Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Gap Junctions: Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Connexins: A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Communication Disorders: Disorders of verbal and nonverbal communication caused by receptive or expressive LANGUAGE DISORDERS, cognitive dysfunction (e.g., MENTAL RETARDATION), psychiatric conditions, and HEARING DISORDERS.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Health Communication: The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.Communication Aids for Disabled: Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Nonverbal Communication: Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Communication Barriers: Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Mice, Inbred C57BLOsteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Connexin 43: A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Radiology Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Myoblasts: Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Hospital Communication Systems: The transmission of messages to staff and patients within a hospital.Interdisciplinary Communication: Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Dimethyl Sulfoxide: A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute: A myeloproliferative disorder characterized by neoplastic proliferation of erythroblastic and myeloblastic elements with atypical erythroblasts and myeloblasts in the peripheral blood.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Communication Methods, Total: Utilization of all available receptive and expressive modes for the purpose of achieving communication with the hearing impaired, such as gestures, postures, facial expression, types of voice, formal speech and non-speech systems, and simultaneous communication.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Nerve Tissue ProteinsMyoD Protein: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
  • The exact interactions between endothelial and mesenchymal cells during vessel assembly that lead to TGF-β activation and mural cell differentiation are not well defined but are presumably complex given the number of genes implicated by mutation studies to regulate these processes during vascular development. (ahajournals.org)
  • The growth of cells in the body is a closely controlled function, which, together with limited and regulated expression of various genes, gives rise to the many different tissues that constitute the whole organism. (britannica.com)
  • This analysis identified multiple genes as differentially expressed in pancreatic cancer cells and in fibroblasts as a consequence of their mutual interactions, including those that encode for proteins associated with tumor invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Among the genes identified, the cyclooxygenase-2 ( COX-2 ) /PTGS2 gene was of particular interest because COX-2 expression was markedly augmented in both cell types (cancer cells and fibroblasts) in response to coculture. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Gene enrichment analyses show depletion of expressed genes in categories related to development, cell differentiation, and cell-cell communication. (pnas.org)
  • Esto produce una acumulación de esta proteína en el citoplasma celular y permite su entrada al núcleo, donde ejerce su acción al unirse a una serie de moléculas y factores de transcripción, permitiendo de este modo que se expresen los genes diana, entre los que se encuentran los de las hormonas incretinas. (isciii.es)
  • Epigenetics is what determines the differences between the cells in your body - when cells commit to different fates during development, what they're really doing is reprogramming their epigenetics, turning massive sets of genes on or off through chemical modifications of DNA or associated proteins. (biology-online.org)
  • The role of genes in the determination and differentiation of eukaryotes. (temple.edu)
  • The discovery of developmental genes that encode hair cell differentiation facilitates the design of interventions to promote generation of new hair cells in cochleae with hair cell loss. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although a few genes have been demonstrated to function in phloem development, detailed analyses and a comprehensive understanding of sieve element development (i.e. how often the stem cells divide, how frequently enucleation takes place, and how SE development is coordinated between cell division and differentiation on a molecular level) are still lacking. (springer.com)
  • The Osteo-Promoter Database (OPD) is a collection of genes and promoters expressed in skeletal cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genes in eukaryotic cells are regulated in "active regions," in which chromatin structure is "open" and accessible to DNA-binding proteins and "silent regions" where "packed" chromatin renders the DNA inaccessible. (biomedcentral.com)
  • He outfitted the sending cell with promoters and genes to allow the controlled expression of a chemical called V. fischeri autoinducer. (sciencemag.org)
  • Upon detecting this chemical, the receiving cell would express specific genes. (sciencemag.org)
  • or how the microenvironment can regulate cell function by changing which genes can be expressed. (ualberta.ca)
  • It occurs as a proteoglycan (PG) in which two or three HS chains are attached in close proximity to cell surface or ECM proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite general similarities between mDCs and the model systems, moDCs and KG-1 cells, our findings identified some significant differences in the proteomes of these cells, and the findings were confirmed by ELISA detection of a selection of proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This was particularly noticeable with proteins involved in cell growth and maintenance (for example, fibrinogen γ chain (FGG) and ubiquinol cytochrome c) and cell-cell interaction and integrity (for example, fascin and actin). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Students will have insight into how cells produce and export proteins, and how material is endocytosed. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • and morphogens, proteins involved in the growth and differentiation of the cells that line the gut. (eurekalert.org)
  • In many cases mammalian cells are the only option to produce recombinant proteins with correct post-translational modifications, e.g. glycosylation, which are required for proper function of the therapeutic protein. (news-medical.net)
  • In this report, we identify exosome-based secretion as a general mechanism for protein secretion by Leishmania , and show that exosomes are involved in the delivery of proteins into host target cells. (biologists.org)
  • In eukaryotes, the cell division cycle includes four discrete phases: Gap 1 (G1), Synthesis (S), Gap 2 (G2) and Mitosis (M). During the G1 phase, which is known as the first interphase, the cell synthesizes proteins that are needed for DNA replication and continuous growth. (springer.com)
  • They contain functional proteins and genetic materials and serve as a vehicle for communication between cells. (nanowerk.com)
  • In combination with synthetic nanoparticles that my laboratory is developing, we may ultimately be able to use these identified miRNAs or proteins to make synthetic exosomes, thereby avoiding the need to use any kind of neural progenitor cell line to induce neuron growth," said the paper's senior and corresponding author Qiaobing Xu, assistant professor of biomedical engineering at Tufts School of Engineering. (nanowerk.com)
  • Protein expression analysis of induced vascular progenitor cells (VPCs) derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) comparing seeding densities of 1,000 vs 10,000 cells/cm 2 . (biomedcentral.com)
  • We recently demonstrated that lack of the adaptor protein Nck1 in mice is associated with reduced adiposity and impaired adipocyte differentiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Promotion of cell-cell contact by aggregation of TRM-6/PDX-1 into islet-like clusters produced a further 10- to 100-fold increase in somatostatin mRNA, to a level similar to that of freshly isolated islets, which resulted in production of somatostatin protein. (nih.gov)
  • Discoidin domain-containing receptor 2 , also known as CD167b ( cluster of differentiation 167b), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DDR2 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • In cells that express the v-Src protein kinase, wt Cx43 is phosphorylated on tyrosine residues and GJC is dramatically disrupted ( 2 , 5 , 8 , 12 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This protein is active in cells that make up a part of the hair follicle known as the matrix. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The overactive protein triggers matrix cells to divide too quickly and in an uncontrolled way, leading to the formation of a pilomatricoma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Compared with non-sorted cells, the sorted cells cultured in scaffolds underwent more chondrogenic differentiation, as evidenced by higher expression of type II collagen and Sox9 at the protein and mRNA levels. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Protein phosphorylation is an essential post-translational modification that modulates cell-cell communication. (springer.com)
  • In this study, the correlation between Cx43 and IDO were determined by the treatment of resveratrol and S.C. Our data showed an increase in Cx43 while IDO protein and IDO-mediated inhibited effects on T cell decreased after tumor cells are given with resveratrol and S.C. treatments. (medsci.org)
  • Notch is a single transmembrane protein located on the cell surface with transmembrane ligands. (news-medical.net)
  • These results led us to hypothesize that Leishmania use an exosome-based mechanism to actively regulate protein release from the cell. (biologists.org)
  • The Phase I/II clinical trial focuses on a protein called CCR5 that plays a key role in enabling HIV to infect cells. (ca.gov)
  • For example, gamma secretase is critical for the processing of a protein called Notch, which controls cell differentiation and communication. (xconomy.com)
  • In Alzheimer's disease, a toxic type of protein accumulates in brain neurons and leads to mitochondrial rupture and cell death. (redorbit.com)
  • When a cell enters the G1 phase, a protein called cyclin D increases in response to mitogenic stimuli. (springer.com)
  • At the same time, the studies on synchronization of protein synthesis rhythm in mammalian cell cultures demonstrated that noradrenaline and serotonin have conserved their ancient function of cell-cell cooperation in mammals, which is manifested as coordinated social behavior of cells in population in the case of bacteria and multicellular organisms. (deepdyve.com)
  • After 20 days of induction of differentiation, we analyzed the stem cell populations using gene and protein expression assays as well as biochemical functions. (rsc.org)
  • We recently reported protein kinase A (PKA) to be part of a macromolecular signaling complex with ezrin and gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) that provides cAMP-mediated control of gap junction communication. (biochemj.org)
  • We report that, in organotypic slice cultures analyzed by ratiometric time-lapse calcium imaging, current-clamp recordings, and dye-coupling methods, an early and essential way in which grafted murine or human NSCs integrate functionally into host neural circuitry and affect host cells is via gap-junctional coupling, even before electrophysiologically mature neuronal differentiation. (pnas.org)
  • The biomedical engineers also showed that the exosomes contain miRNAs--tiny pieces of RNA that regulate cell behavior and are known to play a role in neuronal differentiation. (nanowerk.com)
  • Emerging evidence suggests that miRNAs regulate critical pathways involved in stem cell function. (springer.com)
  • 3. the processes which regulate and integrate cell function. (studiesabroad.com)
  • The unifying goal of our research program is to determine what types of microenvironments regulate normal and cancer stem cell plasticity and function, and to elucidate the mechanisms by which such microenvironments elicit their effects. (ualberta.ca)
  • Stable reexpression of Cx43 in Cx43 −/− cells (reCx43) restored their ability to form gap junctions with endothelial cells and undergo endothelial-induced mural cell differentiation. (ahajournals.org)
  • 18,19 The presence of gap junctions has been documented among and between vascular cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • 29 Mural cell gap junctions are predominantly composed of Cx43 26 but may also contain Cx40, 24,30,31 Cx37, or Cx45. (ahajournals.org)
  • The gap junctions, which are established rapidly, permit exogenous NSCs to influence directly host network activity, including synchronized calcium transients with host cells in fluctuating networks. (pnas.org)
  • To determine whether gap junctions between NSCs and host cells may also mediate neuroprotection in vivo, we examined NSC transplantation in two murine models characterized by degeneration of the same cell type (Purkinje neurons) from different etiologies, namely, the nervous and SCA1 mutants. (pnas.org)
  • In both, gap junctions (containing connexin 43) formed between NSCs and host cells at risk, and were associated with rescue of neurons and behavior (when implantation was performed before overt neuron loss). (pnas.org)
  • Here we report that an early and essential step in the functional integration of grafted murine and human NSCs into host neural circuitry, even before (and perhaps establishing a template for) mature electrochemical synaptic communication, is cell-cell coupling via gap junctions that modulate network activity. (pnas.org)
  • Cells that express a Cx43 mutant with phenylalanine mutations at these tyrosine sites form functional gap junctions that, unlike junctions formed by wild type Cx43, remain functional in cells that co-express v-Src. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • epithelia and cell junctions. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • We report here on experiments testing the compatibility of mechanisms specifying cell fate among six different Drosophila species. (biologists.org)
  • CARLSON (1994): According to the inside-outside hypothesis, the position of a blastomere determines its developmental fate (i.e., whether it will become part of the inner cell mass or trophoblast). (lifeissues.net)
  • Cell size is often overlooked in the drive to define molecular mechanisms, but as a basic physical property it is an integrator of the cell's metabolic rate and indicator of cell fate. (mit.edu)
  • Intracellular dye injection and dual whole-cell voltage clamp revealed that endothelial cells formed gap junction channels with Cx43 +/+ but not Cx43 −/− progenitors. (ahajournals.org)
  • When a Notch transmembrane receptor establishes contact with a cell, it interacts extracellularly with the Notch transmembrane ligand which initiates proteolytic cleavage of the receptor and consequently the Notch intracellular domain (Notch ICD or NICD) of the receptor is released. (news-medical.net)
  • Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) and KG-1 cells are routinely used as mDC models, but a thorough comparison of these cells has not yet been carried out, particularly in relation to their proteomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) are highly specialized antigen presenting cells that originate from bone marrow progenitor cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cell transplantation and cell marking experiments have been carried out to determine the number of SMCs that convert when intermediate numbers of PMCs are present in the embryo. (nih.gov)
  • The claim that certain cells in the early developing embryo are "fated" or irreversibly determined , is questioned by some human embryologists, and put in doubt by recent studies using human embryonic, fetal and adult stem cells. (lifeissues.net)
  • A colony of cells in an embryo self-organizes to form an organism, facilitated by the information-dense code -- the common genetic program -- embedded in each cell. (sciencemag.org)
  • Reestablishment of functional networks in the central nervous system (CNS) has been proffered as one of the goals of stem cell-mediated therapeutics. (pnas.org)
  • We therefore sought to run a comparative study of the proteomes and functional properties of these cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We then examined the surface phenotype, cytokine profile, endocytic and T-cell-activation ability of these cells in support of the proteomic data, and obtained confirmatory evidence for differences in the maturation status and functional attributes between mDCs and the two DC models. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When that factor was expressed in the cell lines by retroviral-mediated gene transfer, one of the cell lines, TRM-6, derived from human fetal islets, exhibited a 10- to 100-fold increase in somatostatin gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • Global gene expression profiling was performed using oligonucleotide microarrays to determine changes in the gene expression of pancreatic cancer cells (CFPAC1) and stromal fibroblasts induced by coculture. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Notch signalling is involved in the cell-cell communication process via influencing the patterns of gene expression and differentiation. (news-medical.net)
  • The unique feature of plant organisms is the presence of plasmodesmata (PD) between neigh- boring cells. (pbkom.eu)
  • The production of new cells is vital to the survival of species and there will be an introduction to basic genetic concepts to explain how organisms can pass on their traits which convey selective advantages for survival in a fiercely competitive world. (studiesabroad.com)
  • Blocking CCR5 may provide the cells a protective shield against HIV, which in turn would help retain immune system functionality. (ca.gov)
  • A fibrosis progresses, "bridges" of extracellular matrix appear between cells. (phys.org)
  • One, "Remodeling of Fibrous Extracellular Matrices by Contractile Cells: Predictions from Discrete Fiber Network Simulations" involved developing simulations that extrapolated the overall remodeling of the extracellular matrix based on the behavior of neighboring pairs of cells. (phys.org)
  • Cells are the ones that generate force, and it has to be transmitted through what surrounds the cell, the extracellular matrix, or ECM. (phys.org)
  • After 2 weeks in culture, scanning electron microscopy results showed that cells attached and proliferated well on scaffolds, and secreted extracellular matrix were also observed. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Integrins are transmembrane receptors that mediate the attachment between a cell and its surroundings, such as other cells or the extracellular matrix (ECM). (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, fibroblast cells isolated from the Cx43 knockout mouse were found to grow faster in cell culture and to higher saturation densities than fibroblasts that were isolated from wild type mice ( 7 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Mice with a conventional knockout, as well as a T cell-specific deletion, of the Irf8 gene exhibited more efficient T\(_H\)17 cells. (harvard.edu)
  • The final goal is to provide the conceptual framework necessary to interpret biological complexity in relevant phenomena such as cell reprogramming, cancer, host-pathogen interaction. (uniroma1.it)
  • IRF8 was induced steadily and inhibited T\(_H\)17-cell differentiation during T\(_H\)17 lineage commitment at least in part through its physical interaction with RORγt. (harvard.edu)
  • For instance, stem cells in the phloem SE lineages divide anticlinally to produce SE/procambium precursor cells which then undergo a periclinal cell division to give rise to SE precursors and procambial cells (Mähönen et al. (springer.com)