Pgc1α (Ppargc1a) , Pgc1β (Ppargc1b) , Ucp1, and Adrb3 gene expression. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A cell stays a certain cell type by maintaining a particular pattern of gene expression . (wikipedia.org)
  • Defects on cell cycle control were also obvious from gene expression on these cells. (ucsd.edu)
  • Because of the difficulty of identifying the components of signaling networks in mammalian cells, we are creating and using technologies that allow us to probe gene function in a highly parallel fashion. (mit.edu)
  • The features (or spots) of these microarrays consist of clusters of mammalian cells that either over- or under-express a particular gene product or are under the influence of a small drug-like molecule. (mit.edu)
  • The features are only 100-250 microns in diameter and, thus, on a standard microscope slide we can create arrays containing thousands of individual cell clusters, each with a perturbation in a different gene. (mit.edu)
  • As the polymers degrade the reagents are released, affecting, without the need of wells to sequester the individual reagents, gene function in defined local areas of a cell monolayer. (mit.edu)
  • The CD95 gene, implicated in negative selection of B lymphocytes in GCs, is specifically expressed by GC B cells and was recently identified as a tumor suppressor gene being frequently mutated in (post) GC B cell lymphomas. (rupress.org)
  • In this study, the 5′ region (5′R) and/or the last exon coding for the death domain (DD) of the CD95 gene were investigated in naive, GC, and memory B cells from seven healthy donors. (rupress.org)
  • The CD95 (Apo-1/Fas) gene was recently proposed to act as a tumor suppressor gene ( 5 ) and is, like bcl-6 , mutated in a fraction of lymphomas derived from antigen-experienced B cells. (rupress.org)
  • Germline mutations of the CD95 gene leading to autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) and predisposing to B cell lymphoma and other malignancies have been observed in humans as well ( 5 )( 14 ). (rupress.org)
  • Deleterious mutations of exon IX of the CD95 gene coding for the death domain (DD) act in a dominant-negative way, which is likely due to the trimerization of CD95 on the cell surface ( 14 ). (rupress.org)
  • To test the latter possibility, naive, GC, and memory B cells of healthy donors were purified and analyzed for mutations of the CD95 gene. (rupress.org)
  • beta-glucuronidase reporter construct to characterize spatial and temporal patterns of cell cycling at each of these levels during wild-type development in the model genetic organism Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia). (nih.gov)
  • The genetic code that controls cell activity. (brainscape.com)
  • The interactions of the environment and the genetic instructions inherited by the cells determine how the plant develops. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • However, the new cells must have the same genetic information as the originals so they can do the same job. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Structures in the cell nucleus containing DNA, the genetic material. (commonweal.org)
  • This precedes visible changes in leaf morphology, asymmetric placement of the distal margin gap, formation of margin gaps along the leaf border, asymmetric distribution of marginal auxin, and asymmetry in cell division patterns. (plantcell.org)
  • We propose that the initial asymmetric placement of auxin at the leaf tip gives rise to later asymmetries in the internal auxin sources, which subsequently result in asymmetrical cell differentiation and division patterns. (plantcell.org)
  • Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours (SLCT) are rare tumours, accounting for less than 0.5% among the ovarian tumours, and occur most frequently in the second and third decades. (elsevier.es)
  • left salpingo-oophorectomy was performed and an ovarian SLCT of intermediate differentiation was diagnosed. (elsevier.es)
  • Rather recently, the immunohistochemical localization of pituitary hormones involved in reproduction and in background color adaptation has been described in both adult and developing individuals, and the role of FSH in ovarian differentiation has been established. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Previous evidence suggested that the differentiation of Lin-CD45RA-DC precursors were prior to plasmcytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) than myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) within ovarian cancer microenvironment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ShRNA mediated Notch 1 knock-down significantly differentiated less plasmcytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), but generated more myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs), and this would not be influenced by the supernatant of the ovarian carcinoma cell line. (biomedcentral.com)
  • And this would not be affected by the supernatant of the ovarian carcinoma cell line. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One evidence to support the above statement is that the matured myloid DCs (mDCs, HLA-DR + CD11C + CD123−), which are considered as the most potent antigen-presentation cells, infiltrate rarely into the tumor site in the patients with ovarian carcinoma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the vascular tissue of plants, the conductive cells in phloem and xylem are responsible for long distance transport. (springer.com)
  • As with most animal eggs, the early events of amphibian development are largely independent of the environment, and the processes leading to cell differentiation must involve a redistribution and interaction of constituents already present in the fertilized egg. (scientificamerican.com)
  • These bizarre cells tumor associated with petrous aspect of the setting of are pilocytic astrocytomas irregular bone destructive processes (7). (starfishandspider.com)
  • S ingh and K atyal 2000 ), CC26, a 26-kDa selenium-independent glutathione peroxidase ( P ower and N icholas 1999 ), as well as several members of the cell surface integrin family ( B lundell and H arrison 2005 ). (genetics.org)
  • The formation of a plant body depends on the coordinated generation of cells followed by their expansion and functional specialization ( den Boer and Murray, 2000 ). (plantcell.org)
  • 2000. A metabolite of methoxychlor, 2,2-bis( p hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane, reduces testosterone biosynthesis in rat leydig cells through suppression of steady-state messenger ribonucleic acid levels of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. (cdc.gov)
  • Researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, who are exploring novel ways to treat serious heart problems in children, have conducted the first direct comparison of the regenerative abilities of neonatal and adult-derived human cardiac stem cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Among their findings: cardiac stem cells (CSCs) from newborns have a three-fold ability to restore heart function to nearly normal levels compared with adult CSCs. (innovations-report.com)
  • Further, in animal models of heart attack, hearts treated with neonatal stem cells pumped stronger than those given adult cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • The surprising finding is that the cells from neonates are extremely regenerative and perform better than adult stem cells," says the study's senor author, Sunjay Kaushal, M.D., Ph.D., associate professor of surgery at the University of Maryland School of Medicine and director, pediatric cardiac surgery at the University of Maryland Medical Center. (innovations-report.com)
  • One explanation hinges on sheer numbers: there are many more stem cells in a baby's heart than in the adult heart. (innovations-report.com)
  • adult T-cell lymphoma ( adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma ) adult T-cell leukemia /lymphoma . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • White matter degeneration is associated with and makes differential diagnoses out of other adult onset leukodystrophies such as metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD), Krabbe disease (globoid cell leukodystrophy), and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ADL). (wikipedia.org)
  • By the time you are an adult, scienctists have estimated that your body will contain around 37.2 trillion cells - although estimates vary from 15 - 100 trillion! (getrevising.co.uk)
  • As an adult, cell death and mitosis keep more or less in balance. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Some differentiated cells, such as red blood cells and skin cells, cannot divide at all and so adult stem cells replace dead or damaged cells. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • IL-10R1 localizes to both ventral and dorsal sub-regions into cells lining the adult lateral ventricle. (biologists.org)
  • Double staining with cell type markers confirmed that the vast majority of Nestin + progenitors and TUBB3 + neuroblasts expressed IL-10R1. (biologists.org)
  • A higher number of Nestin + (red) cells and reduced number of neuroblasts (green) were detected. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, the release of biologically active mitogens by these cells in the arterial intima is likely to play a role on target cells expressing cognite receptors. (ahajournals.org)
  • Nevertheless, when Wnt ligands bind to cell membrane receptors, signaling through the frizzled receptors inhibits this degradation procedure, thereby raising the degrees of free of charge cytoplasmic -catenin. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • When Wnt ligands bind with their cognate cell membrane receptors, indicators are released to inhibit this degradation procedure, leading to -catenin build up and nuclear translocation controlled by Rac1, DKK1 and FRZB, which are antagonists of canonical Wnt signaling. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Orbital fibroblasts are unlike other fibroblasts in the body, in that they express CD40 receptors (CD40-R), which are normally found on B-cells . (uiowa.edu)
  • Expression of Notch1 receptors and ligands were detected in Lin-CD45RA-DC precursor cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Notch proteins (Notch 1-4) constitute a group of highly conserved transmembrane receptors that regulate cell fate decision during the development of many mammalian cell lineages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The means by which cells first come to differ from one another during animal development has interested humans for nearly 2,000 years, and it still constitutes one of the major unsolved problems of biology. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Address correspondence to: Fabiola Moretti, Institute of Cell Biology and Neurobiology, National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Via del Fosso di Fiorano, 64, 00143 Rome, Italy. (jci.org)
  • Removal of the constraints imposed by the cell wall has stimulated many fundamental studies on plant cell biology. (gate2biotech.com)
  • Nature Cell Biology 8, 285-292. (patentgenius.com)
  • Zhang R, Wu Y, Wang X, Lu X, Li Y, Li S, Yan X. Difference of genomic copy numbers alterations between hairy cell leukemia-variant and classical hairy cell leukemia: a pilot retrospective study in Chinese. (medsci.org)
  • These results revealed some aspects about the mechanisms by which alterations of fatty acid metabolism affect β-cell functions. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The concept that fatty acids (FAs) provoke cardiac, skeletal muscle, and hepatic insulin resistance and impair β-cell function has been extensively confirmed in humans, and mechanisms are reviewed in detail elsewhere ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Consistent with this hypothesis, lipid oxidation is increased systemically and regionally, i.e., in the myocardium and skeletal muscle, and in the liver in states of insulin resistance and/or in steatosis ( 8 - 10 ), and recent evidence supports a role of β-cell oxidative stress in mediating FA-induced β-cell dysfunction ( 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 1994 ). Selective modulation of the interaction of 71 integrin with fibronectin and laminin by L-14 lectin during skeletal muscle differentiation. (biologists.org)
  • The symbiotic plant cells in both nodule types are polyploid because of several cycles of endoreduplication (genome replication without mitosis and cytokinesis) and grow consequently to extreme sizes. (pnas.org)
  • Using recombinant Rhizobium strains nodulating both legume types, we show that bacteroid differentiation is controlled by the host plant. (pnas.org)
  • Endoreduplication is associated with the differentiation of many specialized cell types. (frontiersin.org)
  • During development, particular cell types often have specialized cell cycles. (frontiersin.org)
  • One of the major constituents of both types of cell walls is cellulose, which exists as microfibrils composed of parallel β-1,4-linked glucan chains that are held together laterally by hydrogen bonds ( Somerville, 2006 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • In some cell types, pectin or lignin may also participate in cross-linking or entrapment of other cell wall polymers. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Recent research has shown that several types of cardiac stem cells can help the heart repair itself, essentially reversing the theory that a broken heart cannot be mended. (innovations-report.com)
  • Thus, the regulation of PDGF A- and B-chain expression depends on cell types and phenotypic states of the cells, which have also been found in vivo in human atherosclerotic lesions. (ahajournals.org)
  • various categories may be subdivided into nodular and diffuse types depending on the predominant pattern of cell arrangement. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Name three cell types that have a high energy requirement, and as such have large numbers of mitochondria. (brainscape.com)
  • Galectin-3 is a member of a closely related family of beta-galactoside-binding soluble proteins found in many vertebrate epithelial and myeloid cell types. (biologists.org)
  • Plant vasculature consists of two major conductive cell types, xylem tracheary elements and phloem sieve elements (SEs). (springer.com)
  • Unlike neurons and other types of glia, which are of neuroectodermal origin, microglia are macrophage-lineage cells derived from hematopoietic progenitors. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, it is important to emphasize that in fact there is a significant knowledge gap regarding insulin effects in the airway, and we therefore draw upon what is known in other cell types to generate hypotheses that could drive future research. (hindawi.com)
  • Differentiation is the formation of cell types, from what is originally one cell - the zygote or spore . (wikipedia.org)
  • In animals, many types of cells become specialised very early in life. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Further studies have indicated that SAL exerts potential anticancer effects against different human cancer cell types, including lung, gastric and prostate cancer, and glioblastoma cells ( 10 - 13 ), without adversely affecting healthy cells ( 14 - 16 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Moreover, SAL was revealed to reverse multi-drug resistance in many cancer cell types ( 21 , 22 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Both IGF-1-R and TSH-R are present on most types of human cells and are activated by their respective autoantibodies. (uiowa.edu)
  • Inhibition of Smad7 antisense DNA restored TGF- awareness in IBD T cells shows to work in murine types of experimental colitis[30, (antibodyassay.com)