Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Adult Stem Cells: Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.Telefacsimile: A telecommunication system combining the transmission of a document scanned at a transmitter, its reconstruction at a receiving station, and its duplication there by a copier.Polylysine: A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.TokyoJapanNerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Heavy Ions: Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).Carcinoma, Renal Cell: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.BostonAdenocarcinoma, Clear Cell: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of varying combinations of clear and hobnail-shaped tumor cells. There are three predominant patterns described as tubulocystic, solid, and papillary. These tumors, usually located in the female reproductive organs, have been seen more frequently in young women since 1970 as a result of the association with intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed)Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein: A ubiquitin-protein ligase that mediates OXYGEN-dependent polyubiquitination of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT. It is inactivated in VON HIPPEL-LINDAU SYNDROME.MassachusettsCaregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Chloroform: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Molecular Medicine: The field of medicine concerned with understanding the biochemical basis of health and disease and involved in developing diagnostic and therapeutic methods that utilize MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques.Epigenomics: The systematic study of the global gene expression changes due to EPIGENETIC PROCESSES and not due to DNA base sequence changes.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.ConnecticutGranulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)PennsylvaniaChild Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Dopaminergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC Nigra: The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
cambia or cambiums) produces cells to the interior of its cylinder. These cells differentiate into xylem tissue. Unlike the ... Cell elongation provides a limited amount of expansion. The unifacial cambium allowed plants to grow as tall as 50 metres. ... Also in contrast to the bifacial cambium, the unifacial cambium is unable to expand its circumference with anticlinal cell ...
The better nourished cells differentiate into spores. The less healthy cells differentiate into the stalks of the fruiting body ... Inside of our bodies, worn-out, ineffective cells are dismantled and recycled for the greater good of the whole organism. This ... Severin, FF; Skulachev, VP (2011). "Programmed Cell Death as a Target to Interrupt the Aging Program". Advances in Gerontology ... After maturation of the spores, the stalk cells undergo phenoptosis. Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans - Under normal conditions ...
It bears noting that LIF and Stat3 are not sufficient to inhibit stem cell differentiation, as cells will differentiate upon ... As embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass at the blastocyst stage, removing them from the inner cell mass ... LIF is often added to stem cell culture media as an alternative to feeder cell culture, due to the limitation that feeder cells ... the cells differentiate. LIF derives its name from its ability to induce the terminal differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells ...
Such cells, called somatic cells, make up most of the human body, such as skin and muscle cells. Cells differentiate to ... fat cells, and types of bone cells Epithelial stem cells (progenitor cells) that give rise to the various types of skin cells ... A cell that can differentiate into all cell types of the adult organism is known as pluripotent. Such cells are called ... A multipotent cell is one that can differentiate into multiple different, but closely related cell types. Oligopotent cells are ...
Second, mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblasts or fibroblasts. Under favorable conditions, layers of new bone form on ... The rapidity with which premature cell death can occur depends on the cell type and the degree and duration of the anoxia. ... In healthy bone these cells are constantly replaced by differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). However, in ... bone cell damage and eventual cell death (apoptosis). Of significance is the fact that the average concentration of cadmium in ...
Genitals appear well differentiated. Red blood cells are produced in the liver. Heartbeat can be detected by ultrasound. ... This process is called differentiation, which produces the varied cell types (such as blood cells, kidney cells, and nerve ... The embryonic cells flatten into a disk, two cells thick. If separation into identical twins occurs, 2/3 of the time it will ... It starts out as a single cell zygote and then divides several times to form a ball of cells called a morula. Further cellular ...
Bilateral symmetry is apparent from the heart stage; provascular cells will also differentiate at this stage. In the subsequent ... Cells derived from competent source tissue are cultured to form an undifferentiated mass of cells called a callus. Plant growth ... Embryogenesis involves cell growth and division, cell differentiation and programmed cellular death. The zygotic embryo is ... The second phase, or postembryonic development, involves the maturation of cells, which involves cell growth and the storage of ...
Odontoblasts differentiate from cells of the dental papilla. This is an expression of signaling molecules and growth factors of ... Dentinogenesis is performed by odontoblasts, which are a special type of biological cell on the outer wall of dental pulps, and ... The different stages of dentin formation after differentiation of the cell result in different types of dentin: mantle dentin, ...
Protein expression occurs after monocytes differentiate into dendritic cells. A fully mature, active enzyme is produced ... Cytogenet Cell Genet. 74 (1-2): 120-3. doi:10.1159/000134397. PMID 8893817. Chen JM, Dando PM, Rawlings ND, Brown MA, Young NE ... following lipopolysaccharide expression in mature dendritic cells. Overexpression of this gene may be associated with the ...
... the cells expand and differentiate. When cytokinin and auxin are present in equal levels, the parenchyma cells form an ... Cytokinin alone has no effect on parenchyma cells. When cultured with auxin but no cytokinin, they grow large but do not divide ... This bud induction can be pinpointed to differentiation of a specific single cell, and thus is a very specific effect of ... Cytokinins are involved in many plant processes, including cell division and shoot and root morphogenesis. They are known to ...
... on the cell. Hypoxia often keeps cells from differentiating. However, hypoxia promotes the formation of blood vessels, and is ... HIF-1 has been shown to be vital to chondrocyte survival, allowing the cells to adapt to low-oxygen conditions within the ... Cell & Bioscience. 7: 62. doi:10.1186/s13578-017-0190-2. PMID 29158891. Huang Y, Lin D, Taniguchi CM (October 2017). "Hypoxia ... "Hypoxia-dependent regulation of inflammatory pathways in immune cells". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 126 (10): 3716- ...
Daniels KJ, Srikantha T, Lockhart SR, Pujol C, Soll DR (May 2006). "Opaque cells signal white cells to form biofilms in Candida ... Willensdorfer M (February 2009). "On the evolution of differentiated multicellularity". Evolution; International Journal of ... In contrast, similar-looking organisms, such as filamentous green algae, grow by repeated cell division within a chain of cells ... a specialized cell structure that becomes a fertile gamete-producing cell. The gametangium develops into a zygospore, a thick- ...
AK2 protein allows hematopoietic stem cells to differentiate and proliferate. Hematopoietic stem cells give rise to blood cells ... Patients who suffer from RD will now have more stem cells that can differentiate into immune cells. Recombinant granulocyte- ... These cells include T lymphocytes (T cells), that primarily mediate the immune system, B lymphocytes (B cells) and Natural ... hematopoietic stem cells will not be able to differentiate or proliferate. The immune system consists of specialized cells that ...
These cells differentiate into the cells of the definitive glomerulus. In humans, all of the branches of the ureteric bud and ... In this region, epithelial cells arrange themselves in a series of tubules called nephrotomes and join laterally with the ... Simultaneously, precursors of vascular endothelial cells begin to take their position at the tips of the renal tubules. ...
Some of these cells then slightly differentiate from each other. Other examples of colonial organisation in protozoa are ... When cells were grown in pure culture were placed in an iron-limiting environment, populations of cells that secreted ... Programmed cell death (PCD) is another suggested form of microbial altruistic behavior. Although programmed cell death (also ... In a population of siderophore secreting cells, non-secreting mutant cells do not pay the cost of secretion, but still gain the ...
His interests are cervical cancer, papillomaviruses and epithellia cells. His highest cited paper is Human papillomavirus ... Pathogenesis of Human Papillomaviruses in Differentiating Epithelia. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. June 2004 vol. 68 no. 2 362-372 ... Biosynthesis of human papillomavirus from a continuous cell line upon epithelial differentiation. Science Vol. 257, Iss. 5072 ...
The leaf wing cells are clearly differentiated. The spore capsule, at the end of the 7-16 millimeter-long seta is strumose and ... The leaf cells are elongated at the leaf base and smooth, the top sheet portion extends to approximately square and smooth. ...
Little differentiated carpogonial branches with small cells. Carpogonia with broad trichogyne attached off-center to base, ... In most species, rhizoid-like cortical filaments from lower side of pericentral cells. Each fascicle cell contains several, ... Uniseriate central axis with large, cylindrical cells; 4-6 pericentral producing repeatedly branched fascicles of limited ... Spermatangia budded off terminal fascicle cells, spherical, colorless, 4-7 µm diam. ...
... a novel cytoskeletal protein specific for smooth muscle cells". J Cell Biol. 134 (2): 401-11. doi:10.1083/jcb.134.2.401. PMC ... "Entrez Gene: SMTN smoothelin". Luft FC (1999). "Differentiating one smooth operator from another". J. Mol. Med. 77 (2): 255-7. ... Cell Biol. 112 (4): 291-9. doi:10.1007/s004180050450. PMID 10550614. Dunham I, Shimizu N, Roe BA, et al. (1999). "The DNA ... This gene encodes a structural protein that is found exclusively in contractile smooth muscle cells. It associates with stress ...
These cells typically differentiate into fibrocartilage and rarely form hyaline cartilage. While small lesions can be ... However, some physicians have preferred to use undifferentiated pluripotential cells, such as periosteal cells and bone marrow ... As a result, open growth plates allow for more of the stem cells necessary for repair in the affected joint. Unstable, large, ... In 1946, Magnusson established the use of stem cells from bone marrow with the first surgical debridement of an OCD lesion. ...
Selectable markers are used to easily differentiate transformed from untransformed cells. These markers are usually present in ... Embryonic stem cells incorporate the altered gene, which replaces the already present functional copy. These stem cells are ... Some genes do not work well in bacteria, so yeast, insect cells or mammalians cells can also be used. These techniques are used ... As only a single cell is transformed with genetic material, the organism must be regenerated from that single cell. In plants ...
Retinoblastoma cells differentiate into neurons due to the presence of PEDF. Expression of PEDF in the human retina is found at ... Endothelial cell migration is inhibited by PEDF. PEDF suppresses retinal neovascularization and endothelial cell proliferation ... Upon noticing RPE produced a factor that promoted the differentiation of primitive retinal cells into cells of a neuronal ... but also due to effects on the cancer cells themselves. PEDF was shown to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and increase ...
1998). Human tumour-associated macrophages differentiate into osteoclastic bone-resorbing cells. J Pathol 184: 31-36. PMID ... 1997) Human arthroplasty-derived macrophages differentiate into osteoclastic bone-resorbing cells. Ann Rheum Dis 56: 414 - 420 ... Ewing sarcoma and giant cell-rich lesions such as giant cell tumour of bone and pigmented villonodular synovitis. In addition, ... 2006). Bone stromal cells in Paget's disease and Paget's sarcoma express RANKL and support human osteoclast formation. J ...
... serves to mark hair follicle stem cells. These cells can differentiate into neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells ... Nestin, a protein marker for neural stem cells, is also expressed in follicle stem cells and their immediate, differentiated ... "Adult bone marrow stromal cells differentiate into neural cells in vitro". Exp. Neurol. 164 (2): 247-56. doi:10.1006/exnr. ... participate in remodeling of the cell. The role of nestin in dynamic cells, particularly structural organization of the cell, ...
The connections between cells allow development to be synchronised. When repeated division ceases, the cells differentiate into ... The stem cells involved are called spermatogonia and are a specific type of stem cell known as gametogonia. Three functionally ... These cells do not directly participate in producing sperm, instead serving to maintain the supply of stem cells for ... which differentiates further. Type Ap spermatogonia repeatedly divide mitotically to produce identical cell clones linked by ...
Germinal center B cells may differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts ( ... Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete ... Plasma cells originate in the bone marrow; B cells differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibody molecules closely ... In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are CD27-, memory B-cells are CD27+ and plasma cells are ...
The position that differentiated cost shots had dutch effects of women suggested similar east traffickers or guttural schools ... Helsinki hosts particular personal nonmetals in both of the most natural sickle-cell workers in finland: artifact and list ...
... whereby they mature from an unspecialized cell into a specialized cell that has distinct functions and form. These signals ... Stem cells use signals to begin the process of differentiation, ... that all cells come from other cells and that cells are the ... What limits cell division?. A: Cell division is limited by a process called cellular senescence, during which cells in culture ... What Is the Function of the Cell Wall?. A: The cell wall gives cells shape, enables plant growth, prevents bursting from water ...
... Rae Rae Fri May 27 16:50:10 EST 1994 *Previous message: How to differentiate PC12 ... However, only ,small part of cells differentiated. How can I overcome this problem ? ,Is it necessary to change the medium to ... I intended to differentiate PC12 cell with NGF. I added NGF in culture , medium containing 5% horse serum/fetal bovine serum. ... Another problem might be your PC12 cell line- if theyve been carried too long and allowed to overgrow before splitting, then ...
Researchers at the RIKEN Brain Science Institute have used human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to identify a ... Schizophrenic stem cells do not differentiate properly into neurons. RIKEN. Journal. Translational Psychiatry. Keywords. * ... clusters of cells in culture that contain neural stem cells and progenitor cells. The first thing the team noticed was that ... Since the cells in neurospheres can become neurons or glia--another type of brain cell--the team also looked at the proportions ...
The Science of Stem Cells. Welcome to The Science of Stem Cells! You will begin with a basic overview of stem cells--what they ... are, the history of stem cell research, and the ... ... a cell can differentiate. into a number of cell types which are ... The cell experiences many genetic and physical changes along the way.. As it differentiates, the cell becomes more specialized ... Introduction to Stem Cells. Welcome to The Science of Stem Cells! You will begin with a basic overview of stem cells--what they ...
Adding "chemical shift" techniques to MRI can help differentiate clear cell renal cell carcinoma from other types of renal cell ... The study found that chemical shift MRI was about 83% accurate in differentiating clear cell renal cell carcinoma from other ... Chemical Shift MRI Helps Differentiate Renal Cell Tumors More Likely To Metastasize. by editor ... Clear cell type is the most common type of kidney cancer, and it has the greatest potential to metastasize, said Dr. Elmi. ...
... which include adult stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells and other growth factor producing cells, and which were discovered ... These results provide early indication that adipose-derived regenerative cells, ... MacroPore announced pre-clinical findings that suggest for the first time that adipose-derived regenerative cells have the ... which include adult stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells and other growth factor producing cells, and which were discovered ...
A jagged little protein appears to be key to how cancer stem cells differentiate and enable metastasis, according to ... Epithelial cells form tissues that line the outer surfaces of organs. Mesenchymal cells are motile cells that are normally ... A small protein plays key role in how cancer stem cells differentiate. *Download PDF Copy ... A jagged little protein appears to be key to how cancer stem cells differentiate and enable metastasis, according to ...
Researchers at the UCLA Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research have discovered that a ... As they differentiate into specialized cells, pluripotent stem cells undergo a shift in their metabolism, and they begin ... Within the first four days of the experiment, 5 percent to 40 percent more cells differentiated into neural cells than usual. ... Home Health Metabolic molecule speeds up process by which stem cells differentiate ...
... cells with human fetal β cells and not human adult β cells. hPSC-INS+ cells and fetal β cells were no more different from each ... cells and fetal β cells that closely resemble adult β cells. Further study of hPSC-INS+ cells and fetal INS+ cells sorted into ... cells. RNA was isolated from undifferentiated cells, stage-6 cells, and sorted INS+ cells for all three cell lines. Global gene ... cells derived from different cell lines than differences between unsorted stage-6 cells and sorted INS+ cells within each cell ...
Pluripotent And Differentiated Human Cells Reside In Different Epigenomic Landscapes. by Sam Savage ... In a paper published in the May 7 issue of Cell Stem Cell, Bing Ren, PhD, a professor of cellular and molecular medicine at the ... And yet they share the same genome or set of genes with lineage-committed cells, cells fated to be or do one thing. ... "Similarly, the unique epigenome in each cell directs the cell to interpret its genetic information differently in response to ...
Stem Cell Therapy. Stem cell therapy or regenerative medicine uses undifferentiated cells for the treatment of conditions like ... Stem Cells - Cord Blood Stem Cells - Fundamentals Parkinsons Disease Surgical Treatment Genetics and Stem Cells Bone Marrow ... clusters of cells in culture that contain neural stem cells and progenitor cells. The first thing the team noticed was that ... Schizophrenic Stem Cells Do Not Differentiate Properly into Neurons: Study. by Sheela Philomena on November 1, 2016 at 11:29 PM ...
... a type of blood cell that does not itself divide) and to show that differentiated cells are more efficient than stem cells for ... Because stem cells have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into any specialized cell type, they have been heralded for ... more differentiated cells.. "Of the 1,828 nuclear transfers we performed with stem cells, very few could develop to the ... hematopoietic stem cells, which are found in bone marrow and give rise to all red and white blood cells, and progenitor cells. ...
Cells cultured as described are referred to as P0 cells. To expand the cells, adherent cells were allowed to grow to near ... The cells were replated 1:4 and allowed to grow.. Isolation of rBSMC.. Differentiated PLA cells were compared against primary ... Clonogenic multipotent stem cells in human adipose tissue differentiate into functional smooth muscle cells. Larissa V. ... Clonogenic multipotent stem cells in human adipose tissue differentiate into functional smooth muscle cells ...
Cell types were determined by indirect immunofluorescence using cell markers (βIII tubulin, GFAP, and nestin), and cells were ... Differentiating embryonic neural progenitor cells induce blood-brain barrier properties.. Weidenfeller C1, Svendsen CN, Shusta ... Tight junction organization and cell morphology of BMEC in the presence (A, C, E) or absence (B, D, F) of differentiating NPC. ... Arrows indicate small cell bodies and elongated thin processes (panels A and C) while arrowheads point to larger cell bodies ...
... component of a TGF-β signaling pathway and overexpressing one or more cell fate-inducing polypeptides in pluripotent cells, ... causing differentiation of the pluripotent cells into dopaminergic neurons. Also disclosed are methods for treating a ... Pluripotent cells may be induced to differentiate into a desired cell type by transfecting the cells with cell fate-inducing ... The pluripotent cells can be embryonic stem cells, cord blood cells, bone marrow-derived stem cells, neural stem cells, ...
... Madhavan Nampoothiri, Neetinkumar D. ... Thus, we examined the neuroprotective effect of insulin on glutamate-induced toxicity on differentiated SH-SY5Y neuronal cells ... Insulin is a cytokine which promotes cell growth. Recently, a few published reports on insulin in different cell lines support ... Changes in cell viability were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) based assay, ...
The specific cells in the thymus required for T-cell maturation are thymic epithelial cells (TECs). In the mutant nude mouse, ... "What this means is that when these cells grow or differentiate, it is a two-stage process," said Dr. Nancy Manley, an assistant ... This is the first nude mutant that can produce partially functional TE cells and as a result can also make some T-cells. Now we ... Genetic switch proves two mechanisms exist by which immune system cells differentiate. 07.10.2003 ...
Antiproliferative and differentiating effects of benzodiazepine receptor ligands on B16 melanoma cells.. Landau M1, Weizman A, ... In addition, the BzR ligands were demonstrated to affect the cell cycle by reducing the percent of cells in the S phase and ... All tested BzR ligands were able to suppress proliferation of the cells at the micromolar range and in a concentration- ... BzR ligands induced cellular phenotypic alterations, which have been previously shown to be associated with melanoma cell ...
... including germ cells, which can undergo meiosis to make sperm and eggs). ... the single cell produced by fertilization, divides by mitosis to produce all the tissues of the human body ( ... These cells here in pink eventually differentiate into the cells in the brain. These cells here eventually differentiate into ... those germ cells. So we differentiate them from somatic cells. So there are germ cells there. Germ cells in your ovaries and ...
Embryonic stem cells differentiate in vitro into cardiomyocytes representing sinusnodal, atrial and ventricular cell types. ... ES cell preparation and production of EBs. Human undifferentiated ES cells of the single-cell clone H9.2 (14) were grown on ... Embryonic stem (ES) cells are continuously growing stem cell lines of embryonic origin, first isolated from the inner cell mass ... cells recapitulate the development of cardiomyocytes from very early cardiac precursor cells to terminally differentiated cells ...
Once BA and EO cells have been differentiated from the five leukocyte cells, LY cells can be differentiated from MO and NE ... BA and EO cells are differentiated from LY and MO and Ne cells using the present method. BA and EO cells can also be ... The average color intensity of the LY cells determined is then used as the threshold to differentiate MO cells from NE cells. ... The method measures the size of each of the cells. Computation of the quantile feature of the cells and their color is then ...
Human dermis contains cells that are nonpigmented but can differentiate... ... but a melanocyte stem cell reservoir in glabrous skin has not yet been found. ... Human dermis contains cells that are nonpigmented but can differentiate to several different cell types. We have recently shown ... Human dermal stem cells differentiate into functional epidermal melanocytes. J Cell Sci. 123, 853-860.Google Scholar ...
... derived from human neural stem cells. Both these cell types are essential for correct brain function. ... A mixed culture of neurons (green) and astrocytes (red) derived from human neural stem cells. Both these cell types are ...
Human stem cells are considered a major new hope in the field of medicine. In the future, it is expected that they will make it ... differentiate and freeze stem cells. The cell models produced can be used for toxicity tests and drug development. ... More From BioPortfolio on "Grow, differentiate and freeze stem cells in a transparent bag". *Related Companies *Related Events ... Grow, differentiate and freeze stem cells in a transparent bag. 04:19 EST 14 Nov 2017 , Science Daily ...
  • To this end, comparisons between differentiated cell types produced in vitro and their in vivo counterparts are essential to validate hPSC-derived cells. (
  • In addition, differentiated PLA cells exhibited a contractile function that is similar to that of smooth muscle in vivo . (
  • Importantly, iPSC-derived NKT cells recapitulated the known adjuvant effects of natural NKT cells and suppressed tumor growth in vivo. (
  • We have recently shown that ex - vivo cultured primary bronchial epithelial cells and the bronchial brushings from human subjects express canonical HIV receptors CD4, CCR5 and CXCR4 and can be infected with HIV. (
  • Human erythroid cells produced ex vivo at large scale differentiate into red blood cells in vivo. (
  • The procedure allowed the ex vivo expansion of CD34(+) progenitor and stem cells into a pure erythroid precursor population. (
  • The relationship of TFH cells to the Th2 lineage was confirmed when TFH cells were found to develop from CXCR5 − PD-1 − IL-4/GFP + CD4 + T cells after their transfer into naive mice and antigen challenge in vivo. (
  • Transcriptional profiling of TFH cells has revealed a distinct repertoire of expressed genes that demarcates them from Th1, Th2, or Th17 cells ( 3 ), and TFH cells have been reported to differentiate normally in vivo where conditions for Th1, Th2, or Th17 cell development are impaired ( 4 ). (
  • We tested the hypothesis that CD56 bright NK cells can differentiate into CD56 dim cells by prospectively isolating and culturing each NK subset in vitro and in vivo. (
  • Our results show that CD56 bright cells can differentiate into CD56 dim both in vitro, in the presence of synovial fibroblasts, and in vivo, upon transfer into NOD-SCID mice. (
  • The role of CCR7 in the migration of polarized T effector/memory cell subsets in vivo is still poorly understood. (
  • We therefore analyzed murine and human CD4 + cytokine-producing cells developed in vivo for their chemotactic reactivity to CCR7 ligands. (
  • To test this hypothesis in vivo, differentiated N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells were labeled with [ 35 S]-amino acids and were treated with a cleavable crosslinking reagent. (
  • The identification of NIP cells within the pancreatic islets themselves suggest possibilities for treatment of diabetes, whereby NIP cells isolated from pancreas biopsies could be expanded ex vivo and transplanted into the donor/recipient. (
  • However, little is known about the in vivo behaviour of isolated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). (
  • COLM-5 cells, a PD-CRC-derived cell line, which exhibits EGFR+/HER2+/HER3- expression pattern and recapitulates the typical histology of PD-CRC in xenografted tumors, showed high gefitinib sensitivity both in vitro and in vivo, compared with WMD-CRC cell line (COLM-2). (
  • Furthermore, enforced expression of HER3 in COLM-5 cells resulted in significant resistance to gefitinib treatment both in vitro and in vivo. (
  • Both MSCs and MSC-chondrocytes suppressed CII-reactive T-cell responses to CII in RA, which suggested that MSCs could be a potential candidate for RA treatment in future if further confirmed in vivo. (
  • This work contextualizes the activator versus repressor functions of E2F1-3 in vivo, revealing distinct roles in dividing versus differentiating cells and in normal versus cancer-like cell cycles in vivo . (
  • Results: Applying the technique to p38\(\alpha\) resulted in the identification of seven in vivo phosphorylation sites on six proteins, four of which are cytoplasmic, in lysate derived from differentiating myoblasts. (
  • When puromycin-purified brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) were co-cultured with embryonic NPC in a two-compartment Transwell system, the BMEC exhibited enhanced barrier properties in the form of increased transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and decreased permeability to the small molecule tracer, sodium fluorescein. (
  • The adherence of Mø to endothelial cells is one of the first events detected in experimental animals fed an atherogenic diet. (
  • Naive T cells, which express uniformly high levels of L-selectin (CD62L) and CCR7, enter lymph nodes and Peyer's patches (PPs) via high endothelial venules (HEV) and travel further into the T-zone, where they contact dendritic cells (DC) for recognition of their cognate Ag ( 2 ). (
  • At histological examination eGFP labelled hMSCs were present in significant numbers both in the infarcted border zone and the free wall.The engrafted hMSCs stained positive for endothelial (von Willebrand-factor) and smooth muscle cell (α-smooth muscle actin) markers but not for cardiomyocyte markers. (
  • Cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells in the heart are in close proximity and in constant dialogue. (
  • The endothelial cells expressed cardiac markers also present in primary cardiac microvasculature suggesting cardiac endothelium identity. (
  • CSPs in injured heart differentiated into cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, or smooth muscle cells (4.4%, 6.7%, and 29% of total CSP-derived cells, respectively). (
  • The LIM domain protein Lmo2 and the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Scl/Tal1 are expressed in early haematopoietic and endothelial progenitors and interact with each other in haematopoietic cells. (
  • While no ectopic myeloid development from the Scl/Tal1-Lmo2-induced haemangioblasts was observed, a dramatic increase in the number of endothelial cells was found. (
  • These results suggest that, in the absence of inducers of erythroid or myeloid haematopoiesis, Scl/Tal1-Lmo2-induced haemangioblasts differentiate into endothelial cells. (
  • In mammalian and avian embryos, primitive erythrocytes form in the extraembryonic yolk sac where clusters of mesodermal cells give rise to both haematopoietic cells (HCs) and angioblasts, early progenitors for endothelial cells (ECs). (
  • These studies also suggest that definitive HC clusters directly differentiate from the ventral endothelial lining of the dorsal aorta. (
  • In this paper, we will refer to such cells co-expressing blood and endothelial genes as haemangioblasts. (
  • Lmo2 and Scl/Tal1 induce early blood and endothelial cells throughout the lateral mesoderm. (
  • While identification of stem cell populations for specific tissues is a critical step, it is also important to know how to control their growth and development, to allow the production of specific mature cell types in the lab. (
  • We find that after helminth infection, or immunization with helminth antigens, reactive lymphoid organs of 4get IL-4/GFP reporter mice contain populations of IL-4/GFP-expressing CD4 + T cells that display the TFH markers CXCR5, PD-1, and ICOS. (
  • These undifferentiated cell populations were isolated from the ganglia and were shown to contain neuronal precursor cells that were able to differentiate in vitro into neurons, as characterized by morphology and surface antigens. (
  • Human NK cells are classified into two populations according to the intensity of CD56 (neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) 2 ) surface expression, as well as possession of CD16, the FcγRIII. (
  • 2006). These results suggest that the different D-type cyclins have specific functions in proliferating and differentiating cell populations during neurogenesis. (
  • Finally, we demonstrate that the aggregation and rotary suspension method can be used to support culture and maintenance of hPSC-derived cell populations representing each of the three germ layers, underscoring the utility of this platform for culturing many different cell types. (
  • B). Uptake of FITC dextran was performed at day 11 by single color fluorescence on the sorted populations (C). (D and E) Cells were pulsed with 0.1 mg/mL FITC dextran for 15 minutes at 37°C, washed with cold medium, and analyzed immediately or after culture at 37°C for various times in marker-free medium. (
  • Unlimited populations of differentiated PSCs should facilitate blood therapies and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, as well as the treatment of heart, pancreas, liver, muscle, and neurologic disorders. (
  • These cell populations were further enriched based on surface markers expression, then recombined allowing development of beating 3D structures termed cardiac microtissues. (
  • Similarly, the accurate analysis of the cell populations implicated in the regeneration of the dead tissue is complex and these factors together may account for the negative findings. (
  • Thus, analysis of reversible drug resistance at a single‐cell level identifies signaling pathways and inhibitory drugs missed by assays that focus on cell populations. (
  • Upon induction, PLA cells assumed typical smooth muscle morphology and expressed characteristic leiomyogenic markers both at the genetic and protein levels. (
  • The dermal stem cells grow as three-dimensional spheres in human embryonic stem cell medium and express some neural crest stem cell and embryonic stem cell markers. (
  • Melanocytes derived from dermal stem cells express melanocytic markers and act the same way as mature epidermal melanocytes. (
  • We find that in mice infected with S. mansoni , or in mice immunized with an extract of schistosome eggs, TFH cells comprise a major component of the Th cell response and express genes that would normally be considered markers of Th2 cells. (
  • Using immunofluorescence staining and Western analysis, we demonstrate that ES Mø express typical macrophage cell surface markers, as well as the known receptors for modified forms of low density lipoprotein (LDL), including the Mø scavenger receptors (SR-A type I and type II), CD36, and CD68. (
  • This population is defined by the absence of surface markers specific for neurons (tetanus toxin receptor, Q211 antigen) and for glial cells (O4 antigen). (
  • Undifferentiated cells were detected during the period of neuronal birth, indicating that dividing neuronal precursor cells do not express neuron-specific surface markers. (
  • 3H-Thymidine injected during that stage at E7 was incorporated into cells expressing the neuronal markers tetanus toxin receptor and Q211 antigen. (
  • E7 sympathetic ganglion cells expressing neuronal surface markers were also shown to be able to divide in vitro. (
  • The responses of cells producing cytokines, such as IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10, as well as of subsets defined by memory or activation markers were comparable to that of naive CD4 + cells, with slightly lower reactivity in cells expressing IL-10 or CD69. (
  • Nestin-positive cells within pancreatic islets express neither the hormones insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, or pancreatic polypeptide nor the markers of vascular endothelium or neurons, such as collagen IV and galanin. (
  • To determine the cellular identity of grafted cells, we performed immunohistochemistry for photoreceptor markers, Recoverin and Nr2e3. (
  • Most of these cells were also expressed with photoreceptor markers, Recoverin and Nr2e3. (
  • Promoter trap markers differentiate structural and positional components of polar development in Arabidopsis. (
  • Although we have yet to confirm the physiological function of opsin-expressed cells, or to investigate whether other retinal cell markers are expressed by differentiated HNSCs, our results suggest a new and effective treatment for retinal degenerative diseases, i.e. transplantation of HNSCs. (
  • EGFP and the Y-chromosome were used as markers of the progeny of the transplanted cells in the recipient heart. (
  • Furthermore, ITGB8 is also overexpressed in GB, and its overexpression is correlated with poor prognosis and with the expression of several other classic stem cell markers. (
  • The resulting limited knowledge about cell surface protein markers hampers early clinical diagnosis and subclassification of hematologic malignancies. (
  • Drug‐adapted cells up‐regulate markers of the neural crest (e.g. (
  • Great news from investigators at the University of Connecticut and the University of Pittsburgh, who were able to produce clones from granulocytes (a type of blood cell that does not itself divide) and to show that differentiated cells are more efficient than stem cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer. (
  • Moreover, they say results of their studies provide compelling evidence that Dolly the sheep and other mammals cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer were most likely derived from fully differentiated cells, not adult stem cells, as most have argued in the nine years since Dolly was first created. (
  • Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), the scientific term for cloning, involves creating an embryo by using a nucleus that's been removed from a somatic cell - any cell other than a reproductive cell - and transferring it into an unfertilized egg that has had its chromosomes removed. (
  • Because the resulting new embryo contains the entire genome of the donor somatic cell it is an identical copy. (
  • In the case of human diploid somatic cells, it is probable that some thousands of such clones have been followed in many different laboratories and to the best of our knowledge, all of them eventually stop growing, unless they are induced to undergo malignant transformation. (
  • Hybridization of Somatic Cells. (
  • It brings together a century of research into a wide range of important biological questions - particularly whether genetic changes are irreversible after somatic cell specialization has taken place during cell development. (
  • It brings together research on a wide range of developmental and genetic problems---particularly the genomic multipotency of metazoan cells after somatic cell specialization has taken place during development. (
  • Furthermore, somatic cells from AD patients have been converted to functional neurons. (
  • Side population (SP) cells, which can be identified by their ability to exclude Hoechst 33342 dye, are one of the candidates for somatic stem cells. (
  • Interestingly, internal glial cells, including astrocytes and NG2 positive cells, were efficiently converted to neuroblasts and neurons by overexpression of some transcription factors (TFs) or microRNAs (miRNAs). (
  • We found opsin-positive and GFAP-positive cells in TGFbeta3-, IGF-1-, and CNTF-treated HNSCs, indicating the presence of photoreceptor and glial cells, where as VEGF-treated HNSCs did not show opsin immunoreactivity. (
  • The only difference observed here between HL-60 cells and neutrophils concerned the differential effects of a protein kinase C inhibitor.In summary, the results presented here show that differentiated HL-60 cells, stimulated with chemotactic peptide, are a valid model system to study molecular mechanisms of neutrophil emigration. (
  • In this report, we characterize several macrophage-associated proteins and functions considered relevant to atherosclerosis to determine if they are expressed by ES cells that have been differentiated down the Mø pathway. (
  • The results suggest that GAP-43 is not present in complexes with actin or other membrane skeletal or cytoskeletal proteins in these cells, but it is nevertheless possible that a small fraction of the total GAP-43 may interact with other proteins. (
  • Out of a total data set of 3048 identified proteins, 32 proteins were at least twofold up-regulated in the colon cancer stem cells when compared with the differentiated cells. (
  • Targeting BIRC6, or other Inhibitors of Apoptosis Proteins, may help eradicating colon cancer stem cells. (
  • We compared the effects of chemotactic stimuli and of inhibitors of signalling proteins on morphology, chemokinesis and chemotaxis of neutrophils and differentiated HL-60 cells using videomicroscopy and a filter assay for chemotaxis. (
  • Antibody-based cell surface phenotyping is commonly limited to cell surface proteins for which specific antibodies are available and the number of parallel measurements is limited. (
  • Here, we describe the mass spectrometry based phenotyping of 2 all-trans retinoic acid treated acute myeloid leukemia model systems at an unprecedented level to a depth of more than 500 membrane proteins, including 137 bona fide cell surface exposed CD proteins. (
  • At the center, they found JAG1, a ligand, or small protein, that interacts with a signaling pathway critical to regulating the fate of cells. (
  • The Rice team had already published theories on how cancer stem cells communicate with each other and the outside world by taking control of the notch signaling pathway involved in extracellular signaling, wound healing and embryonic development. (
  • In those studies, they discovered how ligands that activate the pathway go rogue to hold migrating cancer cells together and help them attach to connective tissues at new locations. (
  • The notch-delta pathway creates communication between cells, but things become problematic when the receptor is jagged instead of delta,' he said. (
  • PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling is dysregulated in many cancers, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and activation of this pathway has been suggested to correlate with aggressive behavior and poor prognosis in RCC tumors. (
  • Various classes of agents targeting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway are currently being investigated, including mTORC1/mTORC2 kinase domain inhibitors, mTOR/PI3K dual inhibitors, PI3K-selective inhibitors, and programmed cell death 6 modulators. (
  • whether CCR7 is also used for memory cell entry via this pathway is not known. (
  • Now, a team at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology in Berlin has shown that the bacteria inject host cells with a sugar molecule, called HBP, found only in Gram negative bacteria, which activates NF-κB via a novel pathway. (
  • Pathway analysis showed that "cell death " regulation is strikingly different between the two cell types. (
  • Several groups have suggested the use of bone marrow-derived cells ( 3 - 5 ) and embryonic stem cells to repair smooth muscle tissues ( 6 , 7 ) because of their stem cell-like properties. (
  • Such a cell population might be found in the adult bone marrow. (
  • For example, a murine MSC population isolated from mouse bone marrow and injected into the quadriceps of the mdx mouse demonstrated that the cells could locally contribute dystrophin to the muscle fiber sarcolemma. (
  • 9 When bone marrow cells from a normal male mouse were injected intravenously into the tail vein of affected mdx female mice, skeletal myotubes in the recipients were found to contain Y-positive nuclei. (
  • 12 Recently, Bittner et al 13 showed that bone marrow-derived cells could be recruited to both skeletal and cardiac muscle in the mdx mouse, in which these striated muscles undergo continual remodeling. (
  • In humans, T cells differentiate in thymus and B cells develop in bone marrow (BM), but the natural killer (NK) precursor cell(s) and site(s) of NK development are unclear. (
  • Purpose: Most human stem cell studies have been performed using unfractionated mononuclear bone marrow cells. (
  • Methods: hMSCs were isolated from leftover bone marrow from patients with IHD who were enrolled in our clinical stem cell therapy trials. (
  • She adds that progress has been made in the past years regarding the presence of niche cells in adult bone marrow, but only now have they discovered the importance of these niches in fetal growth. (
  • Recent studies in mice have challenged the ability of bone marrow cells (BMCs) to differentiate into myocytes and coronary vessels. (
  • This heterogeneity remains a major roadblock to any clinical advances, because no 'magic bullet' can eradicate all types of cells in a tumor,' she said. (
  • Thus after most therapies, a few cells are left unharmed, a scenario that can lead to tumor relapse. (
  • Duke graduate student Larisa Gearhart-Serna, co-lead author of the paper, used a novel tumor organoid model of inflammatory breast cancer cells that is enriched with cancer stem cells developed previously in Devi's lab to show that reducing the presence of JAG1 affected the cancer stem-like properties and capacity to proliferate. (
  • CD34+ Hematopoietic Progenitors From Human Cord Blood Differentiate Along Two Independent Dendritic Cell Pathways in Response to Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Plus Tumor Necrosis Factor α: II. (
  • Objective- Mouse aorta smooth muscle cells (SMC) express tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1A (TNFR-1) and lymphotoxin β-receptor (LTβR). (
  • Therapy-resistant cancer stem cells have been implicated in drug resistance and tumor recurrence. (
  • More recently, it has been suggested that therapy resistance and subsequent tumor recurrence could be mediated by the "cancer stem cell " fraction of colorectal tumors. (
  • Cancer stem cells make up only a few percent of the total tumor cell mass, but are uniquely endowed with tumor-initiating capacity ( 2 ⇓ ⇓ - 5 ). (
  • These tumors are defined by an important cellular heterogeneity and notably contain a subpopulation of GB-initiating cells (GIC), which contribute to tumor aggressiveness, resistance, and recurrence. (
  • The different pattern of cytokine gene expression suggests a change in immune function in MF/CTCL from early MF/CTCL to late MF/CTCL−B to late MF/CTCL+B. These stages are consistent with localized disease associated with an anti-tumor immune response and late MF/CTCL associated with a loss of immune function mediated by malignant T cells that share regulatory T cell-like properties. (
  • In late stage MF/CTCL (stages III and IV), the malignant T cell is no longer restricted to the skin and the tumor burden is more extensive. (
  • Immune dysfunctions are the sequel of advanced disease and high tumor burden ( 5 ) and are characterized by reduced natural killer cell activity, decreased immune responses of T cells to pathogens, and defective immune surveillance ( 6 , 7 ). (
  • We use live‐cell imaging, single‐cell analysis, and molecular profiling to show that exposure of tumor cells to RAF/MEK inhibitors elicits a heterogeneous response in which some cells die, some arrest, and the remainder adapt to drug. (
  • Donor retinal cells were isolated from neonatal (P0-2) mice carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein transgene (EGFP). (
  • Our results revealed that transplanted retinal cells could integrate and differentiate into photoreceptors in the photoreceptor dysfunctional host with gliotoxin treatment. (
  • 2000). Because of the multipotency of HNSCs, we hypothesized that HNSCs can be differentiated into retinal cells that may be used to treat retinal degeneration. (
  • This study focuses on the generation of insulin-expressing cells from hPSCs and compares their gene expression, as assayed by transcriptional gene products, to that of insulin-expressing β cells from human fetal and adult samples. (
  • We employ a new method to isolate and profile insulin-expressing cells and conclude that several different hPSC lines generate very similar insulin-expressing cells, cells whose transcripts resemble fetal rather than adult β cells. (
  • i ) Different hPSC lines produce highly similar INS + cells and ( ii ) hPSC-derived INS + (hPSC-INS + ) cells more closely resemble human fetal β cells than adult β cells. (
  • Yet, even for cloning of an embryo to the blastocyst stage, from which embryonic stem cells can be generated, adult stem cells have yielded disappointing results, with success rates in the range of 1 to 5 percent. (
  • Since Dolly, animal cloning using adult cells has been accomplished in more than a dozen mammalian species, but the process is highly inefficient. (
  • Yet, if this were true, Drs. Yang and Cheng point out, the results of their studies would have found the adult stem cells to be more efficient than the other, more differentiated cells. (
  • With such odds, it's hard to believe that Dolly and other cloned animals could have possibly been derived from adult stem cells. (
  • The stem cells, labeled with lacZ , were injected into the left ventricle of CB17 SCID/ beige adult mice. (
  • The donor cells were transplanted into adult Transducin knockout mice by subretinal injection. (
  • In the literature, no cytological features have been identified that reliably differentiate invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) from preinvasive lesions in impression cytology (IC) samples. (
  • We found that HER3 expression of PD-CRC among members of the HER family was significantly lower than that of well to moderately differentiated CRC (WMD-CRC) and 37% of the PD cases showed a EGFR+/HER2+/HER3- expression pattern. (
  • 5) Percentage of well- and moderately differentiated prostate cancer cases has no relation to the percent of low income families for both whites and blacks. (
  • However, the percentage of well- or moderately differentiated cases is always higher among whites than blacks in all the 16 county groups. (
  • lower percent of early diagnosed cases and lower percent of well- or moderately differentiated cases among blacks may be among contributors on racial disparity. (
  • The study, conducted by a Macropore team led by John Fraser, Ph.D., Vice President Research & Technology for MacroPore, reported the findings at the Cardiovascular Cell and Gene Therapy Conference II in Cambridge, MA. (
  • A fundamental question is how the identical genome sequence gives rise to a diversity of cell types with different gene expression profiles and cellular functions," said David Hawkins of the Ludwig Institute and co-first author of the study. (
  • Thus, mice with the nude gene have no T-cells and as a result have virtually no means of fighting off disease unless they are raised and live in germ-free environments. (
  • It showed for the first time that the role of the nude gene in T-cell production is far more complicated than previously thought. (
  • To further understand hematopoiesis, we have compared gene expression profiles of human erythroblasts, megakaryocytes, B cells, cytotoxic and helper T cells, natural killer cells, granulocytes, and monocytes using whole genome microarrays. (
  • This study represents the most comprehensive analysis of gene expression in hematopoietic cells to date and has identified genes that play key roles in lineage commitment and cell function. (
  • We set out to generate a focused gene expression atlas for cells of the hematopoietic system from healthy persons, a so-called Hematology Expression Atlas (HaemAtlas). (
  • We have taken advantage of recent advances in cell purification, RNA amplification, and microarray technologies that allow the study of gene expression of purified subsets of cells on a genome-wide scale. (
  • Using whole-genome expression arrays, we have compared the gene expression profiles of the precursors of erythrocytes and platelets (erythroblasts [EBs], megakaryocytes [MKs]) and of B cells, cytotoxic T cells (Tc), helper T cells (Th), natural killer (NK) cells, granulocytes, and monocytes. (
  • 1996) Oxygen supply and oxygen-dependent gene expression in differentiating embryonic stem cells. (
  • Adelman D.M., Simon M.C. (2002) Hypoxic Gene Regulation in Differentiating ES Cells. (
  • The study, performed with fruit flies, describes a gene that determines whether a specialized cell conserves the capacity to become a stem cell again. (
  • Cell entry into the endocycle is associated with the expression of the Fzr gene. (
  • Therefore, this gene acts as a switch that determines whether a cell will enter mitosis (the normal division of a cell) or the endocycle, the latter triggering a totally different genetic program with a distinct outcome regarding the capacity of a cell to reactivate as a stem cell. (
  • Blocking mTORC 1 permitted autophagy and metaplastic gene induction but blocked cell cycle re‐entry at S‐phase. (
  • Scientists have long suspected that the distinct properties of different cells were attributable to their particular epigenomes "" the collection of attendant molecules, compounds and chemicals that direct and influence the behaviors and functions of genes. (
  • Collectively, these data suggest that TFH cells constitute a distinct lineage. (
  • Although mTOR inhibitors share the same mechanism of action, differences in metabolism, formulation and dosing schedule underpin distinct PK/PD profiles such that they may be differentiated for use in a variety of treatment niches. (
  • Effector CD4 + T cells can be defined as cells capable of rapidly mounting effector functions such as secretion of distinct cytokines upon stimulation, and memory cells as long-living, Ag-experienced cells with lowered thresholds of activation compared with naive cells. (
  • This anatomically defined chemokine expression plays an important role in guiding T cells as well as DCs into distinct compartments within the tissues, such as T-zones of lymph nodes and spleen ( 6 , 9 , 11 ). (
  • Here we show that rat and human pancreatic islets contain a heretofore unrecognized distinct population of cells that express the neural stem cell-specific marker nestin. (
  • Nestin-positive cells in the islets and in pancreatic ducts are distinct from ductal epithelium because they do not express the ductal marker cytokeratin 19 (CK19). (
  • We propose that these nestin-positive islet-derived progenitor (NIP) cells are a distinct population of cells that reside within pancreatic islets and may participate in the neogenesis of islet endocrine cells. (
  • In contrast, poorly-differentiated adenocarcinomas (PD-CRC), defined by minimal glandular structure ( 1 ), are relatively rare accounting for only 5-10% of CRCs ( 4 ), and molecular pathogenesis and clinicopathological features are reportedly distinct from WMD-CRC ( 5 ). (
  • 1990 ). The alpha 1/beta 1 and alpha 6/beta 1 integrin heterodimers mediate cell attachment to distinct sites on laminin. (
  • After confirming that DGCR8 expression was less in patient-derived neurospheres than in the controls, they showed that its deletion was associated with greater expression of the protein p38α, which is known to influence neural/glial competence of stem cells. (
  • A jagged little protein appears to be key to how cancer stem cells differentiate and enable metastasis, according to researchers at Rice University and the Duke University School of Medicine. (
  • Consistent with a relationship between Th2 and TFH cells, IL-4 protein production, reported by expression of huCD2 in IL-4 dual reporter (4get/KN2) mice, was a robust marker of TFH cells in LNs responding to helminth antigens. (
  • The D-type cyclins form complexes with the cyclin dependent (CD) kinases CDK4 and CDK6 and promote the G1-S phase transition of the cell cycle by antagonizing the retinoblastoma suppresser protein pRB. (
  • Until now, the injected virulence protein CagA, which triggers multiple deleterious changes in host cells, was the only molecule known to be translocated by H. pylori's T4SS. (
  • Activity and regulation of calcium-, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase in differentiating chick myogenic cells. (
  • The activity of calcium-, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (PKc) was measured in (a) total extracts, (b) crude membrane, and (c) cytosolic fractions of chick embryo myogenic cells differentiating in culture. (
  • Total PKc activity slowly declines during the course of terminal myogenesis in contrast to the activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which was also measured in the same cells. (
  • The expression of E2f1 , E2f2 and E2f3 in wild type ES cells was generally higher than in MEFs and the loading of E2F3 protein on classic E2F target promoters was comparable between the two proliferating cell types ( Supplementary Fig. 2a-c ). (
  • The substrate-finding approach presented here also provides a necessary tool for studying the hundreds of protein kinases that exist and for uncovering the deeper mechanisms of phosphorylation-dependent cell signalling. (
  • The extensive and quantitative analysis of the cell surface protein landscape from a systems biology perspective will be most useful in the clinic for the improved subclassification of hematologic malignancies and the identification of new drug targets. (
  • p130cas protein and phosphorylated p130cas were present in growth cones isolated from differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. (
  • These studies reveal that mature cell states can be reached through paths that do not involve activation of the intermediate progenitor genes that are essential in embryos. (
  • You will hear from Museum scientists, medical researchers at the frontiers of the field, and a panel of bioethics experts who will address the ethical implications of stem cell research and therapy. (
  • The findings, published online today in the journal Cell Metabolism, could be valuable for scientists working toward stem cell-based therapies for a wide range of diseases. (
  • Our findings may help overcome that challenge and let scientists more easily create cells to treat disease. (
  • The thymus, a once overlooked glandular structure just behind the top of the sternum, has gained increasing attention from scientists in the past two decades because it is where disease-fighting T-cells mature. (
  • With LabBag®, researchers have developed an all-in-one system in the form of a transparent bag that provides a cheap, fast and sterile way for scientists to grow, differentiate and freeze stem cells. (
  • Scientists have revealed that Raman spectroscopy, an optical method, can be employed to distinguish between benign and cancerous thyroid cells. (
  • The scientists employed Raman spectroscopy as a potential solution since it is a non-invasive method that does not need any sample preparation or staining to find out slight differences in the molecular composition of complex samples like cells. (
  • For the new research, the scientists employed a line-scan Raman microscope that enabled them to quickly capture Raman signals from a whole cell volume. (
  • The scientists applied this Raman spectroscopy method to individual cells segregated from 10 patient thyroid nodules diagnosed as benign or cancerous. (
  • Besides testing it on more cells and patients, the scientists must also apply the method to cells acquired with fine-needle aspiration and test it on samples for which the pathologist cannot find out whether the cells are cancerous or benign. (
  • The scientists have observed that the cells that enter the endocycle lose the capacity to reactivate as stem cells. (
  • Scientists previously discovered that the placenta is the place where numerous blood stem cells reside in an undifferentiated state until needed. (
  • R.M. Steinman, Gutchinov, B., M.D. Witmar, and M.C. Nussenzweig, Dendritic cells are the principal stimulator of the primary mixed leukocyte reaction in mice. (
  • Peters J.H., Xu H., Ostermeier D., Friedrichs D., Gieseler R.K.H., Ruppert J. (1993) Signals Required for Differentiating Dendritic Cells from Human Monocytes in Vitro. (
  • In: Kamperdijk E.W.A., Nieuwenhuis P., Hoefsmit E.C.M. (eds) Dendritic Cells in Fundamental and Clinical Immunology. (
  • All hematopoietic niches in the embryo are unique in their own way, the stem cells are made in one location, expand in another and differentiate somewhere else", says Dr. Mikolla. (
  • In zebrafish, primitive erythrocytes and ECs of the major trunk vessels, the dorsal aorta and the axial vein, form in close association in the intermediate cell mass (ICM) in the posterior midline of the embryo 1 day after fertilisation. (
  • Engraftment was demonstrated by detection of donor cells one, seven and 14 days following injection of the regenerative cells. (
  • We are encouraged by our early findings, which are the first in a series of detailed studies we expect to issue on the use of adipose-derived regenerative cells for the treatment of heart disease," said Marc H. Hedrick, M.D. Chief Scientific Officer of MacroPore. (
  • Unveiling the genetic traits that favour the retention of stem cell properties is crucial for regenerative medicine. (
  • Knowledge of the underlying mechanism that allows these cells to retain this capacity is a key issue in regenerative medicine . (
  • Although direct reprogramming of a patient's own internal cells has revolutionized regenerative medicine, but there are some major obstacles that should be examined before using these induced cells in clinical therapies. (
  • In 1900, Adami speculated that a sequence of context‐independent energetic and structural changes governed the reversion of differentiated cells to a proliferative, regenerative state. (
  • The difference in the subcellular distribution of PKc between replicating myoblasts and myotubes is confirmed by phosphorylation studies conducted in intact cells. (
  • Chemotactic reactivity of these cells toward CCL21 was absent in CCR7-deficient cells, proving that effector cells do not use alternative receptors for this chemokine. (
  • After primary infection, naive T cells expand and differentiate into cytotoxic effector cells that are able to eliminate virus-infected cells. (