Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Material prepared from plants.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
Sympathetic alpha-adrenergic agonist with actions like PHENYLEPHRINE. It is used as a vasoconstrictor in circulatory failure, asthma, nasal congestion, and glaucoma.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
A plant species of the family Ephedraceae, order Ephedrales, class Gnetopsida, division Gnetophyta. It is a source of EPHEDRINE and other alkaloids.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant genus of the family Ephedraceae, order Ephedrales, class Gnetopsida, division Gnetophyta.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
The effect of herbs, other PLANTS, or PLANT EXTRACTS on the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of drugs.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A plant genus of the family SAPINDACEAE. The seed of P. cupana is the source of guarana powder which contains 4% CAFFEINE.
The study of medicines derived from botanical sources.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES; DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.
Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.
The only specie of the genus Ginkgo, family Ginkgoacea. It is the source of extracts of medicinal interest, especially Egb 761. Ginkgo may refer to the genus or species.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.
Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.
Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains triterpenoid saponins. Remifemin from C. racemosa is used to suppress LUTEINIZING HORMONE. It is reclassified by some to ACTAEA. The common name of black snakeroot is also used with ASARUM and SANICULA.
Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Camellia sinensis L. (formerly Thea sinensis) is an evergreen Asiatic shrub of the THEACEAE family. The infusion of leaves of this plant is used as Oriental TEA which contains CAFFEINE; THEOPHYLLINE; and epigallocatechin gallate.
A drugless system of therapy, making use of physical forces such as air, light, water, heat, massage. Treatments are often diet- and nutrition-oriented with attention given to the patient's personal history and lifestyle. (From Cassileth, Alternative Medicine Handbook, 1998, p329)
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
The consumption of edible substances.
Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.
A plant genus in the CANNABACEAE family. Best known for the buds of Humulus lupulus L. used in BEER.
Deciduous plant rich in volatile oil (OILS, VOLATILE). It is used as a flavoring agent and has many other uses both internally and topically.
Consumer Product Safety refers to the measures and regulations implemented to ensure household items, toys, and other consumer products are designed, manufactured, and distributed in a manner that minimizes risks of harm, injury, or death to consumers during normal use or foreseeable misuse.
A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.
Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
Dried rhizome and roots of Piper methysticum, a shrub native to Oceania and known for its anti-anxiety and sedative properties. Heavy usage results in some adverse effects. It contains ALKALOIDS; LACTONES; kawain, methysticin, mucilage, STARCH, and yangonin. Kava is also the name of the pungent beverage prepared from the plant's roots.
Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.
Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is the source of dong quai.
Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
A plant genus of the family CLUSIACEAE. It is the source of the mangosteen fruit.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
Stigmasterol is a plant-derived steroidal sapogenin, structurally similar to cholesterol, found in various plants and some animal sources, which exhibits weak estrogenic activity and has potential uses in the pharmaceutical industry.
Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.
A plant genus of the family ERICACEAE known for species with edible fruits.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Genus of perennial plants in the family CLUSIACEAE (sometimes classified as Hypericaceae). Herbal and homeopathic preparations are used for depression, neuralgias, and a variety of other conditions. Hypericum contains flavonoids; GLYCOSIDES; mucilage, TANNINS; volatile oils (OILS, ESSENTIAL), hypericin and hyperforin.
Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.
The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Exudate from seeds of the grape plant Vitis vinifera, composed of oils and secondary plant metabolites (BIOFLAVONOIDS and polyphenols) credited with important medicinal properties.
A genus of perennial herbs used topically and internally. It contains echinacoside, GLYCOSIDES; INULIN; isobutyl amides, resin, and SESQUITERPENES.
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
Illegitimate use of substances for a desired effect in competitive sports. It includes humans and animals.
A plant species of the Salvia genus known as a spice and medicinal plant.
An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
PLANT EXTRACTS and compounds, primarily ISOFLAVONES, that mimic or modulate endogenous estrogens, usually by binding to ESTROGEN RECEPTORS.
A plant genus in the family ARECACEAE, order Arecales, subclass Arecidae. The fruit or the extract (Permixon) is used for PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA.
The use of very large doses of vitamins or other naturally occurring substances normally present in the body, frequently for the treatment of mental disorders.
C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
The infusion of leaves of CAMELLIA SINENSIS (formerly Thea sinensis) as a beverage, the familiar Asian tea, which contains CATECHIN (especially epigallocatechin gallate) and CAFFEINE.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain a number of diterpenoid alkaloids including: aconitans, hypaconitine, ACONITINE, jesaconitine, ignavine, napelline, and mesaconitine. The common name of Wolfbane is similar to the common name for ARNICA.
A plant genus of the family ZINGIBERACEAE that contains CURCUMIN and curcuminoids.
An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
One of the Liliaceae used as a spice (SPICES) and traditional remedy. It contains alliin lyase and alliin, which is converted by alliin lyase to allicin, the pungent ingredient responsible for the aroma of fresh cut garlic.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Agents that improve the ability to carry out activities such as athletics, mental endurance, work, and resistance to stress. The substances can include PRESCRIPTION DRUGS; DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS; phytochemicals; and ILLICIT DRUGS.
A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.
A genus of fungi in the family Ganodermataceae, order POLYPORALES, containing a dimitic hyphal system. It causes a white rot, and is a wood decomposer. Ganoderma lucidum (REISHI) is used in traditional Chinese medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).
The plant Silybum marianum in the family ASTERACEAE containing the bioflavonoid complex SILYMARIN. For centuries this has been used traditionally to treat liver disease. Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. = Carduus marianus L.
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Improving health status of an individual by adjusting the quantities, qualities, and methods of nutrient intake.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
The amounts of various substances in the diet recommended by governmental guidelines as needed to sustain healthy life.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is the source of mucuna gum.
A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.
Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
An antioxidant flavonoid, occurring especially in woody plants as both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (cis) forms.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.
A plant genus of the family PEDALIACEAE. Members contain harpagoside.
Formal education and training in preparation for the practice of a profession.
Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
A water-soluble medicinal preparation applied to the skin.
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
An omega-6 fatty acid produced in the body as the delta 6-desaturase metabolite of linoleic acid. It is converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of monoenoic prostaglandins such as PGE1. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.
Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.
A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
The self administration of medication not prescribed by a physician or in a manner not directed by a physician.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A group of 3-hydroxy-4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.
One of the short-acting SULFONAMIDES used in combination with PYRIMETHAMINE to treat toxoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in newborns with congenital infections.
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE a common weed of the southeast US. There has been folk use for alcoholism and liver protection. It contains puerarin, kakkalide, daidzein (isoflavonoids), and kudzusaponins (oleanene-type triterpene glycosides).
A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, stored in fat cells and used as energy; they are measured in blood tests to assess heart disease risk, with high levels often resulting from dietary habits, obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol consumption.
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A plant genus of the family BURSERACEAE which is a source of gugulipid and guggulu extract. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to ABIES.
A group of islands in Polynesia, in the north central Pacific Ocean, comprising eight major and 114 minor islands, largely volcanic and coral. Its capital is Honolulu. It was first reached by Polynesians about 500 A.D. It was discovered and named the Sandwich Islands in 1778 by Captain Cook. The islands were united under the rule of King Kamehameha 1795-1819 and requested annexation to the United States in 1893 when a provisional government was set up. Hawaii was established as a territory in 1900 and admitted as a state in 1959. The name is from the Polynesian Owhyhii, place of the gods, with reference to the two volcanoes Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, regarded as the abode of the gods. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p493 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p2330)
Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
A group of FLAVONOLS based on kaempferol. They are derived from naringenin and can be hydroxylated to QUERCETIN or reduced to leucopelargonidin.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.
Carrying out of specific physical routines or procedures by one who is trained or skilled in physical activity. Performance is influenced by a combination of physiological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors.
An isoflavonoid derived from soy products. It inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE and topoisomerase-II (DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE II); activity and is used as an antineoplastic and antitumor agent. Experimentally, it has been shown to induce G2 PHASE arrest in human and murine cell lines and inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE.
A group of water-soluble vitamins, some of which are COENZYMES.
Removal of a drug from the market due to the identification of an intrinsic property of the drug that results in a serious risk to public health.
Glucosamine is a naturally occurring amino sugar that plays a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of various tissues, particularly in the synthesis of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans, which are essential components of cartilage and synovial fluid in joints.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.
A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Cyclobutanes are saturated hydrocarbons consisting of a four-carbon ring with only carbon-carbon sigma bonds, making up the smallest cycloalkane ring that can adopt a puckered conformation to alleviate angle strain. (25 words)
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
A medical specialty concerned with the skin, its structure, functions, diseases, and treatment.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.

Maternal vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation in lactating bangladeshi women benefits mothers and infants but does not prevent subclinical deficiency. (1/7067)

The effects of maternal postpartum vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation on maternal and infant serum retinol concentrations, modified relative dose-response (MRDR) ratios and breast milk vitamin A concentrations were assessed during a community-based trial in Matlab, Bangladesh. At 1-3 wk postpartum, women were randomly assigned to receive either (1) a single dose of 200,000 international units [60,000 retinol equivalents (RE)] vitamin A followed by daily placebos (n = 74), (2) daily doses of beta-carotene [7.8 mg (1300 RE)] (n = 73) or (3) daily placebos (n = 73) until 9 mo postpartum. Compared to placebos, vitamin A supplementation resulted in lower maternal MRDR ratios (i.e., increased liver stores) and higher milk vitamin A concentrations at 3 mo, but these improvements were not sustained. The beta-carotene supplementation acted more slowly, resulting in milk vitamin A concentrations higher than the placebo group only at 9 mo. Irrespective of treatment group, over 50% of women produced milk with low vitamin A concentrations (/=0. 06. We conclude that while both interventions were beneficial, neither was sufficient to correct the underlying subclinical vitamin A deficiency in these women nor to bring their infants into adequate vitamin A status.  (+info)

Effect of vitamin A and beta carotene supplementation on women's health.(2/7067)

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Double blind, cluster randomised trial of low dose supplementation with vitamin A or beta carotene on mortality related to pregnancy in Nepal. The NNIPS-2 Study Group. (3/7067)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact on mortality related to pregnancy of supplementing women of reproductive age each week with a recommended dietary allowance of vitamin A, either preformed or as beta carotene. DESIGN: Double blind, cluster randomised, placebo controlled field trial. SETTING: Rural southeast central plains of Nepal (Sarlahi district). SUBJECTS: 44 646 married women, of whom 20 119 became pregnant 22 189 times. INTERVENTION: 270 wards randomised to 3 groups of 90 each for women to receive weekly a single oral supplement of placebo, vitamin A (7000 micrograms retinol equivalents) or beta carotene (42 mg, or 7000 micrograms retinol equivalents) for over 31/2 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause mortality in women during pregnancy up to 12 weeks post partum (pregnancy related mortality) and mortality during pregnancy to 6 weeks postpartum, excluding deaths apparently related to injury (maternal mortality). RESULTS: Mortality related to pregnancy in the placebo, vitamin A, and beta carotene groups was 704, 426, and 361 deaths per 100 000 pregnancies, yielding relative risks (95% confidence intervals) of 0. 60 (0.37 to 0.97) and 0.51 (0.30 to 0.86). This represented reductions of 40% (P<0.04) and 49% (P<0.01) among those who received vitamin A and beta carotene. Combined, vitamin A or beta carotene lowered mortality by 44% (0.56 (0.37 to 0.84), P<0.005) and reduced the maternal mortality ratio from 645 to 385 deaths per 100 000 live births, or by 40% (P<0.02). Differences in cause of death could not be reliably distinguished between supplemented and placebo groups. CONCLUSION: Supplementation of women with either vitamin A or beta carotene at recommended dietary amounts during childbearing years can lower mortality related to pregnancy in rural, undernourished populations of south Asia.  (+info)

Effectiveness of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D supplementation on blood pressure reduction in a pseudohypoparathyroidism patient with high renin activity. (4/7067)

A 42-year-old man had biochemical and somatic abnormalities compatible with pseudohypoparathyroidism type I (PsHP) and also had high plasma renin activity (PRA). After 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol) supplementation the systolic/diastolic blood pressure, assessed by 24-hour non-invasive ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, was reduced from 145/96 mm Hg to 128/85 mm Hg with normalization of the serum calcium level and its related hormones, as well as decreased PRA. Calcitriol supplementation successfully reduced the blood pressure in this patient with PsHP and a high PRA, suggesting that calcium-related hormones and/or the renin-angiotensin system were involved in lowering the blood pressure.  (+info)

Candidate noninfectious disease conditions. (5/7067)

Important micronutrient deficiencies in at-risk populations can be addressed simultaneously with programmatically cost-effective results. Because of the interaction between many micronutrients, this would also be biologically effective. With adequate investment and political support, the chances of eliminating iodine deficiency as a problem in women of reproductive age and young children and of eliminating vitamin A deficiency as a problem in young children in the future are high. To eliminate iron deficiency and folic-acid-dependent neural tube defects (FADNTDs) in low-income populations, a new set of approaches will have to be developed. These same approaches, if successful, could be used to tackle other important micronutrient deficiencies.  (+info)

Effects of pre- or postpartum selenium supplementation on selenium status in beef cows and their calves. (6/7067)

The effect of Se supplementation before or after calving on Se status in deficient cows and their calves was studied using 72 beef cows in two experiments. In Exp. 1, cows calving in February or March 1997 were supplemented orally for 15 d in late pregnancy with 13.0, 32.5, or 45.5 mg of Se/d as sodium selenite. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were measured in red blood cells (RBC) or plasma of cows and calves at d 15 and between d 17 and 88 after calving. In Exp. 2, cows calving in January 1997 were supplemented orally with .0, 13.0, or 32.5 mg of Se/d for 15 d postpartum, and calves were injected with 1.38 mg of Se when 2 d old and at an average age of 49 d. The GSH-Px activities were measured in 30-d-old calves and in cows and calves between d 77 and 115 after calving. In both experiments, Se supplementation resulted in adequate Se status for the dams. The increase in RBC GSH-Px activity was faster with 45.5 mg of Se/d, and GSH-Px activities remained high for up to 98 d after the end of supplementation. The improvement in Se status in calves as a result of maternal supplementation was greater in Exp. 1 than in Exp. 2, suggesting that the placental transfer of Se is more efficient than milk transfer. Prepartum oral Se supplementation of deficient beef cows with 13.0 mg of Se/d for 15 d allowed adequate Se status of dams and calves, and 45.5 mg of Se/d resulted in a faster improvement of Se status. Parenteral administration of 1.38 mg of Se to newborn calves did not sustain normal Se status in calves issued from deficient cows.  (+info)

The effects of low-copper diets with or without supplemental molybdenum on specific immune responses of stressed cattle. (7/7067)

Angus bull calves (n = 42; 7 mo of age; 254 kg initial BW) were used to investigate the effects of dietary Cu and Mo on immune function of stressed cattle. Randomly selected calves (n = 22) were injected with 90 mg of Cu as Cu glycinate 28 d before weaning and castrated at weaning. These calves received 7.5 and 5 mg of supplemental Cu/kg of DM during a 41-d receiving phase and a 196-d growing phase, respectively. The remainder of the steers received no supplemental Cu during the experiment. Copper-supplemented steers had adequate Cu status at weaning, whereas unsupplemented calves were marginally Cu-deficient. Cell-mediated response to intradermal injection of phytohemagglutinin was not affected by dietary treatment during the receiving phase. During the growing phase, half of the steers in each Cu treatment were given 5 mg of supplemental Mo/kg of DM. Copper supplementation increased (P<.05) humoral response to ovalbumin injected on d 133 of the growing phase. On d 168 of the growing phase, calves receiving only supplemental Mo were severely Cu-deficient based on plasma and liver Cu concentrations. The other treatment groups had adequate Cu status. Before feeding on d 168 of the growing phase, half of the steers were loaded onto trailers and transported 2.5 h, and they remained on the trailers an additional 9.5 h. Humoral response to porcine erythrocytes (PRBC) and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to dinitrochlorobenzene was tested at the end of the stress period. There was a Cu x stress interaction for humoral response to PRBC, with Cu decreasing antibody titers in unstressed calves and increasing titers in stressed steers. Stressed steers had lower (P = .03) ADG during the 28 d following stress. The results of this study indicate that Cu deficiency and 5 mg of supplemental Mo/kg of DM do not dramatically alter the specific immunity of stressed cattle.  (+info)

Separate and joint effects of micronutrient deficiencies on linear growth. (8/7067)

Recent studies have investigated the effect of micronutrient deficiencies on growth stunting, with special attention toward the effect of zinc, iron, vitamin A and iodine deficiencies. In Mexico, the prevalence of growth stunting in children <5 y old is approximately 24%; it is higher in rural areas and lower in urban areas. In an initial study, the effect of zinc and/or iron supplementation on linear growth was investigated in a longitudinal, placebo-controlled design. After 12 mo of supplementation, there was no difference between the groups supplemented with zinc, iron or zinc plus iron and the placebo group. At baseline, 82% of the children in this study were deficient in at least two out of the five micronutrients that were determined, and 73% were anemic. In another study, a mixture of those micronutrients that were documented to be lacking in Mexican children was formulated in a supplement and given to Mexican children over a period of 12 mo in a longitudinal, placebo-controlled, supplementation design. Children in the low and medium socioeconomic status grew about 1 cm more than similar children in the placebo group. This difference was not found in children of high socioeconomic status. It is suggested that, in most cases, growth stunting is associated with marginal deficiencies of several micronutrients and that in populations with multiple micronutrient deficiencies, the effect on linear growth of supplementation with single nutrients will not be significant. Supplementation with multiple micronutrients is expected to be more effective, but even in that case the actual increment in height was less than the expected potential increment.  (+info)

A dietary supplement is a product that contains nutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, amino acids, herbs or other botanicals, and is intended to be taken by mouth, to supplement the diet. Dietary supplements can include a wide range of products, such as vitamin and mineral supplements, herbal supplements, and sports nutrition products.

Dietary supplements are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or alleviate the effects of diseases. They are intended to be used as a way to add extra nutrients to the diet or to support specific health functions. It is important to note that dietary supplements are not subject to the same rigorous testing and regulations as drugs, so it is important to choose products carefully and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any questions or concerns about using them.

Vitamins are organic substances that are essential in small quantities for the normal growth, development, and maintenance of life in humans. They are required for various biochemical functions in the body such as energy production, blood clotting, immune function, and making DNA.

Unlike macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats), vitamins do not provide energy but they play a crucial role in energy metabolism. Humans require 13 essential vitamins, which can be divided into two categories: fat-soluble and water-soluble.

Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) are stored in the body's fat tissues and liver, and can stay in the body for a longer period of time. Water-soluble vitamins (B-complex vitamins and vitamin C) are not stored in the body and need to be replenished regularly through diet or supplementation.

Deficiency of vitamins can lead to various health problems, while excessive intake of certain fat-soluble vitamins can also be harmful due to toxicity. Therefore, it is important to maintain a balanced diet that provides all the essential vitamins in adequate amounts.

Dietary fats, also known as fatty acids, are a major nutrient that the body needs for energy and various functions. They are an essential component of cell membranes and hormones, and they help the body absorb certain vitamins. There are several types of dietary fats:

1. Saturated fats: These are typically solid at room temperature and are found in animal products such as meat, butter, and cheese, as well as tropical oils like coconut and palm oil. Consuming a high amount of saturated fats can raise levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol and increase the risk of heart disease.
2. Unsaturated fats: These are typically liquid at room temperature and can be further divided into monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. Monounsaturated fats, found in foods such as olive oil, avocados, and nuts, can help lower levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol while maintaining levels of healthy HDL cholesterol. Polyunsaturated fats, found in foods such as fatty fish, flaxseeds, and walnuts, have similar effects on cholesterol levels and also provide essential omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids that the body cannot produce on its own.
3. Trans fats: These are unsaturated fats that have been chemically modified to be solid at room temperature. They are often found in processed foods such as baked goods, fried foods, and snack foods. Consuming trans fats can raise levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol and lower levels of healthy HDL cholesterol, increasing the risk of heart disease.

It is recommended to limit intake of saturated and trans fats and to consume more unsaturated fats as part of a healthy diet.

A diet, in medical terms, refers to the planned and regular consumption of food and drinks. It is a balanced selection of nutrient-rich foods that an individual eats on a daily or periodic basis to meet their energy needs and maintain good health. A well-balanced diet typically includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and low-fat dairy products.

A diet may also be prescribed for therapeutic purposes, such as in the management of certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, or obesity. In these cases, a healthcare professional may recommend specific restrictions or modifications to an individual's regular diet to help manage their condition and improve their overall health.

It is important to note that a healthy and balanced diet should be tailored to an individual's age, gender, body size, activity level, and any underlying medical conditions. Consulting with a healthcare professional, such as a registered dietitian or nutritionist, can help ensure that an individual's dietary needs are being met in a safe and effective way.

"Plant preparations" is not a term with a specific medical definition in the field of medicine or pharmacology. However, it is commonly used to refer to various forms of plant material that have been prepared for medicinal use. This can include dried and powdered plant parts, such as leaves, roots, or flowers, as well as extracts or concentrates made from plants. These preparations may be used in traditional medicine or as the basis for modern pharmaceuticals. It is important to note that the safety, effectiveness, and quality of plant preparations can vary widely, and they should only be used under the guidance of a qualified healthcare provider.

Dietary proteins are sources of protein that come from the foods we eat. Protein is an essential nutrient for the human body, required for various bodily functions such as growth, repair, and immune function. Dietary proteins are broken down into amino acids during digestion, which are then absorbed and used to synthesize new proteins in the body.

Dietary proteins can be classified as complete or incomplete based on their essential amino acid content. Complete proteins contain all nine essential amino acids that cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. Examples of complete protein sources include meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, soy, and quinoa.

Incomplete proteins lack one or more essential amino acids and are typically found in plant-based foods such as grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds. However, by combining different incomplete protein sources, it is possible to obtain all the essential amino acids needed for a complete protein diet. This concept is known as complementary proteins.

It's important to note that while dietary proteins are essential for good health, excessive protein intake can have negative effects on the body, such as increased stress on the kidneys and bones. Therefore, it's recommended to consume protein in moderation as part of a balanced and varied diet.

Synephrine is an alkaloid compound that naturally occurs in some plants, such as bitter orange (Citrus aurantium). It is similar in structure to ephedrine and is often used as a dietary supplement for weight loss, as a stimulant, and to treat low blood pressure. Synephrine acts on the adrenergic receptors, particularly the α1-adrenergic receptor, leading to vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure. It also has mild stimulatory effects on the central nervous system.

It is important to note that synephrine can have potential side effects, including increased heart rate, elevated blood pressure, and interactions with other medications. Its use should be under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Dietary fiber, also known as roughage, is the indigestible portion of plant foods that makes up the structural framework of the plants we eat. It is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, gums, lignins, and waxes. Dietary fiber can be classified into two categories: soluble and insoluble.

Soluble fiber dissolves in water to form a gel-like material in the gut, which can help slow down digestion, increase feelings of fullness, and lower cholesterol levels. Soluble fiber is found in foods such as oats, barley, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and nuts.

Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water and passes through the gut intact, helping to add bulk to stools and promote regular bowel movements. Insoluble fiber is found in foods such as whole grains, bran, seeds, and the skins of fruits and vegetables.

Dietary fiber has numerous health benefits, including promoting healthy digestion, preventing constipation, reducing the risk of heart disease, controlling blood sugar levels, and aiding in weight management. The recommended daily intake of dietary fiber is 25-38 grams per day for adults, depending on age and gender.

Ephedra sinica, also known as Ma Huang, is a plant that has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. It contains several alkaloids, including ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, which have stimulant effects on the central nervous system and cardiovascular system.

Ephedra sinica has been used to treat various medical conditions such as asthma, bronchitis, and nasal congestion. However, its use as a dietary supplement or weight loss aid has been controversial due to concerns about its safety. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned the sale of dietary supplements containing ephedra in 2004 due to the risk of serious adverse effects, including heart attack, stroke, and death.

It is important to note that Ephedra sinica should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, as it can interact with other medications and have potentially dangerous side effects.

In the context of nutrition and health, minerals are inorganic elements that are essential for various bodily functions, such as nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance, and bone structure. They are required in small amounts compared to macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and are obtained from food and water.

Some of the major minerals include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride, while trace minerals or microminerals are required in even smaller amounts and include iron, zinc, copper, manganese, iodine, selenium, and fluoride.

It's worth noting that the term "minerals" can also refer to geological substances found in the earth, but in medical terminology, it specifically refers to the essential inorganic elements required for human health.

Ephedra is a genus of plants that contain various alkaloids, including ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. These plants, also known as "joint-fir" or "Mormon tea," have been used in traditional medicine for thousands of years to treat various conditions such as asthma, nasal congestion, and hay fever.

Ephedra has been used as a stimulant to increase energy, alertness, and physical performance. However, the use of ephedra-containing supplements has been linked to serious side effects, including heart attack, stroke, and death, particularly when taken in high doses or combined with other stimulants. As a result, the sale of dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids was banned in the United States in 2004.

It's important to note that while ephedra has been used in traditional medicine, its safety and effectiveness have not been thoroughly studied in clinical trials, and its use is not recommended without medical supervision.

Phytotherapy is the use of extracts of natural origin, especially plants or plant parts, for therapeutic purposes. It is also known as herbal medicine and is a traditional practice in many cultures. The active compounds in these plant extracts are believed to have various medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, or sedative effects. Practitioners of phytotherapy may use the whole plant, dried parts, or concentrated extracts to prepare teas, capsules, tinctures, or ointments for therapeutic use. It is important to note that the effectiveness and safety of phytotherapy are not always supported by scientific evidence, and it should be used with caution and preferably under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Herb-drug interactions (HDIs) refer to the pharmacological or clinical consequences that occur when a patient takes a herbal product concurrently with a prescribed medication. These interactions can result in various outcomes, such as decreased, increased, or altered drug effects due to changes in the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion of the drug.

Herbs may contain various bioactive compounds that can interact with drugs and affect their pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. For example, some herbs may induce or inhibit drug-metabolizing enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes, leading to altered drug metabolism and potentially increased or decreased drug concentrations in the body.

Similarly, herbs can also affect drug transporters, such as P-glycoprotein, which can further alter drug absorption, distribution, and excretion. Moreover, some herbs may have pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs, leading to additive or synergistic effects, or antagonism of the drug's therapeutic action.

Therefore, healthcare providers should be aware of potential HDIs when prescribing medications to patients who use herbal products and consider monitoring their patients' medication responses closely. Patients should also be advised to inform their healthcare providers about any herbal products they are taking, including dosage and frequency of use.

A plant extract is a preparation containing chemical constituents that have been extracted from a plant using a solvent. The resulting extract may contain a single compound or a mixture of several compounds, depending on the extraction process and the specific plant material used. These extracts are often used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food and beverage, due to their potential therapeutic or beneficial properties. The composition of plant extracts can vary widely, and it is important to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy before use in any application.

"Paullinia" is a botanical name, referring to a genus of plants in the soapberry family (Sapindaceae). It includes several species that are native to the Americas, particularly in Central and South America. Some of these plants have traditional medicinal uses, and some of their chemical constituents have been studied for potential pharmacological effects. However, "Paullinia" itself is not a medical term or diagnosis.

One of the most well-known species in this genus is Paullinia cupana, commonly known as guarana. Guarana seeds contain high levels of caffeine and have been used in traditional medicine as a stimulant and to treat various conditions such as fever, headache, and gastrointestinal issues. However, it's important to note that the use of these plants as medicines may come with risks and should be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Herbal medicine, also known as botanical medicine or phytomedicine, refers to the use of plants and plant extracts for therapeutic purposes. This traditional form of medicine has been practiced for thousands of years across various cultures worldwide. It involves the utilization of different parts of a plant, such as leaves, roots, seeds, flowers, and fruits, either in their whole form or as extracts, infusions, decoctions, tinctures, or essential oils.

Herbal medicines are believed to contain active compounds that can interact with the human body, influencing its physiological processes and helping to maintain or restore health. Some herbs have been found to possess pharmacological properties, making them valuable in treating various ailments, including digestive disorders, respiratory conditions, sleep disturbances, skin issues, and cardiovascular diseases.

However, it is essential to note that the regulation of herbal medicines varies significantly between countries, and their safety, efficacy, and quality may not always be guaranteed. Therefore, consulting a healthcare professional before starting any herbal medicine regimen is advisable to ensure proper usage, dosage, and potential interactions with other medications or health conditions.

"Fortified food" is a term used in the context of nutrition and dietary guidelines. It refers to a food product that has had nutrients added to it during manufacturing to enhance its nutritional value. These added nutrients can include vitamins, minerals, proteins, or other beneficial components. The goal of fortifying foods is often to address specific nutrient deficiencies in populations or to improve the overall nutritional quality of a food product. Examples of fortified foods include certain breakfast cereals that have added vitamins and minerals, as well as plant-based milk alternatives that are fortified with calcium and vitamin D to mimic the nutritional profile of cow's milk. It is important to note that while fortified foods can be a valuable source of essential nutrients, they should not replace whole, unprocessed foods in a balanced diet.

Nutrition policy refers to a set of guidelines, regulations, or laws established by governmental or organizational bodies to promote healthy eating habits and reduce the risk of diet-related chronic diseases. These policies aim to create an environment that supports and encourages individuals to make healthier food choices. Nutrition policies can cover various aspects such as food labeling, nutrition education, food safety, agricultural practices, and access to affordable and nutritious foods. They may also address issues related to marketing and advertising of unhealthy food products, particularly to children. The ultimate goal of nutrition policy is to improve public health by creating a food environment that supports optimal nutrition and well-being.

Dietary carbohydrates refer to the organic compounds in food that are primarily composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, with a general formula of Cm(H2O)n. They are one of the three main macronutrients, along with proteins and fats, that provide energy to the body.

Carbohydrates can be classified into two main categories: simple carbohydrates (also known as simple sugars) and complex carbohydrates (also known as polysaccharides).

Simple carbohydrates are made up of one or two sugar molecules, such as glucose, fructose, and lactose. They are quickly absorbed by the body and provide a rapid source of energy. Simple carbohydrates are found in foods such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and sweeteners like table sugar, honey, and maple syrup.

Complex carbohydrates, on the other hand, are made up of long chains of sugar molecules that take longer to break down and absorb. They provide a more sustained source of energy and are found in foods such as whole grains, legumes, starchy vegetables, and nuts.

It is recommended that adults consume between 45-65% of their daily caloric intake from carbohydrates, with a focus on complex carbohydrates and limiting added sugars.

Dietary calcium is a type of calcium that is obtained through food sources. Calcium is an essential mineral that is necessary for many bodily functions, including bone formation and maintenance, muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and blood clotting.

The recommended daily intake of dietary calcium varies depending on age, sex, and other factors. For example, the recommended daily intake for adults aged 19-50 is 1000 mg, while women over 50 and men over 70 require 1200 mg per day.

Good dietary sources of calcium include dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt; leafy green vegetables like broccoli and kale; fortified cereals and juices; and certain types of fish, such as salmon and sardines. It is important to note that some foods can inhibit the absorption of calcium, including oxalates found in spinach and rhubarb, and phytates found in whole grains and legumes.

If a person is unable to get enough calcium through their diet, they may need to take calcium supplements. However, it is important to talk to a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen, as excessive intake of calcium can lead to negative health effects.

Ephedrine is a medication that stimulates the nervous system and is used to treat low blood pressure, asthma, and nasal congestion. It works by narrowing the blood vessels and increasing heart rate, which can help to increase blood pressure and open up the airways in the lungs. Ephedrine may also be used as a bronchodilator to treat COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease).

Ephedrine is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and solutions for injection. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking ephedrine, as it can have side effects such as rapid heart rate, anxiety, headache, and dizziness. Ephedrine should not be used by people with certain medical conditions, such as heart disease, high blood pressure, or narrow-angle glaucoma, and it should not be taken during pregnancy or breastfeeding without consulting a healthcare provider.

In addition to its medical uses, ephedrine has been used as a performance-enhancing drug and is banned by many sports organizations. It can also be found in some over-the-counter cold and allergy medications, although these products are required to carry warnings about the potential for misuse and addiction.

Complementary therapies refer to a group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medicine. They are often used in conjunction with conventional treatments and are intended to facilitate the physical and emotional well-being of the patient. Complementary therapies can include a wide range of interventions such as acupuncture, chiropractic care, massage therapy, herbal medicine, yoga, meditation, guided imagery, hypnotherapy, and homeopathy, among others. It is important to note that while some complementary therapies have been shown to be effective for certain conditions, others lack scientific evidence of their safety and efficacy. Therefore, it is always recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new complementary therapy.

"Food Legislation" refers to laws, regulations, and policies related to food production, distribution, labeling, safety, and marketing. These rules are designed to protect consumers from fraudulent or unsafe food practices, promote fair trade in the food industry, and ensure that food is produced and distributed in a sustainable and environmentally friendly manner. Food legislation can cover a wide range of issues, including foodborne illness outbreaks, pesticide residues, organic farming, genetically modified foods, and nutrition labeling. Compliance with food legislation is typically enforced by government agencies, such as the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in the United States.

"Ginkgo biloba" is a specific species of tree, and its extract is commonly used in dietary supplements. According to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), Ginkgo biloba extract is derived from the dried leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree and contains several components with antioxidant properties, including flavonoids and terpenoids.

Ginkgo biloba extract has been used in traditional medicine for centuries, and it is one of the most commonly used herbal supplements in Europe and the United States. It is often used for its potential benefits on memory, cognitive function, and mood, although the evidence supporting these uses is mixed. Some studies have suggested that Ginkgo biloba extract may help to improve symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia, as well as tinnitus (ringing in the ears), but more research is needed to confirm these effects.

It is important to note that Ginkgo biloba can interact with certain medications, including blood thinners, and may increase the risk of bleeding. As with any supplement or medication, it is important to speak with a healthcare provider before taking Ginkgo biloba extract to ensure safety and effectiveness.

Animal feed refers to any substance or mixture of substances, whether processed, unprocessed, or partially processed, which is intended to be used as food for animals, including fish, without further processing. It includes ingredients such as grains, hay, straw, oilseed meals, and by-products from the milling, processing, and manufacturing industries. Animal feed can be in the form of pellets, crumbles, mash, or other forms, and is used to provide nutrients such as energy, protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals to support the growth, reproduction, and maintenance of animals. It's important to note that animal feed must be safe, nutritious, and properly labeled to ensure the health and well-being of the animals that consume it.

Micronutrients are essential nutrients that our body requires in small quantities to support various bodily functions, such as growth, development, and overall health. They include vitamins and minerals, which are vital for the production of hormones, enzymes, and other substances necessary for optimal health.

Unlike macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats), micronutrients do not provide energy or calories but play a crucial role in maintaining the balance and functioning of our body systems. They support immune function, bone health, wound healing, eyesight, skin health, and reproductive processes, among other functions.

Examples of micronutrients include vitamins A, C, D, E, and K, as well as minerals like calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and iodine. While our bodies need only small amounts of these nutrients, deficiencies in any of them can lead to serious health problems over time. Therefore, it's essential to consume a balanced and varied diet that includes adequate amounts of micronutrients to support overall health and well-being.

Fish oils are a type of fat or lipid derived from the tissues of oily fish. They are a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These fatty acids have been associated with various health benefits such as reducing inflammation, decreasing the risk of heart disease, improving brain function, and promoting eye health. Fish oils can be consumed through diet or taken as a dietary supplement in the form of capsules or liquid. It is important to note that while fish oils have potential health benefits, they should not replace a balanced diet and medical advice should be sought before starting any supplementation.

Unsaturated dietary fats are a type of fat that are primarily found in foods from plants. They are called "unsaturated" because of their chemical structure, which contains one or more double bonds in the carbon chain of the fat molecule. These double bonds can be either monounsaturated (one double bond) or polyunsaturated (multiple double bonds).

Monounsaturated fats are found in foods such as olive oil, avocados, and nuts, while polyunsaturated fats are found in foods such as fatty fish, flaxseeds, and vegetable oils. Unsaturated fats are generally considered to be heart-healthy, as they can help lower levels of harmful cholesterol in the blood and reduce the risk of heart disease.

It is important to note that while unsaturated fats are healthier than saturated and trans fats, they are still high in calories and should be consumed in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Folic acid is the synthetic form of folate, a type of B vitamin (B9). It is widely used in dietary supplements and fortified foods because it is more stable and has a longer shelf life than folate. Folate is essential for normal cell growth and metabolism, and it plays a critical role in the formation of DNA and RNA, the body's genetic material. Folic acid is also crucial during early pregnancy to prevent birth defects of the brain and spine called neural tube defects.

Medical Definition: "Folic acid is the synthetic form of folate (vitamin B9), a water-soluble vitamin involved in DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation. It is used in dietary supplementation and food fortification due to its stability and longer shelf life compared to folate. Folic acid is critical for normal cell growth, development, and red blood cell production."

Nutritional requirements refer to the necessary amount of nutrients, including macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), that an individual requires to maintain good health, support normal growth and development, and promote optimal bodily functions. These requirements vary based on factors such as age, sex, body size, pregnancy status, and physical activity level. Meeting one's nutritional requirements typically involves consuming a balanced and varied diet, with additional consideration given to any specific dietary restrictions or medical conditions that may influence nutrient needs.

A nutrition survey is not a medical term per se, but it is a research method used in the field of nutrition and public health. Here's a definition:

A nutrition survey is a study design that systematically collects and analyzes data on dietary intake, nutritional status, and related factors from a defined population or sample. It aims to describe the nutritional situation, identify nutritional problems, and monitor trends in a population over time. Nutrition surveys can be cross-sectional, longitudinal, or community-based and may involve various data collection methods such as interviews, questionnaires, observations, physical measurements, and biological samples. The results of nutrition surveys are used to inform nutrition policies, programs, and interventions aimed at improving the nutritional status and health outcomes of populations.

"Cimicifuga" is a genus of plants commonly known as black cohosh or bugbane. It belongs to the family Ranunculaceae and is native to North America. The plant has been used in traditional medicine for treating various health conditions, such as menopausal symptoms, menstrual cramps, and inflammation. However, it's essential to consult a healthcare professional before using any herbal remedies for medical purposes.

"Food analysis" is not a medical term per se, but it falls under the broader field of food science and nutrition. Food analysis refers to the laboratory methods and techniques used to determine the composition and quality of food products. This can include testing for nutrients (such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals), contaminants (like heavy metals, pesticides, or allergens), and other components that may affect the safety, quality, or authenticity of food.

The results of food analysis can be used to ensure compliance with regulatory standards, develop new food products, assess the nutritional value of diets, investigate food-borne illnesses, and monitor trends in food consumption. While not a medical definition, food analysis is an important tool for promoting public health and preventing diet-related diseases.

Trace elements are essential minerals that the body needs in very small or tiny amounts, usually less than 100 milligrams per day, for various biological processes. These include elements like iron, zinc, copper, manganese, fluoride, selenium, and iodine. They are vital for maintaining good health and proper functioning of the human body, but they are required in such minute quantities that even a slight excess or deficiency can lead to significant health issues.

"Energy intake" is a medical term that refers to the amount of energy or calories consumed through food and drink. It is an important concept in the study of nutrition, metabolism, and energy balance, and is often used in research and clinical settings to assess an individual's dietary habits and health status.

Energy intake is typically measured in kilocalories (kcal) or joules (J), with one kcal equivalent to approximately 4.184 J. The recommended daily energy intake varies depending on factors such as age, sex, weight, height, physical activity level, and overall health status.

It's important to note that excessive energy intake, particularly when combined with a sedentary lifestyle, can lead to weight gain and an increased risk of chronic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, inadequate energy intake can lead to malnutrition, decreased immune function, and other health problems. Therefore, it's essential to maintain a balanced energy intake that meets individual nutritional needs while promoting overall health and well-being.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

'Camellia sinensis' is the scientific name for the plant that is used to produce tea. It is an evergreen shrub native to East Asia, particularly China and India, and has been cultivated for thousands of years for its leaves, which are used to make various types of tea, including black, green, oolong, and white teas.

The leaves of 'Camellia sinensis' contain a number of bioactive compounds, including caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine, as well as polyphenols such as flavonoids and catechins, which are believed to have various health benefits. The processing method used on the leaves determines the type of tea produced and its color, flavor, and chemical composition.

Naturopathy, also known as naturopathic medicine, is a system of healthcare that focuses on the use of natural remedies and treatments to promote self-healing and prevent disease. It is based on the belief that the body has an inherent ability to heal itself, and that the role of the naturopathic doctor is to support and facilitate this process.

Naturopathic medicine combines traditional healing methods with modern scientific knowledge, and may include a variety of treatments such as nutrition and lifestyle counseling, herbal medicine, homeopathy, acupuncture, hydrotherapy, and physical therapy. The goal of naturopathic treatment is to address the underlying causes of illness and promote overall health and well-being, rather than simply treating symptoms.

Naturopathic doctors (NDs) are trained in both conventional and naturopathic medicine, and are licensed as primary care providers in some states. They typically complete a four-year graduate level medical education at an accredited naturopathic medical school, including clinical training under the supervision of licensed professionals.

It's important to note that while naturopathy can be a valuable complementary approach to conventional medicine, it should not be used as a substitute for necessary medical treatments or care. Patients are encouraged to work with their healthcare providers to determine the most appropriate course of treatment for their individual needs and health conditions.

Nutritional status is a concept that refers to the condition of an individual in relation to their nutrient intake, absorption, metabolism, and excretion. It encompasses various aspects such as body weight, muscle mass, fat distribution, presence of any deficiencies or excesses of specific nutrients, and overall health status.

A comprehensive assessment of nutritional status typically includes a review of dietary intake, anthropometric measurements (such as height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure), laboratory tests (such as serum albumin, total protein, cholesterol levels, vitamin and mineral levels), and clinical evaluation for signs of malnutrition or overnutrition.

Malnutrition can result from inadequate intake or absorption of nutrients, increased nutrient requirements due to illness or injury, or excessive loss of nutrients due to medical conditions. On the other hand, overnutrition can lead to obesity and related health problems such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer.

Therefore, maintaining a good nutritional status is essential for overall health and well-being, and it is an important consideration in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of various medical conditions.

Medical Definition of Vitamin E:

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant that plays a crucial role in protecting your body's cells from damage caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules produced when your body breaks down food or is exposed to environmental toxins like cigarette smoke and radiation. Vitamin E is also involved in immune function, DNA repair, and other metabolic processes.

It is a collective name for a group of eight fat-soluble compounds that include four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. Alpha-tocopherol is the most biologically active form of vitamin E in humans and is the one most commonly found in supplements.

Vitamin E deficiency is rare but can occur in people with certain genetic disorders or who cannot absorb fat properly. Symptoms of deficiency include nerve and muscle damage, loss of feeling in the arms and legs, muscle weakness, and vision problems.

Food sources of vitamin E include vegetable oils (such as sunflower, safflower, and wheat germ oil), nuts and seeds (like almonds, peanuts, and sunflower seeds), and fortified foods (such as cereals and some fruit juices).

"Food habits" refer to the established patterns or behaviors that individuals develop in relation to their food choices and eating behaviors. These habits can include preferences for certain types of foods, meal timing, portion sizes, and dining experiences. Food habits are influenced by a variety of factors including cultural background, personal beliefs, taste preferences, social norms, and economic resources. They can have significant impacts on an individual's nutritional status, overall health, and quality of life.

It is important to note that while "food habits" may not be a formal medical term, it is often used in the context of nutrition and public health research and interventions to describe the behaviors related to food choices and eating patterns.

Dietetics is the branch of knowledge concerned with the diet and its effects on health, especially in the prevention and treatment of disease. According to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, dietetics is defined as "the integration and application of principles derived from nutrition science, biochemistry, food management, and behavioral and social sciences to achieve and maintain people's health."

Dietitians are healthcare professionals who evaluate individual nutritional needs and develop personalized eating plans to promote health and manage medical conditions. They may work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, long-term care facilities, private practice, community health programs, and food service management. Dietitians often collaborate with other healthcare providers, such as doctors, nurses, and pharmacists, to provide comprehensive care for patients.

The goals of dietetics include promoting optimal nutrition, preventing chronic diseases, managing medical conditions, and enhancing overall health and well-being. Dietitians may provide education and counseling on topics such as healthy eating habits, meal planning, weight management, food safety, and supplement use. They may also conduct research, develop nutrition policies and programs, and advocate for improved food and nutrition policies and practices.

Dietary cholesterol is a type of cholesterol that comes from the foods we eat. It is present in animal-derived products such as meat, poultry, dairy products, and eggs. While dietary cholesterol can contribute to an increase in blood cholesterol levels for some people, it's important to note that saturated and trans fats have a more significant impact on blood cholesterol levels than dietary cholesterol itself.

The American Heart Association recommends limiting dietary cholesterol intake to less than 300 milligrams per day for most people, and less than 200 milligrams per day for those with a history of heart disease or high cholesterol levels. However, individual responses to dietary cholesterol can vary, so it's essential to monitor blood cholesterol levels and adjust dietary habits accordingly.

Antioxidants are substances that can prevent or slow damage to cells caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules that the body produces as a reaction to environmental and other pressures. Antioxidants are able to neutralize free radicals by donating an electron to them, thus stabilizing them and preventing them from causing further damage to the cells.

Antioxidants can be found in a variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains. Some common antioxidants include vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and selenium. Antioxidants are also available as dietary supplements.

In addition to their role in protecting cells from damage, antioxidants have been studied for their potential to prevent or treat a number of health conditions, including cancer, heart disease, and age-related macular degeneration. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using antioxidant supplements.

"Random allocation," also known as "random assignment" or "randomization," is a process used in clinical trials and other research studies to distribute participants into different intervention groups (such as experimental group vs. control group) in a way that minimizes selection bias and ensures the groups are comparable at the start of the study.

In random allocation, each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any group, and the assignment is typically made using a computer-generated randomization schedule or other objective methods. This process helps to ensure that any differences between the groups are due to the intervention being tested rather than pre-existing differences in the participants' characteristics.

'Drug legislation' refers to the laws and regulations that govern the production, distribution, sale, possession, and use of medications and pharmaceutical products within a given jurisdiction. These laws are designed to protect public health and safety by establishing standards for drug quality, ensuring appropriate prescribing and dispensing practices, preventing drug abuse and diversion, and promoting access to necessary medications. Drug legislation may also include provisions related to clinical trials, advertising, packaging, labeling, and reimbursement. Compliance with these regulations is typically enforced through a combination of government agencies, professional organizations, and legal penalties for non-compliance.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. It seems to be a very specific phrase that may refer to the physiological processes and phenomena related to nutrition.

Nutrition, in a medical context, refers to the process of providing or obtaining food necessary for health and growth. Physiological phenomena, on the other hand, refer to the functional manifestations of living organisms and their parts.

So, "Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" could hypothetically refer to the various physiological processes that occur in the body in relation to nutrition, such as digestion, absorption, metabolism, transportation, and storage of nutrients. However, I would recommend consulting the specific source or context where this term was used for a more accurate definition.

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

Isoflavones are a type of plant-derived compounds called phytoestrogens, which have a chemical structure similar to human estrogen. They are found in various plants, particularly in soybeans and soy products. Isoflavones can act as weak estrogens or anti-estrogens in the body, depending on the levels of natural hormones present. These compounds have been studied for their potential health benefits, including reducing menopausal symptoms, improving cardiovascular health, and preventing certain types of cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand their effects and safety.

Food labeling is the practice of providing written information about the characteristics and contents of food products, typically on the packaging or container in which they are sold. In a medical context, accurate and clear food labeling is essential for individuals with dietary restrictions due to medical conditions such as food allergies, intolerances, or chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes).

Standardized food labeling guidelines help consumers make informed decisions about the foods they consume, allowing them to avoid potential health risks and maintain a balanced diet. Components of food labels often include:

1. Product identity: The name of the food product and its intended use.
2. Net quantity declaration: The amount of the food product contained in the package, expressed in both metric and customary units (e.g., grams or ounces).
3. Ingredient list: A comprehensive list of all ingredients included in the food product, arranged in descending order by weight. This is particularly important for individuals with food allergies or intolerances, as it allows them to identify and avoid specific allergens (e.g., milk, eggs, peanuts).
4. Nutrition facts panel: A standardized format presenting the nutritional content of the food product per serving, including information on calories, total fat, saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, sugars, protein, and various vitamins and minerals.
5. Nutrient content claims: Voluntary statements made by manufacturers regarding the level of a nutrient in a food product (e.g., "low fat," "high fiber"). These claims must adhere to strict guidelines established by regulatory bodies to ensure accuracy and consistency.
6. Health claims: Statements linking a specific food or food component to a reduced risk of a particular disease or health-related condition (e.g., "a diet rich in whole grains may reduce the risk of heart disease"). Like nutrient content claims, health claims are subject to strict regulatory oversight.
7. Special dietary statements: Labeling statements indicating that a food product is suitable for specific dietary uses or restrictions (e.g., "gluten-free," "kosher," "vegan"). These statements help consumers with special dietary needs quickly identify appropriate food options.
8. Allergen labeling: Mandatory identification of the presence of any of the eight major food allergens (milk, eggs, fish, crustacean shellfish, tree nuts, peanuts, wheat, and soybeans) in a food product. This information must be clearly displayed in the ingredient list or as a separate "contains" statement.
9. Warning statements: Required labeling of specific health risks associated with the consumption of certain food products (e.g., "consuming raw or undercooked meats, poultry, seafood, shellfish, or eggs may increase your risk of foodborne illness").
10. Country of origin labeling: Identification of the country where a food product was produced, grown, or packaged. This information helps consumers make informed decisions about their food purchases based on factors such as quality, safety, and environmental concerns.

Ascorbic acid is the chemical name for Vitamin C. It is a water-soluble vitamin that is essential for human health. Ascorbic acid is required for the synthesis of collagen, a protein that plays a role in the structure of bones, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels. It also functions as an antioxidant, helping to protect cells from damage caused by free radicals.

Ascorbic acid cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through diet or supplementation. Good food sources of vitamin C include citrus fruits, strawberries, bell peppers, broccoli, and spinach.

In the medical field, ascorbic acid is used to treat or prevent vitamin C deficiency and related conditions, such as scurvy. It may also be used in the treatment of various other health conditions, including common cold, cancer, and cardiovascular disease, although its effectiveness for these uses is still a matter of scientific debate.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "vegetables" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a dietary category that includes various plant-based foods, typically referring to the edible parts of herbaceous plants excluding fruit (but including seeds), such as leaves, stems, roots, tubers, and bulbs.

However, in a nutritional or clinical context, vegetables are often defined by their nutrient content. For example, they may be classified as foods that are high in certain vitamins, minerals, and fiber, and low in calories and fat. Different healthcare professionals or organizations might have slightly different definitions or classifications of what constitutes a vegetable, but there is no single medical definition for this term.

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is not a medical organization or entity, so it does not provide medical definitions. However, I can give you some information about what the USDA is and what it does.

The USDA is a federal executive department of the U.S. government responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food. It was established in 1862 by President Abraham Lincoln and is headed by the Secretary of Agriculture, who is a member of the President's cabinet.

The USDA has several key missions, including:

* Promoting agricultural trade and production
* Ensuring the safety of the food supply
* Providing nutrition assistance to vulnerable populations
* Protecting natural resources and the environment
* Promoting rural development and economic stability

In terms of food and nutrition, the USDA plays an important role in setting dietary guidelines for Americans, establishing standards for school meals and other federal food programs, and regulating the safety of meat, poultry, and egg products. The agency also conducts research on agricultural and food-related topics and provides education and outreach to farmers, ranchers, and consumers.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is a federal government agency responsible for protecting public health by ensuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, medical devices, our country's food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation. The FDA also provides guidance on the proper use of these products, and enforces laws and regulations related to them. It is part of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "fruit" is not a medical term per se. It is a common term used to describe the part of a plant that develops from the ovary after flowering and contains seeds. However, in a nutritional or dietary context, "fruits" are often referred to as foods that are typically sweet and juicy, and come from plants' flowers. They are rich in fiber, vitamins, and minerals, making them an essential part of a healthy diet. But in a strict medical sense, there isn't a specific definition for "fruit."

"Animal nutritional physiological phenomena" is not a standardized medical or scientific term. However, it seems to refer to the processes and functions related to nutrition and physiology in animals. Here's a breakdown of the possible components:

1. Animal: This term refers to non-human living organisms that are multicellular, heterotrophic, and have a distinct nervous system.
2. Nutritional: This term pertains to the nourishment and energy requirements of an animal, including the ingestion, digestion, absorption, transportation, metabolism, and excretion of nutrients.
3. Physiological: This term refers to the functions and processes that occur within a living organism, including the interactions between different organs and systems.
4. Phenomena: This term generally means an observable fact or event.

Therefore, "animal nutritional physiological phenomena" could refer to the observable events and processes related to nutrition and physiology in animals. Examples of such phenomena include digestion, absorption, metabolism, energy production, growth, reproduction, and waste elimination.

Diet records are documents used to track and record an individual's food and beverage intake over a specific period. These records may include details such as the type and quantity of food consumed, time of consumption, and any related observations or notes. Diet records can be used for various purposes, including assessing dietary habits and patterns, identifying potential nutritional deficiencies or excesses, and developing personalized nutrition plans. They are often used in research, clinical settings, and weight management programs.

Analytical chemistry techniques are a collection of methods and tools used to identify and quantify the chemical composition of matter. These techniques can be used to analyze the presence and amount of various chemicals in a sample, including ions, molecules, and atoms. Some common analytical chemistry techniques include:

1. Spectroscopy: This technique uses the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and matter to identify and quantify chemical species. There are many different types of spectroscopy, including UV-Vis, infrared (IR), fluorescence, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
2. Chromatography: This technique separates the components of a mixture based on their physical or chemical properties, such as size, charge, or polarity. Common types of chromatography include gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), and thin-layer chromatography (TLC).
3. Mass spectrometry: This technique uses the mass-to-charge ratio of ions to identify and quantify chemical species. It can be used in combination with other techniques, such as GC or LC, to provide structural information about unknown compounds.
4. Electrochemical methods: These techniques use the movement of electrons to measure the concentration of chemical species. Examples include potentiometry, voltammetry, and amperometry.
5. Thermal analysis: This technique uses changes in the physical or chemical properties of a sample as it is heated or cooled to identify and quantify chemical species. Examples include differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

These are just a few examples of the many analytical chemistry techniques that are available. Each technique has its own strengths and limitations, and the choice of which to use will depend on the specific needs of the analysis.

The medical definition of "eating" refers to the process of consuming and ingesting food or nutrients into the body. This process typically involves several steps, including:

1. Food preparation: This may involve cleaning, chopping, cooking, or combining ingredients to make them ready for consumption.
2. Ingestion: The act of taking food or nutrients into the mouth and swallowing it.
3. Digestion: Once food is ingested, it travels down the esophagus and enters the stomach, where it is broken down by enzymes and acids to facilitate absorption of nutrients.
4. Absorption: Nutrients are absorbed through the walls of the small intestine and transported to cells throughout the body for use as energy or building blocks for growth and repair.
5. Elimination: Undigested food and waste products are eliminated from the body through the large intestine (colon) and rectum.

Eating is an essential function that provides the body with the nutrients it needs to maintain health, grow, and repair itself. Disorders of eating, such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, can have serious consequences for physical and mental health.

Dietary iron is a vital nutrient that plays a crucial role in the production of hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells responsible for carrying oxygen throughout the body. It is also essential for various other bodily functions, including energy production and immune function.

There are two forms of dietary iron: heme and non-heme. Heme iron is found in animal products such as meat, poultry, and fish, while non-heme iron is found in plant-based foods such as beans, lentils, tofu, spinach, and fortified cereals.

The recommended daily intake of dietary iron varies depending on age, sex, and other factors. For example, adult men typically require 8 milligrams (mg) per day, while adult women need 18 mg per day. Pregnant women may require up to 27 mg per day, while breastfeeding women need around 9-10 mg per day.

It is important to note that the absorption of non-heme iron from plant-based foods can be enhanced by consuming them with vitamin C-rich foods or drinks, such as citrus fruits, strawberries, and bell peppers. On the other hand, certain substances such as tannins (found in tea and coffee) and phytates (found in whole grains and legumes) can inhibit the absorption of non-heme iron.

"Humulus" is a term that refers to a genus of plants, specifically the hop plant. The hop plant belongs to the Cannabaceae family and is native to Europe, western Asia, and North America. The humulus plant has climbing or trailing stems and produces separate male and female flowers on different plants.

The female flowers, known as hops, are used in the brewing industry to add flavor, aroma, and preservative qualities to beer. Hops contain resins and essential oils that contribute to the bitter taste and floral or citrusy notes of beer. They also have antibacterial properties that help to stabilize and preserve the beverage.

In a medical context, hops are sometimes used in herbal medicine for their sedative and calming effects. They may be prepared as teas, tinctures, or extracts and can be used to treat anxiety, insomnia, restlessness, and other conditions related to nervous tension. However, it's important to note that the scientific evidence supporting these uses is limited, and hops should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment without consulting a healthcare professional.

Ginger, in a medical context, refers to the root of the plant Zingiber officinale. It has been used in traditional medicine for thousands of years to treat various ailments such as nausea, vomiting, and inflammation. The active components of ginger are called gingerols and shogaols, which have been found to have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antiemetic properties.

However, it's important to note that while ginger has many potential health benefits, it can also interact with certain medications and may not be suitable for everyone. As with any treatment, it's always best to consult with a healthcare provider before starting to use ginger or any other natural remedy.

Consumer Product Safety refers to the measures taken to ensure that products intended for consumer use are free from unreasonable risks of injury or illness. This is typically overseen by regulatory bodies, such as the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) in the United States, which establishes safety standards, tests products, and recalls dangerous ones.

The definition of 'Consumer Product' can vary but generally refers to any article, or component part thereof, produced or distributed (i) for sale to a consumer for use in or around a permanent or temporary household or residence, a school, in recreation, or otherwise; (ii) for the personal use, consumption or enjoyment of a consumer in or around a permanent or temporary household or residence, a school, in recreation, or otherwise; (iii) for sensory evaluation and direct physical contact by a consumer in or around a permanent or temporary household or residence, a school, in recreation, or otherwise.

The safety measures can include various aspects such as design, manufacturing, packaging, and labeling of the product to ensure that it is safe for its intended use. This includes ensuring that the product does not contain any harmful substances, that it functions as intended, and that it comes with clear instructions for use and any necessary warnings.

It's important to note that even with these safety measures in place, it is still possible for products to cause injury or illness if they are used improperly or if they malfunction. Therefore, it is also important for consumers to be aware of the risks associated with the products they use and to take appropriate precautions.

Omega-3 fatty acids are a type of polyunsaturated fats that are essential for human health. The "omega-3" designation refers to the location of a double bond in the chemical structure of the fatty acid, specifically three carbon atoms from the end of the molecule.

There are three main types of omega-3 fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). EPA and DHA are primarily found in fatty fish, such as salmon, mackerel, and sardines, as well as in algae. ALA is found in plant sources, such as flaxseeds, chia seeds, walnuts, and some vegetable oils.

Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to have numerous health benefits, including reducing inflammation, lowering the risk of heart disease, improving brain function, and supporting eye health. They are also important for fetal development during pregnancy and breastfeeding. It is recommended that adults consume at least 250-500 milligrams of combined EPA and DHA per day, although higher intakes may be beneficial for certain conditions. ALA can be converted to EPA and DHA in the body, but this process is not very efficient, so it is important to consume preformed EPA and DHA from dietary sources or supplements.

A diet survey is a questionnaire or interview designed to gather information about an individual's eating habits and patterns. It typically includes questions about the types and quantities of foods and beverages consumed, meal frequency and timing, and any dietary restrictions or preferences. The purpose of a diet survey is to assess an individual's nutritional intake and identify areas for improvement or intervention in order to promote health and prevent or manage chronic diseases. Diet surveys may also be used in research settings to gather data on the eating habits of larger populations.

Kava, also known as kava-kava, is a plant (Piper methysticum) that is native to the Pacific Islands. The root of the kava plant is used to make a drink that has been traditionally used in cultural and social gatherings for its relaxing effects. It can be consumed in various forms such as tea, capsules, or extracts.

In modern medicine, kava is sometimes used as a dietary supplement for anxiety, insomnia, and stress. However, its use as a medicinal product is controversial due to concerns about potential liver toxicity. The FDA has issued warnings about the risk of severe liver injury associated with kava-containing products. Therefore, it's essential to consult a healthcare professional before taking kava or any other dietary supplement.

Anti-obesity agents are medications that are used to treat obesity and overweight. They work by reducing appetite, increasing feelings of fullness, decreasing fat absorption, or increasing metabolism. Some examples of anti-obesity agents include orlistat, lorcaserin, phentermine, and topiramate. These medications are typically used in conjunction with diet and exercise to help people lose weight and maintain a healthy body weight. It's important to note that these medications can have side effects and should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

A capsule is a type of solid pharmaceutical dosage form in which the drug is enclosed in a small shell or container, usually composed of gelatin or other suitable material. The shell serves to protect the drug from degradation, improve its stability and shelf life, and facilitate swallowing by making it easier to consume. Capsules come in various sizes and colors and can contain one or more drugs in powder, liquid, or solid form. They are typically administered orally but can also be used for other routes of administration, such as rectal or vaginal.

According to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), biological products are "products that are made from or contain a living organism or its derivatives, such as vaccines, blood and blood components, cells, genes, tissues, and proteins." These products can be composed of sugars, proteins, nucleic acids, or complex combinations of these substances, and they can come from many sources, including humans, animals, microorganisms, or plants.

Biological products are often used to diagnose, prevent, or treat a wide range of medical conditions, and they can be administered in various ways, such as through injection, inhalation, or topical application. Because biological products are derived from living organisms, their manufacturing processes can be complex and must be tightly controlled to ensure the safety, purity, and potency of the final product.

It's important to note that biological products are not the same as drugs, which are chemically synthesized compounds. While drugs are designed to interact with specific targets in the body, such as enzymes or receptors, biological products can have more complex and varied mechanisms of action, making them potentially more difficult to characterize and regulate.

"Trifolium" is not a medical term. It is actually the genus name for a group of plants commonly known as clover. These plants belong to the family Fabaceae and are found in many temperate regions around the world. Some species, like red clover (Trifolium pratense), are used in herbal medicine for various purposes, such as treating respiratory conditions, skin inflammations, and menopausal symptoms. However, it's important to consult with a healthcare professional before using any herbal remedies.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

'Angelica sinensis', also known as Dong Quai or Chinese Angelica, is a herbaceous plant native to China. It has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries for various purposes, such as promoting menstruation and blood circulation, alleviating menopausal symptoms, and treating anemia, among others.

The roots of the plant are typically harvested and dried before being used in various forms, including powders, capsules, and teas. Some studies suggest that 'Angelica sinensis' may have medicinal properties due to its high content of essential oils, phytochemicals, and other bioactive compounds. However, more research is needed to fully understand its potential health benefits and risks.

It is important to note that while some natural remedies can be beneficial, they should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice or treatment. It is always recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

Dietary sodium is a mineral that is primarily found in table salt (sodium chloride) and many processed foods. It is an essential nutrient for human health, playing a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance, transmitting nerve impulses, and regulating muscle contractions. However, consuming too much dietary sodium can increase blood pressure and contribute to the development of hypertension, heart disease, stroke, and kidney problems.

The recommended daily intake of dietary sodium is less than 2,300 milligrams (mg) per day for most adults, but the American Heart Association recommends no more than 1,500 mg per day for optimal heart health. It's important to note that many processed and restaurant foods contain high levels of sodium, so it's essential to read food labels and choose fresh, whole foods whenever possible to help limit dietary sodium intake.

A medical definition of 'food' would be:

"Substances consumed by living organisms, usually in the form of meals, which contain necessary nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water. These substances are broken down during digestion to provide energy, build and repair tissues, and regulate bodily functions."

It's important to note that while this is a medical definition, it also aligns with common understanding of what food is.

Maternal nutritional physiological phenomena refer to the various changes and processes that occur in a woman's body during pregnancy, lactation, and postpartum periods to meet the increased nutritional demands and support the growth and development of the fetus or infant. These phenomena involve complex interactions between maternal nutrition, hormonal regulation, metabolism, and physiological functions to ensure optimal pregnancy outcomes and offspring health.

Examples of maternal nutritional physiological phenomena include:

1. Adaptations in maternal nutrient metabolism: During pregnancy, the mother's body undergoes various adaptations to increase the availability of essential nutrients for fetal growth and development. For instance, there are increased absorption and utilization of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids, as well as enhanced storage of glycogen and lipids in maternal tissues.
2. Placental transfer of nutrients: The placenta plays a crucial role in facilitating the exchange of nutrients between the mother and fetus. It selectively transports essential nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals from the maternal circulation to the fetal compartment while removing waste products.
3. Maternal weight gain: Pregnant women typically experience an increase in body weight due to the growth of the fetus, placenta, amniotic fluid, and maternal tissues such as the uterus and breasts. Adequate gestational weight gain is essential for ensuring optimal pregnancy outcomes and reducing the risk of adverse perinatal complications.
4. Changes in maternal hormonal regulation: Pregnancy is associated with significant changes in hormonal profiles, including increased levels of estrogen, progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and other hormones that regulate various physiological functions such as glucose metabolism, appetite regulation, and maternal-fetal immune tolerance.
5. Lactation: Following childbirth, the mother's body undergoes further adaptations to support lactation and breastfeeding. This involves the production and secretion of milk, which contains essential nutrients and bioactive components that promote infant growth, development, and immunity.
6. Nutrient requirements: Pregnancy and lactation increase women's nutritional demands for various micronutrients such as iron, calcium, folate, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids. Meeting these increased nutritional needs is crucial for ensuring optimal pregnancy outcomes and supporting maternal health during the postpartum period.

Understanding these physiological adaptations and their implications for maternal and fetal health is essential for developing evidence-based interventions to promote positive pregnancy outcomes, reduce the risk of adverse perinatal complications, and support women's health throughout the reproductive lifespan.

Weight gain is defined as an increase in body weight over time, which can be attributed to various factors such as an increase in muscle mass, fat mass, or total body water. It is typically measured in terms of pounds or kilograms and can be intentional or unintentional. Unintentional weight gain may be a cause for concern if it's significant or accompanied by other symptoms, as it could indicate an underlying medical condition such as hypothyroidism, diabetes, or heart disease.

It is important to note that while body mass index (BMI) can be used as a general guideline for weight status, it does not differentiate between muscle mass and fat mass. Therefore, an increase in muscle mass through activities like strength training could result in a higher BMI, but this may not necessarily be indicative of increased health risks associated with excess body fat.

Garcinia mangostana, also known as the mangosteen, is not a medical term but rather the name of a tropical evergreen tree that grows in Southeast Asia, Southwest India, and other tropical regions. The tree produces a purple, edible fruit that has been used in traditional medicine for various purposes.

In modern medical research, there has been some interest in the potential health benefits of Garcinia mangostana extracts, particularly in relation to weight loss and anti-inflammatory effects. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and establish recommended dosages and safety guidelines. It's important to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

Medical definitions generally do not include plant oils as a specific term. However, in a biological or biochemical context, plant oils, also known as vegetable oils, are defined as lipid extracts derived from various parts of plants such as seeds, fruits, and leaves. They mainly consist of triglycerides, which are esters of glycerol and three fatty acids. The composition of fatty acids can vary between different plant sources, leading to a range of physical and chemical properties that make plant oils useful for various applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. Some common examples of plant oils include olive oil, coconut oil, sunflower oil, and jojoba oil.

Beta-carotene is a type of carotenoid, which is a pigment found in plants that gives them their vibrant colors. It is commonly found in fruits and vegetables, such as carrots, sweet potatoes, and spinach.

Beta-carotene is converted into vitamin A in the body, which is an essential nutrient for maintaining healthy vision, immune function, and cell growth. It acts as an antioxidant, helping to protect cells from damage caused by free radicals.

According to the medical definition, beta-carotene is a provitamin A carotenoid that is converted into vitamin A in the body. It has a variety of health benefits, including supporting eye health, boosting the immune system, and reducing the risk of certain types of cancer. However, it is important to note that excessive consumption of beta-carotene supplements can lead to a condition called carotenemia, which causes the skin to turn yellow or orange.

Stigmasterol is a type of plant sterol or phytosterol, which is a steroid compound that is naturally occurring in plants. It is found in high concentrations in soybeans, nuts, and some vegetables. Stigmasterol has a similar structure to cholesterol, which is a steroid compound found in animals, but with an additional double bond in its side chain.

Stigmasterol has been studied for its potential health benefits, including its ability to help lower cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of heart disease. It is thought to work by inhibiting the absorption of dietary cholesterol in the gut, which can help to lower overall cholesterol levels in the body.

In addition to its potential health benefits, stigmasterol is also used in the production of some drugs and vaccines, as well as in the manufacture of cosmetics and personal care products.

Nonprescription drugs, also known as over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, are medications that can be legally purchased without a prescription from a healthcare professional. They are considered safe and effective for treating minor illnesses or symptoms when used according to the directions on the label. Examples include pain relievers like acetaminophen and ibuprofen, antihistamines for allergies, and topical treatments for skin conditions. It is still important to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare provider if there are any concerns or questions about using nonprescription drugs.

"Vaccinium" is not a medical term, but a scientific name for a genus of plants in the family Ericaceae. It includes several species of shrubs that produce berries, such as blueberries, cranberries, and huckleberries. While these fruits have nutritional and potential medicinal benefits, "Vaccinium" itself does not have a medical definition.

Cereals, in a medical context, are not specifically defined. However, cereals are generally understood to be grasses of the family Poaceae that are cultivated for the edible components of their grain (the seed of the grass). The term "cereal" is derived from Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture and harvest.

The most widely consumed cereals include:

1. Wheat
2. Rice
3. Corn (Maize)
4. Barley
5. Oats
6. Millet
7. Sorghum
8. Rye

Cereals are a significant part of the human diet, providing energy in the form of carbohydrates, as well as protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals. They can be consumed in various forms, such as whole grains, flour, flakes, or puffed cereals. Some people may have allergies or intolerances to specific cereals, like celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder that requires a gluten-free diet (wheat, barley, and rye contain gluten).

Food safety is the scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent foodborne illness. This includes a number of routines that should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards. Food safety often involves keeping food at low temperatures to prevent bacterial growth and toxin production. It can also include practices such as washing hands and surfaces well and avoiding cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods. Additionally, proper cooking and pasteurization can kill bacteria that may be present in food.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines food safety as "the assurance that food will not cause harm to the consumer when it is prepared or eaten according to its intended use." Food safety is important for everyone, but particularly for vulnerable populations such as pregnant women, young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems.

In summary, food safety refers to the proper handling, preparation, and storage of food in order to prevent foodborne illness and ensure that it is safe for consumption.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Biological availability is a term used in pharmacology and toxicology that refers to the degree and rate at which a drug or other substance is absorbed into the bloodstream and becomes available at the site of action in the body. It is a measure of the amount of the substance that reaches the systemic circulation unchanged, after administration by any route (such as oral, intravenous, etc.).

The biological availability (F) of a drug can be calculated using the area under the curve (AUC) of the plasma concentration-time profile after extravascular and intravenous dosing, according to the following formula:

F = (AUCex/AUCiv) x (Doseiv/Doseex)

where AUCex is the AUC after extravascular dosing, AUCiv is the AUC after intravenous dosing, Doseiv is the intravenous dose, and Doseex is the extravascular dose.

Biological availability is an important consideration in drug development and therapy, as it can affect the drug's efficacy, safety, and dosage regimen. Drugs with low biological availability may require higher doses to achieve the desired therapeutic effect, while drugs with high biological availability may have a more rapid onset of action and require lower doses to avoid toxicity.

'Hypericum' is a genus of flowering plants, also known as St. John's Wort. While it is primarily used in herbal medicine and not considered a standard medical term, it is important to note that some species of Hypericum have been found to have medicinal properties. The most commonly studied and used species is Hypericum perforatum, which has been found to have potential benefits in treating depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders. However, its use as a medical treatment is still a subject of ongoing research and debate, and it can interact with several medications. Always consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement or medication.

Soybean proteins are the proteins derived from soybeans, a legume native to East Asia. Soybeans contain approximately 40% protein by weight, making them a significant source of plant-based protein. The two major types of soy protein are:

1. Soy protein isolate (SPI): This is a highly refined protein that contains at least 90% protein by weight. It is made by removing carbohydrates and fiber from defatted soy flour, leaving behind a protein-rich powder. SPI is often used as an ingredient in various food products, including meat alternatives, energy bars, and beverages.
2. Soy protein concentrate (SPC): This type of soy protein contains approximately 70% protein by weight. It is made by removing some of the carbohydrates from defatted soy flour, leaving behind a higher concentration of proteins. SPC has applications in food and industrial uses, such as in textured vegetable protein (TVP) for meat alternatives, baked goods, and functional foods.

Soy proteins are considered high-quality proteins due to their complete amino acid profile, containing all nine essential amino acids necessary for human nutrition. They also have various health benefits, such as lowering cholesterol levels, improving bone health, and promoting muscle growth and maintenance. However, it is important to note that soy protein consumption should be balanced with other protein sources to ensure a diverse intake of nutrients.

Drug labeling refers to the information that is provided on the packaging or container of a medication, as well as any accompanying promotional materials. This information is intended to provide healthcare professionals and patients with accurate and up-to-date data about the drug's composition, intended use, dosage, side effects, contraindications, and other important details that are necessary for safe and effective use.

The labeling of prescription drugs in the United States is regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which requires manufacturers to submit proposed labeling as part of their new drug application. The FDA reviews the labeling to ensure that it is truthful, balanced, and not misleading, and provides accurate information about the drug's risks and benefits.

The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs is also regulated by the FDA, but in this case, the agency has established a set of monographs that specify the conditions under which certain active ingredients can be used and the labeling requirements for each ingredient. Manufacturers of OTC drugs must ensure that their labeling complies with these monographs.

In addition to the information required by regulatory agencies, drug labeling may also include additional information provided by the manufacturer, such as detailed instructions for use, storage requirements, and any warnings or precautions that are necessary to ensure safe and effective use of the medication. It is important for healthcare professionals and patients to carefully review and understand all of the information provided on a drug's labeling before using the medication.

Drug contamination refers to the presence of impurities or foreign substances in a pharmaceutical drug or medication. These impurities can include things like bacteria, chemicals, or other drugs that are not intended to be present in the final product. Drug contamination can occur at any stage during the production, storage, or distribution of a medication and can potentially lead to reduced effectiveness, increased side effects, or serious health risks for patients. It is closely monitored and regulated by various health authorities to ensure the safety and efficacy of medications.

Medicinal plants are defined as those plants that contain naturally occurring chemical compounds which can be used for therapeutic purposes, either directly or indirectly. These plants have been used for centuries in various traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Chinese medicine, and Native American medicine, to prevent or treat various health conditions.

Medicinal plants contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, including alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, and saponins, among others. These compounds have been found to possess various pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities.

Medicinal plants can be used in various forms, including whole plant material, extracts, essential oils, and isolated compounds. They can be administered through different routes, such as oral, topical, or respiratory, depending on the desired therapeutic effect.

It is important to note that while medicinal plants have been used safely and effectively for centuries, they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Some medicinal plants can interact with prescription medications or have adverse effects if used inappropriately.

Grape seed extract is not a medical term, but I can provide you with a general description and uses based on scientific and medical understanding.

Grape seed extract (GSE) is a dietary supplement derived from the ground-up seeds of grapes. It contains several bioactive compounds, including proanthocyanidins, which are potent antioxidants. GSE has been studied for its potential health benefits, such as:

1. Anti-inflammatory effects: GSE may help reduce inflammation by inhibiting the production of certain inflammatory molecules.
2. Cardiovascular health: Some research suggests that GSE could improve cardiovascular health by reducing blood pressure, increasing blood flow, and preventing platelet aggregation.
3. Antioxidant properties: The high antioxidant content in GSE helps protect cells from damage caused by free radicals.
4. Skin health: Topical application of GSE has been shown to improve skin hydration, elasticity, and reduce the appearance of wrinkles.
5. Neuroprotection: Preclinical studies indicate that GSE may have neuroprotective effects, potentially helping protect against age-related cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's.

However, it is essential to note that while some research shows promising results, more high-quality clinical trials are needed to confirm these potential health benefits and establish appropriate dosages. Always consult a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen.

Echinacea is a type of herb that is native to North America. It is also known as the purple coneflower and is used in herbal medicine for its alleged ability to boost the immune system and help fight off colds and other infections. The active ingredients in echinacea are thought to be compounds called alkylamides, which may have anti-inflammatory and immune-stimulating effects.

There is some evidence to suggest that echinacea may help reduce the duration and severity of colds when taken at the onset of symptoms, but the overall body of research on its effectiveness is mixed. Some studies have found no significant benefit, while others have reported modest reductions in the length and severity of cold symptoms.

Echinacea is generally considered to be safe when used as directed, but it can cause side effects such as stomach upset, headache, and dizziness in some people. It may also interact with certain medications, so it is important to speak with a healthcare provider before taking echinacea if you are taking any prescription drugs or have any underlying health conditions.

Carotenoids are a class of pigments that are naturally occurring in various plants and fruits. They are responsible for the vibrant colors of many vegetables and fruits, such as carrots, pumpkins, tomatoes, and leafy greens. There are over 600 different types of carotenoids, with beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin being some of the most well-known.

Carotenoids have antioxidant properties, which means they can help protect the body's cells from damage caused by free radicals. Some carotenoids, such as beta-carotene, can be converted into vitamin A in the body, which is important for maintaining healthy vision, skin, and immune function. Other carotenoids, such as lycopene and lutein, have been studied for their potential role in preventing chronic diseases, including cancer and heart disease.

In addition to being found in plant-based foods, carotenoids can also be taken as dietary supplements. However, it is generally recommended to obtain nutrients from whole foods rather than supplements whenever possible, as food provides a variety of other beneficial compounds that work together to support health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soybeans" are not a medical term. They are a type of legume that is commonly used in agriculture and food production. The medical community might discuss soybeans in the context of nutrition or allergies, but there isn't a formal medical definition for this term.

Here's some general information: Soybeans, scientifically known as Glycine max, are native to East Asia and are now grown worldwide. They are a significant source of plant-based protein and oil. Soybeans contain various nutrients, including essential amino acids, fiber, B vitamins, and minerals like calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc. They are used in various food products such as tofu, soy milk, tempeh, and miso. Additionally, soybeans are also used in the production of industrial products, including biodiesel, plastics, and inks. Some people may have allergic reactions to soybeans or soy products.

Reference standards in a medical context refer to the established and widely accepted norms or benchmarks used to compare, evaluate, or measure the performance, accuracy, or effectiveness of diagnostic tests, treatments, or procedures. These standards are often based on extensive research, clinical trials, and expert consensus, and they help ensure that healthcare practices meet certain quality and safety thresholds.

For example, in laboratory medicine, reference standards may consist of well-characterized samples with known concentrations of analytes (such as chemicals or biological markers) that are used to calibrate instruments and validate testing methods. In clinical practice, reference standards may take the form of evidence-based guidelines or best practices that define appropriate care for specific conditions or patient populations.

By adhering to these reference standards, healthcare professionals can help minimize variability in test results, reduce errors, improve diagnostic accuracy, and ensure that patients receive consistent, high-quality care.

Zinc is an essential mineral that is vital for the functioning of over 300 enzymes and involved in various biological processes in the human body, including protein synthesis, DNA synthesis, immune function, wound healing, and cell division. It is a component of many proteins and participates in the maintenance of structural integrity and functionality of proteins. Zinc also plays a crucial role in maintaining the sense of taste and smell.

The recommended daily intake of zinc varies depending on age, sex, and life stage. Good dietary sources of zinc include red meat, poultry, seafood, beans, nuts, dairy products, and fortified cereals. Zinc deficiency can lead to various health problems, including impaired immune function, growth retardation, and developmental delays in children. On the other hand, excessive intake of zinc can also have adverse effects on health, such as nausea, vomiting, and impaired immune function.

Fatty acids are carboxylic acids with a long aliphatic chain, which are important components of lipids and are widely distributed in living organisms. They can be classified based on the length of their carbon chain, saturation level (presence or absence of double bonds), and other structural features.

The two main types of fatty acids are:

1. Saturated fatty acids: These have no double bonds in their carbon chain and are typically solid at room temperature. Examples include palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0).
2. Unsaturated fatty acids: These contain one or more double bonds in their carbon chain and can be further classified into monounsaturated (one double bond) and polyunsaturated (two or more double bonds) fatty acids. Examples of unsaturated fatty acids include oleic acid (C18:1, monounsaturated), linoleic acid (C18:2, polyunsaturated), and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3, polyunsaturated).

Fatty acids play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as energy storage, membrane structure, and cell signaling. Some essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources.

Dietary Potassium is a mineral and an essential electrolyte that is required in the human body for various physiological processes. It is primarily obtained through dietary sources. The recommended daily intake of potassium for adults is 4700 milligrams (mg).

Potassium plays a crucial role in maintaining normal blood pressure, heart function, and muscle and nerve activity. It also helps to balance the body's fluids and prevent kidney stones. Foods that are rich in dietary potassium include fruits such as bananas, oranges, and melons; vegetables such as leafy greens, potatoes, and tomatoes; legumes such as beans and lentils; dairy products such as milk and yogurt; and nuts and seeds.

It is important to maintain a balanced intake of dietary potassium, as both deficiency and excess can have negative health consequences. A deficiency in potassium can lead to muscle weakness, fatigue, and heart arrhythmias, while an excess can cause hyperkalemia, which can result in serious cardiac complications.

Chinese herbal drugs, also known as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), refer to a system of medicine that has been practiced in China for thousands of years. It is based on the belief that the body's vital energy, called Qi, must be balanced and flowing freely for good health. TCM uses various techniques such as herbal therapy, acupuncture, dietary therapy, and exercise to restore balance and promote healing.

Chinese herbal drugs are usually prescribed in the form of teas, powders, pills, or tinctures and may contain one or a combination of herbs. The herbs used in Chinese medicine are typically derived from plants, minerals, or animal products. Some commonly used Chinese herbs include ginseng, astragalus, licorice root, and cinnamon bark.

It is important to note that the use of Chinese herbal drugs should be under the guidance of a qualified practitioner, as some herbs can interact with prescription medications or have side effects. Additionally, the quality and safety of Chinese herbal products can vary widely depending on the source and manufacturing process.

Digestion is the complex process of breaking down food into smaller molecules that can be absorbed and utilized by the body for energy, growth, and cell repair. This process involves both mechanical and chemical actions that occur in the digestive system, which includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and accessory organs such as the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder.

The different stages of digestion are:

1. Ingestion: This is the first step in digestion, where food is taken into the mouth.
2. Mechanical digestion: This involves physically breaking down food into smaller pieces through chewing, churning, and mixing with digestive enzymes.
3. Chemical digestion: This involves breaking down food molecules into simpler forms using various enzymes and chemicals produced by the digestive system.
4. Absorption: Once the food is broken down into simple molecules, they are absorbed through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream and transported to different parts of the body.
5. Elimination: The undigested material that remains after absorption is moved through the large intestine and eliminated from the body as feces.

The process of digestion is essential for maintaining good health, as it provides the necessary nutrients and energy required for various bodily functions.

Doping in sports is the use of prohibited substances or methods to improve athletic performance. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) defines doping as "the occurrence of one or more of the following anti-doping rule violations":

1. Presence of a prohibited substance in an athlete's sample
2. Use or attempted use of a prohibited substance or method
3. Evading, refusing, or failing to submit to sample collection
4. Whereabouts failures (three missed tests or filing failures within a 12-month period)
5. Tampering or attempted tampering with any part of the doping control process
6. Possession, trafficking, or administration of a prohibited substance or method
7. Complicity in an anti-doping rule violation
8. Prohibited association with a person who has been serving a period of ineligibility for an anti-doping rule violation

Doping is considered unethical and harmful to the integrity of sports, as it provides an unfair advantage to those who engage in it. It can also have serious health consequences for athletes. Various international and national organizations, including WADA and the United States Anti-Doping Agency (USADA), work to prevent doping in sports through education, testing, and enforcement of anti-doping rules.

'Salvia officinalis', also known as garden sage or common sage, is not a medical condition but an herb that has been used in traditional medicine. Here's the botanical definition:

Salvia officinalis, commonly known as sage, garden sage, or common sage, is a perennial, evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers. It belongs to the Lamiaceae family, also known as the mint family. The plant is native to the Mediterranean region and has been cultivated throughout the world for its aromatic leaves, which are used in cooking, cosmetics, and medicinal preparations.

In traditional medicine, sage leaves have been used to treat various conditions, such as sore throats, coughs, colds, and digestive issues. However, it is essential to note that the effectiveness of sage for these uses has not been thoroughly studied in clinical trials, and its use should not replace conventional medical care. Always consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new treatment or therapy.

Selenium is a trace element that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. According to the medical definitions provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), selenium is a component of several major metabolic pathways, including thyroid hormone metabolism, antioxidant defense systems, and immune function.

Selenium is found in a variety of foods, including nuts (particularly Brazil nuts), cereals, fish, and meat. It exists in several forms, with selenomethionine being the most common form found in food. Other forms include selenocysteine, which is incorporated into proteins, and selenite and selenate, which are inorganic forms of selenium.

The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for selenium is 55 micrograms per day for adults. While selenium deficiency is rare, chronic selenium deficiency can lead to conditions such as Keshan disease, a type of cardiomyopathy, and Kaschin-Beck disease, which affects the bones and joints.

It's important to note that while selenium is essential for health, excessive intake can be harmful. High levels of selenium can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and neurological damage. The tolerable upper intake level (UL) for selenium is 400 micrograms per day for adults.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Oral administration is a route of giving medications or other substances by mouth. This can be in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, pastes, or other forms that can be swallowed. Once ingested, the substance is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream to reach its intended target site in the body. Oral administration is a common and convenient route of medication delivery, but it may not be appropriate for all substances or in certain situations, such as when rapid onset of action is required or when the patient has difficulty swallowing.

Phytoestrogens are compounds found in plants that have estrogen-like properties. They can bind to and activate or inhibit the action of estrogen receptors in the body, depending on their structure and concentration. Phytoestrogens are present in a variety of foods, including soy products, nuts, seeds, fruits, and vegetables.

Phytoestrogens have been studied for their potential health benefits, such as reducing the risk of hormone-dependent cancers (e.g., breast cancer), improving menopausal symptoms, and promoting bone health. However, their effects on human health are complex and not fully understood, and some studies suggest that high intake of phytoestrogens may have adverse effects in certain populations or under specific conditions.

It is important to note that while phytoestrogens can mimic the effects of estrogen in the body, they are generally weaker than endogenous estrogens produced by the human body. Therefore, their impact on hormonal balance and health outcomes may vary depending on individual factors such as age, sex, hormonal status, and overall diet.

"Serenoa" is the medical term for a type of palm tree, also known as Saw Palmetto. The fruit of this plant, Serenoa repens, is commonly used in herbal medicine, particularly for treating symptoms associated with an enlarged prostate gland, such as reducing difficulty in urinating. It contains compounds that are thought to have anti-inflammatory and hormonal effects. However, it's important to note that the effectiveness of Serenoa repbs for treating medical conditions is still a subject of ongoing research and debate.

Orthomolecular therapy is not a widely accepted or recognized medical treatment, and it does not have an official medical definition. However, the term "orthomolecular" was coined by Linus Pauling and refers to the practice of using high doses of vitamins, minerals, amino acids, or other naturally occurring substances to prevent or treat various health conditions. The idea behind orthomolecular therapy is to provide the body with the right molecules in the right concentrations to help it achieve optimal health and functioning.

It's important to note that while some of the nutrients used in orthomolecular therapy may have health benefits when taken in appropriate doses, high doses can also be harmful and may interact with medications or other health conditions. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a qualified healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a type of long-chain omega-3 fatty acid that is essential for human health. It is an important structural component of the phospholipid membranes in the brain and retina, and plays a crucial role in the development and function of the nervous system. DHA is also involved in various physiological processes, including inflammation, blood pressure regulation, and immune response.

DHA is not produced in sufficient quantities by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources or supplements. The richest dietary sources of DHA are fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel, and sardines, as well as algae and other marine organisms. DHA can also be found in fortified foods such as eggs, milk, and juice.

Deficiency in DHA has been linked to various health issues, including cognitive decline, vision problems, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, it is recommended that individuals consume adequate amounts of DHA through diet or supplementation to maintain optimal health.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble secosteroid that is crucial for the regulation of calcium and phosphate levels in the body, which are essential for maintaining healthy bones and teeth. It can be synthesized by the human body when skin is exposed to ultraviolet-B (UVB) rays from sunlight, or it can be obtained through dietary sources such as fatty fish, fortified dairy products, and supplements. There are two major forms of vitamin D: vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol), which is found in some plants and fungi, and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), which is produced in the skin or obtained from animal-derived foods. Both forms need to undergo two hydroxylations in the body to become biologically active as calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3), the hormonally active form of vitamin D. This activated form exerts its effects by binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) found in various tissues, including the small intestine, bone, kidney, and immune cells, thereby influencing numerous physiological processes such as calcium homeostasis, bone metabolism, cell growth, and immune function.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tea" is not a medical term. It generally refers to a hot beverage made by infusing the leaves of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) in hot water. There are various types of tea including black, green, white, oolong, and herbal teas, but these are not medical terms. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I'd be happy to try to help if I can, but it would be helpful if you could provide more context or clarify what you're asking about.

Aconitum, also known as monkshood or wolf's bane, is a genus of extremely poisonous plants belonging to the family Ranunculaceae. These plants are native to the mountainous regions of the Northern Hemisphere, especially in Asia. The name Aconitum comes from the Greek word "akonitos," which is believed to be derived from "akone," meaning "dart" or "pointed stake," referring to the shape of the plant's roots and its use as a poison on weapons.

The plants contain various alkaloids, primarily aconitine, which is responsible for their toxicity. All parts of the plant are considered poisonous, but the roots and seeds contain the highest concentration of aconitine. Ingesting or touching any part of the Aconitum plant can cause severe symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, heart problems, paralysis, and even death if not treated promptly.

In traditional medicine, some species of Aconitum have been used in small, controlled doses to treat various ailments, such as pain, inflammation, and heart conditions. However, due to the high risk of toxicity, these uses are generally discouraged in modern medicine, and safer alternatives are recommended.

Curcuma is a genus of plants in the ginger family, Zingiberaceae. It includes several species of herbaceous perennial plants that are native to tropical Asia. The most well-known and widely used species is Curcuma longa, which is commonly known as turmeric.

Turmeric has been used for centuries in Ayurvedic medicine and traditional Chinese medicine for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and digestive properties. The rhizomes of the plant are harvested, dried, and ground into a powder that is used as a spice, food coloring, and dietary supplement.

The active ingredient in turmeric is curcumin, which has been studied for its potential health benefits in a variety of conditions, including arthritis, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and establish safe and effective dosages.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "life style" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to the way an individual or group lives, including their habits, behaviors, and preferences in areas such as diet, exercise, recreation, and stress management. Some lifestyle factors can have a significant impact on health outcomes and risk for certain diseases. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical meaning.

Garlic (Allium sativum) is not a medical term, but rather a species of plant that belongs to the onion family. It is a widely used culinary ingredient and traditional medicine. The medicinal properties are believed to come from the sulfur-containing compounds, such as allicin, which are formed when garlic is crushed or chopped.

While garlic is not a medical treatment itself, it has been studied for its potential health benefits in various areas, including cardiovascular disease, cancer prevention, and immune function support. However, more research is needed to confirm these effects and establish recommended dosages. It's important to consult with healthcare professionals before starting any new supplement regimen, including garlic.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Dietary sucrose is a type of sugar that is commonly found in the human diet. It is a disaccharide, meaning it is composed of two monosaccharides: glucose and fructose. Sucrose is naturally occurring in many fruits and vegetables, but it is also added to a wide variety of processed foods and beverages as a sweetener.

In the body, sucrose is broken down into its component monosaccharides during digestion, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream and used for energy. While small amounts of sucrose can be part of a healthy diet, consuming large amounts of added sugars, including sucrose, has been linked to a variety of negative health outcomes, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease. Therefore, it is recommended that people limit their intake of added sugars and focus on getting their sugars from whole foods, such as fruits and vegetables.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Performance-enhancing substances (PES) are drugs or medications that are used to improve physical or mental performance, stamina, or recovery. These substances can include anabolic steroids, human growth hormone, stimulants, and other compounds that affect various physiological processes in the body. They are often used by athletes, soldiers, and others looking to gain a competitive edge, but their use can also have serious health consequences and is often prohibited in certain competitions or activities. It's important to note that the use of performance-enhancing substances without a prescription from a licensed medical professional is generally considered unethical and against the rules in most sports organizations.

Alpha-tocopherol is the most active form of vitamin E in humans and is a fat-soluble antioxidant that helps protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. It plays a role in immune function, cell signaling, and metabolic processes. Alpha-tocopherol is found naturally in foods such as nuts, seeds, leafy green vegetables, and vegetable oils, and it is also available as a dietary supplement.

Ganoderma is not a medical term but a genus of fungi that are commonly known as bracket or shelf mushrooms. Some species in this genus, particularly Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma tsugae, have been used in traditional medicine for centuries in Asia. These fungi are often referred to as "Lingzhi" in Chinese medicine and "Reishi" in Japanese medicine. They are believed to have various health benefits, such as boosting the immune system, reducing stress, and improving mental clarity. However, it's important to note that while some studies suggest these mushrooms may have medicinal properties, more research is needed before they can be recommended as a treatment for any specific medical condition.

Medical Definition of Milk Thistle:

Milk thistle, also known as Silybum marianum, is a plant that has been used for medicinal purposes for centuries. It belongs to the Asteraceae family and is native to Mediterranean regions. The active compound in milk thistle is silymarin, which is found in the seeds of the plant. Silymarin is a flavonoid complex that contains several components, including silybin, silydianin, and silychristin.

Milk thistle has been traditionally used for its potential benefits in supporting liver health and function. It is believed to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-fibrotic properties that may help protect the liver from damage caused by toxins, viruses, and free radicals. Some studies suggest that milk thistle may also help improve insulin resistance, reduce cholesterol levels, and support brain health.

However, it is important to note that while some research suggests potential benefits of milk thistle for liver health and other conditions, more high-quality studies are needed to confirm these effects and establish recommended dosages. As with any supplement or medication, milk thistle should be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider.

Flavonoids are a type of plant compounds with antioxidant properties that are beneficial to health. They are found in various fruits, vegetables, grains, and wine. Flavonoids have been studied for their potential to prevent chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer due to their ability to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress.

There are several subclasses of flavonoids, including:

1. Flavanols: Found in tea, chocolate, grapes, and berries. They have been shown to improve blood flow and lower blood pressure.
2. Flavones: Found in parsley, celery, and citrus fruits. They have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.
3. Flavanonols: Found in citrus fruits, onions, and tea. They have been shown to improve blood flow and reduce inflammation.
4. Isoflavones: Found in soybeans and legumes. They have estrogen-like effects and may help prevent hormone-related cancers.
5. Anthocyanidins: Found in berries, grapes, and other fruits. They have antioxidant properties and may help improve vision and memory.

It is important to note that while flavonoids have potential health benefits, they should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment or a healthy lifestyle. It is always best to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen.

A cross-over study is a type of experimental design in which participants receive two or more interventions in a specific order. After a washout period, each participant receives the opposite intervention(s). The primary advantage of this design is that it controls for individual variability by allowing each participant to act as their own control.

In medical research, cross-over studies are often used to compare the efficacy or safety of two treatments. For example, a researcher might conduct a cross-over study to compare the effectiveness of two different medications for treating high blood pressure. Half of the participants would be randomly assigned to receive one medication first and then switch to the other medication after a washout period. The other half of the participants would receive the opposite order of treatments.

Cross-over studies can provide valuable insights into the relative merits of different interventions, but they also have some limitations. For example, they may not be suitable for studying conditions that are chronic or irreversible, as it may not be possible to completely reverse the effects of the first intervention before administering the second one. Additionally, carryover effects from the first intervention can confound the results if they persist into the second treatment period.

Overall, cross-over studies are a useful tool in medical research when used appropriately and with careful consideration of their limitations.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

There is no standard medical definition for "health food" as it can be subjective and may vary. However, health food generally refers to foods that are considered beneficial to one's health due to their high nutritional value or low levels of unhealthy components such as added sugars, saturated fats, and artificial ingredients.

These foods often include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats. Some people may also consider certain fortified or functional foods, such as those with added vitamins, minerals, or other nutrients, to be health foods. However, it's important to note that the term "health food" is not strictly regulated, so claims about the health benefits of certain foods should be evaluated critically and supported by scientific evidence.

Nutrition therapy is a medical treatment that focuses on providing adequate and balanced nutrition to help patients manage various medical conditions, promote recovery, improve overall health, and enhance quality of life. It involves the use of a personalized dietary plan, supplements, and enteral or parenteral nutrition support, as needed, under the guidance of healthcare professionals such as registered dietitians or nutritionists.

The goals of nutrition therapy may include:

1. Meeting nutritional needs and optimizing growth and development in children and adolescents.
2. Preventing or treating malnutrition due to illness, injury, or surgery.
3. Managing chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, kidney disease, liver disease, or gastrointestinal disorders by controlling risk factors, reducing symptoms, and slowing the progression of the condition.
4. Supporting patients during cancer treatment to maintain strength, promote healing, and improve their response to therapy.
5. Providing nutrition support for individuals with eating disorders, food allergies, or intolerances.
6. Enhancing overall health and well-being through education on healthy eating habits and lifestyle modifications.

Nutrition therapy is an essential component of comprehensive healthcare and should be tailored to each individual's unique needs, preferences, and medical history.

Lactation is the process by which milk is produced and secreted from the mammary glands of female mammals, including humans, for the nourishment of their young. This physiological function is initiated during pregnancy and continues until it is deliberately stopped or weaned off. The primary purpose of lactation is to provide essential nutrients, antibodies, and other bioactive components that support the growth, development, and immune system of newborns and infants.

The process of lactation involves several hormonal and physiological changes in a woman's body. During pregnancy, the hormones estrogen and progesterone stimulate the growth and development of the mammary glands. After childbirth, the levels of these hormones drop significantly, allowing another hormone called prolactin to take over. Prolactin is responsible for triggering the production of milk in the alveoli, which are tiny sacs within the breast tissue.

Another hormone, oxytocin, plays a crucial role in the release or "let-down" of milk from the alveoli to the nipple during lactation. This reflex is initiated by suckling or thinking about the baby, which sends signals to the brain to release oxytocin. The released oxytocin then binds to receptors in the mammary glands, causing the smooth muscles around the alveoli to contract and push out the milk through the ducts and into the nipple.

Lactation is a complex and highly regulated process that ensures the optimal growth and development of newborns and infants. It provides not only essential nutrients but also various bioactive components, such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, and growth factors, which protect the infant from infections and support their immune system.

In summary, lactation is the physiological process by which milk is produced and secreted from the mammary glands of female mammals for the nourishment of their young. It involves hormonal changes, including the actions of prolactin, oxytocin, estrogen, and progesterone, to regulate the production, storage, and release of milk.

Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) are the average daily levels of nutrients that are sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97-98%) healthy individuals in a specific life stage and gender group. They are considered as the gold standard for establishing nutrient intake recommendations and are used as a benchmark for planning and assessing the nutrient intakes of individuals and populations. The RDAs are established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in the United States. They represent the minimum daily amounts of various nutrients that are necessary to prevent deficiencies and maintain good health.

Weight loss is a reduction in body weight attributed to loss of fluid, fat, muscle, or bone mass. It can be intentional through dieting and exercise or unintentional due to illness or disease. Unintentional weight loss is often a cause for concern and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan. Rapid or significant weight loss can also have serious health consequences, so it's important to approach any weight loss plan in a healthy and sustainable way.

Mucuna is a genus of tropical leguminous plants, and the term is often used in a medical context to refer to one specific species: Mucuna pruriens. This plant, also known as velvet bean, has been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, including the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

Mucuna pruriens contains high levels of L-dopa, a precursor to dopamine, which is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in regulating movement and mood. As such, Mucuna has been studied as a potential alternative treatment for Parkinson's disease, which is characterized by low levels of dopamine in the brain.

It's worth noting that while some studies have suggested that Mucuna may be effective in reducing symptoms of Parkinson's disease, more research is needed to fully understand its safety and efficacy. Additionally, Mucuna can contain other compounds that may have negative effects, so it should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Quercetin is a type of flavonoid antioxidant that is found in plant foods, including leafy greens, tomatoes, berries, and broccoli. It has been studied for its potential health benefits, such as reducing inflammation, protecting against damage to cells, and helping to reduce the risk of heart disease and cancer. Quercetin is also known for its ability to stabilize mast cells and prevent the release of histamine, making it a popular natural remedy for allergies. It is available in supplement form, but it is always recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

A beverage is a drink intended for human consumption. The term is often used to refer to any drink that is not alcoholic or, in other words, non-alcoholic beverages. This includes drinks such as water, juice, tea, coffee, and soda. However, it can also include alcoholic drinks like beer, wine, and spirits.

In a medical context, beverages are often discussed in relation to their impact on health. For example, sugary drinks like soda and energy drinks have been linked to obesity, diabetes, and other health problems. On the other hand, drinks like water and unsweetened tea can help to keep people hydrated and may have other health benefits.

It's important for individuals to be mindful of their beverage choices and to choose options that are healthy and support their overall well-being. This may involve limiting sugary drinks, choosing water or unsweetened tea instead of soda, and avoiding excessive caffeine intake.

A catechin is a type of plant phenol and antioxidant found in various foods and beverages, such as tea, cocoa, and certain fruits and vegetables. Chemically, catechins are flavan-3-ols, which are a subclass of flavonoids. They have several potential health benefits, including reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Catechins are known to have anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and antidiabetic properties. They can also help improve oral health by inhibiting the growth of harmful bacteria in the mouth. The most well-known catechin is epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which is found in high concentrations in green tea and has been extensively studied for its potential health benefits.

In summary, a catechin is a type of antioxidant compound found in various plant-based foods and beverages that may have several health benefits, including reducing the risk of chronic diseases and improving oral health.

Cholesterol is a type of lipid (fat) molecule that is an essential component of cell membranes and is also used to make certain hormones and vitamins in the body. It is produced by the liver and is also obtained from animal-derived foods such as meat, dairy products, and eggs.

Cholesterol does not mix with blood, so it is transported through the bloodstream by lipoproteins, which are particles made up of both lipids and proteins. There are two main types of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol: low-density lipoproteins (LDL), also known as "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoproteins (HDL), also known as "good" cholesterol.

High levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood can lead to a buildup of cholesterol in the walls of the arteries, increasing the risk of heart disease and stroke. On the other hand, high levels of HDL cholesterol are associated with a lower risk of these conditions because HDL helps remove LDL cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it back to the liver for disposal.

It is important to maintain healthy levels of cholesterol through a balanced diet, regular exercise, and sometimes medication if necessary. Regular screening is also recommended to monitor cholesterol levels and prevent health complications.

A Pharmacist is a healthcare professional who practices in the field of pharmacy, focusing on the safe and effective use of medications. They are responsible for dispensing medications prescribed by physicians and other healthcare providers, as well as providing information and counseling to patients about their medications. This includes explaining how to take the medication, potential side effects, and any drug interactions. Pharmacists may also be involved in medication therapy management, monitoring patient health and adjusting medication plans as needed. They must have a deep understanding of the properties and actions of drugs, including how they are absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted by the body, as well as their potential interactions with other substances and treatments. In addition to a Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) degree, pharmacists must also be licensed in the state where they practice.

Harpagophytum, also known as Devil's Claw, is a plant species native to southern Africa. Its medicinal properties come from the root of the plant. The active components include harpagosides, which have been studied for their potential anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. It has been traditionally used in herbal medicine to treat various conditions such as arthritis, musculoskeletal pain, and digestive disorders. However, its efficacy and safety are not fully established, and it may interact with certain medications or have side effects. Therefore, it is recommended to consult a healthcare professional before using Harpagophytum for medicinal purposes.

Professional education refers to the educational programs and training that prepare individuals to enter a recognized profession. This type of education is typically focused on providing students with the specific knowledge, skills, and abilities required to practice in a particular field, such as medicine, law, engineering, or teaching. Professional education often includes a combination of classroom instruction, practical experience, and examination or assessment to ensure that students have met the necessary standards to enter the profession. It is designed to develop the competencies required for safe and effective practice, and may include ongoing education and training throughout a professional's career to maintain and enhance their skills and knowledge.

Probiotics are defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host." They are often referred to as "good" or "friendly" bacteria because they help keep your gut healthy. Probiotics are naturally found in certain foods such as fermented foods like yogurt, sauerkraut, and some cheeses, or they can be taken as dietary supplements.

The most common groups of probiotics are lactic acid bacteria (like Lactobacillus) and bifidobacteria. They can help restore the balance of bacteria in your gut when it's been disrupted by things like illness, medication (such as antibiotics), or poor diet. Probiotics have been studied for their potential benefits in a variety of health conditions, including digestive issues, skin conditions, and even mental health disorders, although more research is needed to fully understand their effects and optimal uses.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

A skin cream is not a medical term per se, but it generally refers to a topical emollient preparation intended for application to the skin. It contains a mixture of water, oil, and active ingredients, which are formulated to provide various benefits such as moisturizing, protecting, soothing, or treating specific skin conditions. The exact definition and composition may vary depending on the product's intended use and formulation.

Examples of active ingredients in skin creams include:

1. Moisturizers (e.g., glycerin, hyaluronic acid) - help to retain water in the skin, making it feel softer and smoother.
2. Emollients (e.g., shea butter, coconut oil, petrolatum) - provide a protective barrier that helps prevent moisture loss and soften the skin.
3. Humectants (e.g., urea, lactic acid, alpha-hydroxy acids) - attract water from the environment or deeper layers of the skin to hydrate the surface.
4. Anti-inflammatory agents (e.g., hydrocortisone, aloe vera) - help reduce redness, swelling, and itching associated with various skin conditions.
5. Antioxidants (e.g., vitamin C, vitamin E, green tea extract) - protect the skin from free radical damage and environmental stressors that can lead to premature aging.
6. Sunscreen agents (e.g., zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, chemical filters) - provide broad-spectrum protection against UVA and UVB rays.
7. Skin lighteners (e.g., hydroquinone, kojic acid, arbutin) - help reduce the appearance of hyperpigmentation and even out skin tone.
8. Acne treatments (e.g., benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, retinoids) - target acne-causing bacteria, unclog pores, and regulate cell turnover to prevent breakouts.

It is essential to choose a skin cream based on your specific skin type and concerns, as well as any medical conditions or allergies you may have. Always consult with a dermatologist or healthcare provider before starting a new skincare regimen.

Medical Definition of Vitamin A:

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for normal vision, immune function, and cell growth. It is also an antioxidant that helps protect the body's cells from damage caused by free radicals. Vitamin A can be found in two main forms: preformed vitamin A, which is found in animal products such as dairy, fish, and meat, particularly liver; and provitamin A carotenoids, which are found in plant-based foods such as fruits, vegetables, and vegetable oils.

The most active form of vitamin A is retinoic acid, which plays a critical role in the development and maintenance of the heart, lungs, kidneys, and other organs. Vitamin A deficiency can lead to night blindness, dry skin, and increased susceptibility to infections. Chronic vitamin A toxicity can cause nausea, dizziness, headaches, coma, and even death.

Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) is an omega-6 fatty acid that the body derives from linoleic acid, another omega-6 fatty acid. It is found in small amounts in some plant-based oils such as evening primrose oil, borage oil, and black currant seed oil. GLA has been studied for its potential anti-inflammatory effects and has been suggested to help with conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, eczema, and diabetic neuropathy. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential health benefits.

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is a type of omega-3 fatty acid that is found in fish and some algae. It is a 20-carbon long polyunsaturated fatty acid with five double bonds, and has the chemical formula C20:5 n-3. EPA is an essential fatty acid, meaning that it cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through the diet.

EPA is a precursor to a group of hormone-like substances called eicosanoids, which include prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. These compounds play important roles in regulating various physiological processes, such as inflammation, blood clotting, and immune function.

EPA has been studied for its potential health benefits, including reducing inflammation, lowering the risk of heart disease, and improving symptoms of depression. It is often taken as a dietary supplement in the form of fish oil or algal oil. However, it is important to note that while some studies have suggested potential health benefits of EPA, more research is needed to confirm these effects and establish recommended dosages.

Fatty alcohols, also known as long-chain alcohols or long-chain fatty alcohols, are a type of fatty compound that contains a hydroxyl group (-OH) and a long alkyl chain. They are typically derived from natural sources such as plant and animal fats and oils, and can also be synthetically produced.

Fatty alcohols can vary in chain length, typically containing between 8 and 30 carbon atoms. They are commonly used in a variety of industrial and consumer products, including detergents, emulsifiers, lubricants, and personal care products. In the medical field, fatty alcohols may be used as ingredients in certain medications or topical treatments.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Alkaloids are a type of naturally occurring organic compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms. They are often found in plants, and are known for their complex ring structures and diverse pharmacological activities. Many alkaloids have been used in medicine for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and therapeutic properties. Examples of alkaloids include morphine, quinine, nicotine, and caffeine.

A Nutrition Assessment is a systematic and comprehensive evaluation of an individual's nutritional status, which is carried out by healthcare professionals such as registered dietitians or nutritionists. The assessment typically involves collecting and analyzing data related to various factors that influence nutritional health, including:

1. Anthropometric measurements: These include height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and other physical measures that can provide insights into an individual's overall health status and risk of chronic diseases.
2. Dietary intake assessment: This involves evaluating an individual's dietary patterns, food preferences, and eating habits to determine whether they are meeting their nutritional needs through their diet.
3. Biochemical assessments: These include blood tests and other laboratory measures that can provide information about an individual's nutrient status, such as serum levels of vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients.
4. Clinical assessment: This involves reviewing an individual's medical history, current medications, and any symptoms or health conditions that may be impacting their nutritional health.
5. Social and economic assessment: This includes evaluating an individual's access to food, income, education level, and other social determinants of health that can affect their ability to obtain and consume a healthy diet.

The goal of a Nutrition Assessment is to identify any nutritional risks or deficiencies and develop a personalized nutrition plan to address them. This may involve making dietary recommendations, providing education and counseling, or referring the individual to other healthcare professionals for further evaluation and treatment.

Polyphenols are a type of phytochemical, which are naturally occurring compounds found in plant-based foods. They contain multiple phenol units and can be classified into several subgroups, including flavonoids, stilbenes, tannins, and lignans. These compounds have been studied for their potential health benefits due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune-modulating properties. They are found in a wide variety of foods such as fruits, vegetables, tea, wine, chocolate, and cereals.

An ethnic group is a category of people who identify with each other based on shared ancestry, language, culture, history, and/or physical characteristics. The concept of an ethnic group is often used in the social sciences to describe a population that shares a common identity and a sense of belonging to a larger community.

Ethnic groups can be distinguished from racial groups, which are categories of people who are defined by their physical characteristics, such as skin color, hair texture, and facial features. While race is a social construct based on physical differences, ethnicity is a cultural construct based on shared traditions, beliefs, and practices.

It's important to note that the concept of ethnic groups can be complex and fluid, as individuals may identify with multiple ethnic groups or switch their identification over time. Additionally, the boundaries between different ethnic groups can be blurred and contested, and the ways in which people define and categorize themselves and others can vary across cultures and historical periods.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Liquid chromatography (LC) is a type of chromatography technique used to separate, identify, and quantify the components in a mixture. In this method, the sample mixture is dissolved in a liquid solvent (the mobile phase) and then passed through a stationary phase, which can be a solid or a liquid that is held in place by a solid support.

The components of the mixture interact differently with the stationary phase and the mobile phase, causing them to separate as they move through the system. The separated components are then detected and measured using various detection techniques, such as ultraviolet (UV) absorbance or mass spectrometry.

Liquid chromatography is widely used in many areas of science and medicine, including drug development, environmental analysis, food safety testing, and clinical diagnostics. It can be used to separate and analyze a wide range of compounds, from small molecules like drugs and metabolites to large biomolecules like proteins and nucleic acids.

Self-medication is the use of medications or other healthcare products by individuals to treat self-diagnosed disorders or symptoms, without consulting a healthcare professional. This may include using leftover prescription medications, over-the-counter drugs, or alternative therapies. While it might seem convenient and cost-effective, self-medication can lead to incorrect diagnosis, inappropriate treatment, masking of serious conditions, potential drug interactions, dependency, and complications, which may result in further health issues. It is always recommended to seek professional medical advice before starting any medication or therapy.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

In the context of medicine, iron is an essential micromineral and key component of various proteins and enzymes. It plays a crucial role in oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and energy production within the body. Iron exists in two main forms: heme and non-heme. Heme iron is derived from hemoglobin and myoglobin in animal products, while non-heme iron comes from plant sources and supplements.

The recommended daily allowance (RDA) for iron varies depending on age, sex, and life stage:

* For men aged 19-50 years, the RDA is 8 mg/day
* For women aged 19-50 years, the RDA is 18 mg/day
* During pregnancy, the RDA increases to 27 mg/day
* During lactation, the RDA for breastfeeding mothers is 9 mg/day

Iron deficiency can lead to anemia, characterized by fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath. Excessive iron intake may result in iron overload, causing damage to organs such as the liver and heart. Balanced iron levels are essential for maintaining optimal health.

The rumen is the largest compartment of the stomach in ruminant animals, such as cows, goats, and sheep. It is a specialized fermentation chamber where microbes break down tough plant material into nutrients that the animal can absorb and use for energy and growth. The rumen contains billions of microorganisms, including bacteria, protozoa, and fungi, which help to break down cellulose and other complex carbohydrates in the plant material through fermentation.

The rumen is characterized by its large size, muscular walls, and the presence of a thick mat of partially digested food and microbes called the rumen mat or cud. The animal regurgitates the rumen contents periodically to chew it again, which helps to break down the plant material further and mix it with saliva, creating a more favorable environment for fermentation.

The rumen plays an essential role in the digestion and nutrition of ruminant animals, allowing them to thrive on a diet of low-quality plant material that would be difficult for other animals to digest.

A drug interaction is the effect of combining two or more drugs, or a drug and another substance (such as food or alcohol), which can alter the effectiveness or side effects of one or both of the substances. These interactions can be categorized as follows:

1. Pharmacodynamic interactions: These occur when two or more drugs act on the same target organ or receptor, leading to an additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effect. For example, taking a sedative and an antihistamine together can result in increased drowsiness due to their combined depressant effects on the central nervous system.
2. Pharmacokinetic interactions: These occur when one drug affects the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion of another drug. For example, taking certain antibiotics with grapefruit juice can increase the concentration of the antibiotic in the bloodstream, leading to potential toxicity.
3. Food-drug interactions: Some drugs may interact with specific foods, affecting their absorption, metabolism, or excretion. An example is the interaction between warfarin (a blood thinner) and green leafy vegetables, which can increase the risk of bleeding due to enhanced vitamin K absorption from the vegetables.
4. Drug-herb interactions: Some herbal supplements may interact with medications, leading to altered drug levels or increased side effects. For instance, St. John's Wort can decrease the effectiveness of certain antidepressants and oral contraceptives by inducing their metabolism.
5. Drug-alcohol interactions: Alcohol can interact with various medications, causing additive sedative effects, impaired judgment, or increased risk of liver damage. For example, combining alcohol with benzodiazepines or opioids can lead to dangerous levels of sedation and respiratory depression.

It is essential for healthcare providers and patients to be aware of potential drug interactions to minimize adverse effects and optimize treatment outcomes.

The term "cacao" refers to the plant Theobroma cacao, which is native to tropical regions of Central and South America. It is a small evergreen tree that produces large, football-shaped fruits called pods. Each pod contains 20-60 seeds, also known as beans, which are used to make cocoa powder and chocolate.

Cacao beans contain several bioactive compounds, including flavonoids, theobromine, and caffeine, that have been shown to have potential health benefits. However, it is important to note that these benefits are typically associated with moderate consumption of cocoa products, rather than large amounts of chocolate or cacao beans themselves.

In summary, while "cacao" may be used interchangeably with "cocoa" in some contexts, the term technically refers to the plant and its seeds, rather than the processed powder or chocolate that is derived from them.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Flavonols are a type of flavonoid, which is a class of plant and fungal metabolites. They are characterized by the presence of a 3-hydroxyflavone skeleton. Flavonols are found in a variety of plants and are known for their antioxidant properties. Some common dietary sources of flavonols include onions, kale, broccoli, apples, tea, and red wine. They have been studied for their potential health benefits, including reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Flavonols are also known to have anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and antimicrobial properties.

Sulfadiazine is an antibacterial drug, specifically a sulfonamide. It is chemically described as 4-amino-N-(2-pyrimidinyl)benzenesulfonamide. Sulfadiazine works by inhibiting the bacterial synthesis of dihydrofolic acid, which is essential for bacterial growth and reproduction.

It is used to treat a wide range of infections caused by susceptible bacteria, including urinary tract infections, respiratory infections, and certain types of meningitis. Sulfadiazine is often combined with other antibiotics, such as trimethoprim, to increase its effectiveness against certain bacteria.

Like all sulfonamides, sulfadiazine can cause side effects, including skin rashes, allergic reactions, and stomach upset. It should be used with caution in people who are allergic to sulfa drugs or have kidney or liver disease. Additionally, it is important to note that the use of sulfonamides during pregnancy, especially during the third trimester, should be avoided due to the risk of kernicterus in the newborn.

'Citrus' is a genus of flowering plants in the rue family, Rutaceae. It includes several species of shrubs and trees that produce fruits known as citrus fruits. Some common examples of citrus fruits are oranges, lemons, limes, grapefruits, and pomelos. These fruits are popular for their juicy pulp and fragrant zest, which are used in a wide variety of culinary applications around the world.

Citrus fruits are also known for their high vitamin C content and other health benefits. They contain various bioactive compounds such as flavonoids and carotenoids, which have antioxidant properties and may help protect against chronic diseases like cancer and cardiovascular disease. Additionally, citrus fruits are a good source of dietary fiber, which can aid in digestion and help regulate blood sugar levels.

In medical terms, citrus fruits may be recommended as part of a healthy diet to help prevent nutrient deficiencies and promote overall health. However, it's important to note that some people may have allergies or sensitivities to citrus fruits, which can cause symptoms like mouth irritation, hives, or anaphylaxis in severe cases. Additionally, citrus fruits can interact with certain medications, so it's always a good idea to consult with a healthcare provider before making any significant changes to your diet.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Financial Management" is not a medical term. Financial management refers to the process of managing the financial resources, such as budgeting, investing, raising funds, and planning for an organization or individual. It involves the application of management principles to the financial functions of an organization.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those!

In the context of medical terminology, tablets refer to pharmaceutical dosage forms that contain various active ingredients. They are often manufactured in a solid, compressed form and can be administered orally. Tablets may come in different shapes, sizes, colors, and flavors, depending on their intended use and the manufacturer's specifications.

Some tablets are designed to disintegrate or dissolve quickly in the mouth, making them easier to swallow, while others are formulated to release their active ingredients slowly over time, allowing for extended drug delivery. These types of tablets are known as sustained-release or controlled-release tablets.

Tablets may contain a single active ingredient or a combination of several ingredients, depending on the intended therapeutic effect. They are typically manufactured using a variety of excipients, such as binders, fillers, and disintegrants, which help to hold the tablet together and ensure that it breaks down properly when ingested.

Overall, tablets are a convenient and widely used dosage form for administering medications, offering patients an easy-to-use and often palatable option for receiving their prescribed treatments.

Obesity is a complex disease characterized by an excess accumulation of body fat to the extent that it negatively impacts health. It's typically defined using Body Mass Index (BMI), a measure calculated from a person's weight and height. A BMI of 30 or higher is indicative of obesity. However, it's important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying obesity in populations, it does not directly measure body fat and may not accurately reflect health status in individuals. Other factors such as waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood sugar levels should also be considered when assessing health risks associated with weight.

"Pueraria" is a genus of plants in the legume family, Fabaceae. The most commonly known species is Pueraria lobata, also called kudzu or Japanese arrowroot. This plant is native to East Asia and has been used in traditional medicine for various purposes such as treating alcoholism, fever, and inflammation.

In a medical context, "Pueraria" may refer to the use of extracts from this plant in dietary supplements or alternative medicine practices. Some studies have suggested that certain compounds found in Pueraria, such as isoflavones, may have potential health benefits, but more research is needed to confirm these effects and establish safe and effective dosages.

It's important to note that while some natural products containing Pueraria extracts may be marketed for various health purposes, they should not be used as a substitute for conventional medical care or treatment. It's always best to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are a group of chemicals found in the fatty acid family known as omega-6 fatty acids. They are called "conjugated" because of the particular arrangement of double bonds in their chemical structure. CLAs are primarily found in meat and dairy products from ruminant animals, such as cows, goats, and sheep. They have been studied for their potential health benefits, including weight loss promotion, cancer prevention, and immune system enhancement. However, more research is needed to confirm these effects and establish safe and effective dosages.

Intestinal absorption refers to the process by which the small intestine absorbs water, nutrients, and electrolytes from food into the bloodstream. This is a critical part of the digestive process, allowing the body to utilize the nutrients it needs and eliminate waste products. The inner wall of the small intestine contains tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase the surface area for absorption. Nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the capillaries in these villi, and then transported to other parts of the body for use or storage.

Nitrogen is not typically referred to as a medical term, but it is an element that is crucial to medicine and human life.

In a medical context, nitrogen is often mentioned in relation to gas analysis, respiratory therapy, or medical gases. Nitrogen (N) is a colorless, odorless, and nonreactive gas that makes up about 78% of the Earth's atmosphere. It is an essential element for various biological processes, such as the growth and maintenance of organisms, because it is a key component of amino acids, nucleic acids, and other organic compounds.

In some medical applications, nitrogen is used to displace oxygen in a mixture to create a controlled environment with reduced oxygen levels (hypoxic conditions) for therapeutic purposes, such as in certain types of hyperbaric chambers. Additionally, nitrogen gas is sometimes used in cryotherapy, where extremely low temperatures are applied to tissues to reduce pain, swelling, and inflammation.

However, it's important to note that breathing pure nitrogen can be dangerous, as it can lead to unconsciousness and even death due to lack of oxygen (asphyxiation) within minutes.

In a medical context, "meat" generally refers to the flesh of animals that is consumed as food. This includes muscle tissue, as well as fat and other tissues that are often found in meat products. However, it's worth noting that some people may have dietary restrictions or medical conditions that prevent them from consuming meat, so it's always important to consider individual preferences and needs when discussing food options.

It's also worth noting that the consumption of meat can have both positive and negative health effects. On the one hand, meat is a good source of protein, iron, vitamin B12, and other essential nutrients. On the other hand, consuming large amounts of red and processed meats has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and certain types of cancer. Therefore, it's generally recommended to consume meat in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, and they're found in the food we eat. They're carried in the bloodstream to provide energy to the cells in our body. High levels of triglycerides in the blood can increase the risk of heart disease, especially in combination with other risk factors such as high LDL (bad) cholesterol, low HDL (good) cholesterol, and high blood pressure.

It's important to note that while triglycerides are a type of fat, they should not be confused with cholesterol, which is a waxy substance found in the cells of our body. Both triglycerides and cholesterol are important for maintaining good health, but high levels of either can increase the risk of heart disease.

Triglyceride levels are measured through a blood test called a lipid panel or lipid profile. A normal triglyceride level is less than 150 mg/dL. Borderline-high levels range from 150 to 199 mg/dL, high levels range from 200 to 499 mg/dL, and very high levels are 500 mg/dL or higher.

Elevated triglycerides can be caused by various factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypothyroidism, and kidney disease. Medications such as beta-blockers, steroids, and diuretics can also raise triglyceride levels.

Lifestyle changes such as losing weight, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet low in saturated and trans fats, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, and quitting smoking can help lower triglyceride levels. In some cases, medication may be necessary to reduce triglycerides to recommended levels.

Nutritive value is a term used to describe the amount and kind of nutrients, such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water, that a food provides. It refers to the ability of a food to supply the necessary components for growth, repair, maintenance, and energy in the body. The nutritive value of a food is usually expressed in terms of its content of these various nutrients per 100 grams or per serving. Foods with high nutritive value are those that provide a significant amount of essential nutrients in relation to their calorie content.

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique used to identify and quantify the chemical components of a mixture or compound. It works by ionizing the sample, generating charged molecules or fragments, and then measuring their mass-to-charge ratio in a vacuum. The resulting mass spectrum provides information about the molecular weight and structure of the analytes, allowing for identification and characterization.

In simpler terms, mass spectrometry is a method used to determine what chemicals are present in a sample and in what quantities, by converting the chemicals into ions, measuring their masses, and generating a spectrum that shows the relative abundances of each ion type.

Energy metabolism is the process by which living organisms produce and consume energy to maintain life. It involves a series of chemical reactions that convert nutrients from food, such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

The process of energy metabolism can be divided into two main categories: catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism is the breakdown of nutrients to release energy, while anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones using energy.

There are three main stages of energy metabolism: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and involves the breakdown of glucose into pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The citric acid cycle takes place in the mitochondria and involves the further breakdown of pyruvate to produce more ATP, NADH, and carbon dioxide. Oxidative phosphorylation is the final stage of energy metabolism and occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It involves the transfer of electrons from NADH and other electron carriers to oxygen, which generates a proton gradient across the membrane. This gradient drives the synthesis of ATP, producing the majority of the cell's energy.

Overall, energy metabolism is a complex and essential process that allows organisms to grow, reproduce, and maintain their bodily functions. Disruptions in energy metabolism can lead to various diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders.

'Commiphora' is a genus of shrubs and trees in the family Burseraceae, commonly known as myrrh trees. They are native to dry regions of Africa and Arabia. The bark and resin of several species have been used traditionally for medicinal purposes, such as treating wounds, skin infections, and digestive disorders. Myrrh oil is also used in aromatherapy and as a flavoring agent in foods and beverages. Some studies suggest that myrrh extracts may have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties, but more research is needed to confirm these effects and determine their safety and efficacy.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hawaii" is not a medical term. It is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, located in the Central Pacific. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those!

I'm happy to help, but it seems there might be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Nurses" is not a medical term per se, but rather a job title or professional role within the healthcare field. Here's a brief description of what nurses do:

Nurses are healthcare professionals who work closely with patients to provide and coordinate care, education, and support. They play a critical role in promoting health, preventing illness, and helping patients cope with various medical conditions. Nurses can be found in various settings such as hospitals, clinics, private practices, long-term care facilities, community health centers, and patient homes.

There are different nursing specialties and levels of education, including:

1. Registered Nurse (RN): Typically holds an associate's or bachelor's degree in nursing and has passed a licensing exam. RNs provide direct patient care, administer medications, and coordinate treatment plans.
2. Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN): Has completed additional education and training beyond the RN level, often earning a master's or doctoral degree. APRNs can specialize in areas such as nurse practitioner, clinical nurse specialist, certified registered nurse anesthetist, or certified nurse-midwife.
3. Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) or Licensed Vocational Nurse (LVN): Holds a diploma or certificate from a practical nursing program and has passed a licensing exam. LPNs/LVNs provide basic patient care under the supervision of RNs and physicians.

These definitions are not exhaustive, but they should give you an idea of what nurses do and their roles within the healthcare system.

In the context of medicine and medical devices, calibration refers to the process of checking, adjusting, or confirming the accuracy of a measurement instrument or system. This is typically done by comparing the measurements taken by the device being calibrated to those taken by a reference standard of known accuracy. The goal of calibration is to ensure that the medical device is providing accurate and reliable measurements, which is critical for making proper diagnoses and delivering effective treatment. Regular calibration is an important part of quality assurance and helps to maintain the overall performance and safety of medical devices.

Kaempferol is not a medical term, but a chemical compound. It is a type of flavonoid, a class of plant pigments that are known for their antioxidant properties. Kaempferol can be found in various plants and foods such as tea, broccoli, kale, spinach, grapes, and some types of berries.

Medically, kaempferol has been studied for its potential health benefits due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. However, more research is needed to confirm these effects and determine the appropriate dosages for medical use. It's important to note that consuming foods rich in kaempferol as part of a balanced diet is generally considered safe and beneficial for health.

Anticarcinogenic agents are substances that prevent, inhibit or reduce the development of cancer. They can be natural or synthetic compounds that interfere with the process of carcinogenesis at various stages, such as initiation, promotion, and progression. Anticarcinogenic agents may work by preventing DNA damage, promoting DNA repair, reducing inflammation, inhibiting cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death), or modulating immune responses.

Examples of anticarcinogenic agents include chemopreventive agents, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and retinoids; phytochemicals found in fruits, vegetables, and other plant-based foods; and medications used to treat cancer, such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and targeted therapies.

It is important to note that while some anticarcinogenic agents have been shown to be effective in preventing or reducing the risk of certain types of cancer, they may also have potential side effects and risks. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before using any anticarcinogenic agent for cancer prevention or treatment purposes.

Athletic performance refers to the physical and mental capabilities and skills displayed by an athlete during training or competition. It is a measure of an individual's ability to perform in a particular sport or activity, and can encompass various factors such as strength, power, endurance, speed, agility, coordination, flexibility, mental toughness, and technique.

Athletic performance can be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, training, nutrition, recovery, lifestyle habits, and environmental conditions. Athletes often engage in rigorous training programs to improve their physical and mental abilities, with the goal of enhancing their overall athletic performance. Additionally, sports scientists and coaches use various methods and technologies to assess and analyze athletic performance, such as timing systems, motion analysis, and physiological testing, to help optimize training and competition strategies.

Genistein is defined as a type of isoflavone, which is a plant-derived compound with estrogen-like properties. It is found in soybeans and other legumes. Genistein acts as a phytoestrogen, meaning it can bind to estrogen receptors and have both weak estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects in the body.

In addition to its estrogenic activity, genistein has been found to have various biological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. It has been studied for its potential role in preventing or treating a variety of health conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and menopausal symptoms. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of genistein supplementation.

Vitamin B Complex refers to a group of water-soluble vitamins that play essential roles in cell metabolism, cellular function, and formation of red blood cells. This complex includes 8 distinct vitamins, all of which were originally thought to be the same vitamin when first discovered. They are now known to have individual structures and specific functions.

1. Vitamin B1 (Thiamin): Necessary for energy production and nerve function.
2. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin): Involved in energy production and growth.
3. Vitamin B3 (Niacin): Assists in energy production, DNA repair, and acts as a co-factor for various enzymes.
4. Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid): Plays a role in the synthesis of Coenzyme A, which is vital for fatty acid metabolism.
5. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine): Needed for protein metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis, hemoglobin formation, and immune function.
6. Vitamin B7 (Biotin): Involved in fatty acid synthesis, glucose metabolism, and nail and hair health.
7. Vitamin B9 (Folate or Folic Acid): Essential for DNA replication, cell division, and the production of red blood cells.
8. Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin): Necessary for nerve function, DNA synthesis, and the production of red blood cells.

These vitamins are often found together in various foods, and a balanced diet usually provides sufficient amounts of each. Deficiencies can lead to specific health issues related to the functions of each particular vitamin.

Safety-based drug withdrawals refer to the removal of a medication from the market due to concerns about its safety profile. This action is typically taken by regulatory authorities, such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), when new information emerges that suggests a drug may pose an unacceptable risk of harm to patients, even if the benefit-risk balance was previously considered favorable.

Safety-based drug withdrawals can occur for various reasons, including the identification of new adverse effects, interactions with other medications or medical conditions, or an increased understanding of the drug's pharmacology or toxicology. In some cases, safety-based drug withdrawals may be temporary, allowing the manufacturer to conduct further studies and address the safety concerns. However, in other instances, the withdrawal may be permanent, leading to the discontinuation of the drug's production and distribution.

It is important to note that safety-based drug withdrawals are rare and typically represent a small fraction of the drugs approved for use. Nevertheless, they serve as an essential mechanism for protecting public health and ensuring that medications on the market are safe and effective for their intended use.

Glucosamine is a natural compound found in the body, primarily in the fluid around joints. It is a building block of cartilage, which is the tissue that cushions bones and allows for smooth joint movement. Glucosamine can also be produced in a laboratory and is commonly sold as a dietary supplement.

Medical definitions of glucosamine describe it as a type of amino sugar that plays a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of cartilage, ligaments, tendons, and other connective tissues. It is often used as a supplement to help manage osteoarthritis symptoms, such as pain, stiffness, and swelling in the joints, by potentially reducing inflammation and promoting cartilage repair.

There are different forms of glucosamine available, including glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, and N-acetyl glucosamine. Glucosamine sulfate is the most commonly used form in supplements and has been studied more extensively than other forms. While some research suggests that glucosamine may provide modest benefits for osteoarthritis symptoms, its effectiveness remains a topic of ongoing debate among medical professionals.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet (UV-Vis) is a type of spectrophotometry that measures how much ultraviolet (UV) and visible light is absorbed or transmitted by a sample. It uses a device called a spectrophotometer to measure the intensity of light at different wavelengths as it passes through a sample. The resulting data can be used to determine the concentration of specific components within the sample, identify unknown substances, or evaluate the physical and chemical properties of materials.

UV-Vis spectroscopy is widely used in various fields such as chemistry, biology, pharmaceuticals, and environmental science. It can detect a wide range of substances including organic compounds, metal ions, proteins, nucleic acids, and dyes. The technique is non-destructive, meaning that the sample remains unchanged after the measurement.

In UV-Vis spectroscopy, the sample is placed in a cuvette or other container, and light from a source is directed through it. The light then passes through a monochromator, which separates it into its component wavelengths. The monochromatic light is then directed through the sample, and the intensity of the transmitted or absorbed light is measured by a detector.

The resulting absorption spectrum can provide information about the concentration and identity of the components in the sample. For example, if a compound has a known absorption maximum at a specific wavelength, its concentration can be determined by measuring the absorbance at that wavelength and comparing it to a standard curve.

Overall, UV-Vis spectrophotometry is a versatile and powerful analytical technique for quantitative and qualitative analysis of various samples in different fields.

Thioctic acid is also known as alpha-lipoic acid. It is a vitamin-like chemical compound that is made naturally in the body and is found in small amounts in some foods like spinach, broccoli, and potatoes. Thioctic acid is an antioxidant that helps to protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. It also plays a role in energy production in the cells and has been studied for its potential benefits in the treatment of diabetes and nerve-related symptoms of diabetes such as pain, burning, itching, and numbness. Thioctic acid is available as a dietary supplement.

Medical Definition: Thioctic acid (also known as alpha-lipoic acid) is a vitamin-like antioxidant that is made naturally in the body and is found in small amounts in some foods. It plays a role in energy production in the cells, and has been studied for its potential benefits in the treatment of diabetes and nerve-related symptoms of diabetes such as pain, burning, itching, and numbness. Thioctic acid is also available as a dietary supplement.

Phytosterols are a type of plant-derived sterol that have a similar structure to cholesterol, a compound found in animal products. They are found in small quantities in many fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, legumes, and vegetable oils. Phytosterols are known to help lower cholesterol levels by reducing the absorption of dietary cholesterol in the digestive system.

In medical terms, phytosterols are often referred to as "plant sterols" or "phytostanols." They have been shown to have a modest but significant impact on lowering LDL (or "bad") cholesterol levels when consumed in sufficient quantities, typically in the range of 2-3 grams per day. As a result, foods fortified with phytosterols are sometimes recommended as part of a heart-healthy diet for individuals with high cholesterol or a family history of cardiovascular disease.

It's worth noting that while phytosterols have been shown to be safe and effective in reducing cholesterol levels, they should not be used as a substitute for other lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, smoking cessation, and weight management. Additionally, individuals with sitosterolemia, a rare genetic disorder characterized by an abnormal accumulation of plant sterols in the body, should avoid consuming foods fortified with phytosterols.

Demography is the statistical study of populations, particularly in terms of size, distribution, and characteristics such as age, race, gender, and occupation. In medical contexts, demography is often used to analyze health-related data and trends within specific populations. This can include studying the prevalence of certain diseases or conditions, identifying disparities in healthcare access and outcomes, and evaluating the effectiveness of public health interventions. Demographic data can also be used to inform policy decisions and allocate resources to address population health needs.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

Cyclobutanes are a class of organic compounds that contain a four-membered carbon ring. The carbons in this ring are bonded to each other in a cyclic arrangement, forming a square-like structure. These compounds can be found naturally or synthesized in the laboratory and play important roles in various chemical reactions and biological processes.

Cyclobutanes are relatively uncommon in nature due to the strain associated with having four carbons in a small ring. This strain makes the molecules more reactive, which can lead to interesting chemical properties. For example, cyclobutanes can undergo ring-opening reactions when exposed to heat or light, leading to the formation of new chemical bonds and the release of energy.

In biology, cyclobutane rings are found in certain types of DNA damage, such as those caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. These damages can lead to mutations and may contribute to the development of skin cancer. However, cells have mechanisms for repairing this type of DNA damage, helping to prevent these negative outcomes.

Overall, while cyclobutanes are relatively simple molecules, they have important implications in chemistry and biology, making them a fascinating area of study.

Unsaturated fatty acids are a type of fatty acid that contain one or more double bonds in their carbon chain. These double bonds can be either cis or trans configurations, although the cis configuration is more common in nature. The presence of these double bonds makes unsaturated fatty acids more liquid at room temperature and less prone to spoilage than saturated fatty acids, which do not have any double bonds.

Unsaturated fatty acids can be further classified into two main categories: monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). MUFAs contain one double bond in their carbon chain, while PUFAs contain two or more.

Examples of unsaturated fatty acids include oleic acid (a MUFA found in olive oil), linoleic acid (a PUFA found in vegetable oils), and alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 PUFA found in flaxseed and fish). Unsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for the human body, as they play important roles in various physiological processes such as membrane structure, inflammation, and blood clotting. It is recommended to consume a balanced diet that includes both MUFAs and PUFAs to maintain good health.

Dermatology is a medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases and conditions related to the skin, hair, nails, and mucous membranes. A dermatologist is a medical doctor who has completed specialized training in this field. They are qualified to treat a wide range of skin conditions, including acne, eczema, psoriasis, skin cancer, and many others. Dermatologists may also perform cosmetic procedures to improve the appearance of the skin or to treat signs of aging.

Aging is a complex, progressive and inevitable process of bodily changes over time, characterized by the accumulation of cellular damage and degenerative changes that eventually lead to increased vulnerability to disease and death. It involves various biological, genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that contribute to the decline in physical and mental functions. The medical field studies aging through the discipline of gerontology, which aims to understand the underlying mechanisms of aging and develop interventions to promote healthy aging and extend the human healthspan.

"Camellia" is a botanical term that refers to a genus of evergreen shrubs and trees in the family Theaceae. There are over 250 species of Camellias, which are native to Asia, primarily China and Japan. Many Camellia species are cultivated for their attractive flowers, and some are used for their oil-rich seeds.

The most well-known species is Camellia sinensis, which is the source of tea leaves used to make black, green, and oolong teas. The caffeine content in these teas comes from xanthines found in the leaves of this plant.

Camellias are not typically associated with medical definitions or uses, but some research suggests that compounds found in Camellia sinensis may have potential health benefits, such as reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. However, more research is needed to confirm these findings and establish safe and effective dosages.

Medically, "milk" is not defined. However, it is important to note that human babies are fed with breast milk, which is the secretion from the mammary glands of humans. It is rich in nutrients like proteins, fats, carbohydrates (lactose), vitamins and minerals that are essential for growth and development.

Other mammals also produce milk to feed their young. These include cows, goats, and sheep, among others. Their milk is often consumed by humans as a source of nutrition, especially in dairy products. However, the composition of these milks can vary significantly from human breast milk.

"Sex distribution" is a term used to describe the number of males and females in a study population or sample. It can be presented as a simple count, a percentage, or a ratio. This information is often used in research to identify any differences in health outcomes, disease prevalence, or response to treatment between males and females. Additionally, understanding sex distribution can help researchers ensure that their studies are representative of the general population and can inform the design of future studies.

Integrative Medicine (IM) is a comprehensive, whole-person approach to healthcare that combines conventional medicine with evidence-based complementary and alternative therapies. The goal of IM is to achieve optimal health and healing by addressing the physical, emotional, mental, social, and spiritual aspects of an individual's life.

The principles of Integrative Medicine include:

1. Patient-centered care: Treating each patient as a unique individual and considering their personal needs, values, and preferences in the treatment plan.
2. Collaboration: Working together with patients, families, and other healthcare providers to create a coordinated and comprehensive care plan.
3. Evidence-informed practice: Using the best available evidence from both conventional and complementary medicine to inform clinical decision making.
4. Incorporation of lifestyle modifications: Encouraging patients to make lifestyle changes that promote health and wellness, such as diet, exercise, stress management, and sleep hygiene.
5. Use of both conventional and complementary therapies: Utilizing a range of treatments, including pharmaceuticals, surgery, acupuncture, herbs, nutrition, and mind-body techniques, to address the root causes of illness and promote healing.
6. Attention to all aspects of health: Addressing physical, emotional, mental, social, and spiritual factors that contribute to health and wellness.
7. Focus on prevention and wellness: Emphasizing the importance of preventing illness and promoting overall health and well-being.
8. Continuous learning and improvement: Staying up-to-date with the latest research and best practices in both conventional and complementary medicine, and using this knowledge to improve patient care.

Silymarin is not a medical term itself, but it's the active compound found in the milk thistle plant (Silybum marianum). Medically, silymarin is often referred to as a standardized extract from the seeds of the milk thistle plant. It is a complex mixture of flavonolignans, mainly consisting of silybin, isosilybin, silychristin, and silydianin.

Silymarin has been reported to have various biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective effects. It is commonly used in complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of liver diseases such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, and toxic liver damage due to alcohol or drug abuse. However, its clinical efficacy remains a subject of ongoing research and debate among medical professionals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Molasses" is not a medical term. It is a byproduct of the sugar refining process. Specifically, it is a thick, dark brown liquid that is left over after the sugar crystals have been removed from sugarcane or sugar beet juice. It contains significant amounts of sugar, as well as various nutrients like calcium, magnesium, and potassium. While it may be used in some folk remedies, it's not a term used in medical terminology.

Oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (free radicals) and the body's ability to detoxify them or repair the damage they cause. This imbalance can lead to cellular damage, oxidation of proteins, lipids, and DNA, disruption of cellular functions, and activation of inflammatory responses. Prolonged or excessive oxidative stress has been linked to various health conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and aging-related diseases.

A food-drug interaction is a reaction that occurs when the pharmacological effects of a drug are altered by concurrently consuming a certain food or beverage. This interaction can result in an enhanced or reduced drug effect, and it may change the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion of the drug.

Some food-drug interactions can lead to increased side effects, decreased effectiveness of the medication, or even toxicity. For example, consuming grapefruit juice with certain medications such as statins, calcium channel blockers, and benzodiazepines can increase their blood levels and result in adverse reactions.

It is essential to be aware of potential food-drug interactions and follow the recommended guidelines for medication use, including any specific dietary restrictions or recommendations provided by healthcare professionals.

Picolinic acid is not specifically classified as a medical term, but it is a type of organic compound that belongs to the class of molecules known as pyridinecarboxylic acids. These are carboxylic acids derived from pyridine by the substitution of a hydrogen atom with a carboxyl group.

Picolinic acid, specifically, is a pyridine derivative with a carboxyl group at the 2-position of the ring. It is naturally produced in the body and can be found in various tissues and fluids, including the brain, where it plays a role in the metabolism of amino acids, particularly tryptophan.

In addition to its physiological functions, picolinic acid has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications. For example, it has been shown to have antibacterial and antifungal properties, and may also play a role in heavy metal chelation and neuroprotection. However, more research is needed to fully understand the medical significance of this compound.

A "Pharmacy Service, Hospital" is a health care service that provides for the careful compounding, dispensing, and distribution of medications and pharmaceutical devices within a hospital or healthcare facility. It is typically staffed by licensed pharmacists and pharmacy technicians who work collaboratively with other healthcare professionals to ensure the safe and effective use of medications for patients.

The hospital pharmacy service is responsible for managing the medication use process, including the acquisition, storage, preparation, dispensing, administration, and monitoring of medications. This includes ensuring that medications are properly labeled, stored, and distributed to patients in a timely manner, as well as providing education and counseling to patients on the safe and effective use of their medications.

The hospital pharmacy service may also provide specialized services such as sterile product preparation, investigational drug services, medication therapy management, and pharmacokinetic dosing services. These services are designed to optimize medication therapy, improve patient outcomes, reduce medication errors, and minimize the risk of adverse drug events.

Overall, the hospital pharmacy service plays a critical role in ensuring the safe and effective use of medications in the hospital setting, and contributes to the overall quality and safety of patient care.

Poaceae is not a medical term but a taxonomic category, specifically the family name for grasses. In a broader sense, you might be asking for a medical context where knowledge of this plant family could be relevant. For instance, certain members of the Poaceae family can cause allergies or negative reactions in some people.

In a medical definition, Poaceae would be defined as:

The family of monocotyledonous plants that includes grasses, bamboo, and sedges. These plants are characterized by narrow leaves with parallel veins, jointed stems (called "nodes" and "internodes"), and flowers arranged in spikelets. Some members of this family are important food sources for humans and animals, such as rice, wheat, corn, barley, oats, and sorghum. Other members can cause negative reactions, like skin irritation or allergies, due to their silica-based defense structures called phytoliths.

Lipids are a broad group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. They include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Lipids serve many important functions in the body, including energy storage, acting as structural components of cell membranes, and serving as signaling molecules. High levels of certain lipids, particularly cholesterol and triglycerides, in the blood are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Ubiquinone, also known as coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), is a lipid-soluble benzoquinone that plays a crucial role in the mitochondrial electron transport chain as an essential component of Complexes I, II, and III. It functions as an electron carrier, assisting in the transfer of electrons from reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2) to molecular oxygen during oxidative phosphorylation, thereby contributing to the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the primary energy currency of the cell.

Additionally, ubiquinone acts as a potent antioxidant in both membranes and lipoproteins, protecting against lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage to proteins and DNA. Its antioxidant properties stem from its ability to donate electrons and regenerate other antioxidants like vitamin E. Ubiquinone is synthesized endogenously in all human cells, with the highest concentrations found in tissues with high energy demands, such as the heart, liver, kidneys, and skeletal muscles.

Deficiency in ubiquinone can result from genetic disorders, aging, or certain medications (such as statins), leading to impaired mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress. Supplementation with ubiquinone has been explored as a potential therapeutic strategy for various conditions associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer.

"Quality control" is a term that is used in many industries, including healthcare and medicine, to describe the systematic process of ensuring that products or services meet certain standards and regulations. In the context of healthcare, quality control often refers to the measures taken to ensure that the care provided to patients is safe, effective, and consistent. This can include processes such as:

1. Implementing standardized protocols and guidelines for care
2. Training and educating staff to follow these protocols
3. Regularly monitoring and evaluating the outcomes of care
4. Making improvements to processes and systems based on data and feedback
5. Ensuring that equipment and supplies are maintained and functioning properly
6. Implementing systems for reporting and addressing safety concerns or errors.

The goal of quality control in healthcare is to provide high-quality, patient-centered care that meets the needs and expectations of patients, while also protecting their safety and well-being.

Phenols, also known as phenolic acids or phenol derivatives, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon ring. In the context of medicine and biology, phenols are often referred to as a type of antioxidant that can be found in various foods and plants.

Phenols have the ability to neutralize free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can cause damage to cells and contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. Some common examples of phenolic compounds include gallic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and ellagic acid, among many others.

Phenols can also have various pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and analgesic effects. However, some phenolic compounds can also be toxic or irritating to the body in high concentrations, so their use as therapeutic agents must be carefully monitored and controlled.

Prescription drugs are medications that are only available to patients with a valid prescription from a licensed healthcare professional, such as a doctor or nurse practitioner. These drugs cannot be legally obtained over-the-counter and require a prescription due to their potential for misuse, abuse, or serious side effects. They are typically used to treat complex medical conditions, manage symptoms of chronic illnesses, or provide necessary pain relief in certain situations.

Prescription drugs are classified based on their active ingredients and therapeutic uses. In the United States, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) categorizes them into five schedules (I-V) depending on their potential for abuse and dependence. Schedule I substances have the highest potential for abuse and no accepted medical use, while schedule V substances have a lower potential for abuse and are often used for legitimate medical purposes.

Examples of prescription drugs include opioid painkillers like oxycodone and hydrocodone, stimulants such as Adderall and Ritalin, benzodiazepines like Xanax and Ativan, and various other medications used to treat conditions such as epilepsy, depression, anxiety, and high blood pressure.

It is essential to use prescription drugs only as directed by a healthcare professional, as misuse or abuse can lead to severe health consequences, including addiction, overdose, and even death.

Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) Reporting Systems are spontaneous reporting systems used for monitoring the safety of authorized medicines in clinical practice. These systems collect and manage reports of suspected adverse drug reactions from healthcare professionals, patients, and pharmaceutical companies. The primary objective of ADR reporting systems is to identify new risks or previously unrecognized risks associated with the use of a medication, monitor the frequency and severity of known adverse effects, and contribute to post-marketing surveillance and pharmacovigilance activities.

Healthcare professionals, including physicians, pharmacists, and nurses, are encouraged to voluntarily report any suspected adverse drug reactions they encounter during their practice. In some countries, patients can also directly report any suspected adverse reactions they experience after taking a medication. Pharmaceutical companies are obligated to submit reports of adverse events identified through their own pharmacovigilance activities or from post-marketing surveillance studies.

The data collected through ADR reporting systems are analyzed to identify signals, which are defined as new, changing, or unknown safety concerns related to a medicine or vaccine. Signals are further investigated and evaluated for causality and clinical significance. If a signal is confirmed, regulatory actions may be taken, such as updating the product label, issuing safety communications, or restricting the use of the medication.

Examples of ADR reporting systems include the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS), the European Medicines Agency's (EMA) EudraVigilance, and the World Health Organization's (WHO) Uppsala Monitoring Centre.

Adipose tissue, also known as fatty tissue, is a type of connective tissue that is composed mainly of adipocytes (fat cells). It is found throughout the body, but is particularly abundant in the abdominal cavity, beneath the skin, and around organs such as the heart and kidneys.

Adipose tissue serves several important functions in the body. One of its primary roles is to store energy in the form of fat, which can be mobilized and used as an energy source during periods of fasting or exercise. Adipose tissue also provides insulation and cushioning for the body, and produces hormones that help regulate metabolism, appetite, and reproductive function.

There are two main types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). WAT is the more common form and is responsible for storing energy as fat. BAT, on the other hand, contains a higher number of mitochondria and is involved in heat production and energy expenditure.

Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue can lead to obesity, which is associated with an increased risk of various health problems such as diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

Exercise is defined in the medical context as a physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive, with the primary aim of improving or maintaining one or more components of physical fitness. Components of physical fitness include cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. Exercise can be classified based on its intensity (light, moderate, or vigorous), duration (length of time), and frequency (number of times per week). Common types of exercise include aerobic exercises, such as walking, jogging, cycling, and swimming; resistance exercises, such as weightlifting; flexibility exercises, such as stretching; and balance exercises. Exercise has numerous health benefits, including reducing the risk of chronic diseases, improving mental health, and enhancing overall quality of life.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure used to assess whether a person has a healthy weight for their height. It's calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. Here is the medical definition:

Body Mass Index (BMI) = weight(kg) / [height(m)]^2

According to the World Health Organization, BMI categories are defined as follows:

* Less than 18.5: Underweight
* 18.5-24.9: Normal or healthy weight
* 25.0-29.9: Overweight
* 30.0 and above: Obese

It is important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying weight issues in populations, it does have limitations when applied to individuals. For example, it may not accurately reflect body fat distribution or muscle mass, which can affect health risks associated with excess weight. Therefore, BMI should be used as one of several factors when evaluating an individual's health status and risk for chronic diseases.

Body composition refers to the relative proportions of different components that make up a person's body, including fat mass, lean muscle mass, bone mass, and total body water. It is an important measure of health and fitness, as changes in body composition can indicate shifts in overall health status. For example, an increase in fat mass and decrease in lean muscle mass can be indicative of poor nutrition, sedentary behavior, or certain medical conditions.

There are several methods for measuring body composition, including:

1. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This method uses low-level electrical currents to estimate body fat percentage based on the conductivity of different tissues.
2. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This method uses low-dose X-rays to measure bone density and body composition, including lean muscle mass and fat distribution.
3. Hydrostatic weighing: This method involves submerging a person in water and measuring their weight underwater to estimate body density and fat mass.
4. Air displacement plethysmography (ADP): This method uses air displacement to measure body volume and density, which can be used to estimate body composition.

Understanding body composition can help individuals make informed decisions about their health and fitness goals, as well as provide valuable information for healthcare providers in the management of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

A placebo is a substance or treatment that has no inherent therapeutic effect. It is often used in clinical trials as a control against which the effects of a new drug or therapy can be compared. Placebos are typically made to resemble the active treatment, such as a sugar pill for a medication trial, so that participants cannot tell the difference between what they are receiving and the actual treatment.

The placebo effect refers to the phenomenon where patients experience real improvements in their symptoms or conditions even when given a placebo. This may be due to psychological factors such as belief in the effectiveness of the treatment, suggestion, or conditioning. The placebo effect is often used as a comparison group in clinical trials to help determine if the active treatment has a greater effect than no treatment at all.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Poison Control Centers are specialized organizations that provide immediate, free, and expert advice and treatment recommendations for exposure to potentially harmful substances, also known as poisons. They are staffed by trained healthcare professionals, including medical toxicologists, nurses, pharmacists, and poison information providers. These centers manage a wide range of poisoning cases, from accidental ingestions in children to intentional overdoses and chemical exposures in adults. They offer 24/7 emergency hotline services to the public, healthcare providers, and first responders for poison-related emergencies and provide valuable resources for poison prevention and education. The primary goal of Poison Control Centers is to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with poison exposures and promote overall public health and safety.

"Formulated food" is a term used in the field of clinical nutrition to refer to foods that are specially manufactured and designed to meet the nutritional needs of specific patient populations. These foods often come in the form of shakes, bars, or pouches and are intended to be used as a sole source or supplementary source of nutrition for individuals who have difficulty meeting their nutritional needs through traditional food sources alone.

Formulated foods may be indicated for patients who have medical conditions that affect their ability to eat or digest regular food, such as dysphagia (swallowing difficulties), malabsorption syndromes, or chronic inflammatory bowel disease. They may also be used in patients who require additional nutritional support during times of illness, injury, or recovery from surgery.

Formulated foods are typically designed to provide a balance of macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) that meet the recommended dietary intakes for specific patient populations. They may also contain additional ingredients such as fiber, probiotics, or other nutraceuticals to provide additional health benefits.

It is important to note that formulated foods should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, such as a registered dietitian or physician, to ensure that they are appropriate for an individual's specific medical and nutritional needs.

Flavanones are a type of flavonoid, which is a class of plant pigments widely found in fruits, vegetables, and other plants. Flavanones are known for their antioxidant properties and potential health benefits. They are typically found in citrus fruits such as oranges, lemons, and grapefruits. Some common flavanones include hesperetin, naringenin, and eriodictyol. These compounds have been studied for their potential effects on cardiovascular health, cancer prevention, and neuroprotection, although more research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential.

"Research Support as Topic" is not a specific medical term or diagnosis. However, in the context of medical literature and research, "research support" refers to the resources, funding, and infrastructure that enable and facilitate the conduct of scientific research. This can include financial support from various sources such as government agencies, private organizations, or institutions; access to laboratory facilities, equipment, and databases; and technical assistance in study design, data collection and analysis, and manuscript preparation.

When "research support" is designated as a topic in medical literature, it typically refers to articles that discuss the various aspects of research funding, ethics, and management, including best practices for grant writing, financial conflict of interest disclosures, and responsible conduct of research. It may also include studies that examine the impact of research support on the quality, quantity, and outcomes of scientific research.

According to the US Department of Health and Human Services, Asian Americans are defined as "a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam."

It's important to note that this definition is used primarily in a US context and may not be applicable or relevant in other parts of the world. Additionally, it's worth noting that the term "Asian American" encompasses a vast array of diverse cultures, languages, histories, and experiences, and should not be essentialized or oversimplified.

Health surveys are research studies that collect data from a sample population to describe the current health status, health behaviors, and healthcare utilization of a particular group or community. These surveys may include questions about various aspects of health such as physical health, mental health, chronic conditions, lifestyle habits, access to healthcare services, and demographic information. The data collected from health surveys can be used to monitor trends in health over time, identify disparities in health outcomes, develop and evaluate public health programs and policies, and inform resource allocation decisions. Examples of national health surveys include the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).

Proanthocyanidins are a type of polyphenolic compound that are found in various plants, including fruits, vegetables, and bark. They are also known as condensed tannins or oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs). These compounds are characterized by their ability to form complex structures through the linkage of flavan-3-ol units.

Proanthocyanidins have been studied for their potential health benefits, which may include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protective effects. They have also been shown to have a positive impact on collagen stability, which may contribute to their potential role in promoting skin and joint health.

Foods that are rich in proanthocyanidins include grapes (and red wine), berries, apples, cocoa, and green tea. These compounds can be difficult for the body to absorb, but supplements containing standardized extracts of proanthocyanidins are also available.

It's important to note that while proanthocyanidins have shown promise in laboratory and animal studies, more research is needed to fully understand their potential health benefits and safety profile in humans. As with any supplement, it's always a good idea to talk to your healthcare provider before starting to take proanthocyanidins.

Food contamination is the presence of harmful microorganisms, chemicals, or foreign substances in food or water that can cause illness or injury to individuals who consume it. This can occur at any stage during production, processing, storage, or preparation of food, and can result from various sources such as:

1. Biological contamination: This includes the presence of harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi that can cause foodborne illnesses. Examples include Salmonella, E. coli, Listeria, and norovirus.

2. Chemical contamination: This involves the introduction of hazardous chemicals into food, which may occur due to poor handling practices, improper storage, or exposure to environmental pollutants. Common sources of chemical contamination include pesticides, cleaning solvents, heavy metals, and natural toxins produced by certain plants or fungi.

3. Physical contamination: This refers to the presence of foreign objects in food, such as glass, plastic, hair, or insects, which can pose a choking hazard or introduce harmful substances into the body.

Preventing food contamination is crucial for ensuring food safety and protecting public health. Proper hygiene practices, temperature control, separation of raw and cooked foods, and regular inspections are essential measures to minimize the risk of food contamination.

A rhizome is not typically used as a medical term, but it is a term borrowed from botany that has been adopted in some areas of medicine, particularly in psychiatry and psychotherapy.

In its original botanical sense, a rhizome is a horizontal stem of a plant that grows underground, often sending out roots and shoots from its nodes. This growth pattern is contrasted with that of a root system, which grows downward, and a stem system, which grows upward.

In psychiatry and psychotherapy, the term "rhizome" has been used as a metaphor to describe a non-hierarchical and decentralized approach to understanding mental processes and subjectivity. The rhizome model emphasizes the complexity, multiplicity, and interconnectedness of these processes, and rejects simplistic or reductionist explanations that focus on a single cause or origin. Instead, it encourages a more holistic and dynamic view of mental life, one that is open to multiple perspectives and interpretations.

It's important to note that the use of the term "rhizome" in this context is metaphorical and not medical in the strict sense. It is a way of thinking about mental processes and subjectivity that has been influenced by poststructuralist and feminist theories, among others.

Bifidobacterium is a genus of Gram-positive, non-motile, often branching anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other animals, as well as in fermented foods. These bacteria play an important role in maintaining the health and balance of the gut microbiota by aiding in digestion, producing vitamins, and preventing the growth of harmful bacteria.

Bifidobacteria are also known for their probiotic properties and are often used as dietary supplements to improve digestive health, boost the immune system, and alleviate symptoms of various gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease.

There are over 50 species of Bifidobacterium, with some of the most common ones found in the human gut being B. bifidum, B. longum, B. breve, and B. adolescentis. These bacteria are characterized by their ability to ferment a variety of carbohydrates, including dietary fibers, oligosaccharides, and sugars, producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetate, lactate, and formate as end products.

Bifidobacteria have a complex cell wall structure that contains unique polysaccharides called exopolysaccharides (EPS), which have been shown to have prebiotic properties and can stimulate the growth of other beneficial bacteria in the gut. Additionally, some strains of Bifidobacterium produce antimicrobial compounds that inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria, further contributing to their probiotic effects.

Overall, Bifidobacterium is an important genus of beneficial bacteria that play a crucial role in maintaining gut health and promoting overall well-being.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant that occurs naturally in the leaves, seeds, or fruits of some plants. It can also be produced artificially and added to various products, such as food, drinks, and medications. Caffeine has a number of effects on the body, including increasing alertness, improving mood, and boosting energy levels.

In small doses, caffeine is generally considered safe for most people. However, consuming large amounts of caffeine can lead to negative side effects, such as restlessness, insomnia, rapid heart rate, and increased blood pressure. It is also possible to become dependent on caffeine, and withdrawal symptoms can occur if consumption is suddenly stopped.

Caffeine is found in a variety of products, including coffee, tea, chocolate, energy drinks, and some medications. The amount of caffeine in these products can vary widely, so it is important to pay attention to serving sizes and labels to avoid consuming too much.

Blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is the concentration of glucose in the blood. Glucose is a simple sugar that serves as the main source of energy for the body's cells. It is carried to each cell through the bloodstream and is absorbed into the cells with the help of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas.

The normal range for blood glucose levels in humans is typically between 70 and 130 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) when fasting, and less than 180 mg/dL after meals. Levels that are consistently higher than this may indicate diabetes or other metabolic disorders.

Blood glucose levels can be measured through a variety of methods, including fingerstick blood tests, continuous glucose monitoring systems, and laboratory tests. Regular monitoring of blood glucose levels is important for people with diabetes to help manage their condition and prevent complications.

Linoleic acid is an essential polyunsaturated fatty acid, specifically an omega-6 fatty acid. It is called "essential" because our bodies cannot produce it; therefore, it must be obtained through our diet. Linoleic acid is a crucial component of cell membranes and is involved in the production of prostaglandins, which are hormone-like substances that regulate various bodily functions such as inflammation, blood pressure, and muscle contraction.

Foods rich in linoleic acid include vegetable oils (such as soybean, corn, and sunflower oil), nuts, seeds, and some fruits and vegetables. It is important to maintain a balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet, as excessive consumption of omega-6 fatty acids can contribute to inflammation and other health issues.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

Phosphorus is an essential mineral that is required by every cell in the body for normal functioning. It is a key component of several important biomolecules, including adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the primary source of energy for cells, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), which are the genetic materials in cells.

Phosphorus is also a major constituent of bones and teeth, where it combines with calcium to provide strength and structure. In addition, phosphorus plays a critical role in various metabolic processes, including energy production, nerve impulse transmission, and pH regulation.

The medical definition of phosphorus refers to the chemical element with the atomic number 15 and the symbol P. It is a highly reactive non-metal that exists in several forms, including white phosphorus, red phosphorus, and black phosphorus. In the body, phosphorus is primarily found in the form of organic compounds, such as phospholipids, phosphoproteins, and nucleic acids.

Abnormal levels of phosphorus in the body can lead to various health problems. For example, high levels of phosphorus (hyperphosphatemia) can occur in patients with kidney disease or those who consume large amounts of phosphorus-rich foods, and can contribute to the development of calcification of soft tissues and cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, low levels of phosphorus (hypophosphatemia) can occur in patients with malnutrition, vitamin D deficiency, or alcoholism, and can lead to muscle weakness, bone pain, and an increased risk of infection.

'Zea mays' is the biological name for corn or maize, which is not typically considered a medical term. However, corn or maize can have medical relevance in certain contexts. For example, cornstarch is sometimes used as a diluent for medications and is also a component of some skin products. Corn oil may be found in topical ointments and creams. In addition, some people may have allergic reactions to corn or corn-derived products. But generally speaking, 'Zea mays' itself does not have a specific medical definition.

'Guidelines' in the medical context are systematically developed statements or sets of recommendations designed to assist healthcare professionals and patients in making informed decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available evidence, including scientific studies, expert opinions, and patient values. Guidelines may cover a wide range of topics, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention, screening, and management of various diseases and conditions. They aim to standardize care, improve patient outcomes, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote efficient use of healthcare resources.

Indicators and reagents are terms commonly used in the field of clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. Here are their definitions:

1. Indicator: An indicator is a substance that changes its color or other physical properties in response to a chemical change, such as a change in pH, oxidation-reduction potential, or the presence of a particular ion or molecule. Indicators are often used in laboratory tests to monitor or signal the progress of a reaction or to indicate the end point of a titration. A familiar example is the use of phenolphthalein as a pH indicator in acid-base titrations, which turns pink in basic solutions and colorless in acidic solutions.

2. Reagent: A reagent is a substance that is added to a system (such as a sample or a reaction mixture) to bring about a chemical reaction, test for the presence or absence of a particular component, or measure the concentration of a specific analyte. Reagents are typically chemicals with well-defined and consistent properties, allowing them to be used reliably in analytical procedures. Examples of reagents include enzymes, antibodies, dyes, metal ions, and organic compounds. In laboratory settings, reagents are often prepared and standardized according to strict protocols to ensure their quality and performance in diagnostic tests and research applications.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Food preferences are personal likes or dislikes towards certain types of food or drinks, which can be influenced by various factors such as cultural background, individual experiences, taste, texture, smell, appearance, and psychological factors. Food preferences can also be shaped by dietary habits, nutritional needs, health conditions, and medication requirements. They play a significant role in shaping an individual's dietary choices and overall eating behavior, which can have implications for their nutritional status, growth, development, and long-term health outcomes.

Dairy products are foods produced from the milk of animals, primarily cows but also goats, sheep, and buffalo. The term "dairy" refers to the place or process where these products are made. According to the medical definition, dairy products include a variety of foods such as:

1. Milk - This is the liquid produced by mammals to feed their young. It's rich in nutrients like calcium, protein, and vitamins A, D, and B12.
2. Cheese - Made from milk, it can vary greatly in texture, taste, and nutritional content depending on the type. Cheese is a good source of protein and calcium.
3. Yogurt - This is formed by bacterial fermentation of milk. It contains probiotics which are beneficial bacteria that can help maintain gut health.
4. Butter - Made from cream or churned milk, butter is high in fat and calories but also provides some essential nutrients like vitamin A.
5. Ice Cream - A frozen dessert made from cream, milk, sugar, and often egg yolks. While it can be a source of calcium and protein, it's also high in sugar and should be consumed in moderation.
6. Casein and Whey Proteins - These are proteins derived from milk that are often used as dietary supplements for muscle building and recovery after exercise.

Individuals who are lactose intolerant may have difficulty digesting dairy products due to the sugar lactose found in them. For such individuals, there are lactose-free versions of these products available or they can opt for plant-based alternatives like almond milk, soy milk, etc.

Sulfones are a group of medications that contain a sulfur atom bonded to two oxygen atoms and one other group, typically a hydrogen or carbon atom. They have various medical uses, including as antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory agents. One example of a sulfone is dapsone, which is used to treat bacterial infections such as leprosy and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP), as well as some inflammatory skin conditions. It's important to note that sulfones can have significant side effects and should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors are a class of medications that work by blocking the phosphodiesterase enzyme, specifically PDE5, which is found in the smooth muscle cells lining the blood vessels of the penis. By inhibiting this enzyme, PDE5 inhibitors increase the levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), a molecule that relaxes these smooth muscles and allows for increased blood flow into the corpus cavernosum of the penis, leading to an erection.

PDE5 inhibitors are commonly used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) and include medications such as sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), vardenafil (Levitra), and avanafil (Stendra). These medications are usually taken orally, and their effects can last for several hours. It is important to note that PDE5 inhibitors only work in the presence of sexual stimulation, and they do not increase sexual desire or arousal on their own.

In addition to their use in ED, PDE5 inhibitors have also been shown to be effective in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by relaxing the smooth muscle cells in the blood vessels of the lungs and reducing the workload on the heart.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "organizational policy" is not a medical term. It falls under the broader category of management or administrative terminology.

An organizational policy generally refers to a formal statement or set of guidelines that outline an organization's approved course of action or conduct regarding various matters. These policies guide decision-making and help ensure consistent action across the organization. They can cover a wide range of topics, including (but not limited to) employee behavior, data security, patient care standards, and operational procedures.

In a healthcare setting, organizational policies play a crucial role in maintaining quality of care, ensuring patient safety, and complying with relevant laws and regulations.

Feeding behavior refers to the various actions and mechanisms involved in the intake of food and nutrition for the purpose of sustaining life, growth, and health. This complex process encompasses a coordinated series of activities, including:

1. Food selection: The identification, pursuit, and acquisition of appropriate food sources based on sensory cues (smell, taste, appearance) and individual preferences.
2. Preparation: The manipulation and processing of food to make it suitable for consumption, such as chewing, grinding, or chopping.
3. Ingestion: The act of transferring food from the oral cavity into the digestive system through swallowing.
4. Digestion: The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food within the gastrointestinal tract to facilitate nutrient absorption and eliminate waste products.
5. Assimilation: The uptake and utilization of absorbed nutrients by cells and tissues for energy production, growth, repair, and maintenance.
6. Elimination: The removal of undigested material and waste products from the body through defecation.

Feeding behavior is regulated by a complex interplay between neural, hormonal, and psychological factors that help maintain energy balance and ensure adequate nutrient intake. Disruptions in feeding behavior can lead to various medical conditions, such as malnutrition, obesity, eating disorders, and gastrointestinal motility disorders.

Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts carbohydrates into alcohol or organic acids using enzymes. In the absence of oxygen, certain bacteria, yeasts, and fungi convert sugars into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and various end products, such as alcohol, lactic acid, or acetic acid. This process is commonly used in food production, such as in making bread, wine, and beer, as well as in industrial applications for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

F344 is a strain code used to designate an outbred stock of rats that has been inbreeded for over 100 generations. The F344 rats, also known as Fischer 344 rats, were originally developed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and are now widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background.

Inbred strains, like the F344, are created by mating genetically identical individuals (siblings or parents and offspring) for many generations until a state of complete homozygosity is reached, meaning that all members of the strain have identical genomes. This genetic uniformity makes inbred strains ideal for use in studies where consistent and reproducible results are important.

F344 rats are known for their longevity, with a median lifespan of around 27-31 months, making them useful for aging research. They also have a relatively low incidence of spontaneous tumors compared to other rat strains. However, they may be more susceptible to certain types of cancer and other diseases due to their inbred status.

It's important to note that while F344 rats are often used as a standard laboratory rat strain, there can still be some genetic variation between individual animals within the same strain, particularly if they come from different suppliers or breeding colonies. Therefore, it's always important to consider the source and history of any animal model when designing experiments and interpreting results.

Health status is a term used to describe the overall condition of an individual's health, including physical, mental, and social well-being. It is often assessed through various measures such as medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and self-reported health assessments. Health status can be used to identify health disparities, track changes in population health over time, and evaluate the effectiveness of healthcare interventions.

Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of DNA, formation of red blood cells, and maintenance of the nervous system. It is involved in the metabolism of every cell in the body, particularly affecting DNA regulation and neurological function.

Vitamin B12 is unique among vitamins because it contains a metal ion, cobalt, from which its name is derived. This vitamin can be synthesized only by certain types of bacteria and is not produced by plants or animals. The major sources of vitamin B12 in the human diet include animal-derived foods such as meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and dairy products, as well as fortified plant-based milk alternatives and breakfast cereals.

Deficiency in vitamin B12 can lead to various health issues, including megaloblastic anemia, fatigue, neurological symptoms such as numbness and tingling in the extremities, memory loss, and depression. Since vitamin B12 is not readily available from plant-based sources, vegetarians and vegans are at a higher risk of deficiency and may require supplementation or fortified foods to meet their daily requirements.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Carbolines are a type of chemical compound that contain a carbazole or dibenzopyrrole structure. These compounds have a variety of uses, including as pharmaceuticals and dyes. Some carbolines have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, such as their ability to act as antioxidants or to inhibit the growth of certain types of cells. However, it is important to note that many carbolines are also known to be toxic and can cause harm if ingested or otherwise introduced into the body. As with any chemical compound, it is essential to use caution when handling carbolines and to follow all safety guidelines to minimize the risk of exposure.

Lutein is a type of carotenoid, specifically a xanthophyll, that is naturally present in many fruits and vegetables. It is considered a dietary antioxidant with potential health benefits for the eyes. Lutein is not a vitamin, but it is often grouped with vitamins and minerals because of its importance to human health.

In the eye, lutein is selectively accumulated in the macula, a small area in the center of the retina responsible for sharp, detailed vision. It helps filter harmful blue light and protects the eye from oxidative damage, which may help maintain eye health and reduce the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness in older adults.

It is important to note that lutein is not produced by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources or supplements. Foods rich in lutein include dark leafy greens, such as spinach and kale, as well as other fruits and vegetables, such as corn, orange pepper, and egg yolk.

I believe you may have mixed up the terms "medicine" and "commerce." Commerce is a broad term that refers to the buying and selling of goods and services. It is not typically used in a medical context, so it does not have a specific medical definition. However, I can provide you with some related terms that might be helpful:

1. Medical commerce: This term generally refers to the business aspects of healthcare, such as the buying and selling of medical supplies, equipment, and services. It may also refer to the economic relationships between various stakeholders in the healthcare system, including providers, insurers, pharmaceutical companies, and patients.
2. Telemedicine commerce: This term specifically refers to the use of technology to facilitate remote consultations and transactions between healthcare providers and patients. Examples include online appointment scheduling, virtual consultations, and electronic prescribing.
3. Medical tourism: This is a form of commerce where people travel to other countries to receive medical treatment or procedures that may be less expensive or more accessible than in their home country. It can also refer to the business of providing medical services to international patients.
4. Healthcare marketing: This term refers to the activities and strategies used by healthcare organizations to promote their products, services, and brands to potential customers. It includes advertising, public relations, social media, content marketing, and other tactics designed to build awareness, generate leads, and drive sales.

I hope this information is helpful! Let me know if you have any further questions or concerns.

Volatile fatty acids (VFA) are a type of fatty acid that have a low molecular weight and are known for their ability to evaporate at room temperature. They are produced in the body during the breakdown of carbohydrates and proteins in the absence of oxygen, such as in the digestive tract by certain bacteria.

The most common volatile fatty acids include acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. These compounds have various roles in the body, including providing energy to cells in the intestines, modulating immune function, and regulating the growth of certain bacteria. They are also used as precursors for the synthesis of other molecules, such as cholesterol and bile acids.

In addition to their role in the body, volatile fatty acids are also important in the food industry, where they are used as flavorings and preservatives. They are produced naturally during fermentation and aging processes, and are responsible for the distinctive flavors of foods such as yogurt, cheese, and wine.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pilot projects" is not a medical term per se. Instead, it is a general term used in various fields, including healthcare and medicine, to describe a small-scale initiative that is implemented on a temporary basis to evaluate its feasibility, effectiveness, or impact before deciding whether to expand or continue it.

In the context of healthcare, pilot projects might involve testing new treatment protocols, implementing innovative care models, or introducing technology solutions in a limited setting to assess their potential benefits and drawbacks. The results of these projects can help inform decisions about broader implementation and provide valuable insights for improving the quality and efficiency of healthcare services.

I'm not aware of any recognized medical definition for the term "Iowa." Iowa is actually a state located in the Midwestern United States. It is known for its agricultural production, particularly corn and soybeans, and it is home to various cities such as Des Moines, Cedar Rapids, and Davenport. If you have any medical or health-related question, I would be happy to help with that instead.

Health behavior can be defined as a series of actions and decisions that individuals take to protect, maintain or promote their health and well-being. These behaviors can include activities such as engaging in regular exercise, eating a healthy diet, getting sufficient sleep, practicing safe sex, avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption, and managing stress.

Health behaviors are influenced by various factors, including knowledge and attitudes towards health, beliefs and values, cultural norms, social support networks, environmental factors, and individual genetic predispositions. Understanding health behaviors is essential for developing effective public health interventions and promoting healthy lifestyles to prevent chronic diseases and improve overall quality of life.

Hispanic Americans, also known as Latino Americans, are individuals in the United States who are of Spanish-speaking origin or whose ancestors came from Spain, Mexico, Cuba, the Caribbean, Central and South America. This group includes various cultures, races, and nationalities. It is important to note that "Hispanic" refers to a cultural and linguistic affiliation rather than a racial category. Therefore, Hispanic Americans can be of any race, including White, Black, Asian, Native American, or mixed races.

I'm happy to help! However, it seems there might be a bit of confusion here. Starch is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a nutritional and biochemical concept. Here's a brief explanation:

Starch is a complex carbohydrate that serves as the primary form of energy storage in plants. It is made up of long chains of glucose molecules and can be found in various foods such as grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables. Amylase, an enzyme present in our saliva and digestive system, helps break down starch into simpler sugars during the digestion process so that our bodies can absorb them for energy.

I hope this clarifies any confusion! If you have any other questions or need further information on a medical topic, please don't hesitate to ask.

Organ size refers to the volume or physical measurement of an organ in the body of an individual. It can be described in terms of length, width, and height or by using specialized techniques such as imaging studies (like CT scans or MRIs) to determine the volume. The size of an organ can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, body size, and overall health status. Changes in organ size may indicate various medical conditions, including growths, inflammation, or atrophy.

A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a type of clinical study in which participants are randomly assigned to receive either the experimental intervention or the control condition, which may be a standard of care, placebo, or no treatment. The goal of an RCT is to minimize bias and ensure that the results are due to the intervention being tested rather than other factors. This design allows for a comparison between the two groups to determine if there is a significant difference in outcomes. RCTs are often considered the gold standard for evaluating the safety and efficacy of medical interventions, as they provide a high level of evidence for causal relationships between the intervention and health outcomes.

The odds ratio (OR) is a statistical measure used in epidemiology and research to estimate the association between an exposure and an outcome. It represents the odds that an event will occur in one group versus the odds that it will occur in another group, assuming that all other factors are held constant.

In medical research, the odds ratio is often used to quantify the strength of the relationship between a risk factor (exposure) and a disease outcome. An OR of 1 indicates no association between the exposure and the outcome, while an OR greater than 1 suggests that there is a positive association between the two. Conversely, an OR less than 1 implies a negative association.

It's important to note that the odds ratio is not the same as the relative risk (RR), which compares the incidence rates of an outcome in two groups. While the OR can approximate the RR when the outcome is rare, they are not interchangeable and can lead to different conclusions about the association between an exposure and an outcome.

Chromium is an essential trace element that is necessary for human health. It is a key component of the glucose tolerance factor, which helps to enhance the function of insulin in regulating blood sugar levels. Chromium can be found in various foods such as meat, fish, whole grains, and some fruits and vegetables. However, it is also available in dietary supplements for those who may not get adequate amounts through their diet.

The recommended daily intake of chromium varies depending on age and gender. For adults, the adequate intake (AI) is 20-35 micrograms per day for women and 35-50 micrograms per day for men. Chromium deficiency is rare but can lead to impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

It's important to note that while chromium supplements are marketed as a way to improve insulin sensitivity and blood sugar control, there is limited evidence to support these claims. Moreover, excessive intake of chromium can have adverse effects on health, including liver and kidney damage, stomach irritation, and hypoglycemia. Therefore, it's recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before taking any dietary supplements containing chromium.

"Panax" is a term used in the field of botany and medicine, particularly in the study of traditional Chinese medicine. It specifically refers to the genus of plants that includes ginseng, which is known scientifically as "Panax ginseng." This plant has been used in traditional medicine for centuries due to its perceived ability to boost energy levels, reduce stress, and improve overall health. The term "Panax" itself comes from the Greek words "pan," meaning all or everything, and "akos," meaning cure or remedy, reflecting the belief in its wide-ranging healing properties. It's important to note that while some studies suggest potential health benefits of Panax ginseng, more research is needed to fully understand its effects and safety.

Catechols are a type of chemical compound that contain a benzene ring with two hydroxyl groups (-OH) attached to it in the ortho position. The term "catechol" is often used interchangeably with "ortho-dihydroxybenzene." Catechols are important in biology because they are produced through the metabolism of certain amino acids, such as phenylalanine and tyrosine, and are involved in the synthesis of various neurotransmitters and hormones. They also have antioxidant properties and can act as reducing agents. In chemistry, catechols can undergo various reactions, such as oxidation and polymerization, to form other classes of compounds.

"Age distribution" is a term used to describe the number of individuals within a population or sample that fall into different age categories. It is often presented in the form of a graph, table, or chart, and can provide important information about the demographic structure of a population.

The age distribution of a population can be influenced by a variety of factors, including birth rates, mortality rates, migration patterns, and aging. Public health officials and researchers use age distribution data to inform policies and programs related to healthcare, social services, and other areas that affect the well-being of populations.

For example, an age distribution graph might show a larger number of individuals in the younger age categories, indicating a population with a high birth rate. Alternatively, it might show a larger number of individuals in the older age categories, indicating a population with a high life expectancy or an aging population. Understanding the age distribution of a population can help policymakers plan for future needs and allocate resources more effectively.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Omega-6 fatty acids are a type of polyunsaturated fats that are essential for human health. The "omega-6" designation refers to the location of a double bond in the chemical structure of the fatty acid. Specifically, the double bond is located six carbons from the omega end of the molecule.

Omega-6 fatty acids play important roles in the body, including supporting brain function, stimulating skin and hair growth, regulating metabolism, and maintaining the reproductive system. They are also involved in the production of hormones that regulate inflammation and blood clotting.

The most common omega-6 fatty acids found in the Western diet include linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA). LA is found in vegetable oils such as soybean, corn, and sunflower oil, while AA is found in animal products such as meat, poultry, and eggs.

While omega-6 fatty acids are essential for human health, it's important to maintain a balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. A diet that is too high in omega-6 fatty acids and low in omega-3 fatty acids can contribute to chronic inflammation and increase the risk of heart disease, cancer, and other health problems. Therefore, it's recommended to consume omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in a ratio of 2:1 to 4:1.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Los Angeles" is not a medical term or concept. It is a city in the state of California, USA. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them!

Corn oil is a type of vegetable oil that is extracted from the germ of corn (maize). It is rich in polyunsaturated fat, particularly linoleic acid, and contains about 25% saturated fat. Corn oil has a high smoke point, making it suitable for frying and baking. It is also used as an ingredient in margarine, salad dressings, and other food products. In addition to its use as a food product, corn oil is sometimes used topically on the skin as a moisturizer or emollient.

In the context of medicine, growth generally refers to the increase in size or mass of an organism or a specific part of the body over time. This can be quantified through various methods such as measuring height, weight, or the dimensions of particular organs or tissues. In children, normal growth is typically assessed using growth charts that plot measurements like height and weight against age to determine whether a child's growth is following a typical pattern.

Growth can be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, nutrition, hormonal regulation, and overall health status. Abnormalities in growth patterns may indicate underlying medical conditions or developmental disorders that require further evaluation and treatment.

Weaning is the process of gradually introducing an infant or young child to a new source of nutrition, such as solid foods, while simultaneously decreasing their dependence on breast milk or formula. This process can begin when the child is developmentally ready, typically around 6 months of age, and involves offering them small amounts of pureed or mashed foods to start, then gradually introducing more textured and varied foods as they become comfortable with the new diet. The weaning process should be done slowly and under the guidance of a healthcare provider to ensure that the child's nutritional needs are being met and to avoid any potential digestive issues.

A vegetarian diet is a type of eating pattern that excludes meat, poultry, and fish, and sometimes other animal products like eggs, dairy, or honey, depending on the individual's specific dietary choices. There are several types of vegetarian diets, including:

1. Ovo-vegetarian: This diet includes vegetables, fruits, grains, nuts, seeds, dairy products, and eggs but excludes meat, poultry, and fish.
2. Lacto-vegetarian: This diet includes vegetables, fruits, grains, nuts, seeds, dairy products, and eggs but excludes meat, poultry, fish, and sometimes eggs.
3. Ovo-lacto vegetarian: This is the most common type of vegetarian diet and includes vegetables, fruits, grains, nuts, seeds, dairy products, and eggs but excludes meat, poultry, and fish.
4. Vegan: This diet excludes all animal products, including meat, poultry, fish, dairy, eggs, and sometimes honey or other bee products.
5. Fruitarian: This is a more restrictive form of veganism that includes only fruits, nuts, seeds, and other plant foods that can be harvested without killing the plant.
6. Raw vegan: This diet includes only raw fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and other plant foods that have not been cooked or processed above 115°F (46°C).

Vegetarian diets can provide a range of health benefits, including lower risks of heart disease, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and certain cancers. However, it is important to ensure that vegetarian diets are well-planned and nutritionally adequate to meet individual nutrient needs, particularly for nutrients like vitamin B12, iron, calcium, and omega-3 fatty acids.

In the context of healthcare, "safety" refers to the freedom from harm or injury that is intentionally designed into a process, system, or environment. It involves the prevention of adverse events or injuries, as well as the reduction of risk and the mitigation of harm when accidents do occur. Safety in healthcare aims to protect patients, healthcare workers, and other stakeholders from potential harm associated with medical care, treatments, or procedures. This is achieved through evidence-based practices, guidelines, protocols, training, and continuous quality improvement efforts.

"Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is a broad term that refers to various physical and biological processes related to nutrition in children. While I couldn't find a precise medical definition for this specific phrase, I can provide you with some key physiological phenomena associated with child nutrition. These include:

1. Growth and Development: Proper nutrition is crucial for normal growth and development in children. Adequate intake of essential nutrients, vitamins, and minerals supports physical growth, brain development, and overall well-being.
2. Digestion and Absorption: The gastrointestinal tract undergoes significant changes during childhood, affecting the ability to digest and absorb various nutrients. For example, lactase production decreases in some children after weaning, leading to lactose intolerance.
3. Energy Metabolism: Children have higher energy requirements per unit of body weight compared to adults due to their rapid growth and development. Proper nutrition ensures efficient energy metabolism and prevents issues like obesity or undernutrition.
4. Immune Function: Nutrition plays a vital role in supporting the immune system. Adequate intake of nutrients like vitamin C, vitamin D, iron, zinc, and protein helps maintain immune function and resistance to infections.
5. Micronutrient Deficiencies: Inadequate nutrition can lead to micronutrient deficiencies, which may impair children's growth, cognitive development, and overall health. Examples include iron deficiency anemia, vitamin A deficiency, and iodine deficiency disorders.
6. Overnutrition and Obesity: Excessive energy intake, coupled with reduced physical activity, can lead to overweight and obesity in children. This increases the risk of developing non-communicable diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer later in life.
7. Food Allergies and Intolerances: Children are more prone to food allergies and intolerances than adults. These can manifest as various symptoms, such as skin rashes, digestive issues, or respiratory problems, and may require dietary modifications.
8. Eating Behaviors and Preferences: Childhood is a critical period for shaping eating behaviors and food preferences. Exposure to a variety of healthy foods during this stage can help establish lifelong healthy eating habits.

The term "European Continental Ancestry Group" is a medical/ethnic classification that refers to individuals who trace their genetic ancestry to the continent of Europe. This group includes people from various ethnic backgrounds and nationalities, such as Northern, Southern, Eastern, and Western European descent. It is often used in research and medical settings for population studies or to identify genetic patterns and predispositions to certain diseases that may be more common in specific ancestral groups. However, it's important to note that this classification can oversimplify the complex genetic diversity within and between populations, and should be used with caution.

Caseins are a group of phosphoproteins found in the milk of mammals, including cows and humans. They are the major proteins in milk, making up about 80% of the total protein content. Caseins are characterized by their ability to form micelles, or tiny particles, in milk when it is mixed with calcium. This property allows caseins to help transport calcium and other minerals throughout the body.

Caseins are also known for their nutritional value, as they provide essential amino acids and are easily digestible. They are often used as ingredients in infant formula and other food products. Additionally, caseins have been studied for their potential health benefits, such as reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and improving bone health. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits.

The intestinal mucosa is the innermost layer of the intestines, which comes into direct contact with digested food and microbes. It is a specialized epithelial tissue that plays crucial roles in nutrient absorption, barrier function, and immune defense. The intestinal mucosa is composed of several cell types, including absorptive enterocytes, mucus-secreting goblet cells, hormone-producing enteroendocrine cells, and immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages.

The surface of the intestinal mucosa is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells, which are joined together by tight junctions to form a protective barrier against harmful substances and microorganisms. This barrier also allows for the selective absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. The intestinal mucosa also contains numerous lymphoid follicles, known as Peyer's patches, which are involved in immune surveillance and defense against pathogens.

In addition to its role in absorption and immunity, the intestinal mucosa is also capable of producing hormones that regulate digestion and metabolism. Dysfunction of the intestinal mucosa can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and food allergies.

Smoking is not a medical condition, but it's a significant health risk behavior. Here is the definition from a public health perspective:

Smoking is the act of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning tobacco that is commonly consumed through cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. The smoke contains over 7,000 chemicals, including nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and numerous toxic and carcinogenic substances. These toxins contribute to a wide range of diseases and health conditions, such as lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and various other cancers, as well as adverse reproductive outcomes and negative impacts on the developing fetus during pregnancy. Smoking is highly addictive due to the nicotine content, which makes quitting smoking a significant challenge for many individuals.

Empirical research is a type of scientific investigation that involves the collection and analysis of observable and measurable data to draw conclusions about patterns or relationships in reality. It is based on empirical evidence, which means evidence obtained through direct observation or experience, rather than theoretical reasoning or deduction. In medical research, empirical studies often involve the use of controlled experiments, surveys, or observational studies to test hypotheses and generate new knowledge about health, disease, and treatment outcomes. The results of empirical research can help inform clinical decision-making, public health policy, and future research directions.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is a type of essential fatty acid, which means that it cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through diet. It is an 18-carbon fatty acid with three cis double bonds, and its chemical formula is C18:3 n-3 or 9c,12c,15c-18:3.

ALA is one of the two essential omega-3 fatty acids, along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). ALA is found in a variety of plant sources, including flaxseeds, chia seeds, hemp seeds, walnuts, soybeans, and some vegetable oils such as canola and soybean oil.

ALA is an important precursor to EPA and DHA, which have been shown to have numerous health benefits, including reducing inflammation, improving heart health, and supporting brain function. However, the conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA is limited in humans, and it is recommended to consume foods rich in EPA and DHA directly, such as fatty fish and fish oil supplements.

Medically speaking, a deficiency in ALA can lead to various health issues, including dry skin, hair loss, poor wound healing, and increased risk of heart disease. Therefore, it is important to include adequate amounts of ALA-rich foods in the diet to maintain optimal health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Japan" is not a medical term. Japan is the name of a country, officially known as Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku in Japanese, and is located in East Asia. It is an island nation in the Pacific Ocean with a population of about 126 million people.

If you have any medical questions or terms that you would like me to define, please let me know!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is not a standard or widely recognized medical term. It seems to be a rather broad and vague phrase that combines several concepts: prenatal (occurring before birth), nutritional (relating to nutrition), physiological (relating to the functioning of living organisms and their parts), and phenomena (observable events or occurrences).

If you're interested in a specific aspect of maternal and fetal nutrition, physiology, or related processes during pregnancy, I would be happy to help further if you could provide a more precise term or question. For example, prenatal nutritional physiological phenomena could refer to the process of how certain nutrients are transported across the placenta, how maternal nutrition affects fetal growth and development, or how various hormonal and metabolic changes occur during pregnancy.

Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: *cuprum*) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Copper is found as a free element in nature, and it is also a constituent of many minerals such as chalcopyrite and bornite.

In the human body, copper is an essential trace element that plays a role in various physiological processes, including iron metabolism, energy production, antioxidant defense, and connective tissue synthesis. Copper is found in a variety of foods, such as shellfish, nuts, seeds, whole grains, and organ meats. The recommended daily intake of copper for adults is 900 micrograms (mcg) per day.

Copper deficiency can lead to anemia, neutropenia, impaired immune function, and abnormal bone development. Copper toxicity, on the other hand, can cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and in severe cases, liver damage and neurological symptoms. Therefore, it is important to maintain a balanced copper intake through diet and supplements if necessary.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) is a type of educational technology that involves the use of computers to deliver, support, and enhance learning experiences. In a medical context, CAI can be used to teach a variety of topics, including anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, and clinical skills.

CAI typically involves interactive multimedia presentations, simulations, quizzes, and other activities that engage learners and provide feedback on their performance. It may also include adaptive learning systems that adjust the content and pace of instruction based on the learner's abilities and progress.

CAI has been shown to be effective in improving knowledge retention, critical thinking skills, and learner satisfaction in medical education. It can be used as a standalone teaching method or in combination with traditional classroom instruction or clinical experiences.

Diet therapy is a medical treatment that involves using specific dietary modifications to manage or treat various medical conditions. This can include changing the types and amounts of food consumed, as well as adjusting the timing and frequency of meals. The goal of diet therapy is to provide the body with the necessary nutrients to support healing and maintain health while also addressing any specific dietary needs or restrictions related to a particular medical condition.

Diet therapy may be used to treat a wide range of conditions, including diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, obesity, food allergies and intolerances, gastrointestinal disorders, and kidney disease. For example, a person with diabetes may be placed on a diet that restricts sugar and simple carbohydrates to help manage their blood sugar levels, while a person with heart disease may be advised to follow a low-fat, high-fiber diet to reduce their risk of heart attack and stroke.

Diet therapy is often used in conjunction with other medical treatments, such as medication and surgery, and should be prescribed and monitored by a healthcare professional, such as a registered dietitian or a doctor who specializes in nutrition. It is important for individuals to follow their specific dietary recommendations closely in order to achieve the best possible outcomes.

Lipid metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down and utilizes lipids (fats) for various functions, such as energy production, cell membrane formation, and hormone synthesis. This complex process involves several enzymes and pathways that regulate the digestion, absorption, transport, storage, and consumption of fats in the body.

The main types of lipids involved in metabolism include triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and fatty acids. The breakdown of these lipids begins in the digestive system, where enzymes called lipases break down dietary fats into smaller molecules called fatty acids and glycerol. These molecules are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the liver, which is the main site of lipid metabolism.

In the liver, fatty acids may be further broken down for energy production or used to synthesize new lipids. Excess fatty acids may be stored as triglycerides in specialized cells called adipocytes (fat cells) for later use. Cholesterol is also metabolized in the liver, where it may be used to synthesize bile acids, steroid hormones, and other important molecules.

Disorders of lipid metabolism can lead to a range of health problems, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). These conditions may be caused by genetic factors, lifestyle habits, or a combination of both. Proper diagnosis and management of lipid metabolism disorders typically involves a combination of dietary changes, exercise, and medication.

Deficiency diseases are a group of medical conditions that occur when an individual's diet lacks essential nutrients, such as vitamins and minerals. These diseases develop because the body needs these nutrients to function correctly, and without them, various bodily functions can become impaired, leading to disease.

Deficiency diseases can manifest in many different ways, depending on which nutrient is lacking. For example:

* Vitamin A deficiency can lead to night blindness and increased susceptibility to infectious diseases.
* Vitamin C deficiency can result in scurvy, a condition characterized by fatigue, swollen gums, joint pain, and anemia.
* Vitamin D deficiency can cause rickets in children, a disease that leads to weakened bones and skeletal deformities.
* Iron deficiency can result in anemia, a condition in which the blood lacks adequate healthy red blood cells.

Preventing deficiency diseases involves eating a balanced diet that includes a variety of foods from all the major food groups. In some cases, supplements may be necessary to ensure adequate nutrient intake, especially for individuals who have restricted diets or medical conditions that affect nutrient absorption.

In medicine, "absorption" refers to the process by which substances, including nutrients, medications, or toxins, are taken up and assimilated into the body's tissues or bloodstream after they have been introduced into the body via various routes (such as oral, intravenous, or transdermal).

The absorption of a substance depends on several factors, including its chemical properties, the route of administration, and the presence of other substances that may affect its uptake. For example, some medications may be better absorbed when taken with food, while others may require an empty stomach for optimal absorption.

Once a substance is absorbed into the bloodstream, it can then be distributed to various tissues throughout the body, where it may exert its effects or be metabolized and eliminated by the body's detoxification systems. Understanding the process of absorption is crucial in developing effective medical treatments and determining appropriate dosages for medications.

"Sex characteristics" refer to the anatomical, chromosomal, and genetic features that define males and females. These include both primary sex characteristics (such as reproductive organs like ovaries or testes) and secondary sex characteristics (such as breasts or facial hair) that typically develop during puberty. Sex characteristics are primarily determined by the presence of either X or Y chromosomes, with XX individuals usually developing as females and XY individuals usually developing as males, although variations and exceptions to this rule do occur.

Safflower oil is a vegetable oil that is extracted from the seeds of the safflower plant (Carthamus tinctorius). It is primarily composed of unsaturated fatty acids, with a high concentration of linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid) and a smaller amount of oleic acid (an omega-9 fatty acid).

Safflower oil has been used in traditional medicine for its potential health benefits, such as improving heart health, reducing inflammation, and promoting skin health. It is also commonly used as a cooking oil due to its high smoke point and light flavor. However, it is important to note that safflower oil should be consumed in moderation, as excessive intake of omega-6 fatty acids can contribute to inflammation and other health issues.

I apologize for any confusion, but "flax" is not a medical term. It is actually a type of plant also known as Linum usitatissimum. The seeds of the flax plant are used in making linseed oil, and flax fibers are used to make linen. Flaxseeds are often consumed for their health benefits, as they are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, fiber, and lignans. If you have any questions about the use of flax or its components in a medical context, I would be happy to try to help further.

'Infant food' is not a term with a single, universally accepted medical definition. However, in general, it refers to food products that are specifically designed and marketed for feeding infants, typically during the first year of life. These foods are often formulated to meet the unique nutritional needs of infants, who have smaller stomachs, higher metabolic rates, and different dietary requirements compared to older children and adults.

Infant food can include a variety of products such as:

1. Infant formula: A breast milk substitute that is designed to provide all the nutrients an infant needs for growth and development during the first six months of life. It is typically made from cow's milk, soy, or other protein sources and is fortified with vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients.
2. Baby cereal: A single-grain cereal that is often one of the first solid foods introduced to infants around 4-6 months of age. It is usually made from rice, oats, or barley and can be mixed with breast milk, formula, or water to create a thin porridge.
3. Pureed fruits and vegetables: Soft, cooked, and pureed fruits and vegetables are often introduced to infants around 6-8 months of age as they begin to develop their chewing skills. These foods provide important nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, and fiber.
4. Meats, poultry, and fish: Soft, cooked, and finely chopped or pureed meats, poultry, and fish can be introduced to infants around 8-10 months of age. These foods provide essential protein, iron, and other nutrients.
5. Dairy products: Infant food may also include dairy products such as yogurt and cheese, which can be introduced to infants around 9-12 months of age. These foods provide calcium, protein, and other nutrients.

It is important to note that the introduction and composition of infant food may vary depending on cultural practices, individual dietary needs, and medical recommendations. Parents should consult their healthcare provider for guidance on introducing solid foods to their infants and selecting appropriate infant food products.

A drug combination refers to the use of two or more drugs in combination for the treatment of a single medical condition or disease. The rationale behind using drug combinations is to achieve a therapeutic effect that is superior to that obtained with any single agent alone, through various mechanisms such as:

* Complementary modes of action: When different drugs target different aspects of the disease process, their combined effects may be greater than either drug used alone.
* Synergistic interactions: In some cases, the combination of two or more drugs can result in a greater-than-additive effect, where the total response is greater than the sum of the individual responses to each drug.
* Antagonism of adverse effects: Sometimes, the use of one drug can mitigate the side effects of another, allowing for higher doses or longer durations of therapy.

Examples of drug combinations include:

* Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV infection, which typically involves a combination of three or more antiretroviral drugs to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
* Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where combinations of cytotoxic agents are used to target different stages of the cell cycle and increase the likelihood of tumor cell death.
* Fixed-dose combination products, such as those used in the treatment of hypertension or type 2 diabetes, which combine two or more active ingredients into a single formulation for ease of administration and improved adherence to therapy.

However, it's important to note that drug combinations can also increase the risk of adverse effects, drug-drug interactions, and medication errors. Therefore, careful consideration should be given to the selection of appropriate drugs, dosing regimens, and monitoring parameters when using drug combinations in clinical practice.

Educational status refers to the level or stage of education that a person has reached. It can be used to describe an individual's educational background, achievements, and qualifications. Educational status can be categorized in various ways, including by level (e.g., elementary school, high school, college, graduate school), years of schooling completed, or type of degree earned (e.g., bachelor's, master's, doctoral).

In medical settings, educational status may be used as a demographic variable to describe the characteristics of a patient population or to identify potential disparities in health outcomes based on education level. Research has shown that higher levels of education are often associated with better health outcomes, including lower rates of chronic diseases and improved mental health. Therefore, understanding a patient's educational status can help healthcare providers tailor their care and education strategies to meet the unique needs and challenges of each individual.

Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) is a medical approach that combines the best available scientific evidence with clinical expertise and patient values to make informed decisions about diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. It emphasizes the use of systematic research, including randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses, to guide clinical decision making. EBM aims to provide the most effective and efficient care while minimizing variations in practice, reducing errors, and improving patient outcomes.

An inpatient, in medical terms, refers to a person who has been admitted to a hospital or other healthcare facility for the purpose of receiving medical treatment and who is expected to remain there for at least one night. Inpatients are typically cared for by a team of healthcare professionals, including doctors, nurses, and therapists, and may receive various treatments, such as medications, surgeries, or rehabilitation services.

Inpatient care is generally recommended for patients who require close monitoring, frequent assessments, or intensive medical interventions that cannot be provided in an outpatient setting. The length of stay for inpatients can vary widely depending on the nature and severity of their condition, as well as their individual treatment plan.

Multivariate analysis is a statistical method used to examine the relationship between multiple independent variables and a dependent variable. It allows for the simultaneous examination of the effects of two or more independent variables on an outcome, while controlling for the effects of other variables in the model. This technique can be used to identify patterns, associations, and interactions among multiple variables, and is commonly used in medical research to understand complex health outcomes and disease processes. Examples of multivariate analysis methods include multiple regression, factor analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis.

'Bromus' is a genus of plants in the grass family, Poaceae. It includes several species of annual and perennial grasses that are commonly known as brome or cheatgrass. These plants are native to Europe, Asia, and Africa, but some have been introduced and naturalized in other parts of the world, including North America. Some Bromus species can be invasive and cause problems for native vegetation and wildlife habitats.

It's important to note that 'Bromus' is a taxonomic category (a genus) and not a medical term or concept. Therefore, it does not have a specific medical definition. However, if someone has an allergic reaction or other health issues related to exposure to Bromus grasses, then the symptoms and treatment would be similar to those of other allergies or plant-related health problems.

Iron-deficiency anemia is a condition characterized by a decrease in the total amount of hemoglobin or red blood cells in the blood, caused by insufficient iron levels in the body. Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. When iron levels are low, the body cannot produce enough hemoglobin, leading to the production of smaller and fewer red blood cells, known as microcytic hypochromic anemia.

Iron is essential for the production of hemoglobin, and a deficiency in iron can result from inadequate dietary intake, chronic blood loss, or impaired absorption. In addition to fatigue and weakness, symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia may include shortness of breath, headaches, dizziness, pale skin, and brittle nails. Treatment typically involves iron supplementation and addressing the underlying cause of the iron deficiency.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is not a standard or widely recognized medical term. It seems to be a very specific phrase that may relate to various physiological processes and phenomena related to infant nutrition.

To try and provide some clarity, I can offer a brief explanation of the individual terms:

1. Infant: A young child, typically under one year of age.
2. Nutritional: Relating to food or nourishment, particularly in relation to energy and the balance of essential nutrients required for growth, repair, and maintenance of bodily functions.
3. Physiological: Describing processes and functions that occur within a living organism as part of normal bodily function, including biochemical reactions, organ function, and responses to environmental stimuli.
4. Phenomena: Observable events or occurrences.

So, "Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" could refer to observable events or processes related to an infant's nutrition and physiology. However, without further context, it is difficult to provide a more precise definition. Examples of such phenomena might include the development of feeding skills, growth patterns, or changes in metabolism related to dietary intake.

A factual database in the medical context is a collection of organized and structured data that contains verified and accurate information related to medicine, healthcare, or health sciences. These databases serve as reliable resources for various stakeholders, including healthcare professionals, researchers, students, and patients, to access evidence-based information for making informed decisions and enhancing knowledge.

Examples of factual medical databases include:

1. PubMed: A comprehensive database of biomedical literature maintained by the US National Library of Medicine (NLM). It contains citations and abstracts from life sciences journals, books, and conference proceedings.
2. MEDLINE: A subset of PubMed, MEDLINE focuses on high-quality, peer-reviewed articles related to biomedicine and health. It is the primary component of the NLM's database and serves as a critical resource for healthcare professionals and researchers worldwide.
3. Cochrane Library: A collection of systematic reviews and meta-analyses focused on evidence-based medicine. The library aims to provide unbiased, high-quality information to support clinical decision-making and improve patient outcomes.
4. OVID: A platform that offers access to various medical and healthcare databases, including MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO. It facilitates the search and retrieval of relevant literature for researchers, clinicians, and students.
5. ClinicalTrials.gov: A registry and results database of publicly and privately supported clinical studies conducted around the world. The platform aims to increase transparency and accessibility of clinical trial data for healthcare professionals, researchers, and patients.
6. UpToDate: An evidence-based, physician-authored clinical decision support resource that provides information on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of medical conditions. It serves as a point-of-care tool for healthcare professionals to make informed decisions and improve patient care.
7. TRIP Database: A search engine designed to facilitate evidence-based medicine by providing quick access to high-quality resources, including systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, and practice recommendations.
8. National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC): A database of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and related documents developed through a rigorous review process. The NGC aims to provide clinicians, healthcare providers, and policymakers with reliable guidance for patient care.
9. DrugBank: A comprehensive, freely accessible online database containing detailed information about drugs, their mechanisms, interactions, and targets. It serves as a valuable resource for researchers, healthcare professionals, and students in the field of pharmacology and drug discovery.
10. Genetic Testing Registry (GTR): A database that provides centralized information about genetic tests, test developers, laboratories offering tests, and clinical validity and utility of genetic tests. It serves as a resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, and patients to make informed decisions regarding genetic testing.

Pharmaceutical chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the design, synthesis, and development of chemical entities used as medications. It involves the study of drugs' physical, chemical, and biological properties, as well as their interactions with living organisms. This field also encompasses understanding the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of drugs in the body, which are critical factors in drug design and development. Pharmaceutical chemists often work closely with biologists, medical professionals, and engineers to develop new medications and improve existing ones.

Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) is a laboratory value that measures the amount of urea nitrogen in the blood. Urea nitrogen is a waste product that is formed when proteins are broken down in the liver. The kidneys filter urea nitrogen from the blood and excrete it as urine.

A high BUN level may indicate impaired kidney function, as the kidneys are not effectively removing urea nitrogen from the blood. However, BUN levels can also be affected by other factors such as dehydration, heart failure, or gastrointestinal bleeding. Therefore, BUN should be interpreted in conjunction with other laboratory values and clinical findings.

The normal range for BUN is typically between 7-20 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter) or 2.5-7.1 mmol/L (millimoles per liter), but the reference range may vary depending on the laboratory.

A confidence interval (CI) is a range of values that is likely to contain the true value of a population parameter with a certain level of confidence. It is commonly used in statistical analysis to express the uncertainty associated with estimates derived from sample data.

For example, if we calculate a 95% confidence interval for the mean height of a population based on a sample of individuals, we can say that we are 95% confident that the true population mean height falls within the calculated range. The width of the confidence interval gives us an idea of how precise our estimate is - narrower intervals indicate more precise estimates, while wider intervals suggest greater uncertainty.

Confidence intervals are typically calculated using statistical formulas that take into account the sample size, standard deviation, and level of confidence desired. They can be used to compare different groups or to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in medical research.

Amino acids are organic compounds that serve as the building blocks of proteins. They consist of a central carbon atom, also known as the alpha carbon, which is bonded to an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH), a hydrogen atom (H), and a variable side chain (R group). The R group can be composed of various combinations of atoms such as hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon, which determine the unique properties of each amino acid.

There are 20 standard amino acids that are encoded by the genetic code and incorporated into proteins during translation. These include:

1. Alanine (Ala)
2. Arginine (Arg)
3. Asparagine (Asn)
4. Aspartic acid (Asp)
5. Cysteine (Cys)
6. Glutamine (Gln)
7. Glutamic acid (Glu)
8. Glycine (Gly)
9. Histidine (His)
10. Isoleucine (Ile)
11. Leucine (Leu)
12. Lysine (Lys)
13. Methionine (Met)
14. Phenylalanine (Phe)
15. Proline (Pro)
16. Serine (Ser)
17. Threonine (Thr)
18. Tryptophan (Trp)
19. Tyrosine (Tyr)
20. Valine (Val)

Additionally, there are several non-standard or modified amino acids that can be incorporated into proteins through post-translational modifications, such as hydroxylation, methylation, and phosphorylation. These modifications expand the functional diversity of proteins and play crucial roles in various cellular processes.

Amino acids are essential for numerous biological functions, including protein synthesis, enzyme catalysis, neurotransmitter production, energy metabolism, and immune response regulation. Some amino acids can be synthesized by the human body (non-essential), while others must be obtained through dietary sources (essential).

African Americans are defined as individuals who have ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. This term is often used to describe people living in the United States who have total or partial descent from enslaved African peoples. The term does not refer to a single ethnicity but is a broad term that includes various ethnic groups with diverse cultures, languages, and traditions. It's important to note that some individuals may prefer to identify as Black or of African descent rather than African American, depending on their personal identity and background.

Methionine is an essential amino acid, which means that it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. It plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including:

1. Protein synthesis: Methionine is one of the building blocks of proteins, helping to create new proteins and maintain the structure and function of cells.
2. Methylation: Methionine serves as a methyl group donor in various biochemical reactions, which are essential for DNA synthesis, gene regulation, and neurotransmitter production.
3. Antioxidant defense: Methionine can be converted to cysteine, which is involved in the formation of glutathione, a potent antioxidant that helps protect cells from oxidative damage.
4. Homocysteine metabolism: Methionine is involved in the conversion of homocysteine back to methionine through a process called remethylation, which is essential for maintaining normal homocysteine levels and preventing cardiovascular disease.
5. Fat metabolism: Methionine helps facilitate the breakdown and metabolism of fats in the body.

Foods rich in methionine include meat, fish, dairy products, eggs, and some nuts and seeds.

Vegetable proteins, also known as plant-based proteins, are nitrogenous organic compounds derived from plants. These proteins are composed of amino acid chains that are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues. Vegetable proteins can be found in a wide variety of plant sources such as legumes (e.g., beans, lentils, peas), grains (e.g., rice, wheat, corn), nuts, seeds, and vegetables.

It is important to note that while vegetable proteins are often considered "incomplete" because they may lack one or more of the essential amino acids found in animal-based proteins, consuming a variety of plant-based protein sources throughout the day can provide all the necessary amino acids for a healthy diet. Vegetarian and vegan diets that are well-planned can meet protein needs without the use of animal products.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

Linoleic acid is a type of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) that is essential for human health. It is one of the two essential fatty acids, meaning that it cannot be produced by the body and must be obtained through diet.

Linoleic acid is a member of the omega-6 fatty acid family and has a chemical structure with two double bonds at the sixth and ninth carbon atoms from the methyl end of the molecule. It is found in various plant sources, such as vegetable oils (e.g., soybean, corn, safflower, and sunflower oils), nuts, seeds, and whole grains.

Linoleic acid plays a crucial role in maintaining the fluidity and function of cell membranes, producing eicosanoids (hormone-like substances that regulate various bodily functions), and supporting skin health. However, excessive intake of linoleic acid can lead to an imbalance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, which may contribute to inflammation and chronic diseases. Therefore, it is recommended to maintain a balanced diet with appropriate amounts of both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids.

In medical terms, disclosure generally refers to the act of revealing or sharing confidential or sensitive information with another person or entity. This can include disclosing a patient's medical history, diagnosis, treatment plan, or other personal health information to the patient themselves, their family members, or other healthcare providers involved in their care.

Disclosure is an important aspect of informed consent, as patients have the right to know their medical condition and the risks and benefits of various treatment options. Healthcare providers are required to disclose relevant information to their patients in a clear and understandable manner, so that they can make informed decisions about their healthcare.

In some cases, disclosure may also be required by law or professional ethical standards, such as when there is a legal obligation to report certain types of injuries or illnesses, or when there is a concern for patient safety. It is important for healthcare providers to carefully consider the potential risks and benefits of disclosure in each individual case, and to ensure that they are acting in the best interests of their patients while also protecting their privacy and confidentiality.

A physician is a healthcare professional who practices medicine, providing medical care and treatment to patients. Physicians may specialize in various fields of medicine, such as internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, psychiatry, or radiology, among others. They are responsible for diagnosing and treating illnesses, injuries, and disorders; prescribing medications; ordering and interpreting diagnostic tests; providing counseling and education to patients; and collaborating with other healthcare professionals to provide comprehensive care. Physicians may work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, private practices, and academic medical centers. To become a physician, one must complete a Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) degree program and pass licensing exams to practice medicine in their state.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sweden" is not a medical term. It is a country located in northern Europe. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those!

Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) are a group of birth defects that affect the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They occur when the neural tube, which forms the early brain and spinal cord of the embryo, does not close properly during fetal development. This can result in various conditions such as:

1. Anencephaly: a severe defect where most of the brain and skull are missing. Infants with anencephaly are usually stillborn or die shortly after birth.
2. Spina bifida: a condition where the spine does not close properly, leaving a portion of the spinal cord and nerves exposed. This can result in various neurological problems, including paralysis, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and hydrocephalus (fluid buildup in the brain).
3. Encephalocele: a condition where the skull does not close properly, allowing the brain to protrude through an opening in the skull. This can result in various neurological problems, including developmental delays, vision and hearing impairments, and seizures.

NTDs are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, such as folic acid deficiency, obesity, diabetes, and exposure to certain medications during pregnancy. Folic acid supplementation before and during early pregnancy has been shown to reduce the risk of NTDs.

Medical definitions of "fish products" generally refer to any food or supplement that is derived from fish or aquatic animals. This can include:

1. Fresh, frozen, or canned fish such as salmon, tuna, cod, and sardines.
2. Fish oils, which are often used as dietary supplements for their omega-3 fatty acid content.
3. Processed fish products like surimi (imitation crab meat), fish sticks, and fish sauce.

It's important to note that the nutritional content and potential health benefits or risks of fish products can vary widely depending on the specific type of fish, how it was caught or farmed, and how it was processed and prepared.

Acute liver failure is a sudden and severe loss of liver function that occurs within a few days or weeks. It can be caused by various factors such as drug-induced liver injury, viral hepatitis, or metabolic disorders. In acute liver failure, the liver cannot perform its vital functions, including protein synthesis, detoxification, and metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.

The symptoms of acute liver failure include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), coagulopathy (bleeding disorders), hepatic encephalopathy (neurological symptoms such as confusion, disorientation, and coma), and elevated levels of liver enzymes in the blood. Acute liver failure is a medical emergency that requires immediate hospitalization and treatment, which may include medications, supportive care, and liver transplantation.

Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI) is a medical term that refers to liver damage or injury caused by the use of medications or drugs. This condition can vary in severity, from mild abnormalities in liver function tests to severe liver failure, which may require a liver transplant.

The exact mechanism of DILI can differ depending on the drug involved, but it generally occurs when the liver metabolizes the drug into toxic compounds that damage liver cells. This can happen through various pathways, including direct toxicity to liver cells, immune-mediated reactions, or metabolic idiosyncrasies.

Symptoms of DILI may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fatigue, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and dark urine. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as ascites, encephalopathy, and bleeding disorders.

The diagnosis of DILI is often challenging because it requires the exclusion of other potential causes of liver injury. Liver function tests, imaging studies, and sometimes liver biopsies may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment typically involves discontinuing the offending drug and providing supportive care until the liver recovers. In some cases, medications that protect the liver or promote its healing may be used.

Data collection in the medical context refers to the systematic gathering of information relevant to a specific research question or clinical situation. This process involves identifying and recording data elements, such as demographic characteristics, medical history, physical examination findings, laboratory results, and imaging studies, from various sources including patient interviews, medical records, and diagnostic tests. The data collected is used to support clinical decision-making, inform research hypotheses, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. It is essential that data collection is performed in a standardized and unbiased manner to ensure the validity and reliability of the results.

In a medical or healthcare context, self-disclosure generally refers to the act of a patient voluntarily sharing personal, relevant information about themselves with their healthcare provider. This could include details about their lifestyle, thoughts, feelings, experiences, or symptoms that may be pertinent to their health status or treatment. The purpose of self-disclosure is to enhance the provider's understanding of the patient's condition and facilitate more effective care planning, monitoring, and management. It is essential for building trust, fostering open communication, and promoting a strong therapeutic relationship between patients and healthcare providers.

It is important to note that self-disclosure should be encouraged in a safe, respectful, and confidential environment, where the patient feels comfortable sharing personal information without fear of judgment or negative consequences. Healthcare providers must maintain appropriate professional boundaries while still fostering an atmosphere of trust and collaboration with their patients.

The Glycemic Index (GI) is a measure of how quickly a carbohydrate-containing food raises blood glucose levels, compared to a reference food (usually pure glucose). It is expressed as a percentage on a scale from 0 to 100. A food with a high GI raises blood glucose levels more rapidly and higher than a food with a low GI.

Foods are ranked based on the speed at which they cause an increase in blood sugar levels, with high GI foods causing a rapid spike and low GI foods causing a slower, more gradual rise. This can be useful for people managing diabetes or other conditions where maintaining stable blood glucose levels is important.

It's worth noting that the glycemic index of a food can vary depending on factors such as ripeness, cooking method, and the presence of fiber or fat in the meal. Therefore, it's best to consider GI values as a general guide rather than an absolute rule.

Health care surveys are research tools used to systematically collect information from a population or sample regarding their experiences, perceptions, and knowledge of health services, health outcomes, and various other health-related topics. These surveys typically consist of standardized questionnaires that cover specific aspects of healthcare, such as access to care, quality of care, patient satisfaction, health disparities, and healthcare costs. The data gathered from health care surveys are used to inform policy decisions, improve healthcare delivery, identify best practices, allocate resources, and monitor the health status of populations. Health care surveys can be conducted through various modes, including in-person interviews, telephone interviews, mail-in questionnaires, or online platforms.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

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Nascent Iodine sometimes known by the generic term atomic iodine or generic trademark name Atomidine or by the misname detoxified iodine, is a liquid orally administered supplemental form of iodine, claimed to be in the monatomic state, originating from a 1931 Edgar Cayce formula. There is no evidence that "Nascent Iodine" is in any way distinct or superior to tincture of iodine. The promotion of "Nascent Iodine" is a form of quackery. In 1929 the FDA Bureau of Chemistry stated on Atomidine advertised health claims "As far as our records go, all of these claims are without a scintilla of printed scientific evidence to substantiate the claim that Atomidine is superior or even the equal to tincture of iodine...". The concept of nascent state is obsolete. Thus, the name nascent iodine is a misrepresentation. Choudhry, Hani; Nasrullah, Md. (1 June 2018). "Iodine consumption and cognitive performance: Confirmation of adequate consumption". Food Science & Nutrition. 6 (6): 1341-1351. ...
"Dietary Supplements." FDA.gov - New Dietary Ingredients in Dietary Supplements - Background for Industry [1] Commissioner, ... "dietary supplement." The word "dietary" may be replaced by the name of the dietary ingredient (e.g., "ginseng supplement") net ... Furthermore, a dietary supplement must be labeled as a dietary supplement and be intended for ingestion and must not be ... "Dietary Supplements and Safety". The New York Times. 2013-12-26. Barrett, Stephen (2007). "How the Dietary Supplement Health ...
The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 mandated that the FDA regulate dietary supplements as foods, rather ... The FDA can take action against dietary supplements only after they are proven to be unsafe. Dietary supplements may be deemed ... without proof of effectiveness or safety needed to market a supplement, as well as dietary supplements being classified as ... Consequently, dietary supplements are defined as a kind of food under the statute, with the caveat that this does not exempt ...
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"Dietary Supplements". Food and Drug Administration. 4 February 2020. Khan-Merchant N, Penumetcha M, Meilhac O, Parthasarathy S ... In the US, the health food industry's dietary supplements are self-regulated and outside of FDA regulations. To properly ... November 2004). "Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: the Rotterdam Study ... These dietary recommendations reach a consensus, though, against consumption of trans fats.[citation needed] The role of eating ...
Although ginseng is sold as a dietary supplement, inconsistent manufacturing practices for supplements have led to analyses of ... Mahady, Gail B.; Fong, Harry H.S.; Farnsworth, N.R. (2001). Botanical Dietary Supplements. CRC Press. pp. 207-215. ISBN 978-90- ... Ginseng may be included in energy drinks or herbal teas in small amounts or sold as a dietary supplement. The root is most ... Dietary supplements, Herbs, Medicinal plants of Asia, Non-timber forest products, Panax, Plant common names, Plants used in ...
Mahady, G.B.; Fong, H.H.S.; Farnsworth, N.R. (2001). Botanical Dietary Supplements. Taylor & Francis. p. 47. ISBN 978-90-265- ... for Use in Nutrient Content Claims for Dietary Supplements and Conventional Foods U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ...
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Dietary supplements, Malt). ... Originally designed as a nutritional supplement for the feeding ... By the 1950s it was marketed in brown glass jars as a health supplement. Alternative suggested usages were as a nerve tonic to ... and was designed as a nutritional supplement for the feeding of infants. A company was set up to manufacture it the following ... and was designed as a nutritional supplement for the feeding of infants. The original ingredients of Virol were red marrow ...
Mahady, Gail B.; Fong, Harry H.S.; Farnsworth, N.R. (2001). Botanical Dietary Supplements. CRC Press. pp. 207-215. ISBN 978-90- ...
In addition to its role as a natural hormone and antioxidant, melatonin is used as a dietary supplement and medication in the ... Coates PM, Blackman MR, Cragg GM, Levine M, Moss J, White JD (2005). Encyclopedia of dietary supplements. New York, N.Y: Marcel ... Melatonin is used as a prescription medication and over-the-counter dietary supplement in the treatment of sleep disorders such ... Some supplements contained up to 347% of the declared quantity. Melatonin is an active pharmaceutical ingredient in Europe, ...
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Journal of Dietary Supplements. 10 (2): 152-170. doi:10.3109/19390211.2013.793541. PMID 23725528. S2CID 29310420. Fluyau D, ...
Journal of Dietary Supplements. 14 (5): 521-541. doi:10.1080/19390211.2016.1272659. PMID 28156165. S2CID 25932512. Engelhardt ...
Office of Dietary Supplements. National Institutes of Health. February 2020. Kluger MJ, Rothenburg BA (January 1979). "Fever ... Upon diagnosis, the condition can be treated with iron supplements. The choice of supplement will depend upon both the severity ... Good sources of dietary iron have heme iron, as this is most easily absorbed and is not inhibited by medication or other ... A number of dietary factors may affect iron absorption. When loss of iron is not sufficiently compensated by intake of iron ...
"Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin B12". Office of Dietary Supplements. Retrieved 2 October 2011. "Dietary Supplement Fact ... "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Iodine". Office of Dietary Supplements. Retrieved 2 October 2011. "Mean dry mass (male) - Fruit ... Office of Dietary Supplements. Retrieved 2 October 2011. Report to the CGPM, 14th meeting of the Consultative Committee for ...
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CENTER FOR RESEARCH ON BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. Abstract: DESCRIPTION: The Center on Dietary Botanical Supplements at ... Grant Abstract: CENTER FOR RESEARCH ON BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. Grant Number: 5P01ES012020-04. PI Name: BIRT, DIANE. ... Project 4 will conduct epidemiological studies of dietary botanical supplements. Project 5 will conduct phase 1 and II clinical ... These herbs also offer different models for research on botanical supplements and for expanding our understanding of the ...
Our Dietary Supplement Manufacturing Code can be applied to food sector categories for dietary supplement manufacturing. ... Our Dietary Supplement Manufacturing Code can be applied to food sector categories for dietary supplement manufacturing. ...
... published research shows a lack of strong evidence that dietary supplements and alternative therapies help ... Even though the National Institutes of Healths Office of Dietary Supplements has advanced the science of dietary supplements ... Review shows minimal high-quality evidence dietary supplements lead to weight loss. June 23, 2021. June 23, 2021. The Obesity ... The paper, titled "A Systematic Review of Dietary Supplements and Alternative Therapies for Weight Loss", will be published in ...
... May 12, 2011. Robby Gardner ... The future looks bright for algae, extending even beyond dietary supplements. New Zealand-based Photonz Corp. (Auckland, New ... In making dietary recommendations, omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA should be distinguished in food labels because they are ... The ingredient is available as raw material or as a finished supplement, Ovega (under the Amerifit brand). ...
Power every day with Emergen-C dietary supplements. From immune support to keeping up with your wellness goals, Emergen-C helps ... vitamin B6 and vitamin E is a dietary supplement for occasional sleeplessness. ¥ Combinations are within 24 hours § Excludes ...
General Well Being Dietary Supplement Market: Report Scope A latest market report by Persistence Market Research on the global ... general well-being dietary supplement market evaluates the opportunities and current ... Global Market Study on General Well-Being Dietary Supplements: Vitamins and Minerals to Remain Largest Segment Across the ... General Well Being Dietary Supplement Market: Report Scope. A latest market report by Persistence Market Research on the global ...
Dietary Supplement Product Information (DSPI) Dietary Supplement Ingredient Information (DSII) Dietary Supplement Blend ... Dietary Supplement Ingredient Information (DSII), and Dietary Supplement Blend Information (DSBI). 30-Day Dietary Supplements ... a separate dietary supplement container was seen for each reported dietary supplement both mentions of the dietary supplement ... DSD010 - Any Dietary Supplements Taken?. Variable Name: DSD010. SAS Label: Any Dietary Supplements Taken?. English Text: The ...
Trace Minerals Research Ionic Selenium Dietary Supplement -- 300 mcg - 2 fl oz * Shop all Trace Minerals Research ... Ionic Selenium is a rich, concentrated liquid dietary supplement that provides selenium in an ionic form - the form most widely ... Trace Minerals Research Ionic Selenium Dietary Supplement -- 300 mcg - 2 fl oz ... Iodine is also seen in supplements, and also found in cough syrups and select medications. Radiation exposure. A significant ...
... the CRN survey has served as the leading source for data on the attitudes and behaviors of the dietary supplement consumer. ... CRNs annual survey offers thousands of datapoints on consumer use of dietary supplements. For over two decades, ... on Dietary Supplements has served as the leading source for data on the attitudes and behaviors of the dietary supplement ... Learn more about the healthy habits of dietary supplement users.... Contact Gretchen Powers for information on purchasing the ...
Congress boosted funding for the Food and Drug Administrations Office of Dietary Supplement Programs by $2 million to enhance ... when the current regulatory framework was established by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act and the supplement ... Funding Boost Should Be Followed by Reform of FDA Dietary Supplement Oversight Congress must pass mandatory product listing ... Funding Boost Should Be Followed by Reform of FDA Dietary Supplement Oversight ...
Breaking News , Dietary Supplements , Digestive Health , Probiotics & Prebiotics , Skin Health , Supplier News ... Delivery & Dosage Technologies , Dietary Supplements , Energy , Herbs & Botanicals , Mood Health & Sleep , Regulations ... Contract Manufacturing , Delivery & Dosage Technologies , Dietary Supplements , Fatty Acids , Herbs & Botanicals , World ... Consumers are seeking dietary supplements that are tailored to meet their individualized needs and are presented in flexible, ...
2C and Dietary Supplements) and Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements What to Read Next on Medscape ... Dietary Nutrients, Nutrient Testing, and Supplements. All of the dietary nutrients that may reduce the risk of developing ... With dietary supplements and cancer prevention, the current mantras of "first do no harm" and "less is more" appear to make ... In addition, several dietary supplements that are marketed as antioxidents have the potential, if used in excess, to increase ...
Increasing productivity and reducing methane emissions by supplementing feed with dietary lipids. ... A range of lipid containing supplements were tested in vivo in a feeding trial using Bos indicus cross steers. The supplements ... All lipid supplements were included at a rate of 50g lipid/kgDM. Supplementation increased live-weight gain over an 11 week ... It is recommended the use of whole cottonseed and Algamac as a supplement to cattle fed a basal diet of tropical pastures due ...
In 1994, the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act, defined a dietary supplement as a vitamin, mineral, herb or other ... Other Dietary Supplements. A number of other dietary supplements have been promoted as treatments for diabetic neuropathy. ... Botanicals and Dietary Supplements in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Botanicals and dietary supplements involved in only one RCT or associated with little clinical benefit were reviewed in brief. ...
... supplements) and specific endpoints. Is the specific supplement itself causing worse outcomes or is the supplement a marker for ... Dietary supplement use during chemotherapy and survival outcomes of patients with breast cancer enrolled in a cooperative group ... Dietary supplement use during chemotherapy and survival outcomes of patients with breast cancer enrolled in a cooperative group ... In this question, omega-3s from fish were considered equal to omega-3s from dietary supplements as well as those found in ...
  • In 1941 the United States Food and Drug Administration proffered definitions for dietary supplementary foods which included minerals, vitamins and other specialized supplements. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the early 1970s the FDA tried to restrict the definition of dietary supplements to essential nutrients such as vitamins and minerals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health defines dietary supplements as a variety of products, including herbs, vitamins and minerals, and probiotics. (aafp.org)
  • Under current law, now decades old, FDA is responsible for overseeing supplement products-such as vitamins, herbs, and minerals-but cannot review or test their safety before they are sold. (pewtrusts.org)
  • Dietary supplements are products taken by mouth that contain one or more dietary ingredients (vitamins, minerals, herbs or other botanicals, amino acids, and other substances) or their constituents and are labeled as such on the front panel. (cdc.gov)
  • Of the latter, 27.7% had used herbal supplements, 56.2% vitamins and minerals and 56.9% non-vitamin, non-mineral, non-herbal supplements. (who.int)
  • The PubMed Dietary Supplement Subset (PMDSS) is a joint project between the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS). (wikipedia.org)
  • The subset was created using a search strategy that includes terms provided by the Office of Dietary Supplements, and selected journals indexed for PubMed that include significant dietary supplement related content. (wikipedia.org)
  • It succeeds the International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements (IBIDS) database, 1999-2010, which was a collaboration between the Office of Dietary Supplements and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Agricultural Library. (wikipedia.org)
  • DSHEA mandated the establishment of the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health. (wikipedia.org)
  • During 2017-2018, 57.6% of adults aged ≥20 years had taken a dietary supplement within the past 30 days. (cdc.gov)
  • Nearly 25% of U.S. adults report concurrently taking a prescription medication with a dietary supplement. (aafp.org)
  • Estimates show that between 40% and 60% of U.S. adults with chronic disease use dietary supplements, and among patients taking prescription medications, an estimated 20% to 25% concurrently use a dietary supplement. (aafp.org)
  • Additionally, 1 in 8 adults (12%) in a 2019 Pew survey said they or an immediate family member had experienced a severe side effect, such as a heart, kidney, or liver problem, from a supplement. (pewtrusts.org)
  • In the 2019 national survey , 95% of adults said supplement manufacturers should be required to give the agency a list of the products they make and their ingredients. (pewtrusts.org)
  • Directions: As a dietary supplement for adults take 1 capsule, 1 to 3 times daily, with a large glass of water, or as directed by a healthcare professional. (futurebiotics.com)
  • Garlic supplements appear safe for most adults. (cdc.gov)
  • In its 2022 appropriations package, Congress boosted funding for the Food and Drug Administration's Office of Dietary Supplement Programs by $2 million to enhance oversight of a wide range of products, including many of questionable safety. (pewtrusts.org)
  • The planning and administration Core (Core B) will facilitate overall management of the Center, coordinate the statistical component and increase research on dietary botanicals at UI and ISU through provision of development funds and pilot projects. (nih.gov)
  • The subset is designed to limit search results to citations from a broad spectrum of dietary supplement literature including vitamin, mineral, phytochemical, ergogenic, botanical, and herbal supplements in human nutrition and animal models. (wikipedia.org)
  • The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey reports widespread use of vitamin supplements. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The largest clinical trial ever conducted on the use of dietary supplements to prevent cancer was the selenium and vitamin E supplementation randomized trial (SELECT). (medscape.com)
  • It defines a dietary supplement as any product (besides tobacco) that contains a vitamin, mineral, herb or other plant product, or amino acid and that is intended as a supplement to the normal diet. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Wandering down the vitamin aisle and have questions about a supplement? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Vitamin A supplements : a guide to their use in the treatment of vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia / prepared by a WHO/UNICEF/IVACG task force. (who.int)
  • Botanical ingredients would be an example of nutrients not released in the Individual Dietary Supplement file, but can be obtained from the NHANES-DSD files. (cdc.gov)
  • They should pass legislation that requires manufacturers to inform the agency of all supplements they make and their ingredients. (pewtrusts.org)
  • Analyses of supplements sometimes find differences between labeled and actual ingredients. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, products marketed as dietary supplements have been found to contain illegal hidden ingredients, such as prescription drugs. (cdc.gov)
  • These herbs also offer different models for research on botanical supplements and for expanding our understanding of the potential health benefit of herbs. (nih.gov)
  • Dietary supplements include medicinal herbs and nutraceuticals (products derived from food sources that claim to provide health benefits). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Ionic Selenium is a rich, concentrated liquid dietary supplement that provides selenium in an ionic form - the form most widely recognized by the body. (vitacost.com)
  • In 1994, against recommendations from the FDA, the Dietary Supplement Health Education Act (DSHEA) was passed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the use of dietary supplements is widespread, the United States government passed the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) in 1994. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The DSHEA requires that the label of a dietary supplement identify it as such. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The Agency also reiterated the reasons it believes Delta-8 is not a suitable ingredient for products marketed as supplements. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • Some supplements may cause interactions with a few medications but are likely to be safe with other medications (e.g., curcumin, echinacea, garlic, Asian ginseng, green tea extract, kava kava). (aafp.org)
  • 1 - 3 Accordingly, there has been increasing concern over the potential for dietary supplements, particularly herbal dietary supplements, to interact with prescription medications. (aafp.org)
  • Clinicians should ask patients who take over-the-counter or prescription medications about their use of dietary supplements. (aafp.org)
  • CAUTION: We recommend you discuss the supplements and medications you take with your healthcare provider. (target.com)
  • The Dietary Supplement and Prescription Medication Section (DSQ) of the Sample Person (SP) Questionnaire, collects information on 1) prescription and non-prescription dietary supplements (DS), 2) non-prescription antacids, 3) prescription medications, and 4) asthma medication. (cdc.gov)
  • Clinicians should consult reliable dietary supplement resources, or clinical pharmacists or pharmacologists, to help assess the safety of specific herbal supplement-drug combinations. (aafp.org)
  • This review focuses on drug interactions with herbal dietary supplements, which are defined as supplements containing whole plant or plant extracts that are consumed as powder, capsule, tablet, or liquid formulations. (aafp.org)
  • With specific exceptions (e.g., ginkgo and warfarin [Coumadin]), clinicians should have low concern for drug interactions with these herbal supplements. (aafp.org)
  • Clinically important interactions between an herbal supplement and a drug typically manifest as pharmacokinetic interactions, which affect a drug's concentration in the blood and pharmacologic action. (aafp.org)
  • Risk of a pharmacokinetic interaction occurs when an herbal supplement shares the same mechanism of absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion (ADME) as a coadministered drug. (aafp.org)
  • Competition between an herbal supplement and a drug for a shared ADME mechanism may result in a change in the drug's concentration at the site of action. (aafp.org)
  • Less commonly, herb-drug interactions may manifest as pharmacodynamic interactions, which involve direct pharmacologic actions of an herbal supplement that are unrelated to changes in blood concentrations. (aafp.org)
  • Risk of a pharmacodynamic interaction occurs when an herbal supplement has a direct effect on the mechanism of action of a coadministered drug. (aafp.org)
  • Direct pharmacologic effects of an herbal supplement may antagonize or exacerbate the drug's clinical effects without changing the drug's concentration. (aafp.org)
  • Claims made about dietary supplements, herbal products (see Box 2-15 ), and other complementary approaches for travel-related health problems may not be supported by evidence. (cdc.gov)
  • ABSTRACT There is increasing demand for herbal and nutritional supplements in the Middle East. (who.int)
  • The pack includes 30 easy-to-swallow probiotic supplement capsules that deliver helpful probiotics that can aid in replenishing your body's good bacteria and support your immune health - since 70% of your immune system is found in your digestive tract. (target.com)
  • 2 Difficulty swallowing tablets and capsules, for instance, may make it challenging for some consumers to consistently take supplements. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • A latest market report by Persistence Market Research on the global general well-being dietary supplement market evaluates the opportunities and current market scenario, providing insights and updates about corresponding segments involved in the market for the forecast period of 2023-2033. (bccresearch.com)
  • Brand-new data from the 2023 CRN Consumer Survey on Dietary Supplements, with new questions gathering deeper insights on attitudes and usage, will be available soon. (crnusa.org)
  • Abstract: DESCRIPTION: The Center on Dietary Botanical Supplements at Iowa State University (ISU) and the University of Iowa (UI) will link two traditionally strong complementary institutions and focus their effort on important research on botanical supplements. (nih.gov)
  • Project 4 will conduct epidemiological studies of dietary botanical supplements. (nih.gov)
  • PMDSS is designed to help people search for academic journal articles related to dietary supplement literature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Dietary supplements. (who.int)
  • FDA regulates dietary supplements, but the regulations are generally less strict than those for prescription or over-the-counter drugs. (cdc.gov)
  • Some supplements, such as St. John's wort and goldenseal, are known to cause clinically important drug interactions and should be avoided by most patients receiving any pharmacologic therapy. (aafp.org)
  • However, many other supplements are predicted to cause interactions based only on in vitro studies that have not been confirmed or have been refuted in human clinical trials. (aafp.org)
  • Because most patients do not disclose supplement use to clinicians, the most important strategy for detecting herb-drug interactions is to develop a trusting relationship that encourages patients to discuss their dietary supplement use. (aafp.org)
  • Clinicians who are able to distinguish between pharmacokinetic/ADME interactions and pharmacodynamic interactions will be able to make better clinical decisions about whether to adjust the drug's dosage or discontinue the supplement. (aafp.org)
  • Two major safety concerns about dietary supplements are potential drug interactions and product contamination. (cdc.gov)
  • Short-term use of most commercially available garlic supplements poses only a limited risk for drug interactions. (cdc.gov)
  • These oversight gaps may not have been as concerning in 1994, when the current regulatory framework was established by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act and the supplement market was a small fraction of what it is now. (pewtrusts.org)
  • The National Institutes of Health does not recommend supplementing the diet with vitamins or nutrients beyond the recommended daily allowances (RDAs). (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Grass fed Argentinian beef thymus supplement provides nutrients found in the beef thymus and beef liver in a single solution. (fredmeyer.com)
  • Amounts of 34 nutrients/dietary components (listed in Appendix 2 ) from each dietary supplement and antacid, as calculated using the NHANES-DSD. (cdc.gov)
  • If data is missing for any of the variables needed to calculate the amounts consumed for the selected nutrients, this information will be missing for individuals, even though they reported a supplement. (cdc.gov)
  • The NHANES-DSD datasets provide information on nutrients in the dietary supplement as reported on the product label. (cdc.gov)
  • Mean daily intake aggregates of 34 nutrients/dietary components (listed in Appendix 2 ) from all supplements and antacids, as calculated using the NHANES-DSD. (cdc.gov)
  • Dietary Supplement Product Information (DSPI), Dietary Supplement Ingredient Information (DSII), and Dietary Supplement Blend Information (DSBI). (cdc.gov)
  • Given the potential for human exposure to silver nanoparticle s from spray disinfectants and dietary supplements, we characterized the silver-containing nanoparticle s in 22 commercial products that advertised the use of silver or colloidal silver as the active ingredient. (cdc.gov)
  • Adding anything to your regular diet to improve your health or healing is considered a dietary supplement. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Nevertheless, the use of diet and dietary supplements for reducing the risk of developing prostate cancer or for treating prostate cancer continues to engage the interest of patients and researchers. (medscape.com)
  • A range of lipid supplements, Algamac 3050 (3, 5 and 7% oil inclusion in the diet), Spirulina (3%), canola oil (5 and 7% inclusion) and safflower oil (3, 5 and 7% oil inclusion in the diet), were tested in vitro. (mla.com.au)
  • It is recommended the use of whole cottonseed and Algamac as a supplement to cattle fed a basal diet of tropical pastures due to its positive impact on live-weight gain, and the reduction in methane per kilogram of average daily gain, however there are supplement uptake issues that need to be overcome. (mla.com.au)
  • Birds were fed corn -based basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0% MOS for 15 wk. (bvsalud.org)
  • We combine the strength of science with the capabilities of nature to create health supplements that harness the healing power of plants and make them as pure and bioavailable as possible. (futurebiotics.com)
  • The consumer prioritization of health and wellness means dietary supplements is a category ripe for growth, with opportunities for novel product development. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • Customized supplements like 3D-printed gummies help scratch the itch for personalization and provide tangible examples for consumers to better understand how solutions can target specific wellness goals. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • Always check with your healthcare provider before taking any dietary supplements. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • This act defined dietary supplements, made safety a matter of regulation, stated the requirements for approved third party literature, and regulated label content. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural Standard Examine.com "New PubMed® subset - "Dietary Supplements" (U.S.Government content and in the Public Domain). (wikipedia.org)
  • About the PubMed Dietary Supplement Subset" (U.S.Government content and in the Public Domain). (wikipedia.org)
  • Under the former policy, supplement manufacturers that had scientific support for their claims, but lacked conclusive evidence, were prohibited from marketing their potential health benefits, thus losing out on important marketing opportunities. (law.com)
  • However, there is still a need to increase awareness among some consumers of the potential of dietary supplements to fit into their daily routines. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • [ 11 ] It was terminated approximately 7 years early because of a lack of efficacy, and even a potential negative impact with these supplements at the dosages used. (medscape.com)
  • This study has garnered media attention emphasizing potential for harm in using dietary supplements, including antioxidants, during chemotherapy. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • 5 From balanced mood to gut health, restorative sleep and immune function support, people are drawn to supplements that boast individualized support. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • Dietary supplemented effects of mannan-oligosaccharides on biochemical parameters of 4 close-bred flocks of Japanese quail breeders. (bvsalud.org)
  • Additionally, with any general dietary and lifestyle recommendations, the maxim "first do no harm" should also apply, given the history of some past recommendations-especially in the area of dietary supplements whose risk was ultimately found to outweigh their benefit. (medscape.com)
  • Which supplements may benefit, harm, or have no effect for chemotherapy patients? (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • A new product providing long lasting, pleasant scents that has been quietly making inroads in the industry aims to revolutionize the marketing of dietary supplements by improving customer experience. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • As far as organoleptic qualities are concerned, product development in the dietary supplement space has mostly been concerned with wringing as much of the scent or taste out of the raw material as possible (or hiding it within a capsule or softgel). (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • We can go on debating which omega-3s and omega-3 sources are better-and, surely, we will-but the focus that will drive better health right now is increasing Western dietary intake of omega-3, regardless of where it comes from. (nutritionaloutlook.com)
  • Dietary supplement use during chemotherapy and survival outcomes of patients with breast cancer enrolled in a cooperative group clinical trial (SWOG S0221). (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • Supplement use was assessed using questionnaires issued to patients with breast cancer who were enrolled in a phase 3 chemotherapy clinical trial. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • This group represents those participants who completed 2 questionnaires on supplement use within the larger clinical trial (n=2,716). (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • Many of our quality supplements are non-GMO and USDA Certified Organic. (futurebiotics.com)
  • The primary objective of the report is to provide insights regarding opportunities in the market that are supporting the transformation of global businesses associated with general well-being dietary supplement. (bccresearch.com)
  • Oversamples of Black, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islander respondents are included for the second year in a row to ensure significant sample sizes of supplement users of color to provide deep insights into the groups' motivations, attitudes, and purchasing habits. (crnusa.org)
  • Some case reports using dietary supplements have reported an improvement in patient symptoms. (medscape.com)
  • Taking heavy doses of dietary supplements has not proven to be effective. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • U.S. athletes were warned recently by the U.S. Anti-Doping Agency to avoid dietary supplements offered at training centres before the Salt Lake City Olympics. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The IOC warned athletes last month to avoid dietary supplements because of what it called lax quality control and labelling. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Dietary supplement use is very high among endurance athletes, with older athletes using the products, says a new study that suggests opportunity to develop age-specific products for this population. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • Only participants' that had reported taking a dietary supplement or an antacid are included in these files. (cdc.gov)
  • Many participants considered supplements to be safer and more effective than conventional medicines. (who.int)
  • Educating health-care providers about the benefits and risks of supplements is imperative and will enable health-care practitioners to guide patients in making informed decisions about supplement use. (who.int)
  • The significant differences in biochemical parameters by feeding MOS-supplemented diets strengthened our hypothesis that the use of MOS may positively affect the health of Japanese quail breeders. (bvsalud.org)
  • The new, more flexible dietary supplement regime enables companies to market their products more aggressively and increase sales. (law.com)
  • Furthermore, new and emerging players in the global general well-being dietary supplement market can make use of the information presented in the study for effective business decisions, which will provide momentum to their businesses as well as the global market. (bccresearch.com)
  • The study is relevant for manufacturers, suppliers, distributors, and investors in the general well-being dietary supplement market. (bccresearch.com)
  • Persistence Market Research's report on the global general well-being dietary supplement market offers information divided into five segments -form, end user, type, distribution channel and region. (bccresearch.com)
  • Which factors are impacting the global general well-being dietary supplement market? (bccresearch.com)
  • What is the structure of the global general well-being dietary supplement market? (bccresearch.com)
  • A unique research methodology is utilized to conduct extensive research on the global general well-being dietary supplement market, and reach conclusions about the future growth factors of the market. (bccresearch.com)
  • The agency therefore has limited insight into the market, and manufacturers are not required to provide basic information to the federal government about their supplements. (pewtrusts.org)
  • Gathering and disseminating this information would help FDA to identify unsafe products, move quickly to warn the public about these dangers, and, where necessary, remove harmful supplements from the market. (pewtrusts.org)
  • Supplement brands are beginning to respond to the demand for personalization with custom-made options hitting the market. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • Learn more about the healthy habits of dietary supplement users. (crnusa.org)
  • In fact, up to 75% of U.S. dietary supplement users are seeking personalized products that are directly suited to their needs. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • This study aimed to examine the use of supplements by college students in Qatar and to elucidate users' views about them. (who.int)
  • Almost half of the respondents (49.6%) had used supplements (ever users), with 32.7% reporting using them in the previous 6 months (current users). (who.int)
  • We've been able to measure the pulse of the dietary supplement industry and track changes over time. (crnusa.org)
  • Furthermore, almost all substances that affect the body, whether dietary supplements or drugs approved for medical use by the FDA, can have unwanted side effects. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A year ago, manufacturers and marketers of dietary supplements benefited when the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) implemented a new regulation allowing such companies to make unproven health claims on their labels. (law.com)
  • The label must state that the claims for the dietary supplement have not been evaluated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Our Dietary Supplement Manufacturing Code can be applied to food sector categories for dietary supplement manufacturing. (sqfi.com)
  • Because dietary supplements are not regulated as drugs by the FDA, their manufacturers are not required to prove that supplements are safe and effective (although they must have a history of safety). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Consequently, few supplements have been studied rigorously for safety and effectiveness. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The mission of ODS is to strengthen knowledge and understanding of dietary supplements by evaluating scientific information, stimulating and supporting research, disseminating research results, and educating the public to foster an enhanced quality of life and health for the U.S. population. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other database, Computer Access to Research on Dietary Supplements (CARDS), is a database of federally funded research projects pertaining to dietary supplements. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IBIDS database was retired in 2010 and the PMDSS was launched to continue the ODS mission to disseminate dietary supplement-related research results. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research shows that 33% of global supplement consumers find it inconvenient to establish a routine of taking supplements, and 39% report the importance of supplements that are easy to consume. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • Under the new relaxed FDA requirements regulating the marketing and promotion of dietary supplements, manufacturers have more leeway to tout the healthfulness of products by making "qualified health claims" on dietary supplement labels, even if there is no "significant scientific agreement" over the validity of these claims. (law.com)
  • ODS and NLM partnered to create this Dietary Supplement Subset of NLM's PubMed database. (wikipedia.org)
  • In support of this mission the ODS created two databases one of which was named the International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements (IBIDS) database. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DS reported in the NNYFS are detailed in the NHANES Dietary Supplement Database (NHANES-DSD) 1999-2012. (cdc.gov)
  • Lifestyle or dietary changes that can potentially impact all-cause morbidity and mortality rather than just disease-specific morbidity and mortality again appear to provide the greatest benefit-to-risk ratio. (medscape.com)