Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Synaptic Membranes: Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Extraembryonic Membranes: The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Membrane Structures: Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Purple Membrane: Functionally and structurally differentiated, purple-pigmented regions of the cytoplasmic membrane of some strains of Halobacterium halobium. The membrane develops under anaerobic conditions and is made almost entirely of the purple pigment BACTERIORHODOPSINS. (From Singleton & Sainsbury Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Nictitating Membrane: A fold of the mucous membrane of the CONJUNCTIVA in many animals. At rest, it is hidden in the medial canthus. It can extend to cover part or all of the cornea to help clean the CORNEA.Bruch Membrane: The inner layer of CHOROID, also called the lamina basalis choroideae, located adjacent to the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; (RPE) of the EYE. It is a membrane composed of the basement membranes of the choriocapillaris ENDOTHELIUM and that of the RPE. The membrane stops at the OPTIC NERVE, as does the RPE.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Porins: Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Unilamellar Liposomes: Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture: Spontaneous tearing of the membranes surrounding the FETUS any time before the onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR. Preterm PROM is membrane rupture before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Tympanic Membrane: An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.Descemet Membrane: A layer of the cornea. It is the basal lamina of the CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM (from which it is secreted) separating it from the CORNEAL STROMA. It is a homogeneous structure composed of fine collagenous filaments, and slowly increases in thickness with age.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: Application of a life support system that circulates the blood through an oxygenating system, which may consist of a pump, a membrane oxygenator, and a heat exchanger. Examples of its use are to assist victims of smoke inhalation injury, respiratory failure, and cardiac failure.Transport Vesicles: Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Complement Membrane Attack Complex: A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Freeze Etching: A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins: Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Vitelline Membrane: The plasma membrane of the egg.Plasma Membrane Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Calcium-transporting ATPases found on the PLASMA MEMBRANE that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM from the CYTOPLASM into the extracellular space. They play a role in maintaining a CALCIUM gradient across plasma membrane.Amnion: The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Phosphatidylglycerols: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Nuclear Envelope: The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Spectrin: A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Basilar Membrane: A basement membrane in the cochlea that supports the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, consisting keratin-like fibrils. It stretches from the SPIRAL LAMINA to the basilar crest. The movement of fluid in the cochlea, induced by sound, causes displacement of the basilar membrane and subsequent stimulation of the attached hair cells which transform the mechanical signal into neural activity.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Valinomycin: A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fluorescence Polarization: Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte: A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Glycosylphosphatidylinositols: Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.Cytoplasmic Vesicles: Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Diphenylhexatriene: A fluorescent compound that emits light only in specific configurations in certain lipid media. It is used as a tool in the study of membrane lipids.Brefeldin A: A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Osmosis: Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Nerve Tissue ProteinsHemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Diphosphate: A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
Synthetic membrane earphone[edit]. Modern technology seeks to minimize or prevent listener fatigue entirely. Blockage of the ... A film of medical-grade polymer (ePTFE) is stretched over a hole, essentially acting as a membrane to help absorb pressure ... Researchers at Asius Technologies have designed a synthetic membrane to take the brunt of the pounding in earphones away from ... the ear drum by disrupting the pressure waves.[18] This new membrane technology can be retrofitted and applied to existing ...
Tympanic membrane displacement[edit]. Tympanic membrane displacement (TMD) technique, proposed nearly twenty years ago by ... away from the tympanic membrane, which tenses the membrane. The stapedius, which emerges from the posterior wall of the ... The sound is transmitted to the stapes, and further through the ossicles, to the tympanic membrane from which it can be ... Later on, ICP can be measured by exerting an external pressure to the tympanic membrane and applying simultaneously the same ...
This membrane is composed of a phospholipid inner membrane, a phospholipid outer membrane, and an intermembrane space. Enclosed ... Photosynthetic membranes and organelles. Chloroplast ultrastructure:. 1. outer membrane. 2. intermembrane space. 3. inner ... In its simplest form, this involves the membrane surrounding the cell itself.[20] However, the membrane may be tightly folded ... Embedded in the thylakoid membrane are integral and peripheral membrane protein complexes of the photosynthetic system. ...
Membrane filtration. Membrane filters are widely used for filtering both drinking water and sewage. For drinking water, ... Ultrafiltration membranes use polymer membranes with chemically formed microscopic pores that can be used to filter out ... Unless membranes are well-maintained, algae and other life forms can colonize the membranes. ... membrane filters can remove virtually all particles larger than 0.2 μm-including giardia and cryptosporidium. Membrane filters ...
Irritation of mucous membranes[edit]. Hydrogen peroxide is an irritant and cytotoxic. Hydrogen peroxide with concentrations of ... irritation and discolouration of the mucous membranes may occur if a high concentration of oxidising agent comes in to contact ... 10% or higher can cause tissue damage, be corrosive to mucous membranes and cause burning sensation to the skin.[52] Chemical ...
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation[edit]. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is mechanically applied prolonged ... Typical histological presentation involves diffuse alveolar damage and hyaline membrane formation in alveolar walls. Although ... Brogan, TV; Thiagarajan, RR; Rycus, PT; Bartlett, RH; Bratton, SL (December 2009). "Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in ... Conventional ventilatory support versus Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for Severe Acute Respiratory failure) trial[25] ...
However, the ability of cross caca membrane is not unidirectional; arginine-based CPPs are able to enter-exit the cell membrane ... which disrupt the membrane enough to allow the fusion protein to cross the membrane. After internalization, the fusion protein ... Mechanisms of membrane translocation[edit]. Cell-penetrating peptides are of different sizes, amino acid sequences, and charges ... Endocytosis is the process of cellular ingestion by which the plasma membrane folds inward to bring substances into the cell. ...
... mainly cell membrane and organelle membranes (especially those of mitochondria), and this is important for maintaining stable ... Garth L. Nicolson (born October 1, 1943)[1] is an American biochemist who made a landmark scientific model for cell membrane, ... With S.J. Singer, Nicolson published a paper titled "The fluid mosaic model of the structure of cell membranes" in 1972,[5] ... Fluid Mosaic Model of cell membrane[edit]. While working as Research Associate at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, ...
Membranes can be prepared through isolation of the membrane itself, where membranes are cut into squares and immobilized. A ... Membrane exchange chromatography[edit]. A type of ion exchange chromatography, membrane exchange[33][34] is a relatively new ... Brandt, S (1988). "Membrane-based affinity technology for commercial-scale purifications". Bio/Technology. 6 (7): 779-782. doi: ... Membrane Chromatographic[35][36] devices are cheap to mass-produce and disposable unlike other chromatography devices that ...
Formation of a glial membrane[edit]. Around the edge of necrosis, astrocytes proliferate. These cells extend processes, and ...
Membrane transport[edit]. Contrary to common belief, thyroid[35] hormones cannot traverse cell membranes in a passive manner ... T1a and T0a are positively charged and do not cross the membrane; they are believed to function via the trace amine-associated ... Despite being lipophilic, T3 and T4 cross the cell membrane via carrier-mediated transport, which is ATP-dependent.[34] ... The Na+/I− symporter transports two sodium ions across the basement membrane of the follicular cells along with an iodide ion. ...
Membrane[edit]. There are a number of proteins that are within the dense granule membrane. To maintain the low pH within the ... Ral has been found within the granule's membrane.[3] There are several adhesive receptors that have luminal binding domains and ... Since dense granules have surface membrane proteins, the activation of CD63 and LAMP-2 can be observed with flow cytometry. ...
Membrane-bound ribosomes[edit]. When a ribosome begins to synthesize proteins that are needed in some organelles, the ribosome ... Bound ribosomes usually produce proteins that are used within the plasma membrane or are expelled from the cell via exocytosis. ... Whether the ribosome exists in a free or membrane-bound state depends on the presence of an ER-targeting signal sequence on the ... Free and membrane-bound ribosomes differ only in their spatial distribution; they are identical in structure. ...
Membranes[edit]. Each capsule consists of two layers or membranes: *an outer (fibrous membrane, fibrous stratum) composed of ... Fibrous membrane[edit]. The fibrous membrane of the joint capsule is attached to the whole circumference of the articular end ... an inner (synovial membrane, synovial stratum) which is a secreting layer. On the inside of the capsule, articular cartilage ... an outer fibrous layer or membrane, and an inner synovial layer or membrane. ...
... the formation of outer membrane vesicles.[8][9] Portions of the outer membrane pinch off, forming spherical structures made of ... Release of outer membrane vesicles. In addition to the use of the multiprotein complexes listed above, Gram-negative bacteria ... The vacuole is formed by the fusion of the cell membrane around the particle. A phagosome is a cellular compartment in which ... It is a simple system, which consists of only three protein subunits: the ABC protein, membrane fusion protein (MFP), and outer ...
Cold applied liquid membranes[edit]. A choice for new roofs and roof refurbishment. This type of a roof membrane is generally ... Protected membrane roof[edit]. A protected membrane roof is a roof where thermal insulation or another material is located ... PVC (vinyl) membrane roofing[edit]. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) membrane roofing is also known as vinyl roofing. Vinyl is derived ... Protected membrane roofs are sometimes referred to in the roofing industry as "IRMA" roofs, for "Inverted Roof Membrane ...
Membrane Construction[edit]. In Autumn 2015, Baturina became a strategic investor of Hightex GmbH, a global membrane ... The membranes are typically used in roofs and façades for sporting stadiums and arenas, airport terminals, train stations, ... Hightex will be responsible for the membrane construction of the roof and façade of the Al Bayt Stadium in Qatar. A total of ... In the US, Hightex has been commissioned to install the membrane elements for the "Canopy of Peace" a 50 meter high landmark in ...
A special membrane called dimo (笛膜, lit. "di membrane"), made from an almost tissue-like shaving of reed (made from the inner ... However, the modified dizi's extra tone holes prevent the effective use of the membrane, so this instrument lacks the inherent ... D = Membrane. X = Closed Hole. O = Open Hole. U = Half Open Hole ...
Basement membrane[edit]. Main article: Basement membrane. The epidermis and dermis are separated by a thin sheet of fibers ... The basement membrane controls the traffic of the cells and molecules between the dermis and epidermis but also serves, through ... Iozzo, RV (2005). "Basement membrane proteoglycans: From cellar to ceiling". Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 6 (8): 646- ... The dermis is tightly connected to the epidermis through a basement membrane and is structurally divided into two areas: a ...
Ligaments and membranes[edit]. The main ligament of the joint is the interosseous talocalcaneal ligament, a thick, strong band ... A synovial membrane lines the capsule of the joint, and the joint is wrapped in a capsule of short fibers that are continuous ...
Membranes[edit]. Polysulfone allows easy manufacturing of membranes, with reproducible properties and controllable size of ... Such membranes can be used in applications like hemodialysis, waste water recovery, food and beverage processing, and gas ... Filter cartridges made from polysulfone membranes offer extremely high flow rates at very low differential pressures when ... "Stability of polyethersulfone membranes to oxidative agents: A review". Polymer Degradation and Stability. doi:10.1016/j. ...
... plasmatic membrane (Pfeffer, 1900),[13] plasma membrane, cytoplasmic membrane, cell envelope and cell membrane.[14][15] Some ... The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) ... Intracellular membranes. The content of the cell, inside the cell membrane, is composed of numerous membrane-bound organelles, ... Within the nuclear membrane, the inner and outer membranes vary in protein composition, and only the outer membrane is ...
Outer chloroplast membrane. Main article: Chloroplast membrane. The outer chloroplast membrane is a semi-porous membrane that ... Inner chloroplast membrane. Main article: Chloroplast membrane. The inner chloroplast membrane borders the stroma and regulates ... All chloroplasts have at least three membrane systems-the outer chloroplast membrane, the inner chloroplast membrane, and the ... Chlorarachniophyte chloroplasts are bounded by four membranes, except near the cell membrane, where the chloroplast membranes ...
Membrane damage[edit]. Damage to the membranes of organelles by monomeric or oligomeric proteins could also contribute to these ... Alpha-synuclein can damage membranes by inducing membrane curvature,[12] and cause extensive tubulation and vesiculation when ... Extensive induction of membrane curvature is deleterious to the cell and would eventually lead to cell death.Apart from tubular ... Research has shown that mutant proteins bind to the CMA-pathway receptors on lysosomal membrane and in doing so block their own ...
Membrane-associated ligases[edit]. Some ligases associate with biological membranes as peripheral membrane proteins or anchored ...
THE STRUCTURE OF ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANES STUDIED BY FREEZE-ETCHING. Thomas W. Tillack, Robert E. Scott, Vincent T. Marchesi ... The results show that the receptors for these labels are distributed uniformly over the surfaces of normal red cell membranes ... The distribution of these labels was studied on intact human red cells, isolated ghost membranes, and trypsin-treated ghost ... These results provide further support for the idea that membrane-bound glycoproteins are oriented so that their carbohydrate- ...
Recently, plasma membrane calcium ATPase 4 (PMCA) has been established as a novel mediator of angiogenesis through its role in ...
Vanderbilt University Medical Center is a national leader in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Our ECMO experts ... procedures and systems in place promoting excellence and exceptional care in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. ...
Types of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuits. The basic ECMO circuit comprises a non-pulsatile pump for blood ... Weaning of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. There are no specific echocardiographic protocols for ECMO weaning. A trial-off ... Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is an extracorporeal life support system that can temporarily ... Oxygen diffuses across the oxygenator membrane into the blood that is returned to the arterial system via the return cannula ...
... of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) Systems in United States market, focuses on the top players, with sales, price, ... means the sales value of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) Systems This report studies sales (consumption) ... means the sales volume of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) Systems Revenue, ... 1 Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) Systems Overview. 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Extracorporeal Membrane ...
What is rupture of the tympanic membrane? Meaning of rupture of the tympanic membrane as a legal term. What does rupture of the ... Definition of rupture of the tympanic membrane in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... redirected from rupture of the tympanic membrane). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia.. Related to ... Rupture of the tympanic membrane legal definition of rupture of the tympanic membrane https://legal-dictionary. ...
What is superior recess of tympanic membrane? Meaning of superior recess of tympanic membrane as a legal term. What does ... Definition of superior recess of tympanic membrane in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia ... superior recess of tympanic membrane mean in law? ... redirected from superior recess of tympanic membrane). Also ... Related to superior recess of tympanic membrane: Tympanic membrane perforation Recess. In the practice of courts, a brief ...
Two Cases of Unilateral Pulmonary Edema after Heart Surgery:Successful Strategy Using Veno-venous Extracorporeal Membrane ... with unilateral pulmonary edema after heart surgery who were successfully treated using venovenous extracorporeal membrane ...
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a life-support technology with a history of more than 40 years.4 With the evolution of ... Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation retrieval. The QEH ECMO team supports eligible patients from other ICUs that do not have ... Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation care. As per our ICU ECMO protocol, ECMO nurses and ECMO specialists have to provide ... Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in ARDS patients can ensure the effective application of low tidal volume and plateau ...
Marked coronary artery dilation in a young adult requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support for adult respiratory ... Marked coronary artery dilation in a young adult requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support for adult respiratory ...
"Femoral venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is widely used to maintain blood flow in patients with ... Novel Rotational Speed Modulation System Used With Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.. Click the title to ... 1. Novel Rotational Speed Modulation System Used With Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.. Naito N, Nishimura T, ... left atrial unloading to prevent pulmonary oedema and to facilitate ventricular recovery under extracorporeal membrane ...
There is evidence that the effecter of this hyperpolarization is the plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA), that when activated ... The final event in these signal transductions is a hyperpolarization of membrane potential, which makes Paramecium swim ... Based on these results, a model of membrane domains incorporating three signal transduction pathways is proposed. ... There is evidence that the effecter of this hyperpolarization is the plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA), that when activated ...
Not to be confused with the secondary tympanic membrane of the round window. Eardrum. ... In the anatomy of humans and various other tetrapods, the eardrum, also called the tympanic membrane or myringa, is a thin, ... The manubrium (Latin: handle) of the malleus is firmly attached to the medial surface of the membrane as far as its center, ... The lateral surface of the membrane is thus concave. The most depressed aspect of this concavity is termed the umbo (Latin: ...
The chloroplast thylakoid membrane is a highly organized, protein-rich, and dynamic membrane system that is the site of the ... Those membrane proteins whose translation terminates before exposure of one of these signals are translated off the membrane ... Lysates are treated with micrococcal nuclease to release ribosomes that are tethered to membranes solely by mRNA. Membrane and ... The establishment of a stable interaction between the nascent peptide and the membrane might be mediated by membrane extrinsic ...
Cell Membranes Paul Andersen explains how cells are selectively permeable with the help of their cell membrane. The main ... 015 - Cell Membranes. Paul Andersen explains how cells are selectively permeable with the help of their cell membrane. The main ... Insights into cell membranes via dish detergent - Ethan Perlstein - Duration: 3:50. TED-Ed 124,904 views ... constituents of the cell membrane, including cholesterol, glycolipids, glycoproteins, phospholipids, and proteins are included ...
Source for information on Cell Membranes: Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health dictionary. ... also known as a plasma membrane) is a thin semifluid structure that separates the contents of a cell or organelle from its ... Cell Membranes. Definition. A cell membrane (also known as a plasma membrane) is a thin semifluid structure that separates the ... Intrinsic proteins- Proteins that are tightly embedded in a plasma membrane, and might extend from one side of the membrane to ...
The focus of this research will be on the fabrication of ceramic hybrid membranes. The separation layer of these membranes will ... The master assignment consists of preparing membranes of selected precursors via sol-gel chemistry. The membranes will be ... Relations between process parameters, sol characteristics, membrane structure, and membrane performance will be studied. ... Msc assignment 2d Inorganic Nanosheet membranesMembranes for waste-water treatmentMsc assignment pil grafted membranesIn- ...
Pinnau, I., Freeman, B.D., Membrane Formation and Modification, ACS, 1999. *^ TU Berlin script - 2 Principles of Membrane ... Membrane performance and governing equations[edit]. The selection of synthetic membranes for a targeted separation process is ... Membrane separation processes[edit]. Membrane separation processes have a very important role in the separation industry. ... Membranes have to provide enough mass transfer area to process large amounts of feed stream. The selected membrane has to have ...
This membrane work is a critical part of a larger overall effort at UD to make platinum-free fuel cells a commercial reality ... Better fuel cell membranes. Article by Diane Kukich Photo by Kathy F. Atkinson September 15, 2016 ... "Our goal is to develop a process to easily synthesize the polymer at scale, creating large area membranes for testing that are ... The project, "Highly Conductive, Stable and Robust Hydroxide Exchange Membranes Based on Poly (Aryl Piperidinium)," is one of ...
Eukaryotic Membranes and Cytoskeleton: Origins and Evolution discusses the evolutionary origin and diversification of ... Eukaryotic Membranes and Cytoskeleton: Origins and Evolution discusses the evolutionary origin and diversification of ...
Porous Ceramic Membranes. Chemically modifying ceramic membranes on the (sub)nanometer scale for separation applications under ... Polymer-functionalized ceramic membranes for solvent nanofiltration. -Zeolitic- or solgel-derived ceramic membranes for gas ... Main interest is focused to the fundamentals of technological applications, such as dense ceramic membranes and the solid oxide ...
Ideal for Mechanical Attachment: Use where mechanical attachment of the membrane to the roof substrate or deck is desired. ... Provides a solid dimensionally stable substrate for other roofing membrane components.. Laying Lines: Before the product is ... Provides a solid dimensionally stable substrate for other roofing membrane components.. Laying Lines: Before the product is ... Provides a solid dimensionally stable substrate for other roofing membrane components.. Laying Lines: Laying lines are ...
... technology and application of membrane operations and related fields, from basic phenomena to the most advanced applications ... membrane distillation, membrane crystallization, membrane stripping, membrane scrubbing). Entries are provided by an ... Enrico Drioli has been working in Membrane Science and Membrane Engineering for many years. He is a Full Professor at the ... Coverage includes membrane reactors and catalytic design (catalytic membrane reactors). Practically all unit operations of ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
This second Volume in the series on Membrane Transport in Biology contains a group of essays on transport across single ... biological membranes separating the inside and outside of cells or organelles. W ... Organelle Termination Zellmembran biochemistry biology cell cell membrane chemistry dialysis membrane membrane potential ... Part of the Membrane Transport in Biology book series (MEMBRANE, volume 2) ...
  • Objective To compare the active management of term prelabour rupture of membranes with oral misoprostol with conservative management for 24 hours followed by induction with oxytocin or prostaglandin E-2 (PGE(2)) gel. (elsevier.com)
  • Methods The women were randomised to 50 mug of oral misoprostol repeated every 4 hours, if required, to a maximum of five doses (active group), or to induction of labour with PGE2 gel or oxytocin only if not in spontaneous labour 24 hours after prelabour rupture of membranes (conservative group). (elsevier.com)
  • Main outcome measures Number of women in active labour within 24 hours of the prelabour rupture of membranes, preference of women for any one particular method of management in any subsequent pregnancy with prelabour rupture of membranes. (elsevier.com)
  • Results 93.3% of the active group and 54.8% of the conservative group were in spontaneous labour within 24 hours of the prelabour rupture of membranes (RR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.4). (elsevier.com)
  • Of those achieving a vaginal delivery, 72% of the active group did so within 24 hours of the prelabour rupture of membranes as compared with 26.9% of the conservative group (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.4 to 5.3, P = 0.002). (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions Active management with oral misoprostol resulted in more women going into labour and delivering within 24 hours of the prelabour rupture of membranes with no increase in maternal or neonatal complications. (elsevier.com)
  • Women tended to view active management of prelabour rupture of membranes more positively. (elsevier.com)
  • Recently, plasma membrane calcium ATPase 4 (PMCA) has been established as a novel mediator of angiogenesis through its role in endothelial cell migration and tubule formation. (bmj.com)
  • There is evidence that the effecter of this hyperpolarization is the plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA), that when activated, expels Ca2+ from the cell. (uvm.edu)
  • When the water breaks early, it is called premature rupture of membranes (PROM). (medlineplus.gov)
  • If the water breaks before the 37th week of pregnancy, it is called preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Preterm premature rupture of membranes at 22-25 weeks' gestation: perinatal and 2-year outcomes within a national population-based study (EPIPAGE-2) Most clinical guidelines state that with early preterm premature rupture of membranes , obstetric and pediatric teams must share a realistic and individualized appraisal of neonatal outcomes with parents and consider their wishes for all decisions. (tripdatabase.com)
  • of membranes , to adequately counsel parents during pregnancy and to reflect on our policies of care at these extreme gestational ages.We sought to describe both perinatal and 2-year outcomes of preterm infants born after preterm premature rupture of membranes at 22-25 weeks' gestation.EPIPAGE-2 is a French national prospective population-based cohort of preterm infants born in 546 maternity units in 2011. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Do preoperative chronic hypertension, preterm premature rupture of membranes , chorioamnionitis, and placental abruption provide warning to this rare occurrence? (tripdatabase.com)
  • Frequency and clinical significance of short cervix in patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Cervical length measurement has been uggested as a useful tool for predicting intra-amniotic infection/inflammation in preterm labor, but little information is available in the setting of preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM). (tripdatabase.com)
  • How quickly does labor happen after premature rupture of membranes (PROM)? (medscape.com)
  • Practice Bulletin No. 160: Premature Rupture of Membranes. (medscape.com)
  • Preterm premature rupture of membranes: perspectives surrounding controversies in management. (medscape.com)
  • Comparison between AmniSure placental alpha microglobulin-1 rapid immunoassay and standard diagnostic methods for detection of rupture of membranes. (medscape.com)
  • Pasquier JC, Bujold E. A systematic review of intentional delivery in women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes. (medscape.com)
  • Hartling L, Chari R, Friesen C, Vandermeer B, Lacaze-Masmonteil T. A systematic review of intentional delivery in women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes. (medscape.com)
  • Middleton P, Shepherd E, Flenady V, McBain RD, Crowther CA. Planned early birth versus expectant management (waiting) for prelabour rupture of membranes at term (37 weeks or more). (medscape.com)
  • International Multicentre Term Prelabor Rupture of Membranes Study: evaluation of predictors of clinical chorioamnionitis and postpartum fever in patients with prelabor rupture of membranes at term. (medscape.com)
  • Mozurkewich E. Management of premature rupture of membranes at term: an evidence-based approach. (medscape.com)
  • Can platelet count and mean platelet volume during the first trimester of pregnancy predict preterm premature rupture of membranes? (medscape.com)
  • Risk factors for pulmonary hypoplasia in second-trimester premature rupture of membranes. (medscape.com)
  • What is the prevalence of premature preterm rupture of membranes (PROM)? (medscape.com)
  • Next-generation synthetic biology goals will require a clearer understanding of how to control reticulated membrane structures in order to fabricate the supramolecular structures necessary for advanced synthesis and behaviour. (rsc.org)
  • With recent advances in computational modelling, it is now feasible to model membranes that can deliver realistic representations of multi-lipid assemblies and the interactions of peptides with these structures with atomistic detail seems also within reach. (rsc.org)
  • Although the concept of membrane-protein topology dates back at least 30 years, recent advances in the field of translocon-mediated membrane-protein assembly, proteome-wide studies of membrane-protein topology and an exponentially growing number of high-resolution membrane-protein structures have given us a deeper understanding of how topology is determined and of how it evolves. (nih.gov)
  • Although 3D printing technology is not quite well enough developed to yet produce large scale membranes that will be cost competitive with existing products, this work does signal what the future possibilities are with 3D printing, to produce membranes beyond that which are currently available, including controlled complex pore structures, integrated surface patterns and membranes based on nature. (bath.ac.uk)
  • These membranes serve as linings and covering for various body structures, and they also form glands. (wisegeek.com)
  • The connective tissue layer houses nerves and blood vessels that supply the upper layers, and it also binds the membrane to the bodily structures. (wisegeek.com)
  • The distinct behavior of ribosomes synthesizing the inner envelope protein CemA indicates that sorting signals for the thylakoid and envelope membranes are distinguished cotranslationally. (pnas.org)
  • The chloroplast thylakoid membrane is a highly organized, protein-rich, and dynamic membrane system that is the site of the light reactions of photosynthesis ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • polyaldehyde having physically bound aldehyde functional groups which are thus bound without significant chemical reaction to substantially all said available surface areas, said polyaldehyde further having unbound aldehyde groups that are free to react with an have an affinity for aldehyde reactive materials, said unbound polyaldehyde groups being in an amount such that the affinity of the membrane for protein is characterized by enhanced specifity and total binding capacity. (google.ca)
  • His research team announced in December 2008 that it had discovered MG53 as a key initiator of membrane repair in damaged tissue, making it the first group to specifically pinpoint a protein responsible for promoting cell repair. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The concept of lateral movement (lateral diffusion) of transmembrane protein complexes can be shown by having students insert a pencil or other object through the membrane and move it around. (accessexcellence.org)
  • A common companion for blotting paper is nitrocellulose membranes, often used for protein and DNA analysis and purifications. (sartorius.com)
  • 200 μg/cm2) Sartorius' nitrocellulose membranes are ideal for western blotting, DNA blotting as well as dot or slot blots, and they have been optimized for superior performance in all protein blotting systems, including electrotransfer, semi-dry or simple capillary blotting applications. (sartorius.com)
  • Polyethersulfone (PES) membrane filters are hydrophilic, high flow rate and low non-specific protein adsorptive membranes. (sartorius.com)
  • Mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration (MPAN) is a disorder of the nervous system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Dogu O, Krebs CE, Kaleagasi H, Demirtas Z, Oksuz N, Walker RH, Paisán-Ruiz C. Rapid disease progression in adult-onset mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hartig M, Prokisch H, Meitinger T, Klopstock T. Mitochondrial membrane protein-associated neurodegeneration (MPAN). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The image shows the 3D molecular structure of a membrane-linking protein array (color), extracted from a cryo-tomogram of the native Golgi (greyscale). (innovations-report.com)
  • The way the protein arrays hold two Golgi membranes together is similar to how a zipper works when you put on a jacket", explains PhD student Shoh Asano, co-author of the study. (innovations-report.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry streptavidin-peroxidase (SP) assay was used to detect the protein expression of NLRP3 and caspase-1 in the fetal membrane and placental tissues. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Furthermore, using membranes enables separations to take place that would be impossible using thermal separation methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, it is impossible to separate the constituents of azeotropic liquids or solutes which form isomorphic crystals by distillation or recrystallization but such separations can be achieved using membrane technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • This work is part of the University's Centre for Advanced Separations Engineering (CASE) and is the first time the properties of different 3D printing techniques available to membrane fabrication have been assessed. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Director of the Centre for Advanced Separations Engineering at the University of Bath, Dr Darrell Patterson, commented: "This review is the first to explore the possibility and challenges of using 3D printing for producing separation membranes. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Membrane technology potentially offers lower energy, more sustainable molecular separations that can be applied to a wide range of gas and liquid separations. (bath.ac.uk)
  • CANTON, MASS. - FEBRUARY 06, 2018 - Sika, the worldwide market leader in thermoplastic roofing and waterproofing membranes, has published new product-specific Environmental Product Declarations (EPD) for its Sarnafil® S 327 and G 410 single-ply PVC roofing membranes. (thomasnet.com)
  • Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a specialized type of life support for the heart and lungs. (massgeneral.org)
  • Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a specialized type of life support that can provide circulation and oxygenation when the heart and lungs are not working. (massgeneral.org)
  • Two primary types of epithelial membranes exist: serous membranes and mucous membranes. (wisegeek.com)
  • Mucous membranes, also called mucosae, are one major type of epithelial membrane. (wisegeek.com)
  • These tiny hairs guard the mucous membranes by grabbing onto particles of dust or other foreign matter. (wisegeek.com)
  • If the organism is abused by overeating, overclothing, or living in too hot houses, or when the body is especially enervated, and is then exposed to low temperatures, or passing from hot houses, hot beds, to cold air--winter --temperature--irritation of the mucous membranes of all exposed canals results, until catarrhal inflammations become a constant state of the most exposed of these membranes. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Catarrhal inflammation of mucous membranes may be considered an index of the state of digestion and assimilation. (chestofbooks.com)
  • The aim of assignment is to investigate the influence of process conditions (hydrolysis, condensation, reaction time, aging, calcination etc) on the properties and performance of membranes with tailor-made porosity. (utwente.nl)
  • is in contact with a semipermeable membrane -i.e., a thin, porous wall whose porosity is such that some, but not all, of the components in the liquid mixture can pass through the wall. (britannica.com)
  • We report our results on high porosity high-aspect-ratio UNCD membranes fabricated using e-beam lithography, reactive ion etching and laser writing. (nsti.org)
  • The present invention relates to a membrane comprising at least one molecular monolayer composed of low-molecular aromatics and cross-linked in the lateral direction, wherein the membrane has a thickness in the range from 1 to 200 nm and a perforation in the form of openings having a diameter in the range from 0.1 nm to 1 μm, to a method for the production thereof, and to a use thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The invention relates to a membrane support system which applies tension to the membrane of a sound producing or sound receiving device, such as a speaker or a microphone, respectively. (google.co.uk)
  • Each organelle is surrounded by a separate membrane whose function is similar to that of plasma membranes, but with a slightly different composition that enables the organelle to perform specific tasks. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The fetal membranes have been used successfully in medical applications for over a century, but we continue to discover new properties of these membranes," said Dr. Rebecca Lim, author of the STEM CELLS Translational Medicine review. (eurekalert.org)
  • The stem cell populations arising from the fetal membranes are plentiful and diverse, while the membrane itself serves as a unique biocompatible scaffold for bioengineering applications. (eurekalert.org)
  • RT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of NLRP3 and caspase-1 in fetal membrane and placental tissues. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Charged vs. uncharged nylon membranes? (bio.net)
  • The protocol I'm looking at specifies uncharged nylon membranes, but the Amersham literature says that their Hybond N+ is the best membrane for RNA blotting (positively charged nylon). (bio.net)
  • The problems of approximate, and exact, controllability of the transient behavior of a system of interconnected, two-dimensional elastic membranes in three dimensional space are considered. (aimsciences.org)
  • Optimal reinforcing networks for elastic membranes. (aimsciences.org)
  • Led by Yushan Yan, Distinguished Professor of Engineering, the research at UD will focus on creating a series of polymer-based hydroxide exchange membranes (HEMs). (udel.edu)
  • The project, "Highly Conductive, Stable and Robust Hydroxide Exchange Membranes Based on Poly (Aryl Piperidinium)," is one of 16 funded through the $37 million program, which is aimed at transforming energy storage and conversion. (udel.edu)
  • Proton-exchange and hydroxyl ion-exchange membranes and membrane electrode assemblies, including cost-effective Nafion replacements particularly for 120 - 180oC and new membranes for alkaline fuel cells, are critical to the widespread use of fuel cells. (aiche.org)
  • Original and review papers on membranes for fuel cell applications are sought, including (1) fuel processing, (2) proton-exchange membranes, (3) hydroxyl ion-exchange membranes, and (4) membrane electrode assemblies. (aiche.org)
  • Prior to this study, the underlying interactions that inhibited membrane repair in muscle tissue were unknown. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We invite you to join us to discuss the topic of peptide-membrane interactions and make your contribution to this cutting-edge dialogue alongside leaders in this field. (rsc.org)
  • This Discussion meeting will seek to establish a sound platform for further developments in this important field by addressing several related aspects of peptide interactions with membranes. (rsc.org)
  • Similarly, there are many experimental tools to measure the interactions of macromolecules with membranes to a high degree of accuracy. (rsc.org)
  • This session will address the simplest membrane and peptide interactions in order to build a clear picture of the limiting molecular properties of the respective interactions as well as defining some of the outstanding questions that need to be considered in more sophisticated systems. (rsc.org)
  • Interactions in Membranes: What, Exactly, Do We Know? (biophysics.org)