A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
Cell surface receptors that bind glucagon with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activation of glucagon receptors causes a variety of effects; the best understood is the initiation of a complex enzymatic cascade in the liver which ultimately increases the availability of glucose to body organs.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
A type of pancreatic cell representing about 5-20% of the islet cells. Alpha cells secrete GLUCAGON.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
Glucose in blood.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
The common precursor polypeptide of pancreatic GLUCAGON and intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Proglucagon is the 158-amino acid segment of preproglucagon without the N-terminal signal sequence. Proglucagon is expressed in the PANCREAS; INTESTINES; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Posttranslational processing of proglucagon is tissue-specific yielding numerous bioactive peptides.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.
Peptides derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of pancreatic GLUCAGON. Despite expression of proglucagon in multiple tissues, the major production site of glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) is the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLPs include glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon-like peptide 2, and the various truncated forms.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.
Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.
The consumption of edible substances.
A 36-amino acid pancreatic hormone that is secreted mainly by endocrine cells found at the periphery of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS and adjacent to cells containing SOMATOSTATIN and GLUCAGON. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP), when administered peripherally, can suppress gastric secretion, gastric emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and appetite. A lack of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been associated with OBESITY in rats and mice.
Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.
Abstaining from all food.
Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
The amounts of various substances in the diet recommended by governmental guidelines as needed to sustain healthy life.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Cell surface proteins that bind gastrointestinal hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Most gastrointestinal hormones also act as neurotransmitters so these receptors are also present in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.
A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)
Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
A benign tumor of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the INSULIN-producing PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, as in INSULINOMA, resulting in HYPERINSULINISM.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminal of GLICENTIN. It is mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. Oxyntomodulin can reduce digestive secretions, delay gastric emptying, and reduced food intake.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
A gastrointestinal peptide hormone of about 43-amino acids. It is found to be a potent stimulator of INSULIN secretion and a relatively poor inhibitor of GASTRIC ACID secretion.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Endocrine cells found throughout the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and in islets of the PANCREAS. D cells secrete SOMATOSTATIN that acts in both an endocrine and paracrine manner. Somatostatin acts on a variety of tissues including the PITUITARY GLAND; gastrointestinal tract; pancreas; and KIDNEY by inhibiting the release of hormones, such as GROWTH HORMONE; GASTRIN; INSULIN; and RENIN.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
An almost always malignant GLUCAGON-secreting tumor derived from the PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS. It is characterized by a distinctive migratory ERYTHEMA; WEIGHT LOSS; STOMATITIS; GLOSSITIS; DIABETES MELLITUS; hypoaminoacidemia; and normochromic normocytic ANEMIA.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The selection of one food over another.
A class of glucosyltransferases that catalyzes the degradation of storage polysaccharides, such as glucose polymers, by phosphorolysis in animals (GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE) and in plants (STARCH PHOSPHORYLASE).
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.
The release of GLUCOSE from GLYCOGEN by GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE (phosphorolysis). The released glucose-1-phosphate is then converted to GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE by PHOSPHOGLUCOMUTASE before entering GLYCOLYSIS. Glycogenolysis is stimulated by GLUCAGON or EPINEPHRINE via the activation of PHOSPHORYLASE KINASE.
FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.
C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.
A fatty acid that is found in plants and involved in the formation of prostaglandins.
The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.
Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.
Consistent with this, dietary macronutrients differentially affect adipose and muscle LPL activity. After 16 days on a high- ... Muscle and myocardial LPL is instead activated by glucagon and adrenaline. This helps to explain why during fasting, LPL ... Ferland A, Château-Degat ML, Hernandez TL, Eckel RH (May 2012). "Tissue-specific responses of lipoprotein lipase to dietary ... Yost TJ, Jensen DR, Haugen BR, Eckel RH (August 1998). "Effect of dietary macronutrient composition on tissue-specific ...
"Dietary Mannoheptulose Increases Fasting Serum Glucagon Like Peptide-1 and Post-Prandial Serum Ghrelin Concentrations in Adult ... McKnight, Leslie; Root-McCraig, Jared; Wright, David; Davenport, Gary; France, James; Shoveller, Anna Kate (2015). "Dietary ...
Insulin and glucagon are the primary hormones involved in maintaining a steady level of glucose in the blood, and the release ... Because the level of circulatory glucose is largely determined by the intake of dietary carbohydrates, diet controls major ... The release of glucagon is precipitated by low levels of blood glucose, whereas high levels of blood glucose stimulates cells ... Glucagon in the liver stimulates glycogenolysis when the blood glucose is lowered, known as hypoglycemia. The glycogen in the ...
Long-term medical management includes the use of diazoxide, somatostatin analogs, nifedipine, glucagon, recombinant IGF-I, ... glucocorticoids, human growth hormone, dietary intervention, or combinations of these therapies. In individuals in whom ...
ALDOB gene transcription in animal livers has been noticed with an increase in dietary carbohydrates and decrease in glucagon ... March 1985). "Dietary and hormonal regulation of aldolase B gene expression". J. Clin. Invest. 75 (3): 1045-52. doi:10.1172/ ... Gomez PF, Ito K, Huang Y, Otsu K, Kuzumaki T, Ishikawa K (November 1994). "Dietary and hormonal regulation of aldolase B gene ...
Lovejoy JC (October 2002). "The influence of dietary fat on insulin resistance". Current Diabetes Reports. 2 (5): 435-40. doi: ... A decrease in insulin/glucagon ratio inhibits glycolysis which in turn decreases energy production. The resulting increase in ... Mice without JNK1-signaling do not develop insulin resistance under dietary conditions that normally produce it.[46][47] Recent ... Reaven GM (2005). "The insulin resistance syndrome: definition and dietary approaches to treatment". Annual Review of Nutrition ...
These receptors influence release of hormones involved in appetite regulation, such as peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1, ... Thus, bitter taste perception may affect dietary behaviors by influencing both taste preferences and metabolic hormonal ... to bitter taste associated with differential changes in vegetable intake in response to a community-based dietary intervention ... to Bitter Taste Associated with Differential Changes in Vegetable Intake in Response to a Community-Based Dietary Intervention ...
... and glucagon (down-regulation). Dietary fiber is a carbohydrate, specifically a polysaccharide, which is incompletely absorbed ... and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for vitamins and minerals. EARs and RDAs are part of Dietary Reference Intakes. The ... Food-based dietary guidelines and (ii) Dietary reference values for water or adequate daily intakes (ADI). These specifications ... Dietary and physical activity guidelines from the USDA are presented in the concept of a plate of food which in 2011 superseded ...
... and high levels of glucagon, cortisol, and growth hormone. Administration of intramuscular or intravenous glucagon (0.25 to 1 ... In studies, patients that have been put on a dietary regimen to keep blood sugar in a normal range spanning 72 to 108 mg/dL ( ... Without proper dietary treatment after birth, prolonged hypoglycemia often leads to sudden lactic acidosis that can induce ... Metabolic control often diminishes during and after puberty, as a result of a patient outgrowing their dietary treatment plan. ...
... synthesis in the liver is controlled by a host of factors, including dietary composition, hormones (insulin, ... glucagon, thyroxin, estrogens, androgens), alcohol intake, and various drugs (statins, niacin, and fibric acids). ApoB is an ...
Glucagon Therapy Issue 2 - Glycated Proteins Issue 3 - Image-Based Dietary Assessment Issue 4 - Intravenous Glucose Monitoring ... Glucagon: Physiology and Pharmacotherapy Issue 1 - Mobile Technology Issue 2 - Virtual Reality Technologies for Research and ...
Individual nutrients, such as fatty acids, essential amino acids and dietary fibre have also shown to stimulate GLP-1 secretion ... Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor Glucagon-like peptide-2 Type 2 diabetes GLP-1 analogs : exenatide, liraglutide, dulaglutide, ... Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a 30 or 31 amino acid long peptide hormone deriving from the tissue-specific ... Wang XH, Li L, Hölscher C, Pan YF, Chen XR, Qi JS (November 2010). "Val8-glucagon-like peptide-1 protects against Aβ1-40- ...
Dietary Fiber and Body Weight. Nutrition 21(3): 411-418 Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, Dietary reference ... 2005) The inhibitory effects of peripheral administration of peptide YY(3-36) and glucagon-like peptide-1 on food intake are ... Dietary fiber has been suggested to aid weight management by inducing satiety, decreasing absorption of macronutrients and ... Dietary fiber consists of non-digestible carbohydrates and lignin, which are a structural component in plants. Fiber ...
... binds to the intact human Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in a similar way to the human peptide glucagon- ... 2007 Safety Alerts for Drugs, Biologics, Medical Devices, and Dietary Supplements, from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. ... Exenatide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 receptor agonist) also known as incretin mimetics. It works by ... Ding X, Saxena NK, Lin S, Gupta NA, Gupta N, Anania FA (January 2006). "Exendin-4, a glucagon-like protein-1 (GLP-1) receptor ...
Adding dietary fiber to foods and beverages increases satiety and reduces energy intake at the next meal. Low-energy-density ... Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) agonists, such as exenatide and liraglutide, which are used for diabetes, may help suppress food ... Eating disorder Ghrelin Glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist Melanin-concentrating hormone Peptide YY Specific appetite Witt AA, ... particularly by increasing glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY (PYY); reduction of ghrelin has been inconsistent. Hedonic ...
... is commonly marketed as a dietary supplement, typically sold in powdered form for mixing into beverages.[2] Whey ... Calbet, JA (2002). "Plasma glucagon and insulin responses depend on the rate of appearance of amino acids after ingestion of ... Morifuji, Masashi (2010). "Comparison of Different Sources and Degrees of Hydrolysis of Dietary Protein: Effect on Plasma Amino ... Whey protein is commonly marketed as a dietary supplement, and various health claims have been attributed to it. A review ...
In contrast, the hormone glucagon is released by the pancreas as a response to lower than normal blood sugar levels. Glucagon ... Dietary recommendations for reactive hypoglycemia can help to relieve symptoms of postprandial syndrome. Spontaneous ... Glucagon and insulin are among the hormones that ensure a normal range of glucose in the human body. Upon consumption of a meal ... Reactive hypoglycemia can usually be relieved by dietary changes: Avoiding or limiting sugar intake, including candy, sweet ...
Glucagon increases blood glucose levels, and DPP-4 inhibitors reduce glucagon and blood glucose levels. The mechanism of DPP-4 ... the common herbal dietary supplement, too inhibits dipeptidyl peptidase-4, which at least partly explains its antihyperglycemic ... Dupre, J.; Behme, M. T.; Hramiak, I. M.; McFarlane, P.; Williamson, M. P.; Zabel, P.; McDonald, T. J. (1995). "Glucagon-like ... Behme, Margaret T; Dupré, John; McDonald, Thomas J (2003). "Glucagon-like peptide 1 improved glycemic control in type 1 ...
Dietary carbohydrate restriction reduces blood glucose levels, contributes to weight loss, and reduces the use of several ... Ali ES, Hua J, Wilson CH, Tallis GA, Zhou FH, Rychkov GY, Barritt GJ (September 2016). "The glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue ... Some have pointed to a variety of causes, including increased uric acid levels caused by dietary fructose. Research shows that ... The continuous provision of energy via dietary carbohydrate, lipid, and protein fuels, unmatched by physical activity/energy ...
Factors influencing secretion of gastrin can be divided into 2 categories: Stimulatory factors: dietary protein and amino acids ... glucagon and calcitonin. The presence of gastrin stimulates parietal cells of the stomach to secrete hydrochloric acid (HCl)/ ... glucagon, calcitonin Gastrinoma paraneoplastic oversecretion (see Role in disease) In the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, gastrin ...
For both, it is 4 kcal/g (17 kJ/g), a value that is used in food labelling or dietary planning. Isomaltulose is slow to be ... whereas the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is secreted from a later (distal) part of the small intestine in ... "Health claims, dietary non-cariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries". Electronic Code of Federal Regulations 21 ... "Food labeling: Health claims; dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries". Code of Federal Regulations 21 ...
When the body requires fatty acids as an energy source, the hormone glucagon signals the breakdown of the triglycerides by ... Weight loss and dietary modification are effective first-line lifestyle modification treatments for hypertriglyceridemia. For ... play an important role in metabolism as energy sources and transporters of dietary fat. They contain more than twice as much ... moderate exercise and dietary modification, are recommended. This may include restriction of carbohydrates (specifically ...
One effect of dietary fiber, apparently especially soluble fiber, has is to increase stool size and softness. Dietary fibers, ... Insulin lowers the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood, whereas glucagon raises it. Glucagon is, therefore, an antagonist of ... Glucagon A hormone that raises the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood by forcing the liver to release some of its ... Diabetes mellitus A disease that occurs when the body is not able to use dietary carbohydrates (e.g., sugar, starch, ...) as it ...
Dietary fibers from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, consumed, increase the speed of transit of intestinal chyme into the ... They were observed either alone or co-localized with glucagon or PP. PYY exerts its action through NPY receptors; it inhibits ...
Exogenous propionic acid may upregulate endogenous glucose production via increases in norepinephrine and glucagon, suggesting ... dietary fiber) in the diet. The role of the gut microbiota and their metabolites, including propionate, in mediating brain ... "The short-chain fatty acid propionate increases glucagon and FABP4 production, impairing insulin action in mice and humans". ...
It also stimulates bile production by the liver; the bile emulsifies dietary fats in the duodenum so that pancreatic lipase can ... The amino acids sequences of secretin have some similarities to that of glucagon, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and ... Nussdorfer GG, Bahçelioglu M, Neri G, Malendowicz LK (2000). "Secretin, glucagon, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, parathyroid ... gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP). Fourteen of 27 amino acids of secretin reside in the same positions as in glucagon, 7 the ...
Cancer cells are therefore unable to synthesize enough arginine for cellular processes and so must rely on dietary arginine. ... glucagon, and insulin. It has also been demonstrated in vitro that arginine down-regulates argininosuccinate synthetase ... Treatment for this defect includes a low-protein diet and dietary supplementation with arginine and phenylacetate. Arginine ...
Nevertheless, dietary management of both these diseases is challenging and these patients have poor compliance of the diet.[51] ... Severe cases can lead to unconsciousness and are treated with intravenous glucose or injections with glucagon. Continuous ... January 2015). "Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: critical review and evidence ... Environmental triggers and protective factors under research include dietary agents such as proteins in gluten,[27] time of ...
Most dietary carbohydrates contain glucose, either as their only building block (as in the polysaccharides starch and glycogen ... The pancreas is the organ responsible for the secretion of the hormones insulin and glucagon. Insulin is a hormone that ... The glucose content of the blood is regulated by the hormones insulin, incretin and glucagon. Insulin lowers the glucose level ... "dietary fiber". Glucose is produced industrially from starch by enzymatic hydrolysis using glucose amylase or by the use of ...
Dietary factors also influence the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks in excess is ... and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs.[87] As of 2015 there was no significant difference between these agents.[87] A 2018 review ... high glucagon levels in the blood, increased retention of salt and water by the kidneys, and inappropriate regulation of ... Evidence for the benefit of dietary changes alone, however, is limited,[74] with some evidence for a diet high in green leafy ...
The bioavailability of the drug is decreased by dietary fiber.[20] Greater than 99% of circulating thyroid hormones are bound ... it is important to review their medications and possible dietary supplements as several medications can affect thyroid hormone ...
With his student Peter, he established that lysosomes are responsible for glucagon-induced autophagy.[16][17] This was the ... Resveratrol and the dietary restriction prolonged the lifespan of normal, autophagy-proficient nematodes, but not of nematodes ... In January 1962 they reported an increased number of lysosomes in rat liver cells after the addition of glucagon, and that some ... de Duve conceived the term as a part of lysosomal function while describing the role of glucagon as a major inducer of cell ...
The endocrine part releases glucagon when the blood sugar is low; glucagon allows stored sugar to be broken down into glucose ... Dietary life rules, Japan, Edo period.. The enteric nervous system consists of some one hundred million neurons[37] that are ...
Anorexia nervosa is a mental disorder characterized as severe dietary restriction and intense fear of weight gain. Furthermore ... whereas cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) suppress appetite.[6] ... Kaplan, Randall J.; Greenwood, Carol E. (2002-07-01). "Influence of dietary carbohydrates and glycaemic response on subjective ...
"Dietary advice for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD005102 ... and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs.[76] There is no significant difference between these agents.[76] Rosiglitazone, a ... Dietary factors also influence the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks in excess is ... high glucagon levels in the blood, increased retention of salt and water by the kidneys, and inappropriate regulation of ...
Salivary EGF, which seems to be regulated by dietary inorganic iodine, also plays an important physiological role in the ...
Main article: Dietary fiber. Dietary fiber is a carbohydrate that is incompletely absorbed in humans and in some animals. Like ... and glucagon (down-regulation). The amount and type of carbohydrates consumed, along with some types of amino acid, can ... a b [1] Nutrient recommendations: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). *^ Tolerable Upper Intake Levels For Vitamins And Minerals ( ... Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, Vitamins. *^ d'Archivio, M.; Filesi, C.; Varì, R.; Scazzocchio ...
Dietary sources[edit]. Although classified as a nonessential amino acid, in rare cases, cysteine may be essential for infants, ... Dietary restrictions[edit]. The animal-originating sources of L-cysteine as a food additive are a point of contention for ... This compound is sold as a dietary supplement, and used as an antidote in cases of acetaminophen overdose.[29] ... dietary cysteine and glycine supplementation can improve synthesis of glutathione[15]. ...
Talbott, Shawn M. (2012). A Guide to Understanding Dietary Supplements. Routledge. p. 469. ISBN 9781136805707. . Archived from ... Some people use it as a dietary supplement.[6][7] ...
Dietary sources[edit]. Although classified as a non-essential amino acid, in rare cases, cysteine may be essential for infants ... Dietary restrictions[edit]. The animal-originating sources of L-cysteine as a food additive are a point of contention for ... This compound is sold as a dietary supplement, and used as an antidote in cases of acetaminophen overdose.[28] ... people following dietary restrictions such as Kosher, Halal, Vegan or Vegetarian.[30] To avoid this problem, L-cysteine can ...
If there is a deficiency of dietary iodine, the thyroid will not be able to make thyroid hormone. The lack of thyroid hormone ... thus dietary selenium is essential for T3 production. Edward Calvin Kendall was responsible for the isolation of thyroxine in ...
GABA is sold as a dietary supplement in many countries. It has been traditionally thought that exogenous GABA (i.e. taken as a ... Rorsman P, Berggren PO, Bokvist K, Ericson H, Möhler H, Ostenson CG, Smith PA (1989). "Glucose-inhibition of glucagon secretion ... α-cells and inhibits them from secreting glucagon (which would counteract insulin's effects).[25] ...
Dietary supplements[edit]. To capitalize on the idea that GH might be useful to combat aging, companies selling dietary ... Quabbe HJ, Luyckx AS, L'age M, Schwarz C (August 1983). "Growth hormone, cortisol, and glucagon concentrations during plasma ... In the United States, because these products are marketed as dietary supplements, it is illegal for them to contain GH, which ... Also, under United States law, products sold as dietary supplements cannot have claims that the supplement treats or prevents ...
The functioning types secrete hormones such as insulin, gastrin, and glucagon into the bloodstream, often in large quantities, ... Dietary factors for which there is some evidence of slightly increased risk include processed meat, red meat, and meat cooked ...
This is done through its passive influence on glucagon.[clarification needed] Additionally, cortisol facilitates the activation ... Zhou X, Xie M, Niu C, Sun R (June 2003). "The effects of dietary vitamin C on growth, liver vitamin C and serum cortisol in ...
"GLUCAGON - INJECTION (Glucagon) side effects, medical uses, and drug interactions". MedicineNet. Retrieved 2018-02-05.. ... Dietary factors also influence the risk of developing type 2 DM. Consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks in excess is associated ... Severe cases can lead to unconsciousness and must be treated with intravenous glucose or injections with glucagon.[25] ... This process is mainly controlled by the hormone glucagon, which acts in the opposite manner to insulin.[57] ...
Other dietary nutrients, amino acids, also can activate orexin neurons, and they can suppress the glucose response of orexin ... Glucagon. *Agonists: Dasiglucagon. *Glucagon. *Oxyntomodulin. *Antagonists: Adomeglivant. *L-168,049. *LGD-6972. *Propeptides: ...
Dietary supplement[edit]. Melatonin is categorized by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a dietary supplement, and is ... Coates PM, Blackman MR, Cragg GM, Levine M, Moss J, White JD (2005). Encyclopedia of dietary supplements. New York, N.Y: Marcel ... The FDA considered whether these food products could continue to be sold with the label "dietary supplements". On 13 January ... Pattanittum P, Kunyanone N, Brown J, Sangkomkamhang US, Barnes J, Seyfoddin V, Marjoribanks J (March 2016). "Dietary ...
Indole itself triggers the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in intestinal L cells and acts as a ligand for AhR.[12] ... "Microbial metabolism of dietary components to bioactive metabolites: opportunities for new therapeutic interventions". Genome ...
... concluded that HCG is not more effective as a weight-loss aid than dietary restriction alone.[40] ...
Dietary factors also influence the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks in excess is ... and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs.[78] As of 2015 there was no significant difference between these agents.[78] A 2018 review ... Nield L, Summerbell CD, Hooper L, Whittaker V, Moore H (July 2008). Nield L (ed.). "Dietary advice for the prevention of type 2 ... high glucagon levels in the blood, increased retention of salt and water by the kidneys, and inappropriate regulation of ...
Glucagon increases blood glucose levels, and DPP-4 inhibitors reduce glucagon and blood glucose levels. The mechanism of DPP-4 ... Berberine, the common herbal dietary supplement, too inhibits dipeptidyl peptidase-4, which at least partly explains its ... Dupre, J.; Behme, M. T.; Hramiak, I. M.; McFarlane, P.; Williamson, M. P.; Zabel, P.; McDonald, T. J. (1995). "Glucagon-like ... inhibitors is to increase incretin levels (GLP-1 and GIP),[2][3][4] which inhibit glucagon release, which in turn increases ...
The amino acids sequences of secretin have some similarities to that of glucagon, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and ... the bile emulsifies dietary fats in the duodenum so that pancreatic lipase can act upon them. Meanwhile, in concert with ... Nussdorfer GG, Bahçelioglu M, Neri G, Malendowicz LK (2000). "Secretin, glucagon, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, parathyroid ... gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP). Fourteen of 27 amino acids of secretin reside in the same positions as in glucagon, 7 the ...
No single dietary pattern is best for all people with diabetes.[93] Healthy dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean diet, ... "Glucagon-Injection side effects, medical uses, and drug interactions". MedicineNet. Retrieved 2018-02-05.. ... Dietary factors such as sugar-sweetened drinks is associated with an increased risk.[53][54] The type of fats in the diet is ... Management may include dietary changes, blood glucose monitoring, and in some cases, insulin may be required[60] ...
Dietary supplements[edit]. GABA is sold as a dietary supplement. In plants[edit]. GABA is also found in plants. It is the most ... Rorsman P, Berggren PO, Bokvist K, Ericson H, Möhler H, Ostenson CG, Smith PA (1989). "Glucose-inhibition of glucagon secretion ... α-cells and inhibits them from secreting glucagon (which would counteract insulin's effects).[22] ...
Glucagon, used in the treatment of overdose,[56][57] increases the strength of heart contractions, increases intracellular cAMP ... in the liver and pancreatic release of the hormone glucagon, which work together to increase plasma glucose. Therefore, ... Dietary minerals. Blood and blood. forming organs (B). *Antithrombotics *Antiplatelets. *Anticoagulants. *Thrombolytics/ ...
... where glucagon mediates the majority of its effects***. Injecting glucagon decreases food intake, and blocking glucagon action ... People frequently cite glucagon to resolve this problem. The idea goes like this: glucagon is the opposite of insulin, and if ... When glucagon is secreted, it goes to the liver first. Glucagon concentrations are much higher in the hepatic circulation than ... Glucagon release is an important part of this response.. *Fasting. Glucagon helps support blood glucose levels during fasting, ...
Our objective was to establish whether plasma concentrations of the gut peptides PYY and glucagon-like peptide-1 in rats and ... Dietary lactitol fermentation increases circulating peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1 in rats and humans.. @article{ ... Dietary fiber modulates intestinal proglucagon messenger ribonucleic acid and postprandial secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 ... Gee2005DietaryLF, title={Dietary lactitol fermentation increases circulating peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1 in rats and ...
Glucagon Nasal Powder: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each time you visit a doctor or if you are admitted to a ... To use the glucagon nasal powder follow these steps: *Hold the glucagon nasal powder device with your thumb on the bottom of ... Each glucagon nasal powder device contains a single dose and should be used only once. Glucagon nasal powder can be used even ...
Glucagon Injection: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each time you visit a doctor or if you are admitted to a ... Glucagon is also used in diagnostic testing of the stomach and other digestive organs. Glucagon is in a class of medications ... Glucagon can be injected with the prefilled syringe or autoinjector in the upper arm, thigh, or stomach. Never inject glucagon ...
Because several approaches are currently used to treat type 2 diabetes and obesity with limited effectiveness, dietary fibers ... Oligofructose promotes satiety in rats fed a high-fat diet: involvement of glucagon-like Peptide-1 Obes Res. 2005 Jun;13(6): ... Because several approaches are currently used to treat type 2 diabetes and obesity with limited effectiveness, dietary fibers ... glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, and GLP-2 quantification. ...
Dietary Supplement: lactisole lactisole (flavoring agent/sweet taste antagonist) dissolved with 75 g glucose in 300 mL tap ... Glucagon. Glucagon-Like Peptide 1. Gastrointestinal Agents. Hormones. Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists. ... Sweet Taste Receptors and the Secretion of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 and Peptide YY. The safety and scientific validity of this ... Dietary Supplement: lactisole lactisole (flavoring agent/sweet taste antagonist) dissolved with 75 g glucose in 300 mL tap ...
Home » diet » liver » low-carb » overweight » Glucagon, Dietary Protein, As Well As Low-Carbohydrate Diets ... Glucagon release is an of import travel of this response.. *Fasting. Glucagon helps back upward blood glucose levels during ... When glucagon is secreted, it goes to the liver first. Glucagon concentrations are much higher inwards the hepatic circulation ... beta cells). In closed to ways, glucagon opposes insulin. However, the travel of glucagon inwards metabolism is often ...
Mycoprotein reduces energy intake and postprandial insulin release without altering glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide ... Mycoprotein represents a bioavailable and insulinotropic non-animal-derived dietary protein source: a dose-response study. ... Mycoprotein as a possible alternative source of dietary protein to support muscle and metabolic health. Nutrition Reviews, ... Mycoprotein represents a bioavailable and insulinotropic non-animal-derived dietary protein source: a dose-response study. ...
Dietary Carbohydrates / pharmacology * Dietary Fats / pharmacology * Dietary Proteins / pharmacology * Enteral Nutrition * ... Ileal release of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Association with inhibition of gastric acid secretion in humans Dig Dis Sci. ...
Therapeutic Actions : Dietary Modification: Low Carbohydrate. Pharmacological Actions : Glucagon Like Peptide 1 (GLP-1) Down- ... Pharmacological Actions : Glucagon Like Peptide 1 (GLP-1) Down-Regulation, Glucagon Like peptide 1 (GLP-1) Up-regulation ... 7 Abstracts with Glucagon Like Peptide 1 (GLP-1) Down-Regulation Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ... Therapeutic Actions : Dietary Modification: Low Carbohydrate/High Protein. Pharmacological Actions : Ghrelin Up-regulation, ...
Acetylcysteine; chloride channels; glucagon; glucagon-like peptide 1; glutathione; glutathione synthase; glycine ... Dietary Glycine Is Rate-Limiting for Glutathione Synthesis and May Have Broad Potential for Health Protection.. McCarty MF1, ... Dietary Glycine Is Rate-Limiting for Glutathione Synthesis and May Have Broad Potential for Health Protection ... of this metabolite is elevated in vegetarians and others consuming relatively low-protein diets strongly suggests that dietary ...
Dietary fructans from agave and chicory increases GLP-1 levels and reduces appetite and weight gain in mice. ... PRO MEMBERS get Unlimited Access to downloadable documents like this, with curated research on Glucagon Like peptide 1 (GLP-1) ... Some Example Abstracts on Glucagon Like peptide 1 (GLP-1) Up-regulation. Oligofructose promotes satiety in rats fed a high-fat ... 30 Curated Medical Research astracts associated with Glucagon Like peptide 1 (GLP-1) Up-regulation ...
... orlistat reduces the absorption of dietary fats by ∼30% (12). In obese type 2 diabetic patients, orlistat treatment is ... GLP-1, glucagon-like peptide 1. In normal humans, meal ingestion leads to secretion of gut hormones, which regulate gastric and ... Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) are gut hormones that are secreted in ... Herrmann C, Goke R, Richter G, Fehmann HC, Arnold R, Goke B: Glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose dependent insulin-releasing ...
1996) Potential health effects of the dietary flavonol quercetin. Eur J Clin Nutr 50:63-71. ... glucagon-like peptide-1. GPCR. G protein-coupled receptor. GLP-1R. glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor. ERK. extracellular signal- ... Modulation of the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Signaling by Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Flavonoids. Denise Wootten, ... Modulation of the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Signaling by Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Flavonoids. Denise Wootten, ...
relation to glucagon secretion and dietary protein intake DOI: 10.1054/clnu.2001.0476 Abstract: Up-regulation of urea synthesis ... Adaptation, Physiological; Adult; Alanine; Blood Glucose; C-Peptide; Chronic Disease; Dietary Proteins; Female; Glucagon; ... The aims of the study were to determine urea synthesis kinetics in CP patients in relation to glucagon secretion (study I) and ... due to the reduced glucagon secretion. Conversely, urea synthesis may be increased as a result of the chronic inflammation. ...
Abbreviations: SCFA short-chain fatty acids; GLP-1 glucagon-like peptide 1; PYY peptide YY. ... Gastrointestinal Transit Time, Glucose Homeostasis and Metabolic Health: Modulation by Dietary Fibers.. Müller M1, Canfora EE2 ... Subsequently, we briefly address the reported health effects of different dietary fibers and discuss to what extent the fiber- ... Modulation of gastrointestinal transit may be one of the mechanisms underlying the beneficial health effects of dietary fibers ...
2007) Dietary non-digestible carbohydrates promote L-cell differentiation in the proximal colon of rats. Br J Nutr 98:32-37, ... 1999) Distribution of pre-pro-glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor messenger RNAs in the rat central nervous system. J ... 2006) Glucagon-like peptide-1 is involved in sodium and water homeostasis in humans. Digestion 73:142-150, doi:10.1159/ ... 1996) A role for glucagon-like peptide-1 in the central regulation of feeding. Nature 379:69-72, doi:10.1038/379069a0, pmid: ...
Hypoxia is a potential risk factor for chronic inflammation and adiponectin reduction in adipose tissue of ob/ob and dietary ... Antihypertensive effect of glucagon-like peptide 1 in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. J Hypertens 2003;21:1125-1135pmid:12777949. ... Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 on endothelial function in type 2 diabetes patients with stable coronary artery disease. Am ... Glucagon-like peptide 1 recruits microvasculature and increases glucose use in muscle via a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. ...
2a.pdf Glucagon raises low blood sugar. Glucagon puts the metabolism in burning mode. ... Glucagon causes dietary fat to be used for energy.. Glucagon releases fat from fat cells to be used for energy.. Glucagon ... Glucagon causes the kidneys to release water from the body.. Glucagon causes artery wall cells to return to normal.. Glucagon ... Glucagon raises low blood sugar.. Glucagon puts the metabolism in burning mode.. Glucagon converts protein and fat to glucose. ...
Glucagon, the principal hyperglycemic hormone, is secreted from pancreatic islet α cells as part of the counter-regulatory ... Usual dietary therapies of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorders (FAO) are based on 3 strategies: - limitation of lipid ... Glucagon, the principal hyperglycemic hormone, is secreted from pancreatic islet α cells as part of the counter-regulatory ... These data suggest that counter-regulatory secretion of glucagon is driven by fatty acid metabolism, and that the Na-K pump is ...
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists October 2017. ESC 2017: PURE shows we should revisit dietary fat guidelines ... In type 2 diabetes, professional dietary advice, weight reduction, if necessary, and increased physical activity are the first ... Good glucose control in type 1 diabetes needs appropriate insulin therapy together with dietary and lifestyle adjustment. Rapid ... Special attention is warranted for smoking cessation, appropriate dietary choices, physical activity and ideal weight ...
30 g dietary fiber/day) or low-fiber (LoFi; 10 g dietary fiber/day) cereal products. We assessed changes in insulin sensitivity ... Neither WP nor dietary fiber from wheat bran affected insulin sensitivity, 24-h BP, gut hormone responses, body composition, or ... In the present study, we investigated the effects of intake of WP and dietary fiber from enzyme-treated wheat bran on other ... We randomized 73 subjects with abdominal obesity to 1 of 4 iso-energetic dietary interventions: 60 g per day of either WP ...
Sivertsen J, Rosenmeier J, Holst J, Vilsboll T (2012) The effect of glucagon-like peptide 1 on cardiovascular risk. Nat Rev ... Baik I, Lee M, Jun N, Lee J, Shin C (2013) A healthy dietary pattern consisting of a variety of food choices is inversely ... Murphy S (2009) The state of the science on dietary sweeteners containing fructose: summary and issues to be resolved. J Nutr ... Te Morenga L, Mallard S, Mann J (2013) Dietary sugars and body weight: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised ...
... extra mechanism to restrain glucagon[/b], directly related to dietary fat. If you limit protein to only what is needed, there ... Glucose rise after glucagon injection is due to glycogenolysis, as gluconeogenesis is too slow. (this when high-dose glucagon ... Amino acid plasma concentration triggers glucagon reaction.. Lack of amylin allows for an exaggerated glucagon reaction. ... and inhibiting pancreatic glucagon... Id guess without these functionaing feed-back loops, the glucagon spike is highly ...
Insulin, Glucagon and Catecholamine Responses to the Ingestion of Various Carbohydrates M. Laville, S. Picard, S. Normand, J. P ... Dietary Starches and Sugar in Man presents the latest thinking of leading research scientists in a unique, multi-authored book ... Dietary Starches Disaccharid Fructose Galactose Lipid Monosaccharid Sugars Zuckerstoffwechsel adaptation carbohydrates ... The Role of Dietary Starches and Sugars and Their Digestive End Products on Gastrointestinal Hormone Release ...
In addition, it is a stimulant of glucagon secretion. Chemical Synthesis Alanine can be manufactured in the body from pyruvate ... It is also used in dietary supplement and flavor compounds in maillard reaction products. ...
Hormonal effects -> insulin, glucagon, cortisol, thyroid hormone. 2. Hormones affecting glucose level. - Reduce BSL -> Insulin ... Dietary carbohydrate intake. - Cells uptake of glucose - Liver glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis. - Renal ...
Dietary Fats / metabolism*. Female. Ghrelin / metabolism. Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / blood*. Humans. Hunger / physiology*. Male ... 1763906 - Variation in chemosensitivity and the control of dietary selection behaviour in the loc.... 17515696 - The ...
HealthDay) -- Drinking a diet soda before a glucose load is associated with increased glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion ... Dietary fat, changes in fat metabolism may promote prostate cancer metastasis. 16 hours ago 1 ... Diet soda linked to increase in glucagon-like peptide 1 levels. March 22, 2012 ... Drinking a diet soda before a glucose load is associated with increased glucagon-like peptide 1 secretion in individuals with ...
Intervention with dietary ω-3 PUFAs reduces the incidence of T1D. We designed a dietary intervention study, in which female NOD ... D) Quantification of islets detected by glucagon and insulin (Ins and Glu) colocalization (n = 20-26 islets/group). (E) ... Dietary EPA/DHA not only corrected the imbalance of effective Th1 and Th2 cells but also reduced the proportion of Th17 cells ... Dietary ω-3 PUFAs restore cytokine secretion profiles in NOD mice. Activated T cells produce a series of cytokines that exert ...
  • Glucagon is a hormone that plays an important role in blood glucose control. (blogspot.com)
  • Glucagon helps support blood glucose levels during fasting, when glucose intake is zero, by stimulating the production and release of glucose by the liver. (blogspot.com)
  • Glucagon does more or less cancel out insulin's effect on blood glucose, and eating protein in isolation does not lead to major changes in blood glucose. (blogspot.com)
  • Fermentable dietary fiber increases GLP-1 secretion and improves glucose homeostasis despite increased intestinal glucose transport capacity in healthy dogs. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Glucagon is a hormone that plays an of import travel inwards blood glucose control. (hfriends.info)
  • Gastrointestinal Transit Time, Glucose Homeostasis and Metabolic Health: Modulation by Dietary Fibers. (nih.gov)
  • Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) are gut hormones that are secreted in response to food intake, and they both stimulate insulin secretion. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) acutely recruits muscle microvasculature, increases muscle delivery of insulin, and enhances muscle use of glucose, independent of its effect on insulin secretion. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), an incretin secreted in response to nutrient intake, stimulates glucose-dependent insulin secretion, inhibits glucagon secretion and regulates postprandial glycemia ( 16 , 17 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Glucagon converts protein and fat to glucose. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Here, we show that glucagon secretion in low glucose conditions is maintained by fatty acid metabolism in both mouse and human islets, and that inhibiting this metabolic pathway profoundly decreases glucagon output by depolarizing α cell membrane potential and decreasing action potential amplitude. (bioportfolio.com)
  • If the insulin rise does not occur (through beta cell failure) the glucagon will still rise and is unopposed, so hyperglycaemia is the net result, coming from a rise in hepatic glucose output. (blogspot.com)
  • What would be far more interesting would be to run an oral protein response test, looking at blood glucose, insulin, glucagon and C-peptide. (blogspot.com)
  • Glucokinase gene expression is controlled by dietary glucose supply. (blogspot.com)
  • Drinking a diet soda before a glucose load is associated with increased glucagon-like peptide 1 secretion in individuals with type 1 diabetes and healthy controls, but not in those with type 2 diabetes, according to research published online March 12 in Diabetes Care . (medicalxpress.com)
  • HealthDay) -- Drinking a diet soda before a glucose load is associated with increased glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion in individuals with type 1 diabetes and healthy controls, but not in those with type 2 diabetes, according to research published online March 12 in Diabetes Care . (medicalxpress.com)
  • Glucose in the small intestinal lumen induces feedback that regulates gastric emptying, absorptive function, and energy intake ( 1 - 3 ), mediated both by vagal nerve pathways and secretion of gut peptides ( 4 ), including glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) from enteroendocrine K cells and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) from L cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • When blood glucose levels decline below normal levels, for example between meals or when glucose is utilized rapidly during exercise, the hormone glucagon is released from the alpha cells of the pancreas. (amazonaws.com)
  • Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) participates in glucose homeostasis and feeding behavior. (hindawi.com)
  • Carbohydrates are the main dietary source of the glucose that is manufactured in the liver and absorbed into the bloodstream to fuel the body's cells and organs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Glucose concentration is controlled by hormones, primarily insulin and glucagon. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The body converts dietary carbs (all convert to glucose as they are absorbed) into body fat. (lowcarber.org)
  • Glucagon causes the liver to release glucose, a simple sugar your body needs to provide energy for vital functions. (everydayhealth.com)
  • After an injection of glucagon, you should eat a source of sugar (fruit juice, glucose gel, raisins,) and then eat a snack or small meal such as cheese and crackers or a meat sandwich (presuming you're not nauseous from the glucagon). (everydayhealth.com)
  • Benefits of letpin's glucose-lowering action appear to involve the suppression of glucagon. (healthcanal.com)
  • Normally, glucagon is released when the glucose level in the blood is low, thanks to supervision by insulin release from neighboring cells. (healthcanal.com)
  • In insulin deficiency situations, however, glucagon levels are inappropriately high and cause the liver to release excessive amounts of glucose into the bloodstream. (healthcanal.com)
  • Glucagon is a hormone produced by the pancreas that, along with insulin , controls the level of glucose in the blood. (medicinenet.com)
  • These medical conditions may be associated with an inability of the liver to produce glucose sufficiently in response to glucagon. (medicinenet.com)
  • Once glucagon is administered, blood glucose measurements should be obtained until the patient is no longer experiencing hypoglycemic symptoms. (medicinenet.com)
  • But the U-M study suggests that glucagon - a pancreas-produced hormone that has the opposite effect of insulin by raising blood glucose levels - may also provide a powerful pathway to preventing and treating the increasingly prevalent disease. (healthcanal.com)
  • Our study shows for the first time that obesity also affects glucagon action and that this hormone also contributes to high glucose levels found in type 2 diabetes. (healthcanal.com)
  • But blood glucose is also controlled by this other hormone glucagon, which signals to the liver to produce glucose. (healthcanal.com)
  • When blood glucose levels drop, glucagon is released. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Glucagon helps convert stored carbohydrates into glucose so they can be used as energy. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Insulin and glucagon work together to keep the concentration of glucose in the blood and other body fluids within a relatively narrow range. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Glucagon controls glucose release from the liver, and insulin controls glucose transport into numerous body tissues. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Increased glucagon also appears to contribute to development of high blood sugar by releasing liver stores of glucose. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Excess insulin in response to a meal converts protein, glucose, and dietary fat to stored fat. (nahanniriverherbs.com)
  • Glucagon mobilizes the release of stored body fat from the adipose tissue directly into the bloodstream, allowing your muscles to burn fat instead of glucose for energy. (nahanniriverherbs.com)
  • Glucagon is another important hormone in glucose regulation. (eurekalert.org)
  • Dietary fiber modulates intestinal proglucagon messenger ribonucleic acid and postprandial secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 and insulin in rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It is suggested that open-type enteroendocrine cells directly sense nutrient via alpha-gustducin coupled taste receptors to modulate the secretion of glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Up-regulation of urea synthesis by amino acids and dietary protein intake may be impaired in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) due to the reduced glucagon secretion. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • The aims of the study were to determine urea synthesis kinetics in CP patients in relation to glucagon secretion (study I) and during an increase in protein intake (study II). (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • GLP-1 also inhibits gastric emptying and glucagon secretion and suppresses appetite ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an endogenous incretin hormone released by L cells of the intestine in response to nutrient intake that stimulates insulin secretion ( Drucker and Nauck, 2006 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • For example, GLP-1 stimulates insulin and suppresses glucagon secretion, inhibits gastric emptying, and reduces appetite and food intake, therefore aiding weight loss ( Drucker and Nauck, 2006 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • CPT1a-Dependent Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation Contributes to Maintaining Glucagon Secretion from Pancreatic Islets. (bioportfolio.com)
  • These data suggest that counter-regulatory secretion of glucagon is driven by fatty acid metabolism, and that the Na-K pump is an important ATP-dependent regulator of α cell function. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Moreover, Salehi says, findings from this study suggest that in addition to excessive insulin secretion, glucagon response to hypoglycemia is abnormal. (eurekalert.org)
  • Stimulation of incretin secretion by dietary lipid: is it dose dependent? (deepdyve.com)
  • However, the role of glucagon in metabolism is frequently misunderstood in diet-health circles. (blogspot.com)
  • The idea goes like this: glucagon is the opposite of insulin, and if they're released together, as they are when you eat a high-protein meal, then their effects on blood sugar , on hunger , and on fat metabolism cancel one another out in a way that they would not following a carbohydrate-heavy meal. (blogspot.com)
  • However, the travel of glucagon inwards metabolism is often misunderstood inwards diet-health circles. (hfriends.info)
  • The complex relationship between dietary fiber intake, the gastrointestinal tract and host metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • Glucagon puts the metabolism in burning mode. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Dietary changes over the past few decades in the intake of n-6 and n-3 PUFA show striking increases in the (n-6) to (n-3) ratio (~15 : 1), which are associated with greater metabolism of the n-6 PUFA compared with n-3 PUFA. (hindawi.com)
  • Glucagon shifts metabolism into burning mode. (nahanniriverherbs.com)
  • Long-term effects of 2 energy-restricted diets differing in glycemic load on dietary adherence, body composition, and metabolism in CALERIE: A 1-y randomized controlled trial. (drsears.com)
  • Glucagon release counterbalances insulin, preventing hypoglycemia when we eat a high-protein meal. (blogspot.com)
  • But giving humans realistic doses of glucagon, doses that approximate what would occur naturally in the human body following a high-protein meal, does not increase lipolysis ( 5 , 6 ). (blogspot.com)
  • The fact that urinary excretion of this metabolite is elevated in vegetarians and others consuming relatively low-protein diets strongly suggests that dietary glycine can be rate-limiting for glutathione synthesis in normally fed humans. (nih.gov)
  • GLP-1 is a member of the glucagon peptide superfamily and exerts its effects by binding to the GLP-1R, a family B G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Recently, we demonstrated that whey protein (WP) combined with low dietary fiber improved lipemia, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in subjects with abdominal obesity. (nature.com)
  • So protein will provoke hyperglycaemia in the absence of an insulin response, via glucagon, in a type 1 diabetic. (blogspot.com)
  • If a person has developed a significant loss of beta cells then the unopposed alpha cell glucagon response to this protein would produce hyperglycaemia. (blogspot.com)
  • The answer lies not with the dietary ingredients themselves, but rather in the hormonal and biochemical reactions these metabolically different food categories (fat, carbohydrate, protein) elicit in the human body. (antiaging-systems.com)
  • The pancreas, in response to adequate protein from meals, stimulates glucagon. (nahanniriverherbs.com)
  • Glucagon has the opposite job of burning fat and is produced when you consume protein. (agriculturesociety.com)
  • It also serves as a signal to the endocrine system when dietary protein ingestion occurs. (ovitaminpro.com)
  • Less hunger and greater satiation have been associated with higher intakes of protein and dietary fiber, and lower glycemic load diets. (mdpi.com)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the role played by exercise and dietary protein content in preserving the lean mass and performance of exercised and non-exercised muscles, during a short period of extreme energy deficit (~23 MJ deficit/day). (frontiersin.org)
  • Dietary protein induces greater satiety compared with carbohydrate in lean subjects, which may involve appetite-regulatory gut hormones. (encognitive.com)
  • By inhibiting lipases, orlistat reduces the absorption of dietary fats by ∼30% ( 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Glucagon converts dietary fats to ketones and sends them to the tissues for energy. (nahanniriverherbs.com)
  • Our objective was to establish whether plasma concentrations of the gut peptides PYY and glucagon-like peptide-1 in rats and humans change in response to intake of a non-absorbable but fermentable carbohydrate. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Because several approaches are currently used to treat type 2 diabetes and obesity with limited effectiveness, dietary fibers such as OFS, which promote the endogenous production of gut peptides like GLP-1, could be proposed as interesting nutrients to consider in the management of fat intake and associated metabolic disorders. (nih.gov)
  • Inulin-type fructans modulate gastrointestinal peptides involved in appetite regulation (glucagon-like peptide-1 and ghrelin) in rats. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • 1-3 During recent years, the role of the preabsorptive release of gut peptides (especially cholecystokinin (CCK), bombesin-like peptides, and glucagon-like peptides) in the production of meal-ending satiety has been extensively investigated in animals. (bmj.com)
  • When researchers put high doses of glucagon on fat cells in a petri dish, or give very high doses of glucagon to animals or humans, it stimulates the release of fat (lipolysis). (blogspot.com)
  • Glucagon stimulates the use of fat for energy. (anabolicminds.com)
  • In the present study, we investigated the effects of intake of WP and dietary fiber from enzyme-treated wheat bran on other metabolic parameters of the metabolic syndrome. (nature.com)
  • However, insufficient study design, variety in evaluating dietary intake, contradictory findings and several definitions of sugars have inhibited definitive conclusions regarding these associations. (springer.com)
  • Karalius V, Shoham D (2013) Dietary sugar and artificial sweetener intake and chronic kidney disease: a review. (springer.com)
  • Flaxseed dietary fiber supplements suppress appetite and food intake. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Relationship of fruit and vegetable intake to dietary antioxidant capacity and markers of oxidative stress: A sex-related study. (amedeo.com)
  • Multigenerational effects of dietary macronutrient intake on the metabolic phenotype of male Wistar rats. (amedeo.com)
  • After adjustment for age, parity, race, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, prepregnancy BMI, and Western dietary pattern, intake of sugar-sweetened cola was positively associated with the risk of GDM, whereas no significant association was found for other SSBs and diet beverages. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Johane Pierette Allard, Bianca Maria Arendt, Elaheh Aghdassi, Saira Saddia Mohammed, Lillia Yan Fung, Pegah Jalali and Irving Elliot Salit, " Dietary Intake and Physical Activity in a Canadian Population Sample of Male Patients with HIV Infection and Metabolic Abnormalities", Current HIV Research (2008) 6: 82. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a biologically active product of the post-translational processing of the prohormone proglucagon, is released from enteroendocrine L-cells from the distal gut in response to food intake. (bmj.com)
  • These values include the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and the Adequate Intake (AI). (nih.gov)
  • In 1989, the National Academy of Sciences established an 'estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intake' range for chromium. (nih.gov)
  • According to some investigators, this risk is believed to be lowered by an early intake of high dietary fiber, from childhood through adolescence and into early adult life, but commencing such a diet in adult life is not linked to the same benefit. (news-medical.net)
  • An important addition to our knowledge in this field is the need for insoluble fiber, and especially that obtained from whole grains, nuts and seeds, rather than that acquired from fruit and vegetables, irrespective of the overall dietary fiber intake. (news-medical.net)
  • Dietary fiber plays a huge role in this aspect, because it produces a feeling of satiety and thus keeps the person feeling full for a longer time, thereby reducing overall calorie intake. (news-medical.net)
  • The most important aspect was that this loss did not depend upon the baseline dietary intake of energy or of fiber, the level of physical activity or the age. (news-medical.net)
  • Flavonoids have potential for modulating glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) is a promising target for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus because of its role in metabolic homeostasis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Wegovy (semaglutide) is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist. (drugs.com)
  • In order to investigate the neuropeptide alterations as a consequence of dietary binge eating, relative gene expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY), glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1r), prodynorphin, and related genes were measured in LC and hypothalamic arcuate (Arc) regions. (frontiersin.org)
  • 63. The isolated peptide of claim 59, which is capable of activating a glucagon receptor. (patents.com)
  • Dietary fiber is also relatively rich in magnesium, the deficiency of which is common in diabetes and reduces the activity of the important enzyme tyrosine kinase at the insulin receptor, which may contribute to insulin resistance. (news-medical.net)
  • Oversimplified understanding of these hormones (mainly insulin) has led to erroneous dietary concepts. (anabolicminds.com)
  • After all insulin and glucagon are basically energy management hormones. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Here we evaluate the effects of d-fagomine dietary supplementation on relevant metabolic hormones and lipid peroxidation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The endocrine pancreas produces the hormones insulin and glucagon , which regulate blood sugar levels. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The other 2 cell types in the islets of Langerhans produce the hormones glucagon and somatostatin. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Hormones such as adrenaline, cortisol, insulin, and glucagon are produced due to our dietary habits and stress factors. (agriculturesociety.com)
  • Glucagon has a potent effect in isolated fat cells in the laboratory, but appears not to affect fat mobilization in humans in vivo . (blogspot.com)
  • Dietary lactitol fermentation increases circulating peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1 in rats and humans. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Glucagon is the generic form of the brand-name drug GlucaGen, a prescription injection drug that's identical to the glucagon hormone that occurs naturally in humans. (everydayhealth.com)
  • They may increase the insulin response to dietary carbohydrates. (ahealthyme.com)
  • The exocrine pancreas produces enzymes that are essential for the digestion of complex dietary components such as proteins, triglycerides, and complex carbohydrates. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Long-chain molecules, such as starches and dietary fibres, are known as complex carbohydrates. (eufic.org)
  • Again, this may be because insoluble dietary fiber results in faster intestinal transit, which reduces absorption of digested carbohydrates. (news-medical.net)
  • Following a glucagon injection, an unconscious person with hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) will usually wake within 15 minutes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If hypoglycemia is severe, your child may need a glucagon injection. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Glucagon is used as an emergency medicine by people with diabetes to raise blood sugar levels that are dangerously low when they have hypoglycemia . (everydayhealth.com)
  • The present invention relates to a glucagon derivative, a conjugate thereof, and a composition comprising the same, and a therapeutic use thereof, and in particular, for metabolic syndrome, hypoglycemia, and congenital hyperinsulinism. (patents.com)
  • Glucagon is used to treat severe hypoglycemia in diabetic patients. (medicinenet.com)
  • Nausea and vomiting may occur occasionally after injection of glucagon, but this may be a symptom of the hypoglycemia for which glucagon is being given. (medicinenet.com)
  • Glucagon should not be administered to hypoglycemic patients who are also experiencing starvation, adrenal insufficiency or are suffering from chronic hypoglycemia. (medicinenet.com)
  • For hypoglycemia, adults and children weighing 44 pounds or more should receive 1 mg (1 unit) of glucagon from the glucagon emergency kit either intravenously, subcutaneously or intramuscularly. (medicinenet.com)
  • This dietary reversal model provides the basis for mechanistic studies investigating peripheral nerve damage in the setting of metabolic syndrome, and ultimately the development of mechanism-based therapies for neuropathy. (biologists.org)
  • In contrast, the role of TORC1 in the metabolic response to feeding status or dietary composition in fish has been less well investigated. (biologists.org)
  • Therefore, a better understanding of the role and mechanism of dietary capsaicin consumption and metabolic health can provide critical implications for the early prevention and treatment of obesity. (bioscirep.org)
  • Dr. Unger's laboratory found that insulin's benefit resulted from its suppression of glucagon, a hormone produced by the pancreas that raises blood sugar levels in healthy individuals. (healthcanal.com)
  • If the person does not awaken within 15 minutes after an injection, give one more dose of glucagon. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Be sure you and your caregivers know how to give this medication in case of an emergency, because it's likely that a family member, caregiver, or friend will administer the dose of glucagon. (everydayhealth.com)
  • You should make sure that your family members, caregivers, or the people who spend time with you know where you keep glucagon nasal powder, how to use it, and how to tell if you are experiencing very low blood sugar. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you have low blood sugar often, keep glucagon injection with you at all times. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We've mostly focused on controlling insulin production and action to treat diabetes but there has been very little study on the opposite hormone glucagon. (healthcanal.com)
  • And like insulin, leptin suppresses glucagon in the body and helps increase lean body mass. (healthcanal.com)
  • Results from 7-day food records and activity logs were compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes and recommendations of Canadas Physical Activity Guide, respectively. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Recommended chromium intakes are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences [ 14 ]. (nih.gov)
  • Dietary Reference Intakes is the general term for a set of reference values to plan and assess the nutrient intakes of healthy people. (nih.gov)
  • Subsequently, we briefly address the reported health effects of different dietary fibers and discuss to what extent the fiber-induced health benefits may be mediated through modulation of gastrointestinal transit. (nih.gov)
  • Solid lines indicate well-studied effects of dietary fiber, dashed line indicate more controversial findings. (nih.gov)
  • 10 g dietary fiber/day) cereal products. (nature.com)
  • Neither WP nor dietary fiber from wheat bran affected insulin sensitivity, 24-h BP, gut hormone responses, body composition, or energy expenditure compared with MD and low dietary fiber. (nature.com)
  • Complex CHO, Starch, Dietary Fiber: grains seeds legumes vegetables Eat these! (studystack.com)
  • Dietary fiber is an essential component of a healthy diet. (news-medical.net)
  • Good sources of dietary fiber include whole grains, fruits and vegetables, as well as nuts and legumes. (news-medical.net)
  • Dietary fiber, in its natural state, is associated with many phytochemicals, such as plant polyphenols, isoflavones and flavonoids, lignans and carotenoids, as well as with vitamins and minerals, as for instance in the aleurone layer of wheat grains. (news-medical.net)
  • One study reported an average loss of over 4.4 lbs, primarily of body fat, when the dietary fiber was increased by 8g for every 1000 calories. (news-medical.net)
  • This is due to the production of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY from fermentation of fiber by gut microbes. (news-medical.net)
  • None were taking any medication or had a history of food allergies, disturbances of carbohydrate tolerance, or dietary restrictions. (bmj.com)
  • Authors identified the NIK/NF-B2 pathway, which promotes glucagon responses in obesity. (healthcanal.com)
  • NIK was abnormally activated in mice with dietary or genetic obesity and the inhibition of liver NIK was found to cure diabetes in obese mice. (healthcanal.com)
  • Here we examine the cardiac effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide in a model of obesity, independent of changes in body weight. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this review, we will focus on the less highlighted aspect, in particular how dietary chili peppers and capsaicin consumption reduce body weight and its potential mechanisms of its anti-obesity effects. (bioscirep.org)
  • Dietary fructans from agave and chicory increases GLP-1 levels and reduces appetite and weight gain in mice. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Glucagon Increases amino acid movement into hepatic cells. (studystack.com)
  • Glucagon nasal powder is used along with emergency medical treatment to treat very low blood sugar in adults and children 4 years of age and older who have diabetes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most individuals with mild-to-moderate type 2 diabetes can manage the condition with oral medications or non-insulin injectable drugs, as well as lifestyle and dietary changes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Dietary habits and adherence to dietary recommendations in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes compared with the general population in Denmark. (amedeo.com)
  • Dietary patterns during pregnancy derived by reduced-rank regression and their association with gestational diabetes mellitus. (amedeo.com)
  • It is correct to say that dietary carbs are the base cause of both heart blockage and diabetes, (not a disease). (lowcarber.org)
  • If you have diabetes and often experience low blood-sugar episodes, you should keep a glucagon emergency kit with you all the time. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Insulin cells are destroyed in people with type 1 diabetes, however, and matching the high insulin levels needed to reach glucagon cells with insulin injections is possible only with amounts that are excessive for other tissues," said Dr. Unger, senior author of the latest study. (healthcanal.com)
  • Optimal dietary intakes of the n-6 : n-3 ratio should be around 1-4 : 1. (hindawi.com)
  • Dietary intakes of chromium cannot be reliably determined because the content of the mineral in foods is substantially affected by agricultural and manufacturing processes and perhaps by contamination with chromium when the foods are analyzed [ 10 , 12 , 14 ]. (nih.gov)
  • On day 50, rats were food-deprived 8 hours and anesthetized for blood and intestinal tissue sampling for further proglucagon mRNA, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, and GLP-2 quantification. (nih.gov)
  • Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a typical incretin hormone and is produced by differential posttranslational processing of proglucagon in the gut and brain [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Glucagon-like peptide-1 is an incretin hormone capable of cytoprotective actions that reduces inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress in other tissues. (ahajournals.org)
  • After using glucagon nasal powder your family member or caregiver should call for emergency help right away. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Dietary Starches and Sugar in Man presents the latest thinking of leading research scientists in a unique, multi-authored book. (springer.com)
  • PRO MEMBERS get Unlimited Access to downloadable documents like this, with curated research on Glucagon Like peptide 1 (GLP-1) Up-regulation. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • This downloadable document (GMI PUB) is filled with medically researched knowledge, relevant information and pertinent data on Glucagon Like peptide 1 (GLP-1) Up-regulation . (greenmedinfo.com)
  • This GMI PUB document will greatly reduce your research time due to the Cumulative Knowledge feature, and contains a condensed form of the studies that we have accumulated on Glucagon Like peptide 1 (GLP-1) Up-regulation. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Ask your doctor or pharmacist to show you, family, or caregivers who could be injecting the medication how to use and prepare glucagon injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Before a friend or family member uses glucagon injection for the first time, read the patient information that comes with it. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Do not use glucagon injection if it is cloudy, contains particles, or if the expiration date has passed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to glucagon, lactose, any other medications, beef or pork products, or any of the ingredients in glucagon injection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Glucagon is typically given as an injection beneath the skin, in the muscle, or in the vein. (everydayhealth.com)
  • it also acts like epinephrine or glucagon and mobilizes lipids. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Nevertheless, glucagon probably does play a role in satiety, independently of insulin. (blogspot.com)
  • Background/Aims Studies in animals suggest a physiological role for glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36)-amide (GLP-1) in regulating satiety. (bmj.com)
  • Glucagon is used along with emergency medical treatment to treat very low blood sugar. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is important that all patients have a household member who knows the symptoms of low blood sugar and how to administer glucagon. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Glucagon should only be used to treat low blood sugar if you are not well enough to use food to raise your blood sugar, if you have passed out, or if you have a seizure. (everydayhealth.com)
  • After taking glucagon and regaining consciousness, you must contact your doctor, and your blood sugar levels should be checked hourly for three to four hours. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Quickly treating dangerously low blood sugar outweighs any risks glucagon may pose. (everydayhealth.com)
  • You should avoid drinking alcohol while taking or after taking glucagon because it can lower your blood sugar. (everydayhealth.com)
  • All people who take glucagon should have a household member who knows how to administer the drug and recognizes the symptoms of low blood sugar. (everydayhealth.com)
  • If someone is unconscious due to a low blood-sugar episode, glucagon should be given as soon as possible. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Inflammation may enhance the ability of glucagon to increase blood sugar. (healthcanal.com)
  • If we consider the claim that glucagon promotes fat release from fat tissue, suddenly we're on shaky ground! (blogspot.com)
  • Glucagon Promotes fat cell lipolysis. (studystack.com)
  • Regarding hunger, glucagon is often suggested to oppose the hunger-inducing effects of insulin. (blogspot.com)
  • May 26, 2021 -- Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Federal Trade Commission issued warning letters to five companies for illegally selling dietary supplements that claim to cure, treat, mitigate, or prevent infertility and other reproductive health disorders in violation of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act). (drugs.com)
  • Dietary supplements that claim to cure, treat or prevent infertility and other reproductive health conditions can potentially harm consumers who use these products instead of seeking effective treatments, such as FDA-approved drugs or assisted reproductive technology," said Judy McMeekin, Pharm.D., FDA's Associate Commissioner for Regulatory Affairs. (drugs.com)
  • Under the FD&C Act, products intended to cure, treat, mitigate, or prevent disease are drugs and are subject to the requirements that apply to drugs, even if they are labeled as dietary supplements. (drugs.com)
  • Effects of dietary sports supplements on metabolite accumulation, vasodilation and cellular swelling in relation to muscle hypertrophy: A focus on "secondary" physiological determinants. (amedeo.com)
  • Which drugs or supplements interact with glucagon? (medicinenet.com)
  • The updated labels must appear on food products and dietary supplements beginning in January 2020, but they can be used now [ 19 ]. (nih.gov)
  • Te Morenga L, Mallard S, Mann J (2013) Dietary sugars and body weight: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies. (springer.com)
  • They occur in many different forms, like sugars and dietary fibre, and in many different foods, such as whole grains, fruit and vegetables. (eufic.org)
  • There is a largely unsubstantiated thought in the literature that dietary unsaturated enter oxidation pathways preferentially compared to saturated fatty acids. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Carnitine, the carrier of fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix, is used as a dietary supplement with some success. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • So the idea that glucagon counterbalances insulin's effects on lipolysis does have some basis in reality. (blogspot.com)
  • Also, blocking glucagon action in dogs does not reduce lipolysis, suggesting that baseline glucagon levels are unrelated to lipolysis ( 7 ). (blogspot.com)
  • Rabassa M, Zamora-Ros R, Andres-Lacueva C, Urpi-Sarda M, Bandinelli S, Ferrucci L, and Cherubini A. "Association between both total baseline urinary and dietary polyphenols and substantial physical performance decline risk in older adults: A 9-year follow-up of the InCHIANTI study. (drsears.com)
  • Dietary resistant starch upregulates total GLP-1 and PYY in a sustained day-long manner through fermentation in rodents. (semanticscholar.org)