The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under conditions in which the components, such as PROTEINS, being separated can remain in their naturally folded state.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.
Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
A genus of thin-shelled freshwater mussels in the family UNIONIDAE, class BIVALVIA.
A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
Infestations with arthropods of the subclass ACARI, superorder Acariformes.
Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
A phylum of EUKARYOTES in the RHIZARIA group. They are small endoparasites of marine invertebrates. Spores are structurally complex but without polar filaments or tubes.
A species of gram-negative, halophilic bacteria, in the genus VIBRIO. It is considered part of normal marine flora and commonly associated with ear infections and superficial wounds exposed to contaminated water sources.
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
The management and maintenance of colonies of honeybees.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
A family of MITES in the subclass ACARI. It includes the single genus Varroa.
Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
The sudden collapse and disappearance or diminution of a colony of organisms.
For example, the Nicholson-Bailey model for a host-parasite interaction is given by ... Main article: Rational difference equation. A first order rational difference equation has the form w. t. +. 1. =. a. w. t. +. ... For example, the difference equation 3. Δ. 2. (. a. n. ). +. 2. Δ. (. a. n. ). +. 7. a. n. =. 0. {\displaystyle 3\Delta ^{2}(a ... In the first-order matrix difference equation [. x. t. −. x. ∗. ]. =. A. [. x. t. −. 1. −. x. ∗. ]. {\displaystyle [x_{t}-x ...
... genetics and phylogeny to host-parasite interactions". BMC Biology. 9 (1): 11. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-9-11. PMC 3052238. PMID ... "Resolving the infection process reveals striking differences in the contribution of environment, ... the parasite interferes with the reproduction of their female hosts. Hosts can live with the parasite for a prolonged period of ... all of which are obligate parasites with specific hosts. The described species and their hosts include: P. ramosa: parasite of ...
... genetics and phylogeny to host-parasite interactions". BMC Biology. 9: 11. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-9-11. PMC 3052238. PMID ... "Resolving the infection process reveals striking differences in the contribution of environment, ... Ebert, D. (2008). "Host-parasite coevolution: Insights from the Daphnia-parasite model system". Current Opinion in Microbiology ... "Cloning of the unculturable parasite Pasteuria ramosa and its Daphnia host reveals extreme genotype-genotype interactions". ...
Studies are under way to gain a better understanding of the parasite and the host-parasite interactions. Recent evidence is ... Differences in the timing, method of production, and the physical structure of the frontal filament are seen between different ... The effect is specific to the parasite since the drugs used are only slowly absorbed by the host and rapidly metabolized once ... L. salmonis is the best understood in the areas of its biology and interactions with its salmon host. Caligus rogercresseyi has ...
Dheilly, Nolwenn Marie (2014-07-03). "Holobiont-Holobiont Interactions: Redefining Host-Parasite Interactions". PLOS Pathogens ... Disease biomarkers can be found by investigating lifestyle, genomic differences, and mRNA/protein/metabolite profiles of the ... Examples include gut microbe or viral genomes linked to human or animal genomes for host-microbe interaction research. ... have been found with holobiont-holobiont interactions. Maturation of mammalian host immune systems has been known to involve ...
The primary mutualistic interaction between transposon and host organism is in the formation of epialleles. True to the name, ... and this difference in structure allows an host organism to detect dsRNA production, and thereby the presence of transposons. ... mutualist and parasite, may be harder to accurately describe than was once thought. ... in stealing pieces of genetic code from their host organism, blend in so well as to confuse the host cellular machinery into ...
Parasitism is an interaction in which one organism, the host, is harmed while the other, the parasite, benefits. Parasitism is ... The host, therefore, provides for the cuckoo chick as if it was their own, unable to tell the difference. The cuckoo chicks ... a long-term bond in which the parasite feeds on the host or takes resources from the host. Parasites can live within the body ... The host evolves to protect themselves from the parasite and the parasite evolves to overcome this restriction. Neutralism is ...
Anti-predator adaptation Parasite-host interactions Parent-offspring conflict Antimicrobial resistance Dawkins, R. 1996. The ... All these differences depend on specific environmental settings and the type of echolocation call; however, these hypotheses ... The parasite contains virulent-avirulent allelic combinations in several microsatellite loci, likewise the host contains ... Selective pressure between two species can include host-parasite coevolution. This antagonistic relationship leads to the ...
... dwarf mistletoes draw water from their host using the difference in water potential between parasite and host. The greater ... The interaction between dwarf mistletoes and their host can be generalized as a source-to-sink relationship. Dwarf mistletoes ... In addition to host-water dependence, dwarf mistletoes must acquire carbohydrate and mineral nutrition from their hosts. Dwarf ... Because dwarf mistletoes are phloem-deficient, they draw carbohydrates from their hosts by connections to the host phloem and ...
This became known as the Red Queen hypothesis, as seen in host-parasite interaction. Existing genetic variation and mutation ... Differences in fitness between genotypes predict the rate of evolution by natural selection. Natural selection changes the ... 2016). "Host-parasite Red Queen dynamics with phase-locked rare genotypes". Science Advances. 2 (3): e1501548. Bibcode:2016SciA ... An internal parasite (such as a liver fluke) can illustrate the distinction: such a parasite may have a very simple bodily ...
... their involvement in morphogenesis and host-parasite interaction". FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 11 (4): 317-338. doi:10.1111/j. ... Population size is also a major factor in the outcome because differences in gene flow and genetic drift could cause ... Delmotte, F.; Bucheli, E.; Shykoff, J.A. (1999). "Host and parasite population structure in a natural plant-pathogen system". ... "Local adaptation and population structure at a micro-geographical scale of a fungal parasite on its host plant". Journal of ...
Oliver Manlik; Regula Schmid-Hempel & Paul Schmid-Hempel (2017). "Parasite infection of specific host genotypes relates to ... Another brood parasite is the bee B. vestalis. Both of these are distributed in various regions of Europe. The difference ... Interactions with other species[edit]. Female Bee Moths (Aphomia sociella) prefer to lay their eggs in the nests of bumblebees ... Parasites and disease[edit]. Brood parasites[edit]. B. terrestris is parasitized by B. bohemicus, a brood-parasitic Cuckoo bee ...
Researchers speculate that acoustical mimicry is related to the level of interaction between the host and parasite. In the ... The differences between the P. rebeli are that they synthesize different hydrocarbons, which allow them to mimic different ... Though P. rebeli is a parasite, it acts itself as a host to the parasitoid ichneumon wasp, Ichneumon eumerus.[6] I. eumerus ... Phengaris rebeli is a brood parasite, an organism that manipulates another organism (the host) to raise its offspring; in this ...
The significant differences indicate an interaction of toxin and pathogen on the epithelial cells of the honeybee intestine. ... Some of the mites waiting to transfer to a new host remain on the original host. Others transfer to a random bee-a proportion ... Pests and parasites[edit]. Varroa mites[edit]. Varroa mite on a honey bee larva ... Its original host species is probably the eastern honey bee, Apis cerana. A mystery bee illness began on the Isle of Wight in ...
Wolves are major hosts for rabies in Russia, Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq and India. Wolves in Russia have been recorded to carry ... There have been reports of parasites in the meat.[7] Archived April 15, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Wolf meat is considered ... citing for example the differences in attitudes toward the public distribution of firearms in America and Eurasia as examples ... whilst ignoring the differing histories and cultures which lead to diverse interactions with the animals. Hunting proponents ...
... there is no size difference between the parasite and the host.[32] ... Hormones that are passed down from the mother into the egg affect offspring growth, behavior, and social interactions. These ... This is because hatching order is predictable in parasitized coots-host eggs will reliably hatch before parasite eggs. In other ... When a parasitic female lays her egg in a host female's nest, the host female experiences a deposition rate of two eggs per day ...
Interaction with other species[edit]. Parasites within the genus[edit]. Dolichovespula adulterina is a common social parasite. ... This small difference can lead to differences in kinship, which is vital in social insects such as D. saxonica. This difference ... vesparum is a common parasite of D. saxonica, S. vesparum does not rapidly grow in a host's nest; only a few dozen S. vesparum ... vesparum females enter the host's nest and lay their eggs on top of the host's larvae or pupae.[13] This allows the parasitic ...
This separation is occurring because of differences in habitat (preferred host plant), and differences in reproductive behavior ... Parasites and disease[edit]. Fifty-three different parasite species have been discovered in fall armyworm larvae, spanning ten ... Interactions with humans[edit]. Pest of crop plants[edit]. Because of their food preferences, fall armyworm larvae can wreak ... The reproductive differences can be divided into two causes: difference in the timing of mating at night, and difference in ...
For example, natural selection on an interaction between a parasite population and a host population may differ between very ... These genetic differences among populations occur because each local population has a unique history of new mutations, genomic ... Host-parasite coevolution is the coevolution of a host and a parasite. A general characteristic of many viruses, as obligate ... 2015). "Red Queen dynamics in multi-host and multi-parasite interaction system". Scientific Reports. 5: 10004. Bibcode: ...
In: S Morand and B Krasnov (eds.). The Biogeography of Host-Parasite Interactions. Oxford University Press, pp. 73-88. ... Latitudinal differences in species and community richness and in community structure of metazoan endo- and ectoparasites of ... of parasites is not a general phenomenon. Rohde's work on the ecology of marine parasites has shown that most parasites live in ... How to measure host specificity. Vie et Milieu (Life and Environment) 58, 121-124. 2010 Marine parasite diversity and ...
... host-parasite interactions). crown group cryptic species cytoplasmic isolation Darwinism The understanding of biological ... Derived traits show significant differences from the original "primitive" condition of an ancestral trait found in the common ... homoplasy homoploid recombinational speciation host race host-specific parasite host-specific species hybrid The offspring that ... genetic variation The genetic differences both within and between populations, species, or other groups of organisms. It is ...
Pf-YARS is expressed in all asexual parasite stages (rings, trophozoites and schizonts) and is exported to the host erythrocyte ... The interaction between Pf-YARS and macrophages augments expression of adherence-linked host endothelial receptors ICAm-1 and ... It presents a unique dimeric conformation and significant differences in its anticodon binding site, when compared with the ... Interaction of the enzyme with the tyrosyl adenylate intermediate". Journal of Molecular Biology. 208 (1): 83-98. doi:10.1016/ ...
... the parasite benefits while the host is harmed. Parasitism takes many forms, from endoparasites that live within the host's ... Amensalism is an asymmetric interaction where one species is harmed or killed by the other, and one is unaffected by the other ... are naturally evolving and contain reduced sizes of genes can be accounted for an increased number of noticeable differences ... 4, "Homage to Linnaeus: How Many Parasites? How Many Hosts?" Vane-Wright, R. I. (1976). "A unified classification of mimetic ...
Mahler described a parasite-host relationship between the fetus and mother during the prenatal period. During the postnatal ... These interactions build a sense of trust and preserve the security of symbiosis. Heinz Hartmann focused on the connection ... His research concluded, that during a later phase of infancy, the child begins to comprehend the difference between the love or ... Prior to their meeting, Ainsworth was inspired by Bowlby to travel to Uganda to study infant-mother interaction. Based on her ...
... examples would include sunlight or hosts, in the case of parasites). If a wide range of species are considered (say, giant ... This implies that niche differences do not influence abundance and the abundance of each species follows a random walk. The ... Under the Unified Theory, complex ecological interactions are permitted among individuals of an ecological community (such as ... The UNTB suggests that it is not necessary to invoke adaptation or niche differences because neutral dynamics alone can ...
The Bare-tailed woolly opossum is a host of the Acanthocephalan intestinal parasite Gigantorhynchus lutzi. An omnivore, the ... A notable difference between the two was that while the kinkajou focused on plants with a wide distribution, the bare-tailed ... Largely solitary, the only interactions observed are between mother and juveniles and in a mating pair. In a primary forest of ... It is nocturnal (active mainly at night) and solitary; there is hardly any social interaction except between mother and ...
Hanh sought to uncover what exactly varies in the interactions between virus and host that cause differences in viral ... Hahn later determined that the malaria parasite also traversed from other primates to humans, in a single event. Beatrice Hahn ... Contrary to the prevailing scientific opinion, Hahn found that SIV does cause disease in its hosts and that chimpanzees ... This proved that the origin of a subspecies' chimpanzee host was what was responsible for two different phylogenetic lineages ...
As the larva feeds on its host, it saves the vital organs, such as the heart and central nervous system, for last. By waiting ... "Spider predators and parasites". Iziko Museums of Cape Town: Retrieved 28 November 2006. Punzo, F.; Ludwig, L ... The larva has five instar stages before it pupates; no major morphological differences are noted between the first four instars ... However, Brazilian Wandering spiders (Phoneutria) and their predators have a different interaction dynamic, and the spiders ...
ISBN 978-1-4053-6709-7. Dolnik, Olga (2003). Some aspects of the biology and host-parasite interactions of Isospora spp. ( ... Martin, Jean-Louis; Thibault, Jean-Claude (1996). "Coexistence in Mediterranean warblers: ecological differences or ... It may be host to various fleas, mites and internal parasites, and it is a host of the common cuckoo, a brood parasite. The ... The garden warbler is a host of the common cuckoo, a brood parasite. The blackcap has a much lower level of parasitism than its ...
... act as hosts to a number of external and internal parasites. A study of the animal in Karroid Mountainveld ( ... Females have two teats.[2][15] Apart from the difference in the appearance of the tail, the two species of wildebeest also ... Uses and interaction with humansEdit. A bag made with wildebeest skin ... Diseases and parasitesEdit. The black wildebeest is particularly susceptible to anthrax, and rare and widely scattered ...
Carl Zimmer (2000). Parasite Rex: Inside the Bizarre World of Nature's Most Dangerous Creatures. Free Press. ISBN 978-0-7432- ... Such barnacles feed by extending thread-like rhizomes of living cells into their hosts' bodies from their points of attachment. ... The photoreceptors are likely only capable of sensing the difference between light and dark.[5] This eye is derived from the ...
Pathogens and parasites. The diseases and parasites that affect octopuses have been little studied, but cephalopods are known ... "differences. 23 (2): 32-61. doi:10.1215/10407391-1533520.. *^ Fritze, Sointu; Suojoki, Saara (2000). Forbidden Images: Erotic ... Coccidians in the genus Aggregata living in the gut cause severe disease to the host. Octopuses have an innate immune system, ... Most species are solitary when not mating,[66] though a few are known to occur in high densities and with frequent interactions ...
"Tick-host-pathogen interactions in Lyme borreliosis" (PDF). Trends in Parasitology. 23 (9): 434-8. doi:10.1016/ ... Ticks that transmit B. burgdorferi to humans can also carry and transmit several other parasites, such as Theileria microti and ... Borrelia bacteria are often mistakenly described as Gram negative despite the considerable differences in their envelope ... Host Interaction and Pathogenesis. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-58-5. .. ...
... virus-host interactions and genomic features". J. Virol. 79 (14): 8677-86. doi:10.1128/JVI.79.14.8677-8686.2005. PMC 1168784 . ... To emphasize this difference, Woese, Otto Kandler and Mark Wheelis later proposed a new natural system of organisms with three ... No clear examples of archaeal pathogens or parasites are known, but they are often mutualists or commensals. One example is the ... The well-characterized interactions between archaea and other organisms are either mutual or commensal.[184] There are no clear ...
This parasite was also found by other researchers in other parts of Maine and in Nova Scotia. The parasite oviposits in the ... Interactions with humansEdit. R. pomonella is a significant pest for apple crops because the species feeds on apples and lays ... The original ancestral host of the apple maggot was the wild hawthorn (Crataegus spp.), but in the mid-1800s when the apple ( ... the size of the abdomen is the main difference, with only five of the seven segments visible (the sixth and seventh are ...
P. malariae is characterized by a compact parasite (all stages) and does not alter the host erythrocyte's shape or size or ... There were important differences including the absence of coma despite petechial haemorrhages and parasite sequestration in the ... G. Robert Coatney and other researchers found that they were regularly exposed to the parasite, and, further, were joint hosts ... Asexual cycle of the parasite in humans and its natural host macaque is about 24 hours.[2][3][4] Hence the disease may be ...
About 800 million years ago,[37] a minor genetic change in a single molecule called guanylate kinase protein-interaction domain ... Such a passage of time allows both divergent and convergent evolution time to mimic similarities and accumulate differences ... generally parasites, a reduction of multicellularity occurred, in number or types of cells (e.g. the myxozoans, multicellular ... separately replicating their DNA during mitosis of the host species. For instance, the two or three symbiotic organisms forming ...
May 2011). "Single-cell genomics reveals organismal interactions in uncultivated marine protists". Science. 332 (6030): 714-7. ... Single-cell DNA methylation sequencing has been widely used to explore epigenetic differences in genetically similar cells. To ... Microfluidic approaches such as Drop-seq and the Fluidigm IFC-C1 devices have been used to sequence single malaria parasites or ... "Pathogen Cell-to-Cell Variability Drives Heterogeneity in Host Immune Responses". Cell. 162 (6): 1309-21. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ...
Some brood parasites are adapted to hatch before their host's young, which allows them to destroy the host's eggs by pushing ... Many bird species migrate to take advantage of global differences of seasonal temperatures, therefore optimising availability ... "Seabird interactions with Dolphins and Tuna in the Eastern Tropical Pacific" (PDF). The Condor. 88 (3): 304-17. doi:10.2307/ ... they are often accepted and raised by the host at the expense of the host's own brood. Brood parasites may be either obligate ...
Mehlhorn, H. (2013). Bats (Chiroptera) as Vectors of Diseases and Parasites: Facts and Myths. Springer. pp. 2-27. ISBN 978-3- ... Clayton, D. H.; Bush, S. E.; Johnson, K. P. (2015). Coevolution of Life on Hosts: Integrating Ecology and History. University ... This difference is reflected in the structure of the cervical or neck vertebrae in the two groups, which are clearly distinct.[ ... and Behavioral Interactions with Wind Turbines" (PDF). Bat Conservation International. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 ...
"Host-parasite Relationships and Geographical Distribution of the Physalopterinae (Nematoda)" (PDF). Transactions of the ... They also cite purported differences in courtship displays between the Australian and Asian birds. Based on these ... It has a complicated life history involving three hosts: the eggs hatch in fresh water where they infect a ram's horn snail in ... As the Physaloptera species infecting birds are generally parasites of the intestines of raptors; it might be an artefact, or ...
5.4 Predators and parasites. *5.5 Defence mechanisms. *5.6 Other inter-species interactions ... Millipede and centipede differences[23] Trait Millipedes Centipedes Legs Two pairs on most body segments; attached to underside ... Many of these mites are believed to be phoretic rather than parasitic, which means that they use the millipede host as a means ... Interactions with people[edit]. Millipedes generally have little impact to human economic or social well-being, especially in ...
... biodiversity of coral reefs increases the complexity of the interactions between parasites and their various and numerous hosts ... Both types of fish contain strong toxins, but the difference is in the way the toxin is delivered. Venomous fish deliver their ... a b Justine, J.-L. 2010: Parasites of coral reef fish: how much do we know? With a bibliography of fish parasites in New ... Some of these fish parasites have heteroxenous life cycles (i.e. they have several hosts) among which sharks (certain cestodes ...
Host factors[edit]. Upon detection of microbial antigens, the host systemic immune system is activated. Immune cells not only ... This forced receptor interaction induces the production of pro-inflammatory chemical signals (cytokines) by T-cells.[40] ... or parasites.[39] Criteria with regard to hemodynamic compromise or respiratory failure are not useful because they present too ... Crystalloid solutions shows little difference with hydroxyethyl starch in terms of risk of death.[57] Starches also carry an ...
Coevolution between parasite and host can lead to hosts becoming resistant to the parasites or the parasites may evolve greater ... In most cases, microorganisms live in harmony with their hosts via mutual or commensal interactions. Diseases can emerge when ... The difference between an infection and a colonization is often only a matter of circumstance. Non-pathogenic organisms can ... Parasites jumping from nonhuman to human hosts are known as zoonoses. Under disease invasion, when a parasite invades a new ...
Interaction with humans[edit]. Earthworms make a significant contribution to soil fertility.[41] The rear end of the Palolo ... Sell, F.E. (2008) [re-published]. "The humble worm - with a difference". Practical Fresh Water Fishing. Read Books. pp. 14-15. ... Myzostomida live on crinoids and other echinoderms, mainly as parasites. In the past they have been regarded as close relatives ... to organic matter that feeds themselves and their hosts, while the worms extend their palps into the gas flows to absorb the ...
Low-gluten hosts meet all of the Catholic Church's requirements, but they are not entirely gluten free. Requests to use rice ... Inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal parasites, irritable bowel syndrome, cystic fibrosis[12]. Treatment. Gluten-free diet[13 ... such as the action of HLA-DQ2 or tissue transglutaminase and the MICA/NKG2D interaction that may be involved in the killing of ... "Age-related differences in celiac disease: Specific characteristics of adult presentation". World Journal of Gastrointestinal ...
RNAi could potentially be used to treat viruses,[136] bacterial diseases,[137] parasites,[138] maladaptive genetic mutations,[ ... Some viruses have evolved mechanisms for suppressing the RNAi response in their host cells, particularly for plant viruses.[81] ... Illustration of the major differences between plant and animal gene silencing. Natively expressed microRNA or exogenous small ... Fortunato A, Fraser AG (2005). "Uncover genetic interactions in Caenorhabditis elegans by RNA interference". Bioscience Reports ...
These brood parasites selfishly exploit their hosts' parents and host offspring. The common cuckoo is a well known example of a ... This difference, in theory, should lead to each sex evolving adaptations that bias the outcome of reproduction towards its own ... Therefore, the ESS is considered the evolutionary end point subsequent to the interactions. As the fitness conveyed by a ... False gapes from brood parasite offspring cause host parents to collect more food.[64] Another example of a brood parasite is ...
Host-pathogen interaction. *List of incurable diseases. *Mitochondrial disease. *Plant pathology. *Rare disease, a disease that ... When a disease is caused by a pathogen (e.g., when the disease malaria is caused by infection by Plasmodium parasites.), the ... "What is the Difference Between an 'Injury' and 'Disease' for Commonwealth Injury Claims?". Tindall Gask Bentley. Archived from ... Epidemiologists also study the interaction of diseases in a population, a condition known as a syndemic. Epidemiologists rely ...
Hosted by Alaska State Publications Program.. External links[edit]. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Oncorhynchus nerka. ... These encounters are short, with the intruding male leaving after one or two aggressive interactions.[21] Spawning females ... Twelve technical reports were published using that information, looking at the possible impacts of diseases and parasites, ... which is when species emphasize their differences in diet and habitat to avoid competition. Interspecific competition can ...
Endogenous antigens are produced by intracellular bacteria and viruses replicating within a host cell. The host cell uses ... A critical difference between B cells and T cells is how each cell "sees" an antigen. T cells recognize their cognate antigen ... The Th2 response is characterized by the release of Interleukin 5, which induces eosinophils in the clearance of parasites.[7] ... Upon interaction with a previously encountered antigen, the appropriate memory cells are selected and activated. In this manner ...
However, since they typically do not kill their hosts, they are now often thought of as parasites.[3][4] Animals that graze on ... Plant animal Interactions: An Evolutionary Approach. Blackwell. pp. 132-154. ISBN 978-0-632-05267-7. .. ... to have differences between individuals, such as sexes and an age structure, so that only some individuals reproduce; to live ... Zoologists generally call this a form of parasitism, though conventionally parasites are thought not to kill their hosts. A ...
doi:10.1016/j.diff.2012.04.004. PMID 22579300. Burger DE, Lu X, Lei M, Xiang FL, Hammoud L, Jiang M, Wang H, Jones DL, Sims SM ... These properties may define the roles of iNOS in host immunity, enabling its participation in anti-microbial and anti-tumor ... likely due to its tight non-covalent interaction with calmodulin (CaM) and Ca2+. The gene coding for iNOS is located on ... by many cell types in response to cytokines and is an important factor in the response of the body to attack by parasites, ...
Watson, J. (2008). New building, old parasite: Mesostigmatid mites-an ever-present threat to barrier rodent facilities. ILAR ... these rats were used as transport hosts. Another zoonotic disease linked to the rat is foot-and-mouth disease.[7] ... "Individual differences: Case studies of rodent and primate intelligence". Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning ...
The host of the virus causing the disease is P. vannamei, one of the two most commonly farmed shrimp. The disease spread ... have proposed a subdivision or reassignment of several species in this genus to new genera based on morphological differences, ... It has a wide host range and is highly lethal, leading to mortality rates of 100% within days. Symptoms include white spots on ... Fish diseases and parasites. *Fish farming. *Fisheries management. *Fisheries science. *Individual fishing quota ...
2003). Reported black-billed and yellow-billed cuckoo hosts' responses to a dummy black-billed cuckoo and cuckoo-like eggs. The ... Ph.D. (2001). The interaction of nest predation and brood parasitism: Factors and consequences of renesting in songbirds. ... Burgham MCJ & Picman J. (1989). Effect of Brown-Headed Cowbirds on the Evolution of Yellow Warbler Anti-Parasite Strategies. ... 2005). Individual risk versus immediate reproductive success: A basis for latitudinal differences in the adrenocortical ...
Studies of host-parasite interactions rarely take into account the fact that different steps might be influenced by different ... encounter between parasite and host; activation of parasite dormant spores; attachment of spores to the host; and parasite ... Our study underlines the importance of resolving the infection process in order to better understand host-parasite interactions ... We next established that parasite attachment occurs onto the host oesophagus independently of host species, gender and ...
To fully understand these biological differences, the host-parasite interactions of these parasites have been investigated in ... Several interesting differences in host-parasite interactions at both the qualitative and quantitative levels were identified. ... The differences in the host cell phosphoproteome indicated that these parasites interact with the host cell differently. As a ... TgGRA2 was successfully purified by HPLC and attempts have been made to study its role in host-parasite interactions using a ...
"We suggest a new perspective on host-parasite interactions, taking parasite evolution into account." ... Parasites that adapt to male or female hosts may help explain why we find differences in parasite prevalence and disease ... Some disease-causing parasites are known to favor one sex over the other in their host species, and such differences between ... how parasites are distributed among hosts and why parasites can be locally adapted to certain host sexes. ...
G interactions for several forms of host-parasite interactions. We then simulate host-pathogen coevolution to illustrate the ... Host-only model with resistance dependent on phenotypic differences (A,C) or phenotypic matching (B,D) between hosts and ... Host-Parasite Coevolution. To simulate host-parasite coevolution, we envision a system where each host comes into contact with ... Host-parasite interaction models. Susceptibility to infection as a function of the distance between host and pathogen ...
Host-symbiont-pathogen interactions in blood-feeding parasites: nutrition, immune cross-talk and gene exchange - Volume 145 ... 2012) Cultivation-independent methods reveal differences among bacterial gut microbiota in triatomine vectors of Chagas disease ... 2017) Parasite microbiome project: systematic investigation of microbiome dynamics within and across parasite-host interactions ... 2011) Implication of haematophagous arthropod salivary proteins in host-vector interactions. Parasites & Vectors 4, 187. ...
... and neurotransmitters that modulate the host immune response by several effector mechanisms, inc.. ... Klein SL (2004) Hormonal and immunological mechanisms mediating sex differences in parasite infection. Parasite Immunol 26: 247 ... Endocrine Immune Interactions in the Host-Parasite Relationship: Steroid Hormones as Immune Regulators in Parasite Infections ... 2015) Endocrine Immune Interactions in the Host-Parasite Relationship: Steroid Hormones as Immune Regulators in Parasite ...
"Host-Parasite Interactions." Fungal Genetics Conference. March 2001. Access 10 November 2006 [[3]] ... "Host-Parasite Interactions." Fungal Genetics Conference. March 2001. Access 10 November 2006 [[. ... "Host-Parasite Interactions." Fungal Genetics Conference. March 2001. Access 10 November 2006 ... Difference between revisions of "Ustilago". From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource ...
"Host-Parasite Interactions." (2001). Fungal Genetics Conference. Retrieved November 10, 2006 from[[4]] ... This can only occur on the funguss corn host (Host-Parasite). In either form it is viewed as a pathogen of seeds and flowers ... This can only occur on the funguss corn host (Host-Parasite). In either form it is viewed as a pathogen of seeds and flowers ... "Host-Parasite Interactions." (2001). Fungal Genetics Conference. Retrieved November 10, 2006 from. [[. ...
We have studied differential gene expression related to differences in growth rate in adult individuals of the commercial ... We have studied differential gene expression related to differences in growth rate in adult individuals of the commercial ... a functional approach to unravel host-parasite interaction. BMC Genomics 14:741. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-14-741 ... This reflects the high abundance of DEGs related to host defense responses against bacteria or parasites in both the gills and ...
For example, the Nicholson-Bailey model for a host-parasite interaction is given by ... Main article: Rational difference equation. A first order rational difference equation has the form w. t. +. 1. =. a. w. t. +. ... For example, the difference equation 3. Δ. 2. (. a. n. ). +. 2. Δ. (. a. n. ). +. 7. a. n. =. 0. {\displaystyle 3\Delta ^{2}(a ... In the first-order matrix difference equation [. x. t. −. x. ∗. ]. =. A. [. x. t. −. 1. −. x. ∗. ]. {\displaystyle [x_{t}-x ...
... a functional approach to unravel host-parasite interaction [1] The first characterization of the Ruditapes decussatus ... DNA to the host genome is common. We generated a draft genome sequence for the strongyloidean nematode parasite Dictyocaulus ... A fascinating study that uses genetic techniques to dig into the history of a host-parasite relationship. The D. viviparus ... Genetic and physical interaction annotation is also supported. Canto captures all necessary information about each interaction ...
... and their interaction. These genes were enriched for loci controlling immune functions known to differ between host populations ... and their interaction. These genes were enriched for loci controlling immune functions known to differ between host populations ... Genes in both the innate and adaptive immune system were differentially expressed as a function of host population, infection ... Genes in both the innate and adaptive immune system were differentially expressed as a function of host population, infection ...
Patterns of such systems are mostly host-parasite systems with protozoan parasites or worm parasites. In [34], the authors use ... It includes interactions among macrophages (that could be considered along with other lymphocytes and neutrophils, the leaders ... Recently, such models integrate population structure and viewed differences between individuals in traits that impact ... Tumors arise in hosts with a severe and stable immune deficiency. The study of tumor immunology has led to the development of ...
and Trypanosoma cruzi Infection," they have analyzed the host-parasite interaction in both Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma ... since it indicates that there are some differences in host invasion strategies between these two major protozoan parasites. ... They also explain the molecular crosstalk that occurs between the host and parasite which has been partly inaccessible to ... entitled "The Dialogue of the Host-Parasite Relationship: Leishmania spp. ...
... stability and species interactions in helminth communities of wood mice, Apodemus sylvaticu were found in PRIME PubMed. ... Abundance of Syphacia stroma varied considerably between spatial surveys reflecting differences in host population dynamics in ... Detecting interactions between parasites in cross-sectional studies of wild rodent populations. ... Abundance of Syphacia stroma varied considerably between spatial surveys reflecting differences in host population dynamics in ...
"But Jens work also underscores the importance of genetic differences in host immunity. Much more work is needed to understand ... the complex interaction between Toxoplasma and the immune response.". Study authors include Bill Sullivan, PhD, Showalter ... IU School of Medicine researchers find new drug that could reverse effects of dangerous brain parasite Christina Griffiths Apr ... "To discover a drug that reduces tissue cysts and reverses one of the behavioral changes caused by the parasite is a significant ...
In antagonistic interactions (e.g., host-parasite), we find that faster evolution by any means is beneficial-the "Red Queen" ... An unexplained difference between pathways is the functional requirements of the respective cysteine desulfurases. In ... These results open up new possibilities for probing fundamental electron-electron interactions in a host of materials including ... and although interactions with ants likely facilitated plant diversification, plant interactions did not shape ant ...
In a host-parasite interaction, for example, the host is selected to develop immunity to the parasite, which in turn selects ... Relative differences in mutation rate again have no discernible short-run effect. In the long run, differences in mutation rate ... In antagonistic interactions (e.g., host-parasite), we find that faster evolution by any means is beneficial-the "Red Queen" ... In antagonistic symbioses, such as host-parasite interactions, one populations success is the others loss. In mutualistic ...
We have examined a nutritional aspect of the host-parasite interaction in an effort to uncover biochemical differences between ...
The marked size difference between infested and uninfested samples clearly indicates that the hosts were adversely affected by ... A Pack of Thieves: the oldest parasite-host interaction in the fossil record. 4 June 2020 ... Parasites can increase the energy requirements of infected organisms because host organisms need to generate enough energy to ... Our paper suggest that parasite-host systems were well established by the early Cambrian period. It pushes back the origins of ...
Identifying the mechanisms that mediate host-parasite interactions and cause observed disease phenotypes can lead to the ... out comparative genomic analysis to explore genome-wide genetic differences between two Nosema species and identify parasite ... BRL will use RNA-Seq methods to analyze transcriptome profiles indicative of host-microbe interactions under different ... Nosema disease caused by two species of microsporidian parasites, Nosema apis and N. ceranae affects bee health and is often ...
The host-parasite interactions are very interesting and, like anything to do with host specificity, totally mystifying. To test ... 45%. Differences we have found include: 1. Higher intensities of infection with hookworms in dogs than cats; 2. Greater ... More information about the Parasite mailing list. Send comments to us at biosci-help [At] ... I am very interested to know if other parasitologists have found A. caninum infecting these 3 host species. Rick Speare ...
The mode of host-parasite interaction shapes coevolutionary dynamics and the fate of host cooperation. ... Leaks in the pipeline: separating demographic inertia from ongoing gender differences in academia. ... Bottom-up effects may not reach the top: the influence of ant-aphid interactions on the spread of soil disturbances through ...
... genetics and phylogeny to host-parasite interactions". BMC Biology. 9 (1): 11. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-9-11. PMC 3052238. PMID ... "Resolving the infection process reveals striking differences in the contribution of environment, ... the parasite interferes with the reproduction of their female hosts. Hosts can live with the parasite for a prolonged period of ... all of which are obligate parasites with specific hosts. The described species and their hosts include: P. ramosa: parasite of ...
... genetics and phylogeny to host-parasite interactions". BMC Biology. 9: 11. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-9-11. PMC 3052238. PMID ... "Resolving the infection process reveals striking differences in the contribution of environment, ... Ebert, D. (2008). "Host-parasite coevolution: Insights from the Daphnia-parasite model system". Current Opinion in Microbiology ... "Cloning of the unculturable parasite Pasteuria ramosa and its Daphnia host reveals extreme genotype-genotype interactions". ...
... we predicted behaviour increasing interactions with other sticklebacks to increase. Infection status explained differences in ... Differences in personality related to parasite infection status can, in principle, be due to one of two scenarios: parasites ... Parasite infection can have pervasive effects on hosts, including altering host behaviour, and may thus contribute to ... However, future studies need to establish the consequences of this for the parasite, and the causality of the parasite-host ...
The primary research objective was to define the key features of host-parasite interaction in chronic T. cruzi gut infection. A ... profiles differ and significant differences in peristalsis occur according to the genotypes of both the host and the parasite. ... donovani and their interactions with mammalian hosts. My findings provide a clearer idea of when, how and why parasitic ... Parasite persistence in the gut may also compromise microbiota containment, contributing to VL/CD pathology or leading to ...
Under no intra-host competition (1 parasite per host), larval size was positively correlated with host phototaxis. At higher ... In manipulative parasites, larval growth strategy could also interact with their ability to alter intermediate host phenotype ... In helminths, larval growth, a major component of adult parasite fitness, is linked to exploitation of intermediate host ... Intra-host competition reduced mean P. laevis cystacanth size, but the largest cystacanth within a host always reached the same ...
Molecular phylogeny and parasite-host interaction of myxosporean parasites of fish originating from fish farms in the state of ... Molecular analysis showed significant genetic differences with other described species in South America and other countries. ... The ultrastructural analysis was performed to verify the host-parasite myxosporean interaction found on piraputanga. The ... For the identification of parasite species, it was used light microscopy for morphological and histopathological analyzes to ...
  • have written an interesting review on how different helminth infections can improve or worsen the development of malaria in "Helminth Parasites Alter Protection against Plasmodium Infection. (
  • However, with the idea of gene expression in Plasmodia where P. recent availability of the genomes of the human host, f alciparum poses specific experimental the parasite (3D7 clone of Plasmodium difficulties[7, 8]. (
  • The protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for the most severe form of human malaria and causes a tremendous economic burden [ 1 ], leading to at least one million deaths per year, particularly in developing countries where failure to eradicate the anopheline mosquito vector leads to occasional epidemics [ 2 , 3 ]. (
  • Molecular chaperones have been shown to be important in the growth of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and inhibition of chaperone function by pharmacological agents has been shown to abrogate parasite growth. (
  • In addition, cluster 2 also shows up-regulation of Plasmodium export element (PEXEL)-containing Hsp40s thought to have regulatory and host remodeling roles in the infected erythrocyte. (
  • As a postdoc in Manoj Duraisingh's lab at Harvard School of Public Health she performed a genetic screen to identify critical host factors for Plasmodium falciparum malaria using red blood cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells. (
  • Her research is focused on understanding how host factors from the human erythrocyte influence the biology and pathogenesis of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. (
  • Malaria is a widespread tropical infectious disease caused by a number of species of the protozoan parasite of the genus plasmodium, most notably P. falciparum, which are transmitted through the saliva of the anopheles mosquito. (
  • In Plasmodium falciparum malaria, host and parasite processes can be assessed by dual RNA sequencing of blood from infected patients. (
  • Epigenetic landscapes underlining global patterns of gene expression in the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. (
  • Licochalone A, a New Antimalarial Agent, Inhibits In Vitro Growth of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum and Protects Mice fromP. (
  • 2. A method according to claim 1, wherein the metazoan parasite is selected from the group consisting of Plasmodium falciparum, Schistosoma mansoni, Trypanosoma cruzi, Giardia lamblia, Entoemeba histolytica, Cryptospiridium spp. (
  • She is now studying the molecular and physiological interactions between the Anopheles vector and the Plasmodium malaria parasite both in the laboratory and in field settings. (
  • Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites, and most deaths are associated with human-infective P. falciparum . (
  • We next established that parasite attachment occurs onto the host oesophagus independently of host species, gender and environmental conditions. (
  • Some disease-causing parasites are known to favor one sex over the other in their host species, and such differences between the sexes have generally been attributed to differences in immune responses or behavior. (
  • But in a new article, published February 28 in the magazine section of the online, open-access journal PLoS Biology, David Duneau from Cornell University and Dieter Ebert from the University of Basel now propose that all sorts of characteristics that differ between the sexes of the host species can influence a parasite's adaptation. (
  • There are only a few examples of parasites being adapted to only one sex, such as a mite that infects only females of its host species-the bat Myotis daubentoni. (
  • Isolated host populations are often exposed to distinct local parasite species or genotypes, and consequently evolve divergent immune traits. (
  • There were neither strong nor consistent positive or negative interactions between pairs of helminth species. (
  • It is concluded that the stability characteristics of this parasite community, in terms of species composition and relative abundance, are the product of the population biology of independent parasite species rather than interspecific interactions. (
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Structure, stability and species interactions in helminth communities of wood mice, Apodemus sylvaticus. (
  • I am very interested to know if other parasitologists have found A. caninum infecting these 3 host species. (
  • Nosema disease caused by two species of microsporidian parasites, Nosema apis and N. ceranae affects bee health and is often implicated in colony declines. (
  • BRL will carry out comparative genomic analysis to explore genome-wide genetic differences between two Nosema species and identify parasite factors responsible for pathogenicity virulence. (
  • Other species are purpose of host-parasite interactions is to identify not that A-T rich. (
  • Currently, four species of Pasteuria and two candidate species are described, all of which are obligate parasites with specific hosts. (
  • The described species and their hosts include: P. ramosa: parasite of Cladocerans, including Daphnia. (
  • Candidate species and their hosts include: P. usage: parasite of the sting nematode, Belonolaimus longicaudatus P. aldrichii: parasite of bacterivorous nematodes in the genus Bursilla spp. (
  • These are protozoan parasite species that cause the neglected infectious diseases visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and Chagas disease (CD) respectively. (
  • For the identification of parasite species, it was used light microscopy for morphological and histopathological analyzes to observe the damage caused by parasitism. (
  • In phylogenetic study, using the method of Maximum Likelihood for both species, it was observed that the species of myxosporean grouped according to the order of the host Characiform and the tissue tropism. (
  • Molecular analysis showed significant genetic differences with other described species in South America and other countries. (
  • Organisms engage in extensive cross-species molecular dialog, yet the underlying molecular actors are known for only a few interactions. (
  • It is highly variable and is distinct among different species of Pneumocystis that infect different mammalian hosts ( 79 , 150 , 192 ). (
  • Pne umocystis exhibits host-specific speciation, and the nomenclature was revised to distinguish these different species (Frenkel JK. (
  • Parasitic plants often attack multiple host species with unique defenses, physiology, and ecology. (
  • Reproductive phenology and vectors of parasitic plant genes (pollinators and dispersers) can contribute to or erode reproductive isolation of populations infecting different host species. (
  • Parasite flowering phenology on one host species (velvet mesquite, Prosopis velutina ) differed significantly from that on four others, and phenology was not predicted by host species phenology or host individual. (
  • Comparing mistletoe populations on mesquite and another common host species (catclaw acacia, Senegalia greggii ) for which genetically distinct host races are known, we tested for differences in interactions with vectors by quantifying pollinator visitation, reward production, pollen receipt, and fruit consumption. (
  • Mistletoes on the two host species interacted with distinct but overlapping pollinator communities, and pollinator taxa differed in visitation according to host species. (
  • Unlike in cattle, the same species of parasites such as cestodes, trematodes and nematodes infect the two small ruminant species. (
  • Despite the similar number of goats and sheep in the world, and the similar consequences of parasitism in both species, the majority of studies on host-parasite interactions and/or their control, have been carried out on sheep. (
  • Comparing results on the interactions between parasites and sheep and those same parasites with goats demonstrates how inferring data acquired on one host species to a second one can lead to errors that might have dramatic consequences on the control of these infections. (
  • In contrast to what has been reported until now for scutacarid mites, the respective species did not possess claws on leg I for attachment on their host, but clasped to the termites' coxae probably by using their large, pad-like empodia on legs II and III. (
  • In most instances the epidemiology of infectious disease is characteristic of that disease and is an outgrowth of biological properties of the parasite and the host, including host specificity and the behaviour of the host species as populations. (
  • An insect-borne disease transmitted from one host species to another requires the simultaneous presence of all three populations in sufficient numbers for its dissemination. (
  • In vitro culture of organisms at any one of these stages within the life cycle involves a tremendous number of variables, including parasite stage, host site, host temperature, host immune responses, parasite species and/or strain, and parasite-protective mechanisms. (
  • Advances in sequencing and computation, and greater database connectivity, will continue to expand the utility of barcoding methods for the study of species interactions, especially if barcoding can be approached flexibly by making use of alternative genetic loci, metagenomes and whole-genome data. (
  • In many species interactions, a host organism associates with a community of symbionts. (
  • Using honey bees as a model species, this article summarizes biotic and abiotic stressors of pollinators including: exposure to parasites and pesticides, poor nutrition, habitat destruction and climate change. (
  • Some of the most damaging hive parasites were recently introduced to European honey bee ( Apis mellifera ) populations from the related Asian honey bee ( Apis cerana ) species. (
  • Despite differences in foraging ecology, crossbill vocal types do not appear to be incipient species or subject to different parasite communities. (
  • Host-parasite interaction between crustaceans of six fish species from the Brazilian Amazon/Interacao hospedeiro-parasite entre crustaceos de seis especies de peixes da Amazonia brasileira. (
  • 2015). Moreover, some crustacean species may affect fish breathing when they parasitize their gills, with negative influence on hosts' swimming and growth (Semmens et al. (
  • Besides the lack of information on the parasite species that occur in these fish species, the variables that influence the parasite assemblage structure are also unknown. (
  • However, the interactions between the two species may involve multiple individuals. (
  • Mutualistic relationships, interspecific interactions that benefit both species, have been empirically studied for many years [ 1 - 7 ] and also a considerable body of theory has been put forth trying to explain the evolution and maintenance of such relationships [ 8 - 15 ]. (
  • A representative of each species is chosen and the outcome of the interactions between these representatives determines the evolutionary dynamics within each of the two species. (
  • However, in many cases interactions between species cannot be reduced to such pairwise encounters [ 16 ]. (
  • In this manuscript, we focus on this kind of-possibly-many-to-many interactions between two mutualistic species. (
  • Following Bergstrom & Lachmann [ 12 ], we analyse the interactions between two species with a twist to the standard formulation. (
  • In coevolutionary arms races, where species are locked in antagonistic relationships such as host-parasite interactions, we observe the Red Queen effect [ 24 ]. (
  • Recently, Cheyletiella parasitivorax was found parasitizing a rabbit in Brazil which represents a new host and distribution record for the mite species. (
  • These pathogenic and symbiotic species were confirmed in the following ectoparasite species-Laelaps jettmari, Haemogamasus nidi, Laelaps agilis and Eulaelaps stabularis mites, Ixodes ricinus ticks, Ctenophthalmus solutus, C. assimilis and Megabothris turbidus fleas infesting host-Apodemus agrarius, A. flavicollis, Microtus arvalis and Myodes glareolus small mammals. (
  • While a zoonosis in humans, this simian malaria parasite species infects macaque monkeys and serves as an experimental model for in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro studies. (
  • interactions one species can also positively affect another spe- Sadler et al. (
  • The protozoan phylum Apicomplexa is extremely species rich and members of this group are found as parasites in virtually every vertebrate and many invertebrate animals. (
  • Infection processes consist of a sequence of steps, each critical for the interaction between host and parasite. (
  • Our study underlines the importance of resolving the infection process in order to better understand host-parasite interactions. (
  • After attachment and entering its host, the next step of infection is proliferation. (
  • phosphopeptide enrichment, combined with LC MS/MS has been used to study the global response in the host signalling pathway through protein phosphorylation and signal transduction in response to infection with T. gondii and N. caninum. (
  • about one-third of the phosphoproteomes of the host cell in response to infection by T. gondii and N. caninum was different. (
  • Approximately 21 % of the phospho-motifs were found differentially enriched between host cells infected with T. gondii compared to N. caninum infection and finally the pathway analysis showed that a few pathways were differentially enriched between infections with these parasites, such as glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and mTOR signalling pathway in infection with T. gondii Abstract vi but not with N. caninum. (
  • As a means of understanding the broader host response to infection with these parasites at the systems biology level, integrated data analyses were performed on quantitative data from the transcriptome, proteome and phosphoproteome of host cells infected with the two parasites. (
  • Data analyses showed that host cells produce more proteins in response to infection with T. gondii than with N. caninum after 36 hours post infection (p.i. (
  • In humans, there are well documented host-sex differences in parasite prevalence and infection symptoms, as well as prevention and treatment of infection. (
  • Reanalyzing previously published data on Daphnia magna susceptibility to infection by Pasteuria ramosa , we identify genomic regions consistent with G × G interactions. (
  • Heritable population differences in immune gene expression following infection can reveal mechanisms of host immune evolution. (
  • Genes in both the innate and adaptive immune system were differentially expressed as a function of host population, infection status, and their interaction. (
  • These genes were enriched for loci controlling immune functions known to differ between host populations or in response to infection. (
  • In summary, recent evolutionary divergence between two vertebrate populations has generated population-specific gene expression responses to parasite infection, affecting parasite establishment and growth. (
  • If the infection is cleared, the host must downregulate this costly response ( 1 - 4 ). (
  • BRL will use high throughout genomic and transcriptome sequencing approaches to 1) determine virulence factors associated with Nosema pathogenecity, 2) identify host genes that are responsible for bee defenses against Nosema infection, and 3) develop RNAi based therapeutics based on information of host susceptibility and pathogen virulence and effective delivery modes for laboratory and large-scale field application. (
  • BRL will use RNA-Seq methods to analyze transcriptome profiles indicative of host-microbe interactions under different environmental conditions to identify candidate genes involved in host defense against Nosema infection. (
  • In water fleas, the ability of the spore to successfully attach during the infection process is related to the genotype of the host and the parasite. (
  • Following infection with Pasteuria, the parasite interferes with the reproduction of their female hosts. (
  • Hosts can live with the parasite for a prolonged period of time after infection. (
  • People normally have a sufficiently strong immune response to control the initial wave of infection but, for largely unknown reasons, the parasites are not completely eliminated. (
  • Parasite persistence in the gut may also compromise microbiota containment, contributing to VL/CD pathology or leading to secondary syndromes, as is seen in chronic HIV infection. (
  • Parasite infection can have pervasive effects on hosts, including altering host behaviour, and may thus contribute to differences in host personality. (
  • Infection status explained differences in host personality. (
  • This confirms a link between parasite infection and host behaviour, and a relationship which may improve the horizontal transmission of Glugea . (
  • Parasite infection that alters host behaviour could be a possible avenue of research into the causes of animal personality. (
  • We studied the link between infection and personality using the three-spined stickleback and its parasite Glugea anomala . (
  • The meeting then focused on the modelling of Theileria parva infection within the host and a simple model for the cytotoxic T. lymphocyte (CTL) response was outlined. (
  • After the infection has spread throughout the host, the bacterium begins to sporulate. (
  • The infection success of P. ramosa depends on its ability to attach to the host esophagus and to spread into its body cavity where the propagation of the pathogen takes place. (
  • The attachment step of the infection depends on the genotypes of the host and the bacterium, meaning that only certain host genotypes can be infected by certain strains of the bacterium. (
  • At higher infection intensities, this relationship disappeared, possibly because of strong competition for host resources, and thus larval growth, and limited manipulative abilities of co-infecting larval acanthocephalans. (
  • As compared with wild-type control mice, oocyst output by mutant mice was not significantly affected during primary infection, suggesting that the ability of NK cells to control parasite replication is not dependent on the expression of MHC molecules. (
  • parasite population growth rate declined consistently from the beginning of infection. (
  • it may persist, for example, in one or another of its hosts as a reservoir of infection, sallying forth to encounter the alternate host only on occasion. (
  • Eight to nine days post-infection at high temperature, the infection of G. salaris was eliminated, indicative of innate host immunity. (
  • Then, the mechanism of T. cruzi invasion of host cells (HC) is essentially similar (during a primary infection in the abscence of a specific immune response), regardless of wether the target cell is a professional or a non-professional phagocytic cell. (
  • Infection by intracellular pathogens is stressful for both the host as well as the pathogen. (
  • Differences in blood cell counts, including an increased percentage of neutrophils, associated with a transcriptional signature of neutrophil activation, were driven primarily by P. vivax infection. (
  • Surprisingly, P. vivax infection was more strongly associated with differences in the microbiota than STH infection. (
  • Epidemiologic studies suggest the difference of virulence in mice may relate to the severity of toxoplasmosis in human infection. (
  • Here, we used in vivo assays to investigate host responses upon infection of distinct Toxoplasma strains. (
  • Our studies examined host response to infection of the three widespread clonal lineages of T. gondii using a mouse model. (
  • Although viral factors almost certainly play a role in limiting human infection and disease, host genetics most likely contribute substantially. (
  • To model host factors in the context of influenza virus infection, we determined the lethal dose of a highly pathogenic H5N1 virus (A/Hong Kong/213/03) in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice and identified genetic elements associated with survival after infection. (
  • Some evidence suggests that genetic variation among infected hosts contributes to H5N1 infection and pathogenesis. (
  • However, other recent studies either have been unable to confirm the effect of genetic variation on the outcome and severity of influenza A virus infection ( 19 ) or have challenged the role of host genetics in H5N1 virus clusters ( 36 ). (
  • In the mouse model, disease severity after infection with viruses, bacteria, or parasites is frequently caused by multiple genetic differences, each affecting the outcome of the disease ( 3 , 7 , 8 , 17 , 47 ). (
  • This study was initiated to assess the effect of the host's genetic variation on H5N1 influenza virus pathogenesis and to provide the first clues about which host genes are responsible for the increased pathogenesis of H5N1 virus infection. (
  • Macrophage activation with ensuing intracellular parasite killing is the host's primary defense against Leishmania infection. (
  • The structure of temperate phage-bacteria infection networks changes with the phylogenetic distance of the host bacteria. (
  • It was suggested that differences in the infection rates of male and female molluscs by trematodes is a way to effectively control the parasite-host interaction at the population level in order to hold up the stability of host reproduction. (
  • Chernogorenko M.I., Nizovskaya L.V., Chernogorenko E.V. The influence of host gender on the infection of mollusks of the family Viviparidae Gray, 1847 by trematode larvae. (
  • From the data collected it is not clear whether hosts of lower condition are more susceptible to co-infection or if the co-infection is more harmful to hosts than being singly infected. (
  • T. gondii is not transmitted by foxes, but if infection with this parasite increases susceptibility to CAV-I then this virus may benefit from the presence of T. gondii within its host population. (
  • If it is the case that foxes of lower condition are simply more prone to co-infection then it should be expected that individual differences between hosts would cause heterogeneity in disease transmission. (
  • To investigate these differences, we infected male and female mice of different age groups with SARS-CoV and analyzed their susceptibility to the infection. (
  • The degree of sex bias to SARS-CoV infection increased with advancing age, such that middle-aged mice showed much more pronounced differences compared with young mice. (
  • In addition to age-dependent disease susceptibility, epidemiological studies showed sex-specific differences in the incidence and case fatality rates (CFRs) in humans after SARS-CoV infection, with males experiencing higher CFRs compared with females ( 20 , 21 ). (
  • Consequently, coevolution of rickettsiae with arthropods is responsible for many features of the host-pathogen relationship that are unique among arthropod-borne diseases, including efficient pathogen replication, long-term maintenance of infection, and transstadial and transovarial transmission. (
  • Although rickettsiae are maintained in nature through arthropod vectors, they frequently infect vertebrates, which in turn allow new lines of vectors to acquire infection from the rickettsemic hosts. (
  • Her laboratory studies the earliest stages of the malaria infection: The inoculation of sporozoites by infected mosquitoes and the significant physical and immunological obstacles that must be overcome for the parasite to establish infection in the mammalian host. (
  • Some intracellular parasites have also mastered the art of persistence for transmission or reemergence later in infection. (
  • We also identified the basis for Toxoplasma cytolytic egress from infected cells, defined the parasite's use of autophagy as a survival strategy during persistence, and we are developing inhibitors targeting a parasite lysosomal protease to interrupt chronic infection. (
  • Many parasites induce the secretion of molecules that influence the physiological and immunological responses in hosts, including intermediaries and vectors. (
  • These host-associated differences in reproduction have implications for interactions with mutualist vectors and population genetic structure. (
  • This article examines the common features of the host-pathogen relationship and of the arthropod vectors of the typhus and spotted fever group rickettsiae. (
  • She is interested in exploring various facets of disease vectors focusing on sand flies that transmit Leishmania parasites by bite. (
  • Host-type-independent spore activation suggests that this step can be ruled out as a major factor in Daphnia - Pasteuria coevolution. (
  • Additionally, these spores may be ingested by immune hosts and remain unharmed as it passes through the gut of the Daphnia making them very difficult to kill. (
  • P. ramosa has coevolved with its host Daphnia magna. (
  • We tested this hypothesis exploring field data of the Daphnia-Caullerya host-parasite system. (
  • The clonal make‐up and turnover of the Daphnia host population was tracked with high temporal resolution from 1998 until 2013, using first allozyme and later microsatellite markers. (
  • Significant differences in the clonal composition between random and infected subsamples of Daphnia populations were detected on six of seven tested occasions, confirming genetic specificity of the host-parasite interaction in this system. (
  • What is perhaps even more diverse are the pathogenic lineages that infect blood-feeding parasites. (
  • Spore cells that do not infect animals and pass through a resistant host can still remain viable and infectious. (
  • Parasites that infect humans could be categorized into three distinct physiological states depending upon their gene expression profiles. (
  • Understanding these processes more deeply will better define the elaborate mechanisms intracellular parasite use to infect their hosts. (
  • Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are closely related obligatory intracellular apicomplexan parasites that invade and multiply in almost all mammalian host cells. (
  • Researchers at Indiana University School of Medicine have discovered a drug commonly used to treat hypertension could also be used to reverse the effects of Toxoplasma gondii -a single-celled parasite that infects about a third of the world's population and can cause severe neurological effects. (
  • Much more work is needed to understand the complex interaction between Toxoplasma and the immune response. (
  • To determine if non-canonical Toxoplasma strains have unique interactions with the host cell, we infected murine macrophages with 29 different Toxoplasma strains, representing global diversity, and used RNA-sequencing to determine host and parasite transcriptomes. (
  • Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite belonging to the Apicomplexa phylum 1 . (
  • After helping to define extracellular survival tactics of African trypanosomes during graduate (Western University, with the infamous Barbara Burleigh) and postdoctoral studies (Rockefeller University), I became fascinated by the distinctive intracellular lifestyles of apicomplexan parasites including Toxoplasma gondii. (
  • Since then our work at Johns Hopkins University and the University of Michigan has helped define how Toxoplasma uses adhesive proteins to actively invade target cells and showed that its hybrid exo-endocytic system supports both protein secretion and ingestion of host derived material. (
  • Studies of host-parasite interactions rarely take into account the fact that different steps might be influenced by different factors and might, therefore, make different contributions to shaping coevolution. (
  • Host-parasite coevolution is the result of multiple adaptations and counter-adaptations evolving in concert within the constraints of a particular system. (
  • Spatially varying coevolution thus leads to adaptive geographic variation in host genotypes and corresponding immune traits ( 9 , 10 ). (
  • By identifying these evolutionarily labile genes, biologists seek to understand the genetic and immunological mechanisms of vertebrate resistance to, and coevolution with, helminth parasites. (
  • The mode of coevolution in this system fits the model with negative frequency dependent selection where the rare genotype is favored since the more common host genotype is more likely to become the target of a specialized pathogen. (
  • She completed her PhD at AgroParisTech, under the supervision of Prof. Claire Neema and studied the molecular basis of host-pathogen coevolution in natural populations of common bean. (
  • Hosts use diverse defence mechanisms that coevolve with the offensive mechanisms of the parasite. (
  • So pervasive, in fact, that without effective mechanisms of resistance, host populations can be quickly reduced in size or even driven to extinction. (
  • There is a close relationship between hormones, cytokines, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters that modulate the host immune response by several effector mechanisms, including both cellular and humoral immunity. (
  • Thus, understanding the mechanisms involved in immunoendocrine modulation and its effects on parasites is essential for developing new drugs, finding vaccine targets and devising new therapies for several infectious diseases. (
  • The first section of this special issue is focused on helminthic diseases ranging from vaccine development to helminth therapy and includes some research on the basic mechanisms of susceptibility, modulation, and protection against these parasites. (
  • Identifying the mechanisms that mediate host-parasite interactions and cause observed disease phenotypes can lead to the identification of specific genes and pathways that can be targeted using genomic tools, such as RNA interference (RNAi), to mitigate the impact of the parasites. (
  • Malaria organism is a highly successful parasite parasites are sometimes easier to clone and express with very sophisticated mechanisms for survival in as soluble proteins are therefore used to get some the host's hostile environment. (
  • Antimalarial resistance is rife and the parasite inexorably develops mechanisms to outwit our best drugs, including the now first-line choice, artesunate. (
  • This study i) identifies whether time- and density-dependent mechanisms in gyrodactylid population growth exist in G. salaris-Atlantic salmon interactions and ii) based on differences between Norwegian and Baltic stocks, determines whether the 'Atlantic susceptible, Baltic resistant' paradigm holds as an example of local adaptation. (
  • The generation of comparative data in goats and sheep will help better understand some basic differences in the regulatory mechanisms controlling parasitic infections and explore some trade-offs between these regulatory processes related to either the host's behaviour or to the host's immune response. (
  • In the process of adapting to their host niche, these organisms have evolved reduced metabolic capacity, often drastically so, while expanding mechanisms for avoiding host defense and utilizing metabolites from their hosts. (
  • Some, like the African trypanosome are so adept at avoiding the host defense mechanisms that they grow freely in the blood stream, where they are bathed in nutrients. (
  • The diverse range of molecular mechanisms which the parasite could use to invade the host cell may correspond to differences in the available "receptors"on the surface of each specific cell type. (
  • It is noteworthy that some of the mechanisms originally proposed to be broad in function turned out not to be universal, and multiple interactions involving different repertoires of molecules seem to act in concert to give rise to a rather complex interplay of signalling cascades involving both parasite and cellular components. (
  • The mobility of TEs is regulated by diverse molecular mechanisms, and can be achieved by self-limiting regulatory features intrinsic to the TE itself [4] or mechanisms provided by the host cell. (
  • We discuss how different steps can explain different aspects of the coevolutionary dynamics of the system: the properties of the attachment step, explaining the rapid evolution of infectivity and the properties of later parasite proliferation explaining the evolution of virulence. (
  • These interactions are related to the virulence and transmission strategy of the parasites and so are potentially associated with the biological differences between these parasites. (
  • T. gondii strains differ widely in a number of phenotypes in mice, such as virulence, persistence, oral infectivity, migratory capacity, induction of cytokine expression and modulation of host gene expression. (
  • The dynamical outcome is likely to depend on a complex interaction between the host's mating system and demography, and the parasite virulence. (
  • The existence of substantial variation in resistance to infectious disease within host populations has generated hope that it may be possible to identify the genes conferring resistance. (
  • Specifically, the resistance genes identified within the host population may depend on the genetic composition of the infectious disease itself ( Newport and Finan 2011 ). (
  • Classically, the search for genes important to host immunity has been conducted in the lab using a combination of forward genetic experiments and screens for abnormal phenotypes ( 5 , 6 ). (
  • The genes identified in this manner will be of interest not only for what they tell us about the basic biology of host parasite interactions but also as a possible source of new therapeutic strategies for controlling parasitic infections or manipulating vertebrate immunity ( 11 , 12 ). (
  • The virulent factors and host candidate genes will be selected for follow-up analyses using RNAi driven by presentation of double-stranded RNA's targeting specific transcripts for knockdowns. (
  • Molecular Aspects of Host-Parasite Interactions in Malaria: A Brief Review carries genes for 25 tRNAs which have unique prove more suitable for development as MSP-1- features, including the presence of an intron in one of based vaccines than the naturally-occurring them[12]. (
  • We developed an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping-based approach to identify cause-and-effect relationships between genes from two partners engaged in an interspecific interaction. (
  • 60 host genes. (
  • The 213 host genes identified were substantially enriched for transcription factors. (
  • This observation is inconsistent with the 'Baltic-resistant, Atlantic-susceptible' hypothesis, but suggests heterogeneity, perhaps linked to other host resistance genes driven by selection for local disease syndromes. (
  • Are some of pathogen resistance-related genes also involved in plant-herbivore interactions? (
  • In some host-pathogen studies, individual genes strongly regulated disease susceptibility or severity. (
  • We report hundreds of human and parasite genes differentially expressed between severe and uncomplicated malaria, with distinct profiles associated with coma, hyperlactatemia, and thrombocytopenia. (
  • Genetic and genomic approaches for the discovery of parasite genes involved in antimalarial drug resistance. (
  • Transposons ("jumping genes") are ubiquitous, mobile genetic elements that make up significant fraction of genomes, and are best described as molecular parasites. (
  • An established and widely used coevolutionary model of host-pathogen interactions exists with P. ramosa and D. magna. (
  • P. ramosa is an obligate pathogen and it can only grow inside its host. (
  • When infecting the crustacean D. magna with the bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa we found that a substantial percentage of infected animals regained reproduction. (
  • In the D. magna-P. ramosa system, this phenomenon has been viewed as adaptive to the parasite since the parasite benefits from infecting large host, and there has been found a positive correlation between host size and parasite fitness. (
  • Finally, the fact that these studies show that P. ramosa infected D. magna can regain reproduction opens for the possibility that the parasite could be transmitted vertically, which would alter our understanding of this host-parasite system. (
  • The role of certain hormones in parasitic infections has been demonstrated, and there are documented direct effects of hormones on parasites. (
  • Sex differences in parasitic infections are a biological phenomenon of considerable significance for individual health and disease. (
  • Helminths are a diverse group of parasitic worms, which often establish long lasting infections in their vertebrate hosts ( 1 ), despite host immune activity. (
  • Curiously, in many host-parasite systems, helminths can persist in some host genotypes, whereas other hosts successfully eliminate infections. (
  • Approximately one third of the world's population has been infected with parasites at some point in their lives and these infections are often life-threatening. (
  • It is also clear that more studies on various parasites are necessary, even those which have low incidence, so that we are well-prepared during threats of reemerging parasitic infections. (
  • The double expresser model for immune response-driven antigen variation in trypanosome infections, presented in the Host-Parasite Interaction session, was discussed in relation to rates of development and possible differences in responses between N'Dama and Boran cattle. (
  • We used experimental infections of Gammarus pulex by Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala), to investigate larval size effects on host behavioural manipulation among different parasite sibships and various degrees of intra-host competition. (
  • The mechanism of resistance depends on the immune status of the host and requires the coordinated interaction of both alphabeta+ T-cell subsets for optimal parasite control during subsequent infections. (
  • For years, it has been considered that the data obtained on parasite infections in sheep could be directly transferred to goats. (
  • Because of their ubiquitous distribution and high prevalence, infections with parasites have a major economic impact on goat farming. (
  • In this review we highlight recent metabolomic approaches to protozoan parasites, including metabolite profiling, integration with genomics, transcription, and proteomic analysis, as well as the use of metabolic fingerprints for the diagnosis of parasitic infections. (
  • A worrying trend in respect of both helminth and protozoan parasites was the increase in prevalence over the period 2005-2008, in helminth infections prevalence increasing 2-3 fold by 2008, and in protozoan infections by 1.5-2.0 fold. (
  • Unfortunately, while feeding on bee pupae, Varroa mites transmit viruses and immunosuppress their honey bee hosts [8], making them susceptible to newly contracted or pre-existing infections. (
  • The application of metabolomics, the global analysis of metabolite levels, to the study of protozoan parasites has become an important tool for understanding the host/parasite relationship and holds promise for the development of direly needed therapeutics and improved diagnostics. (
  • Research advances over the past decade have opened the door for a systems biology approach to protozoan parasites with metabolomics providing a crucial readout of metabolic activity. (
  • Application of metabolomics to the study of protozoan parasites, while still in its infancy, is rapidly emerging as a fertile approach to better understand the host/parasite interaction. (
  • The in vitro culture of protozoan parasites involves highly complex procedures, which are subject to many variables. (
  • There are a number of issues involved in the culture of protozoan parasites that make these procedures highly complex and subject to many variables, some of which are known and some of which are still undefined. (
  • Certainly protozoan parasites have complex life cycles. (
  • At the present time, are there any advantages in the in vitro culture of protozoan parasites, especially when revolutionary developments are going on in the field of molecular biology? (
  • For example, sleeping sickness is caused by the protozoan parasites which belong to the genus Trypanosoma which are spread to humans by tsetse fly bites. (
  • While some parasitic lineages are possibly asymbiotic and manage to supplement their diet from other food sources, other lineages are either loosely associated with extracellular gut symbionts or harbour intracellular obligate symbionts that are essential for the host development and reproduction. (
  • In combination with the growth orientation of the encrusting tubes, this indicates that the interaction between the tube-dwelling organisms and the brachiopods was parasitic or more specifically, kleptoparastitic. (
  • The first group discussed modelling of three biological processes involved in vector-borne and other parasitic diseases, namely immunogenetics, parasite transmission and livestock production and ecology. (
  • Parasitic organisms have to exploit hosts to optimize growth and/or transmission while coping with the limited amount of host resources. (
  • Focusing on the addition of nitrogen to a northeast American salt marsh, we aim to dissect the levels of diversity that exist among a parasitic trematode ( Levinseniella byrdii ), its second intermediate host ( Orchestia grillus ), and among L. byrdii within a single O. grillus . (
  • For instance, for many years, the registration of anthelmintic drugs (drugs that expel parasitic worms - helminths - from the body) did not discriminate between the two hosts. (
  • The various associations between nematodes and gastropods, which range from random transportation to endophoresis, necromeny, larval parasitism and an entire parasitic or parasitoidic life-style with and without intermediate or paratenic hosts, are discussed in an evolutionary context. (
  • From a systems biology perspective, studying parasitic disease is particularly enticing as it inherently involves the complex interplay of two interconnected biological systems with a net flow of energy and nutrients between the host and the parasite. (
  • In vitro cultivation of parasitic protozoa that cause human disease is invaluable, as it provides not only information on the development of the parasite but also avenues for new approaches to the containment and/or eradication of the parasite. (
  • Parasitic predators are organisms which need hosts to survive. (
  • Here, we discuss the evidence supporting the existence of a parasitic to mutualistic continuum in Symbiodinium interactions and propose that a consideration of the evolutionary ecology of these associations will advance our understanding of how environmental change will influence the ecological outcomes in these important symbioses. (
  • The molecular basis for these differences in pathogenesis, especially in strains other than the clonal lineages, remains largely unexplored. (
  • In all, this study demonstrates an intimate involvement of parasite-encoded chaperones, PfHsp90 in particular, in defining pathogenesis of malaria. (
  • These results emphasize the importance of studying T. gondii pathogenesis in the host with the consideration of parasite genetic diversity. (
  • Genetic polymorphisms in the infected host affect microbial pathogenesis. (
  • Although much work is being done to define the viral factors affecting H5N1 influenza virus pathogenesis, little has been done to elucidate the effect of host genetics on H5N1 disease outcome. (
  • The pathogenesis of infectious diseases depends on the interaction of host and pathogen. (
  • Parasites that adapt to male or female hosts may help explain why we find differences in parasite prevalence and disease expression in the different sexes. (
  • We used time series analysis to compare the rates of host clonal turnover to the incidence of parasitism, and found that Caullerya prevalence was significantly associated with microsatellite‐based clonal turnover. (
  • Age-related differences were also found: the trematode prevalence was higher in younger female and older male viviparids. (
  • In addition, in T. gondii the microneme MIC1/6 complex was found migrated and/or co-associated with the important surface antigen glycoprotein SAG1, which is critical in the initial interaction with host surface peptidoglycan. (
  • Conversely, parasites themselves are phylogenetically diverse, target a range of different tissues, and have evolved numerous alternative strategies to evade or inhibit protective immune responses by strategies, such as antigenic variation, molecular mimicry or affecting antigen processing and presentation. (
  • I generated genetically engineered parasites that express a model antigen, 2W1S, that allows helper T cells involved in the parasite-specific immune response to be identified and analysed. (
  • The data indicated that transgenic parasites engineered to express the 2W1S antigen could be a useful experimental tool to study immune responses in mice. (
  • The most promising candidate is the RTS,S vaccine, which consists of the parasite circumsporozoite protein and the hepatitis B surface antigen [ 12 ]. (
  • We found that the Cromer blood group antigen CD55 (DAF) is essential for parasite invasion and is necessary for proper attachment of merozoites to the erythrocyte surface. (
  • Coexpression network analysis identified two distinct processes contributing to resistance: parasite survival and suppression of growth. (
  • This interaction is important for survival of the organism, and the organism has not been successfully maintained in vitro in a cell-free environment. (
  • Survival of the parasite ordinarily requires that it be transmitted more or less directly from an infected host organism to a susceptible one. (
  • Both parasites and predators are generally known to harm other organisms for survival. (
  • Survival and proliferation of the parasite under such heat stress conditions has triggered interest in examining parasite Hsps. (
  • It is, therefore, important to combine studies from field isolates and laboratory strains to arrive at useful understanding of parasite growth and survival within the host. (
  • This is a key step in the survival of the parasite within the vertebrate host, and although much has been learned over this century, differences in strains or isolates used by different laboratories may have led to conclusions that are not as universal as originally interpreted. (
  • Rickettsial pathogens are highly specialized for obligate intracellular survival in both the vertebrate host and the invertebrate vector. (
  • Ploidy .Unlike in the human host, the parasite exists with the lack of a functional Krebs cycle and in nature in the haploid state throughout its life electron transport chain in malaria parasites. (
  • The Rathod group now has a detailed model for the phenotype which drives the acquisition of drug resistance in malaria parasites and has identified the genomic loci involved in the process. (
  • Chaperone networks operational in the distinct physiological clusters in clinical malaria parasites were constructed using cytoscape by utilizing their clinical expression profiles. (
  • Our ideas may help explain the widespread phenomenon of host sex-biased parasitism and disease expression," said Duneau. (
  • Our results confirm a link between parasitism and variation in host personality. (
  • however, the hosts never benefit from this relationship, called parasitism. (
  • Although there is growing evidence that males tend to suffer higher levels of parasitism than females, the implications of this for the population dynamics of the host population are not yet understood. (
  • At higher case mortalities, we identified significant differences between male-biased and unbiased parasitism. (
  • A host population may therefore be differentially affected by male-biased and unbiased parasitism. (
  • Overall, parasitism seems to be a strong driver of host clonal turnover, in support of the Red Queen hypothesis. (
  • Parasitism is the association of two organisms where one, the parasite, lives at the expense of the other, the host ( Roberts and Janovy, 2000 ). (
  • During the associations of many insect endoparasites, including gregarious braconid wasps of the genus Cotesia , with their lepidopteran larval hosts, the effects of parasitism are initially mediated by a variety of parasite-derived factors. (
  • falciparum)[1] and the vector (Anopheles gambiae)[2, 3], the stage is well set for obtaining a Extra-chromosomal (mitochondrial and plastid) greatly improved understanding of all relevant DNA interactions. (
  • One of the peculiarities of P. falciparum is that it is suggests this may be so, with implications for parasite drug-resistance studies[11]. (
  • EBA-175 mediates sialic acid-dependent binding to glycophorin A on the erythrocytes playing a crucial role during invasion of the P. falciparum in the host cell. (
  • Population genetic studies dating back to the mid-20th century first proposed that erythrocytes (red blood cells), the host cell for P. falciparum, have been under natural selection due to malaria. (
  • Although the notion that malaria has helped shape the human genome is well- accepted, the lack of a nucleus in human erythrocytes has hindered our ability to study genetic interactions between these unusual host cells and P. falciparum parasites. (
  • Using this approach, we performed a forward genetic screen of human blood groups to identify critical host factors for P. falciparum, and discovered several candidates that appear to be required for efficient parasite invasion of red blood cells. (
  • sequenced patient and parasite transcriptomes in 46 P. falciparum -infected Gambian children to better understand malarial host-pathogen interactions. (
  • Here, we developed a novel genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction, iPfal17, of the asexual blood-stage P. falciparum parasite to expand our understanding of metabolic changes that support resistance. (
  • In contrast to spore activation, attachment depended strongly on the combination of host and parasite genotypes. (
  • The effects of parasite genotypes on plant gene expression were often substantial, with up to 90-fold (P = 3.2 x 10(-52)) changes in expression levels caused by individual parasite loci. (
  • Parasites comprise a group of organisms that cause a massive infectious disease problem for humans and several animals of veterinary importance. (
  • Their analyses indicate that the tube-dwelling organisms reduced the biological fitness of the host brachiopod. (
  • Parasites can increase the energy requirements of infected organisms because host organisms need to generate enough energy to satisfy their own requirements plus the nutrients lost to the parasite. (
  • Mutualism is characterized by an interaction of two organisms which provide nutrition and space for each other. (
  • DNA barcoding and metabarcoding methods have been invaluable in the study of interactions between host organisms and their symbiotic communities. (
  • PLOS Pathogens publishes Open Access research and commentary that significantly advance the understanding of pathogens and how they interact with host organisms. (
  • Both transposons are primarily used in a cellular environment that is different from their original hosts, thereby offering a new model to study host-parasite interaction in higher organisms. (
  • Methods A total of 18 datasets of G. salaris population growth on individually isolated Atlantic salmon (12 different stocks) infected with three parasite strains were re-analysed using a Bayesian approach. (
  • No significant differences in performance of the three parasite strains (Batnfjordselva, Figga, and Lierelva), or the two parasite mitochondrial haplotypes (A and F) were observed. (
  • Same barcode, different biology: differential patterns of infectivity, specificity and pathogenicity in two almost identical parasite strains. (
  • We identified large differences between strains in the expression level of known parasite effectors and large chromosomal structural variation in some strains. (
  • We also identified novel strain-specifically regulated host pathways, including the regulation of the type I interferon response by some atypical strains. (
  • This implies that differences in genospecies, and perhaps even strains, play an important role in the wide array of clinical manifestations observed in Lyme disease. (
  • Therefore, it is necessary to understand biological differences in genetically different T. gondii strains and their effect on the host responses. (
  • Quantification of parasite burden in the spleen of mice showed significantly more parasites for Type I strain than that of Type II and III strains, with the latter two having comparable parasite burdens. (
  • Aukema JE (2002) Variation in mistletoe seed deposition: effects of intra- and interspecific host characteristics. (
  • Pasteuria is a genus of mycelial and endospore-forming, nonmotile gram-positive bacteria that are obligate parasites of some nematodes and crustaceans. (
  • Therefore, Pasteuria are transmitted horizontally between hosts and when an infected host dies, it releases spores to the soil or sediment. (
  • After contact with the host, Pasteuria spores are activated, attach to their host, penetrate the host's cuticle, proliferate within the host, and kill the host. (
  • The effectiveness of Pasteuria as a biocontrol may depend on the biotypes of the nematode host that are present since they can vary in their susceptibility to Pasteuria. (
  • Using a combination of mathematical models and simulations, we demonstrate that genetic interactions between hosts and parasites [genotype-by-genotype (G × G) interactions] can drastically affect the results of these association scans and hamper our ability to detect genetic variation in susceptibility. (
  • show the important role that somatostatin has on the immune response and susceptibility to experimental cysticercosis in their paper "Somatostatin Negatively Regulates Parasite Burden and Granulomatous Responses in Cysticercosis. (
  • Together, these data suggest that sex differences in the susceptibility to SARS-CoV in mice parallel those observed in patients and also identify estrogen receptor signaling as critical for protection in females. (
  • Animals are common hosts of mutualistic, commensal and pathogenic microorganisms. (
  • In this review, I first introduce this diversity of mutualistic and pathogenic microorganisms associated with blood-feeding animals and then focus on patterns in their interactions, particularly nutrition, immune cross-talk and gene exchange. (
  • Slower evolution causes a long-term advantage in an important class of mutualistic interactions. (
  • We examined how biotic (green areas and plant richness) and abiotic features (impervious surfaces and distance to town center) affected (1) aphid colony size, (2) the likelihood of finding predators, mutualistic ants and aphid mummies (indicating the presence of parasitoids), and (3) how the interplay among these factors affected patterns of parasitoid attack, predator abundance, mutualistic interactions and aphid abundance. (
  • These results predict that artemisinin sensitive and resistant parasites differentially utilize scavenging and biosynthetic pathways for multiple essential metabolites, including folate and polyamines. (
  • Moreover, integration of clinical parasite transcriptomes into the iPfal17 reconstruction reveals patterns associated with antimalarial resistance. (
  • However, many areas of research can be undertaken only when large numbers of parasites with no contaminating bacteria or host materials are available. (
  • An example of this mutually beneficial relationship is the interaction between humans and good bacteria in the gut which aid digestion and immunity. (
  • Bacteria and protozoa in guts of lower termites, for example, help their hosts obtain nutrition from digestion-resistant foods [ 1 ]. (
  • Lichens, themselves symbioses of fungi and algae or cyanobacteria, host distinctive communities of bacteria on their surfaces, including lineages known almost exclusively from lichens [ 3 ]. (
  • Whereas recombinant MORN1 produced in bacteria is soluble, in the parasite MORN1 was associated with the cytoskeleton after detergent extraction. (
  • The results support the view that the interaction between humans and plasmodia has led to continuous mutual influences and adaptations. (
  • There are three main types of parasites which can cause diseases in humans: protozoa, helminths, and ectoparasites (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016). (
  • I work with Cryptosporidium (oocysts), a protozoan parasite that primarily causes Cryptosporidiosis in humans and other hosts. (
  • We compared gene expression in infected and uninfected threespine stickleback ( Gasterosteus aculeatus ) from two natural populations that differ in resistance to a native cestode parasite, Schistocephalus solidus . (
  • Therefore, a key question in biology is, why does parasite resistance differ among host individuals or populations? (
  • Host resistance depends on a complex signaling cascade, starting with the detection of pathogen molecules or pathogen induced damage to host tissues, followed by activation of a diverse suite of innate and adaptive immune cell populations. (
  • Natural genetic variation in host resistance could arise from any stage(s) in an immune cascade. (
  • Adherence to international recommendations in the fight against antimicrobial resistance - Substantial difference between outpatient consumption in Spain and Denmark]. (
  • Our findings are consistent with experimental literature, while generating novel hypotheses about artemisinin resistance and parasite biology. (
  • 24: 475-484), and host macrophages through mannose receptors ( 192 ). (
  • IFNβ production by infected cells was associated with parasite killing, independent of interferon gamma activation, and dependent on endosomal Toll-like receptors in macrophages and the cytoplasmic receptor retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I) in fibroblasts. (
  • TRY need to process proteolytically both the HC and their own surface, to expose the necessary ligands and receptors that allow binding to, and internalization in the host cell. (
  • Several surface components of parasites and some of the host cell receptors with which they interact have been described. (
  • To fully understand these biological differences, the host-parasite interactions of these parasites have been investigated in this study using several different approaches at the molecular level. (
  • Significant improvement in understanding of the role of a modelling approach and its potential for investigating and explaining biological problems at a molecular or cellular level was an important outcome of the workshop and a closer interaction between biologists and modellers was encouraged by all participants. (
  • A recent study has demonstrated that clinical isolates of the parasite have distinct physiological states, one of which resembles environmental stress response showing up-regulation of specific molecular chaperones. (
  • We characterize this by combining the number of SNP differences and the length of time over which those differences have accumulated, using information about case timing, molecular clock, and transmission processes. (
  • Molecular genotyping of the CL-Brener clone confirmed a genetic heterogeneity in the parasite that had been detected previously by other techniques, including zymodeme or schizodeme (kDNA) analysis. (
  • TEs are ubiquitous components of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes [3] Even though TEs are best viewed as molecular parasites that propagate themselves using resources of the host cells, their long-term coexistence with their host has provided ample examples of mutual adaptation. (
  • But Jen's work also underscores the importance of genetic differences in host immunity. (
  • One way L. donovani and T. cruzi evade host immunity and maintain chronicity is by persisting in only a limited set of favoured cell and tissue types. (
  • I was engaged in a training programme that helped me develop a broad range of new technical and conceptual competencies to investigate general and gut-specific immunity and host-commensal interactions, as well as enhanced transferable skills. (
  • Breached mucocutaneous membranes or impaired host immunity facilitate tissue invasion and bloodstream dissemination of S. aureus . (
  • Sex-specific adaptations in parasites may also occur when parasites routinely encounter one host sex more frequently than another. (
  • The size dimorphism in Melanophora roralis, and physiological features associated with it, may reflect adaptations in this parasite for population persistence at low population densities. (
  • Topics covered will include host-parasite interactions, parasite life cycles, methods of transmission, and parasite adaptations. (
  • However, there are very few documented examples of parasite adaptation to host sex and, to the authors' knowledge, there is no example of a host sex-specific dimorphism. (
  • This paradigm implies that the sexual dimorphism in response to parasites is mediated primarily by the immune system of the host, which disregards the ability of some parasites to directly respond to the distinct sex steroid hormone profiles of their female and male hosts [ 2 , 4 ]. (
  • Helminth parasites have a remarkable ability to persist within their mammalian hosts, which is largely due to their secretion of molecules with immunomodulatory properties. (
  • Although the soluble components of helminth secretions have been extensively studied, the discovery that helminths release extracellular vesicles (EVs) has added further complexity to the host-parasite interaction. (
  • Our analysis has identified novel markers that may be used in studies aimed at characterising helminth EVs and interrogating their function at the host-parasite interface. (
  • The host-parasite interactions are very interesting and, like anything to do with host specificity, totally mystifying. (
  • Thus, learning about excystation can lead to a better understanding of environmental persistence and host specificity of Cryptosporidium . (
  • Apicomplexan parasites divide and replicate through a complex process of internal budding. (
  • Apicomplexans are intracellular parasites and each reproductive cycle is initiated through a motile stage, the zoite. (
  • Intracellular parasites benefit from the rich resources available inside an infected cell, but they also face the challenges of invading such cells, developing conduits to mine nutrients, and departing their niche on cue. (
  • While studies often focus primarily on the vertebrate host, the arthropod vector is often more important in the natural maintenance of the pathogen. (
  • We have studied differential gene expression related to differences in growth rate in adult individuals of the commercial marine clam Ruditapes decussatus . (
  • This microbial diversity not only puts the host into a complicated situation - distinguishing between microorganisms that can greatly decrease or increase its fitness - but also increases opportunity for horizontal gene transfer to occur in this environment. (
  • With this design, systematic differences in gene expression across host plants could be mapped to genetic polymorphisms of their infecting parasites. (
  • Their analysis was based upon a comparison of gene expression profiles of these parasites with known pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . (
  • Although much speciation occurs in allopatry, populations with overlapping geographic ranges may also experience reduced gene flow due to ecological differences. (
  • Parasites are an important feature of the biotic environment, and place important selective pressures on their hosts, potentially reducing gene flow among geographically separated host populations. (
  • ii) gene expression in the host is strongly influenced by parasite genetic background. (
  • Flux balance analysis and simulation of gene knockouts and enzyme inhibition predict candidate drug targets unique to resistant parasites. (
  • In vertebrates, the parasite presence also has a major influence on the host's endocrine status and the normal suite of processes governed by hormones. (
  • Wolinska, Justyna 2018-01-01 00:00:00 According to the Red Queen hypothesis, clonal diversity in asexual populations could be maintained by negative frequency‐dependant selection by coevolving parasites. (
  • The parasites achieve this diversity through a remarkable flexibility of their cell and division cycle. (
  • I am a microbial ecologist, specializing in bioinformatic analyses of 'big data' (metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics) to better understand how interactions within microbial communities enable functional diversity and efficiency that is greater than the sum of its parts. (
  • Abstract Background Gyrodactylus salaris is a directly transmitted ectoparasite that reproduces in situ on its fish host. (
  • Inhibition of permeation pathways induced in the host cell membrane by intraerythrocytic parasite", Chemical Abstracts, 110(11):18, Col. 2, Abstract 87987p (1989). (
  • Although the life-cycle has not been fully elucidated, the organism has been isolated in the alveolar spaces of the host organism, where the trophic form attaches to alveolar epithelial cells ( 148 ). (
  • The ability of the MSG locus to undergo recombination helps the organism evade host defenses ( 239 , 126 ). (
  • A parasite is another organism which gets nutrients from another organism, called the host. (
  • Endoparasites need a third organism, called a vector or carrier to be able to be transmitted to a host. (
  • The rickettsiae's obligate intracellular existence in both mammalian and arthropod hosts serves as an excellent model for the study of complex host-parasite interactions. (
  • Her work on Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite that causes human Chagas disease, addresses fundamental questions regarding the mechanistic basis of host cell colonization by this obligate intracellular pathogen with a focus on the permissive roles of host cell signaling and metabolism in this process. (
  • Differences in parasitaemia profiles between N'Dama and Boran cattle were described by ILRAD scientists and questions were raised as to whether these differences would be due to differences in parasite replication rates. (
  • Also, Copaifera oleoresins reduced parasite replication and TNF-α release in villous explants. (
  • The lethal dose in these hosts varied by 4 logs and was associated with differences in replication kinetics and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines CCL2 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in susceptible DBA/2J mice. (
  • Professor Brock commented, "This new discovery reveals that intimate parasite-host animal systems arose in early Cambrian benthic communities and their emergence may have played a key role in the evolutionary and ecological innovations associated with the Cambrian radiation. (
  • Furthermore, barcodes allow the evolutionary histories of symbionts and their hosts to be assessed simultaneously and in reference to one another. (
  • The aim of this thesis was to investigate how altering the external environment affects life history strategies of hosts and their parasites, and to gain a better understanding of evolutionary theories on castration and gigantism in parasitized hosts. (
  • Historically, they are among the oldest human parasites, representing an excellent marker for tracking older events in human evolutionary history. (
  • The implications of a difference in evolutionary rates are not limited to mutualism and antagonistic relationships. (
  • One explanation for these observations is that symbioses between corals and Symbiodinium represent a continuum of interaction states that encompass mutualisms and parasitisms consistent with current evolutionary theory developed for other symbiotic systems. (
  • and empirical studies on sexual reproduction in Symbiodinium, the stability of interaction states among Symbiodinium symbioses spatially and temporally and how interaction states change as the environment changes will generate data for models that accurately forecast how climate change will influence the persistence of corals and the reefs they structure. (
  • A century of research: What have we learned about the interaction of Trypanosoma cruzi with host cells? (
  • Since the discovery of Trypanosoma cruzi and the brilliant description of the then-referred to 'new tripanosomiasis' by Carlos Chagas 100 years ago, a great deal of scientific effort and curiosity has been devoted to understanding how this parasite invades and colonises mammalian host cells. (
  • Parasites with complex life-cycles exploit one or several intermediate hosts before reaching the definitive host where they mature and reproduce. (
  • These parasites have very complex life cycles and, depending on the life cycle stage, may require different culture parameters. (
  • Illustrations of the parasite life cycles here are great! (
  • 2007 ), or when chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes trodlodytes ) infected with the same parasite lose their innate aversion to urine of their only natural predator, leopards ( Panthera pardus , Poirotte et al. (
  • The parasite must be able to invade cells in the mammalian host, and many studies have implicated the flagellated trypomastigotes as the main actor in this process. (
  • The parasites, which are introduced into their human hosts by sand flies, rapidly invade macrophages where they multiply inside phagolysosomes. (
  • I trained in a variety of experimental techniques and used them to compare tissue-specific parasite loads, immune responses and pathology in these animal models. (
  • Blood metabolite levels supporting the greatest parasite burden and biomass of emerged and non-emerged parasites occupy a region of two dimensional space corresponding to approximately 60-200 mg per insect of protein nitrogen and 60-100 mg per insect of trehalose. (
  • These kinds of interactions are distinguished from simpler host-symbiont relationships by the potential for interactions among symbionts, and from studies of communities in abiotic contexts by the role of selection and phylogeny in shaping host interactions with symbionts. (
  • of corals are parasites and mutualists. (
  • Does urbanization explain differences in interactions between an insect herbivore and its natural enemies and mutualists? (
  • Our findings suggest that for insect-natural enemy interactions, urbanization may affect some groups, while not influencing others, and that local effects (mutualists, host plant presence) will also be key determinants of how urban ecological communities are formed. (
  • Pomphorhynchus laevis is a fish acanthocephalan using amphipod crustaceans as intermediate hosts. (
  • When hosts and parasites coevolve, these G × G interactions often make genome-wide association studies unrepeatable over time or across host populations. (
  • This "Red King" effect is driven by differences in how efficiently natural selection acts in the two populations, rather than by differences in their generation times or mutation rates. (
  • The interaction of host and parasite populations constitutes the subject matter of epidemiology (the term being more inclusive than suggested by its relation to the word epidemic ). (
  • Under such circumstances, and they are not uncommon, the dissemination of the parasite in a host population is dependent not only on the interaction of the parasite population with that of the host population but also on the interaction of the intermediate or vector host population with both parasite and host populations. (
  • Behavioral patterns of host populations often have a great effect on the transmission of infectious agents. (
  • However, virtually nothing is known about host-parasite interactions in systems where hosts have nomadic distributions, and where ecologically distinct populations exist in sympatry. (
  • Shimkovich E.D. The role of differences in trematode invasion of male and female viviparids (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Viviparidae) of Central Polesia in reproduction of their populations. (
  • This has resulted in a great deal of epidemiological theory being based on homogenous transmission of disease through host populations. (
  • I explore the hypothesis that foxes with extremely high burdens may be at a higher risk of contracting rabies than foxes with low worm burdens, and thus rabies may have a regulatory effect on E. multilocularis populations by preferentially removing "super spreading" hosts. (
  • It is demonstrated that rabies limits E. multilocularis populations by limiting the density of available hosts. (
  • An interaction between rabies transmission rate and worm burden only caused a weak additional suppression on E. multilocularis populations, regardless of whether this relationship was linear or exponential. (
  • The technology is not transferable to the hamster model due to genetic differences compared with mice and a lack of suitable reagents. (
  • Moreover, the sex-specific differences were independent of T and B cell responses. (
  • Slow developing larvae eventually induced much higher manipulation intensities (i.e. phototaxis reversal) in intermediate hosts. (
  • For example, in the interaction between ants and aphids or butterfly larvae [ 17 - 19 ] many ants tend to these soft-bodied creatures, providing them with shelter and protection from predation and parasites in exchange for honeydew, a rich source of food for the ants [ 16 , 20 ]. (
  • This investigation examined the influence of dietary protein and carbohydrate balance in a chemically defined artificial diet for Manduca sexta larvae on development of the gregarious parasite Cotesia congregata . (
  • Different levels of blood metabolites reflected differences in diet consumption, and the relationships between protein nitrogen and trehalose were very similar to those for protein and carbohydrate intake by parasitized and normal larvae on various diets. (
  • Dietary nutrient ratio had a significant effect on parasite burden, the numbers of parasites developing in individual host larvae and on parasite biomass. (
  • Parasites included individuals that developed and eventually emerged as second instar larvae, moulted to third instars and pupated. (
  • Host larvae, however, are often superparasitized, where more than one adult parasitoid oviposit eggs. (
  • Several interesting complexes were identified in N. caninum tachyzoites and include mitochondrial complexes, proteasome, glideosome and moving junction molecules that play an important role in the physiology and invasion of host cells. (
  • I examined population genetic structuring and characterized bloodborne parasite communities across four ecologically distinct, but partially sympatric, "vocal types" of nomadic red crossbills ( Loxia curvirostra ) sampled at multiple sites. (
  • Their results can be found in the paper "Diethylstilbestrol Exposure in Neonatal Mice Induces Changes in the Adulthood in the Immune Response to Taenia crassiceps without Modifications of Parasite Loads. (
  • With a cyst-reducing drug in hand, Martynowicz tested the idea that changes in behavior observed in infected mice depend on the quantity of parasite cysts in the brain. (
  • This finding implies that the hyperactivity in infected mice does not correlate with the number of parasite brain cysts. (
  • There were no significant differences in disease presentation in mice with antibiotic-induced dysbiosis. (
  • On reinfection, differences were observed for mutant mice as compared with controls. (
  • ME obtained from seed kernel of unripe Azadirachta indica fruits decreased by about 30% the proportion of erythrocytes infected with the malaria parasite in C57BL/6 mice in the 4 days suppressive test. (
  • Host sex is a key factor in studies in medicine and disease control, and if parasites adapt differently to the sexes then there is a strong argument, for example, that both sexes need to be included equally in clinical trials-currently an important concern in medicine. (
  • Integrating these transcriptomic data with estimates of parasite load and detailed clinical information allowed consideration of potentially confounding effects due to differing leukocyte proportions in blood, parasite developmental stage, and whole-body pathogen load. (
  • This perspective allows us to more productively analyze and interpret clinical expression data for the identification of candidate drug targets for the treatment of resistant parasites. (