Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Fats containing one or more double bonds, as from oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid.
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
An oily liquid extracted from the seeds of the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius. It is used as a dietary supplement in the management of HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA. It is used also in cooking, as a salad oil, and as a vehicle for medicines, paints, varnishes, etc. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. It is a tropical palm tree that yields a large, edible hard-shelled fruit from which oil and fiber are also obtained.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
The consumption of edible substances.
Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.
A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.
Oil from soybean or soybean plant.
Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.
The selection of one food over another.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
A fatty acid that is found in plants and involved in the formation of prostaglandins.
Blocking of a blood vessel by fat deposits in the circulation. It is often seen after fractures of large bones or after administration of CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.
Glucose in blood.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
Colipase I and II, consisting of 94-95 and 84-85 amino acid residues, respectively, have been isolated from porcine pancreas. Their role is to prevent the inhibitory effect of bile salts on the lipase-catalyzed intraduodenal hydrolysis of dietary long-chain triglycerides.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
The amounts of various substances in the diet recommended by governmental guidelines as needed to sustain healthy life.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.
Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
The combination of two or more different factors in the production of cancer.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
A diet typical of the Mediterranean region characterized by a pattern high in fruits and vegetables, EDIBLE GRAIN and bread, potatoes, poultry, beans, nuts, olive oil and fish while low in red meat and dairy and moderate in alcohol consumption.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A potent carcinogen and neurotoxic compound. It is particularly effective in inducing colon carcinomas.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS that contain at least one double bond in the trans configuration, which results in a greater bond angle than the cis configuration. This results in a more extended fatty acid chain similar to SATURATED FATTY ACIDS, with closer packing and reduced fluidity. HYDROGENATION of unsaturated fatty acids increases the trans content.
Abstaining from all food.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A butterlike product made of refined vegetable oils, sometimes blended with animal fats, and emulsified usually with water or milk. It is used as a butter substitute. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.
7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A condition in which the death of adipose tissue results in neutral fats being split into fatty acids and glycerol.
A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.
The fixed oil obtained from the dried ripe seed of linseed, Linum usitatissimum (L. Linaceae). It is used as an emollient in liniments, pastes, and medicinal soaps, and in veterinary medicine as a laxative. It is also called flaxseed oil. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.
A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
cis-13-Docosenoic Acids. 22-Carbon monounsaturated, monocarboxylic acids.
Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.
A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Dietary practice of completely avoiding meat products in the DIET, consuming VEGETABLES, CEREALS, and NUTS. Some vegetarian diets called lacto-ovo also include milk and egg products.
Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
The study of the relationship between NUTRITIONAL PHYSIOLOGY and genetic makeup. It includes the effect of different food components on GENE EXPRESSION and how variations in GENES effect responses to food components.
A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN in the region of the ABDOMEN.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
Hydrazines substituted with two methyl groups in any position.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
An omega-6 fatty acid produced in the body as the delta 6-desaturase metabolite of linoleic acid. It is converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of monoenoic prostaglandins such as PGE1. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Proteins which are present in or isolated from vegetables or vegetable products used as food. The concept is distinguished from PLANT PROTEINS which refers to non-dietary proteins from plants.
A condition that is characterized by chronic fatty DIARRHEA, a result of abnormal DIGESTION and/or INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of FATS.
Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.
Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.
A genus of the family CEBIDAE, subfamily CEBINAE, consisting of four species which are divided into two groups, the tufted and untufted. C. apella has tufts of hair over the eyes and sides of the head. The remaining species are without tufts - C. capucinus, C. nigrivultatus, and C. albifrons. Cebus inhabits the forests of Central and South America.

Dietary intake and practices in the Hong Kong Chinese population. (1/8527)

OBJECTIVES: To examine dietary intake and practices of the adult Hong Kong Chinese population to provide a basis for future public health recommendations with regard to prevention of certain chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and osteoporosis. PARTICIPANTS: Age and sex stratified random sample of the Hong Kong Chinese population aged 25 to 74 years (500 men, 510 women). METHOD: A food frequency method over a one week period was used for nutrient quantification, and a separate questionnaire was used for assessment of dietary habits. Information was obtained by interview. RESULTS: Men had higher intakes of energy and higher nutrient density of vitamin D, monounsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol, but lower nutrient density of protein, many vitamins, calcium, iron, copper, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. There was an age related decrease in energy intake and other nutrients except for vitamin C, sodium, potassium, and percentage of total calorie from carbohydrate, which all increased with age. Approximately 50% of the population had a cholesterol intake of < or = 300 mg; 60% had a fat intake < or = 30% of total energy; and 85% had a percentage of energy from saturated fats < or = 10%; criteria considered desirable for cardiovascular health. Seventy eight per cent of the population had sodium intake values in the range shown to be associated with the age related rise in blood pressure with age. Mean calcium intake was lower than the FAO/WHO recommendations. The awareness of the value of wholemeal bread and polyunsaturated fat spreads was lower in this population compared with that in Australia. There was a marked difference in types of cooking oil compared with Singaporeans, the latter using more coconut/palm/mixed vegetable oils. CONCLUSION: Although the current intake pattern for cardiovascular health for fat, saturated fatty acid, and cholesterol fall within the recommended range for over 50% of the population, follow up surveys to monitor the pattern would be needed. Decreasing salt consumption, increasing calcium intake, and increasing the awareness of the health value of fibre may all be beneficial in the context of chronic disease prevention.  (+info)

Dietary control of triglyceride and phospholipid synthesis in rat liver slices. (2/8527)

1. The effect of dietary manipulation on the synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids was investigated by determining the incorporation of labeled long-chain fatty acid or glycerol into these lipids in liver slices derived from normally fed, fasted, and fat-free refed rats. 2. Triglyceride synthesis was affected markedly by the dietary regime of the animal; the lowest rates were measured with fasted rats, and the highest ones with fat-free refed rats. 3. In contrast to triglyceride synthesis, phospholipid synthesis occured at virtually constant rates regardless of the dietary conditions. 4. Addition of large amounts of fatty acid to the incubation mixture resulted in a marked stimulation of triglyceride synthesis, whereas phospholipid synthesis was affected to a much smaller extent. 5. These results indicate that the synthesis of triglycerides and that of phospholipids are controlled independently, and that the availability of fatty acid in the cell contributes to the control of triglyceride synthesis.  (+info)

Diet and risk of ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity: carbohydrate-fat relationships in rats. (3/8527)

Nutritional status is a primary factor in the effects of xenobiotics and may be an important consideration in development of safety standards and assessment of risk. One important xenobiotic consumed daily by millions of people worldwide is alcohol. Some adverse effects of ethanol, such as alcohol liver disease, have been linked to diet. For example, ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in animal models requires diets that have a high percentage of the total calories as unsaturated fat. However, little attention has been given to the role of carbohydrates (or carbohydrate to fat ratio) in the effects of this important xenobiotic on liver injury. In the present study, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (8-10/group) were infused (intragastrically) diets high in unsaturated fat (25 or 45% total calories), sufficient protein (16%) and ethanol (38%) in the presence or absence of adequate carbohydrate (21 or 2.5%) for 42-55 days (d). Animals infused ethanol-containing diets adequate in carbohydrate developed steatosis, but had no other signs of hepatic pathology. However, rats infused with the carbohydrate-deficient diet had a 4-fold increase in serum ALT levels (p < 0.05), an unexpectedly high (34-fold) induction of hepatic microsomal CYP2E1 apoprotein (p < 0.001), and focal necrosis. The strong positive association between low dietary carbohydrate, enhanced CYP2E1 induction and hepatic necrosis suggests that in the presence of low carbohydrate intake, ethanol induction of CYP2E1 is enhanced to levels sufficient to cause necrosis, possibly through reactive oxygen species and other free radicals generated by CYP2E1 metabolism of ethanol and unsaturated fatty acids.  (+info)

Comparative hypocholesterolemic effects of five animal oils in cholesterol-fed rats. (4/8527)

The hypocholesterolemic efficacy of various animal oils was compared in rats given a cholesterol-enriched diet. After acclimatization for one week, male F344 DuCrj rats (8 weeks of age) that had been fed with a conventional diet were assigned to diets containing 5% of oil from emu (Dromaius), Japanese Sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis, Heude), sardine, beef tallow, or lard with 0.5% cholesterol for 6 weeks. After this feeding period, the concentrations of serum total cholesterol and of very-low-density lipoprotein + intermediate-density lipoprotein + low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the sardine oil group were significantly lower than those in the other groups. The serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration in the Japanese Sika deer oil group was significantly higher than that in the other groups. The atherosclerotic index and liver cholesterol concentration in the sardine oil and Japanese Sika deer oil groups were significantly lower than those in the other groups. The fecal cholesterol excretion by the Japanese Sika deer oil group was significantly higher than that of the other groups, except for the sardine oil group, and the fecal bile acid excretion by the sardine oil group was significantly higher than that of the other groups, except for the lard group. These results suggest that Japanese Sika deer oil reduced the atherosclerotic index and liver cholesterol concentration in the presence of excess cholesterol in the diet as well as sardine oil did by increasing the excretion of cholesterol from the intestines of rats.  (+info)

Manipulation of the type of fat consumed by growing pigs affects plasma and mononuclear cell fatty acid compositions and lymphocyte and phagocyte functions. (5/8527)

To investigate the immunological effect of feeding pigs different dietary lipids, 3-wk-old, weaned pigs were fed for 40 d on one of five diets, which differed only in the type of oil present (the oil contributed 5% by weight of the diet and the total fat content of the diets was 8% by weight). The oils used were soybean (control diet), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), sunflower oil (SO), canola oil (CO), and fish oil (FO; rich in long-chain [n-3] polyunsaturared fatty acids). There were no significant differences in initial or final animal weights, weight gains, or health scores among the groups. There were no significant differences in the concentration of anti-Escherichia coli vaccine antibodies in the gut lumens of pigs fed the different diets. The fatty acid composition of the diet markedly affected the fatty acid composition of the plasma and of mononuclear cells (a mixture of lymphocytes, monocytes, and macrophages) prepared from the blood, lymph nodes, or thymus. The FO feeding resulted in a significant increase in the number of circulating granulocytes. The FO feeding significantly decreased the proportion of phagocytes engaged in uptake of E. coli and decreased the activity of those phagocytes that were active. The proliferation of lymphocytes in cultures of whole blood from pigs fed the HOSO, SO, or FO diets was less than in those from pigs fed the CO diet. Proliferation of lymph node lymphocytes from SO- or FO-fed pigs was less than that from control, CO-, or HOSO-fed pigs. The natural killer cell activity of blood lymphocytes from pigs fed the FO diet was significantly reduced compared with those from pigs fed the CO diet. The concentration of PGE2 in the medium of cultured blood, lymph node, or thymic mononuclear cells was lower if the cells came from pigs fed the FO diet. Thus, the type of oil included in the diet of growing pigs affects the numbers and functional activities of immune cells in different body compartments.  (+info)

Lipoprotein lipase expression level influences tissue clearance of chylomicron retinyl ester. (6/8527)

Approximately 25% of postprandial retinoid is cleared from the circulation by extrahepatic tissues. Little is known about physiologic factors important to this uptake. We hypothesized that lipoprotein lipase (LpL) contributes to extrahepatic clearance of chylomicron vitamin A. To investigate this, [3H]retinyl ester-containing rat mesenteric chylomicrons were injected intravenously into induced mutant mice and nutritionally manipulated rats. The tissue sites of uptake of 3H label by wild type mice and LpL-null mice overexpressing human LpL in muscle indicate that LpL expression does influence accumulation of chylomicron retinoid. Skeletal muscle from mice overexpressing human LpL accumulated 1.7- to 2.4-fold more 3H label than wild type. Moreover, heart tissue from mice overexpresssing human LpL, but lacking mouse LpL, accumulated less than half of the 3H-label taken up by wild type heart. Fasting and heparin injection, two factors that increase LpL activity in skeletal muscle, increased uptake of chylomicron [3H] retinoid by rat skeletal muscle. Using [3H]retinyl palmitate and its non-hydrolyzable analog retinyl [14C]hexadecyl ether incorporated into Intralipid emulsions, the importance of retinyl ester hydrolysis in this process was assessed. We observed that 3H label was taken up to a greater extent than 14C label by rat skeletal muscle, suggesting that retinoid uptake requires hydrolysis. In summary, for each of our experiments, the level of lipoprotein lipase expression in skeletal muscle, heart, and/or adipose tissue influenced the amount of [3H]retinoid taken up from chylomicrons and/or their remnants.  (+info)

Increased insulin sensitivity and obesity resistance in mice lacking the protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B gene. (7/8527)

Protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP-1B) has been implicated in the negative regulation of insulin signaling. Disruption of the mouse homolog of the gene encoding PTP-1B yielded healthy mice that, in the fed state, had blood glucose concentrations that were slightly lower and concentrations of circulating insulin that were one-half those of their PTP-1B+/+ littermates. The enhanced insulin sensitivity of the PTP-1B-/- mice was also evident in glucose and insulin tolerance tests. The PTP-1B-/- mice showed increased phosphorylation of the insulin receptor in liver and muscle tissue after insulin injection in comparison to PTP-1B+/+ mice. On a high-fat diet, the PTP-1B-/- and PTP-1B+/- mice were resistant to weight gain and remained insulin sensitive, whereas the PTP-1B+/+ mice rapidly gained weight and became insulin resistant. These results demonstrate that PTP-1B has a major role in modulating both insulin sensitivity and fuel metabolism, thereby establishing it as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity.  (+info)

Lower plasma levels and accelerated clearance of high density lipoprotein (HDL) and non-HDL cholesterol in scavenger receptor class B type I transgenic mice. (8/8527)

Recent studies have indicated that the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) may play an important role in the uptake of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesteryl ester in liver and steroidogenic tissues. To investigate the in vivo effects of liver-specific SR-BI overexpression on lipid metabolism, we created several lines of SR-BI transgenic mice with an SR-BI genomic construct where the SR-BI promoter region had been replaced by the apolipoprotein (apo)A-I promoter. The effect of constitutively increased SR-BI expression on plasma HDL and non-HDL lipoproteins and apolipoproteins was characterized. There was an inverse correlation between SR-BI expression and apoA-I and HDL cholesterol levels in transgenic mice fed either mouse chow or a diet high in fat and cholesterol. An unexpected finding in the SR-BI transgenic mice was the dramatic impact of the SR-BI transgene on non-HDL cholesterol and apoB whose levels were also inversely correlated with SR-BI expression. Consistent with the decrease in plasma HDL and non-HDL cholesterol was an accelerated clearance of HDL, non-HDL, and their major associated apolipoproteins in the transgenics compared with control animals. These in vivo studies of the effect of SR-BI overexpression on plasma lipoproteins support the previously proposed hypothesis that SR-BI accelerates the metabolism of HDL and also highlight the capacity of this receptor to participate in the metabolism of non-HDL lipoproteins.  (+info)

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

There are several different types of obesity, including:

1. Central obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
2. Peripheral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat in the hips, thighs, and arms.
3. Visceral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the internal organs in the abdominal cavity.
4. Mixed obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by both central and peripheral obesity.

Obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lack of physical activity, poor diet, sleep deprivation, and certain medications. Treatment for obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet, and in some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to achieve weight loss.

Preventing obesity is important for overall health and well-being, and can be achieved through a variety of strategies, including:

1. Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is low in added sugars, saturated fats, and refined carbohydrates.
2. Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, jogging, or swimming.
3. Getting enough sleep each night.
4. Managing stress levels through relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing.
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and quitting smoking.
6. Monitoring weight and body mass index (BMI) on a regular basis to identify any changes or potential health risks.
7. Seeking professional help from a healthcare provider or registered dietitian for personalized guidance on weight management and healthy lifestyle choices.

There are several different types of weight gain, including:

1. Clinical obesity: This is defined as a BMI of 30 or higher, and is typically associated with a range of serious health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer.
2. Central obesity: This refers to excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
3. Muscle gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in muscle mass, rather than fat. This type of weight gain is generally considered healthy and can improve overall fitness and athletic performance.
4. Fat gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in body fat, rather than muscle or bone density. Fat gain can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

Weight gain can be measured using a variety of methods, including:

1. Body mass index (BMI): This is a widely used measure of weight gain that compares an individual's weight to their height. A BMI of 18.5-24.9 is considered normal, while a BMI of 25-29.9 is considered overweight, and a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese.
2. Waist circumference: This measures the distance around an individual's waistline and can be used to assess central obesity.
3. Skinfold measurements: These involve measuring the thickness of fat at specific points on the body, such as the abdomen or thighs.
4. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a non-invasive test that uses X-rays to measure bone density and body composition.
5. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive test that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage and other physiological parameters.

Causes of weight gain:

1. Poor diet: Consuming high amounts of processed foods, sugar, and saturated fats can lead to weight gain.
2. Lack of physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise can help burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.
3. Genetics: An individual's genetic makeup can affect their metabolism and body composition, making them more prone to weight gain.
4. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances in hormones such as insulin, thyroid, and cortisol can contribute to weight gain.
5. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and antidepressants, can cause weight gain as a side effect.
6. Sleep deprivation: Lack of sleep can disrupt hormones that regulate appetite and metabolism, leading to weight gain.
7. Stress: Chronic stress can lead to emotional eating and weight gain.
8. Age: Metabolism slows down with age, making it more difficult to maintain a healthy weight.
9. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can also contribute to weight gain.

Treatment options for obesity:

1. Lifestyle modifications: A combination of diet, exercise, and stress management techniques can help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
2. Medications: Prescription medications such as orlistat, phentermine-topiramate, and liraglutide can aid in weight loss.
3. Bariatric surgery: Surgical procedures such as gastric bypass surgery and sleeve gastrectomy can be effective for severe obesity.
4. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of counseling can help individuals develop healthy eating habits and improve their physical activity levels.
5. Meal replacement plans: Meal replacement plans such as Medifast can provide individuals with a structured diet that is high in protein, fiber, and vitamins, and low in calories and sugar.
6. Weight loss supplements: Supplements such as green tea extract, garcinia cambogia, and forskolin can help boost weight loss efforts.
7. Portion control: Using smaller plates and measuring cups can help individuals regulate their portion sizes and maintain a healthy weight.
8. Mindful eating: Paying attention to hunger and fullness cues, eating slowly, and savoring food can help individuals develop healthy eating habits.
9. Physical activity: Engaging in regular physical activity such as walking, running, swimming, or cycling can help individuals burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.

It's important to note that there is no one-size-fits-all approach to treating obesity, and the most effective treatment plan will depend on the individual's specific needs and circumstances. Consulting with a healthcare professional such as a registered dietitian or a physician can help individuals develop a personalized treatment plan that is safe and effective.

Fat embolism is a condition that occurs when fat droplets enter the bloodstream and get stuck in a blood vessel, causing a blockage. This can lead to serious complications, such as respiratory failure or death.

Causes of Fat Embolism

Fat embolism can occur due to various reasons, including:

* Trauma or injury: A blow to the body can cause fat droplets to enter the bloodstream.
* Surgery: Certain surgeries, such as hip replacement or knee replacement, can disrupt the fat tissue and cause it to enter the bloodstream.
* Cancer: Some types of cancer, such as multiple myeloma or osteosarcoma, can cause fat embolism.
* Bone fractures: A fracture in a bone can cause fat droplets to enter the bloodstream.

Symptoms of Fat Embolism

The symptoms of fat embolism can vary depending on the severity of the condition. Some common symptoms include:

* Shortness of breath
* Chest pain or discomfort
* Rapid heart rate
* Coughing up blood
* Confusion or altered mental state
* Weakness or numbness in the legs
* Seizures

Diagnosis and Treatment of Fat Embolism

Diagnosing fat embolism can be challenging, as it may resemble other conditions such as pulmonary embolism or pneumonia. However, a doctor may use various tests, including:

* Chest X-ray: To look for signs of fluid accumulation in the lungs.
* CT scan: To visualize the fat droplets in the blood vessels.
* Blood tests: To check for signs of inflammation or infection.

Treatment for fat embolism typically involves supportive care, such as:

* Oxygen therapy: To help improve oxygen levels in the body.
* Pain management: To relieve chest pain and discomfort.
* Antibiotics: To prevent or treat any secondary infections.
* Medications to dissolve blood clots: To prevent further complications.

In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove the fat droplets from the blood vessels.

Prevention of Fat Embolism

Preventing fat embolism can be challenging, as it is a rare condition that can occur unexpectedly. However, there are some measures that may help reduce the risk, such as:

* Maintaining a healthy weight: To reduce the amount of fat that can enter the bloodstream.
* Exercising regularly: To improve circulation and reduce the risk of blood clots.
* Avoiding long periods of immobility: To reduce the risk of blood clots forming in the legs.


Fat embolism is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition that can occur when fat enters the bloodstream and causes blockages in the blood vessels. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent complications and improve outcomes. If you suspect you or someone else may have fat embolism, seek medical attention immediately.

There are many different approaches to weight loss, and what works best for one person may not work for another. Some common strategies for weight loss include:

* Caloric restriction: Reducing daily caloric intake to create a calorie deficit that promotes weight loss.
* Portion control: Eating smaller amounts of food and avoiding overeating.
* Increased physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise, such as walking, running, swimming, or weightlifting, to burn more calories and build muscle mass.
* Behavioral modifications: Changing habits and behaviors related to eating and exercise, such as keeping a food diary or enlisting the support of a weight loss buddy.

Weight loss can have numerous health benefits, including:

* Improved blood sugar control
* Reduced risk of heart disease and stroke
* Lowered blood pressure
* Improved joint health and reduced risk of osteoarthritis
* Improved sleep quality
* Boosted mood and reduced stress levels
* Increased energy levels

However, weight loss can also be challenging, and it is important to approach it in a healthy and sustainable way. Crash diets and other extreme weight loss methods are not effective in the long term and can lead to nutrient deficiencies and other negative health consequences. Instead, it is important to focus on making sustainable lifestyle changes that can be maintained over time.

Some common misconceptions about weight loss include:

* All weight loss methods are effective for everyone.
* Weight loss should always be the primary goal of a fitness or health program.
* Crash diets and other extreme weight loss methods are a good way to lose weight quickly.
* Weight loss supplements and fad diets are a reliable way to achieve significant weight loss.

The most effective ways to lose weight and maintain weight loss include:

* Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is high in nutrient-dense foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats.
* Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, running, swimming, or weight training.
* Getting enough sleep and managing stress levels.
* Aiming for a gradual weight loss of 1-2 pounds per week.
* Focusing on overall health and wellness rather than just the number on the scale.

It is important to remember that weight loss is not always linear and can vary from week to week. It is also important to be patient and consistent with your weight loss efforts, as it can take time to see significant results.

Overall, weight loss can be a challenging but rewarding process, and it is important to approach it in a healthy and sustainable way. By focusing on overall health and wellness rather than just the number on the scale, you can achieve a healthy weight and improve your overall quality of life.

Examples of 'Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental' in a sentence:

1. The researchers studied the effects of hormone therapy on mammary neoplasms in experimental animals to better understand its potential role in human breast cancer.
2. The lab used mice with genetic mutations that predispose them to developing mammary neoplasms to test the efficacy of new cancer drugs.
3. In order to investigate the link between obesity and breast cancer, the researchers conducted experiments on mammary neoplasms in rats with diet-induced obesity.

Cocarcinogenesis can occur through various mechanisms, such as:

1. Synergistic effects: The combined effect of two or more substances is greater than the sum of their individual effects. For example, smoking and exposure to asbestos can increase the risk of lung cancer more than either factor alone.
2. Antagonism: One substance may counteract the protective effects of another substance, leading to an increased risk of cancer. For example, alcohol consumption may antagonize the protective effects of a healthy diet against liver cancer.
3. Potentiation: One substance may enhance the carcinogenic effects of another substance. For example, smoking can potentiate the carcinogenic effects of exposure to certain chemicals in tobacco smoke.
4. Multistage carcinogenesis: Cocarcinogens can contribute to the development of cancer through multiple stages of carcinogenesis, including initiation, promotion, and progression.

Understanding cocarcinogenesis is important for developing effective cancer prevention strategies and for identifying potential co-carcinogens in our environment and diet. By identifying and avoiding co-carcinogens, we can reduce our risk of cancer and improve our overall health.

There are several factors that can contribute to the development of insulin resistance, including:

1. Genetics: Insulin resistance can be inherited, and some people may be more prone to developing the condition based on their genetic makeup.
2. Obesity: Excess body fat, particularly around the abdominal area, can contribute to insulin resistance.
3. Physical inactivity: A sedentary lifestyle can lead to insulin resistance.
4. Poor diet: Consuming a diet high in refined carbohydrates and sugar can contribute to insulin resistance.
5. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and Cushing's syndrome, can increase the risk of developing insulin resistance.
6. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and some antipsychotic drugs, can increase insulin resistance.
7. Hormonal imbalances: Hormonal changes during pregnancy or menopause can lead to insulin resistance.
8. Sleep apnea: Sleep apnea can contribute to insulin resistance.
9. Chronic stress: Chronic stress can lead to insulin resistance.
10. Aging: Insulin resistance tends to increase with age, particularly after the age of 45.

There are several ways to diagnose insulin resistance, including:

1. Fasting blood sugar test: This test measures the level of glucose in the blood after an overnight fast.
2. Glucose tolerance test: This test measures the body's ability to regulate blood sugar levels after consuming a sugary drink.
3. Insulin sensitivity test: This test measures the body's ability to respond to insulin.
4. Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA): This is a mathematical formula that uses the results of a fasting glucose and insulin test to estimate insulin resistance.
5. Adiponectin test: This test measures the level of adiponectin, a protein produced by fat cells that helps regulate blood sugar levels. Low levels of adiponectin are associated with insulin resistance.

There is no cure for insulin resistance, but it can be managed through lifestyle changes and medication. Lifestyle changes include:

1. Diet: A healthy diet that is low in processed carbohydrates and added sugars can help improve insulin sensitivity.
2. Exercise: Regular physical activity, such as aerobic exercise and strength training, can improve insulin sensitivity.
3. Weight loss: Losing weight, particularly around the abdominal area, can improve insulin sensitivity.
4. Stress management: Strategies to manage stress, such as meditation or yoga, can help improve insulin sensitivity.
5. Sleep: Getting adequate sleep is important for maintaining healthy insulin levels.

Medications that may be used to treat insulin resistance include:

1. Metformin: This is a commonly used medication to treat type 2 diabetes and improve insulin sensitivity.
2. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs): These medications, such as pioglitazone, improve insulin sensitivity by increasing the body's ability to use insulin.
3. Sulfonylureas: These medications stimulate the release of insulin from the pancreas, which can help improve insulin sensitivity.
4. DPP-4 inhibitors: These medications, such as sitagliptin, work by reducing the breakdown of the hormone incretin, which helps to increase insulin secretion and improve insulin sensitivity.
5. GLP-1 receptor agonists: These medications, such as exenatide, mimic the action of the hormone GLP-1 and help to improve insulin sensitivity.

It is important to note that these medications may have side effects, so it is important to discuss the potential benefits and risks with your healthcare provider before starting treatment. Additionally, lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise can also be effective in improving insulin sensitivity and managing blood sugar levels.

The symptoms of fat necrosis can vary depending on the location and extent of the affected tissue. In some cases, there may be no symptoms at all, while in others, there may be pain, swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected area. If the condition becomes severe, it can lead to the formation of a fat necrosis mass or abscess, which can be painful and tender to the touch.

Fat necrosis is typically diagnosed through imaging studies such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. A biopsy may also be performed to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other conditions.

Treatment of fat necrosis depends on the severity of the condition and can range from conservative measures such as rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) to surgical intervention in more severe cases. In some cases, antibiotics may be prescribed if there is an underlying infection.

Preventing fat necrosis is challenging, but it can be minimized by avoiding trauma or injury to the affected area, maintaining good wound care, and managing any underlying medical conditions that may contribute to the development of the condition.

There are several types of hypercholesterolemia, including:

1. Familial hypercholesterolemia: This is an inherited condition that causes high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, also known as "bad" cholesterol, in the blood.
2. Non-familial hypercholesterolemia: This type of hypercholesterolemia is not inherited and can be caused by a variety of factors, such as a high-fat diet, lack of exercise, obesity, and certain medical conditions, such as hypothyroidism or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
3. Mixed hypercholesterolemia: This type of hypercholesterolemia is characterized by high levels of both LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in the blood.

The diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia is typically made based on a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as a lipid profile, which measures the levels of different types of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. Treatment for hypercholesterolemia usually involves lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet and regular exercise, and may also include medication, such as statins, to lower cholesterol levels.

There are several types of colonic neoplasms, including:

1. Adenomas: These are benign growths that are usually precursors to colorectal cancer.
2. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from the epithelial lining of the colon.
3. Sarcomas: These are rare malignant tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the colon.
4. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system that can affect the colon.

Colonic neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including bleeding, abdominal pain, and changes in bowel habits. They are often diagnosed through a combination of medical imaging tests (such as colonoscopy or CT scan) and biopsy. Treatment for colonic neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy.

Overall, colonic neoplasms are a common condition that can have serious consequences if left untreated. It is important for individuals to be aware of their risk factors and to undergo regular screening for colon cancer to help detect and treat any abnormal growths or tumors in the colon.

Definition: Hyperphagia is a condition characterized by excessive hunger and overeating, often seen in individuals with certain medical or psychiatric conditions.

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Hyperphagia can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Hormonal imbalances, such as low levels of leptin or high levels of ghrelin
* Certain medications, such as steroids and some antidepressants
* Medical conditions, such as diabetes, hypothyroidism, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
* Psychiatric conditions, such as binge eating disorder and other eating disorders
* Sleep deprivation or disruptions in the body's circadian rhythms

Symptoms of hyperphagia may include:

* Increased hunger and desire to eat
* Overeating or consuming large amounts of food
* Difficulty controlling food intake
* Feeling anxious or irritable when unable to eat
* Weight gain or obesity

Treatment for hyperphagia typically involves addressing the underlying cause, such as hormonal imbalances or psychiatric conditions. This may involve medication, therapy, or lifestyle changes. In some cases, weight loss strategies and nutrition counseling may also be helpful.

It is important to note that hyperphagia can have serious health consequences, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other metabolic disorders. If you suspect you or someone you know may be experiencing hyperphagia, it is important to seek medical attention to determine the cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

There are two main types of fatty liver disease:

1. Alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD): This type of fatty liver disease is caused by excessive alcohol consumption and is the most common cause of fatty liver disease in the United States.
2. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): This type of fatty liver disease is not caused by alcohol consumption and is the most common cause of fatty liver disease worldwide. It is often associated with obesity, diabetes, and high cholesterol.

There are several risk factors for developing fatty liver disease, including:

* Obesity
* Physical inactivity
* High calorie intake
* Alcohol consumption
* Diabetes
* High cholesterol
* High triglycerides
* History of liver disease

Symptoms of fatty liver disease can include:

* Fatigue
* Abdominal discomfort
* Loss of appetite
* Nausea and vomiting
* Abnormal liver function tests

Diagnosis of fatty liver disease is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:

* Liver biopsy
* Imaging studies (ultrasound, CT or MRI scans)
* Blood tests (lipid profile, glucose, insulin, and liver function tests)

Treatment of fatty liver disease depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, exercise, and a healthy diet can help improve the condition. In severe cases, medications such as antioxidants, fibric acids, and anti-inflammatory drugs may be prescribed. In some cases, surgery or other procedures may be necessary.

Prevention of fatty liver disease includes:

* Maintaining a healthy weight
* Eating a balanced diet low in sugar and saturated fats
* Engaging in regular physical activity
* Limiting alcohol consumption
* Managing underlying medical conditions such as diabetes and high cholesterol.

There are several types of hyperlipidemia, including:

1. High cholesterol: This is the most common type of hyperlipidemia and is characterized by elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, also known as "bad" cholesterol.
2. High triglycerides: This type of hyperlipidemia is characterized by elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood. Triglycerides are a type of fat found in the blood that is used for energy.
3. Low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol: HDL cholesterol is known as "good" cholesterol because it helps remove excess cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it to the liver for excretion. Low levels of HDL cholesterol can contribute to hyperlipidemia.

Symptoms of hyperlipidemia may include xanthomas (fatty deposits on the skin), corneal arcus (a cloudy ring around the iris of the eye), and tendon xanthomas (tender lumps under the skin). However, many people with hyperlipidemia have no symptoms at all.

Hyperlipidemia can be diagnosed through a series of blood tests that measure the levels of different types of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. Treatment for hyperlipidemia typically involves dietary changes, such as reducing intake of saturated fats and cholesterol, and increasing physical activity. Medications such as statins, fibric acid derivatives, and bile acid sequestrants may also be prescribed to lower cholesterol levels.

In severe cases of hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) can occur, which can lead to cardiovascular disease, including heart attacks and strokes. Therefore, it is important to diagnose and treat hyperlipidemia early on to prevent these complications.

Being overweight can increase the risk of various health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer. It can also affect a person's mental health and overall quality of life.

There are several ways to assess whether someone is overweight or not. One common method is using the BMI, which is calculated based on height and weight. Another method is measuring body fat percentage, which can be done with specialized tools such as skinfold calipers or bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA).

Losing weight and maintaining a healthy weight can be achieved through a combination of diet, exercise, and lifestyle changes. Some examples of healthy weight loss strategies include:

* Eating a balanced diet that is high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein sources
* Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, running, swimming, or weight training
* Avoiding fad diets and quick fixes
* Getting enough sleep and managing stress levels
* Setting realistic weight loss goals and tracking progress over time.

1. Coronary artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart.
2. Heart failure: A condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
3. Arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms that can be too fast, too slow, or irregular.
4. Heart valve disease: Problems with the heart valves that control blood flow through the heart.
5. Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy): Disease of the heart muscle that can lead to heart failure.
6. Congenital heart disease: Defects in the heart's structure and function that are present at birth.
7. Peripheral artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the arms, legs, and other organs.
8. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in a deep vein, usually in the leg.
9. Pulmonary embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, which can be caused by a blood clot or other debris.
10. Stroke: A condition in which there is a lack of oxygen to the brain due to a blockage or rupture of blood vessels.

There are several types of malabsorption syndromes, including:

1. Celiac disease: An autoimmune disorder that damages the lining of the small intestine and interferes with nutrient absorption.
2. Crohn's disease: An inflammatory bowel disease that can damage the small intestine and lead to malabsorption.
3. Whipple's disease: A bacterial infection that causes inflammation and damage to the small intestine.
4. Giant cell enteropathy: An immune-mediated disorder that damages the small intestine and interferes with nutrient absorption.
5. Postoperative malabsorption: Malabsorption that occurs after surgery on the small intestine.
6. Pancreatic insufficiency: A condition in which the pancreas is unable to produce enough digestive enzymes to break down food properly.
7. Bacterial overgrowth: An overgrowth of bacteria in the small intestine can interfere with nutrient absorption.
8. Food allergies or intolerances: Certain foods can cause an immune response or irritation to the small intestine, leading to malabsorption.

The symptoms of malabsorption syndromes vary depending on the specific disorder and the severity of the condition. Common symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, and nutrient deficiencies. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the malabsorption and may involve dietary changes, medication, or surgery.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

In medicine, thinness is sometimes used as a diagnostic criterion for certain conditions, such as anorexia nervosa or cancer cachexia. In these cases, thinness can be a sign of a serious underlying condition that requires medical attention.

However, it's important to note that thinness alone is not enough to diagnose any medical condition. Other factors, such as a person's overall health, medical history, and physical examination findings, must also be taken into account when making a diagnosis. Additionally, it's important to recognize that being underweight or having a low BMI does not necessarily mean that someone is unhealthy or has a medical condition. Many people with a healthy weight and body composition can still experience negative health effects from societal pressure to be thin.

Overall, the concept of thinness in medicine is complex and multifaceted, and it's important for healthcare providers to consider all relevant factors when evaluating a patient's weight and overall health.

Type 2 diabetes can be managed through a combination of diet, exercise, and medication. In some cases, lifestyle changes may be enough to control blood sugar levels, while in other cases, medication or insulin therapy may be necessary. Regular monitoring of blood sugar levels and follow-up with a healthcare provider are important for managing the condition and preventing complications.

Common symptoms of type 2 diabetes include:

* Increased thirst and urination
* Fatigue
* Blurred vision
* Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal
* Tingling or numbness in the hands and feet
* Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections

If left untreated, type 2 diabetes can lead to a range of complications, including:

* Heart disease and stroke
* Kidney damage and failure
* Nerve damage and pain
* Eye damage and blindness
* Foot damage and amputation

The exact cause of type 2 diabetes is not known, but it is believed to be linked to a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as:

* Obesity and excess body weight
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet and nutrition
* Age and family history
* Certain ethnicities (e.g., African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native American)
* History of gestational diabetes or delivering a baby over 9 lbs.

There is no cure for type 2 diabetes, but it can be managed and controlled through a combination of lifestyle changes and medication. With proper treatment and self-care, people with type 2 diabetes can lead long, healthy lives.

1. Abdominal obesity (excess fat around the waistline)
2. High blood pressure (hypertension)
3. Elevated fasting glucose (high blood sugar)
4. High serum triglycerides (elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood)
5. Low HDL cholesterol (low levels of "good" cholesterol)

Having three or more of these conditions is considered a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome X. It is estimated that approximately 34% of adults in the United States have this syndrome, and it is more common in women than men. Risk factors for developing metabolic syndrome include obesity, lack of physical activity, poor diet, and a family history of type 2 diabetes or CVD.

The term "metabolic syndrome" was first introduced in the medical literature in the late 1980s, and since then, it has been the subject of extensive research. The exact causes of metabolic syndrome are not yet fully understood, but it is believed to be related to insulin resistance, inflammation, and changes in body fat distribution.

Treatment for metabolic syndrome typically involves lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, regular physical activity, and a healthy diet. Medications such as blood pressure-lowering drugs, cholesterol-lowering drugs, and anti-diabetic medications may also be prescribed if necessary. It is important to note that not everyone with metabolic syndrome will develop type 2 diabetes or CVD, but the risk is increased. Therefore, early detection and treatment are crucial in preventing these complications.

Types of Lipid Metabolism Disorders:

1. Hyperlipidemia: Elevated levels of lipids in the blood, including cholesterol and triglycerides.
2. Hypolipidemia: Low levels of lipids in the blood.
3. Lipoprotein disorders: Abnormalities in the structure or function of lipoproteins, such as chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and high-density lipoproteins (HDL).
4. Cholesteryl ester storage disease: A rare genetic disorder characterized by the accumulation of cholesteryl esters in the body, leading to progressive damage to the liver, heart, and other organs.
5. Familial dyslipidemia: Inherited disorders that affect the metabolism of lipids, such as familial hypercholesterolemia (elevated LDL levels) or familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (low HDL and LDL levels).
6. Glycogen storage disease type III: A rare genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates, leading to the accumulation of fat in the liver and other organs.
7. Lipid-lowering drug therapy: The use of medications, such as statins, to lower cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
8. Pediatric lipidemias: Lipid disorders that affect children and adolescents, such as familial hypercholesterolemia in children.
9. Pregnancy-related lipid metabolism disorders: Changes in lipid metabolism during pregnancy, which can lead to the development of gestational diabetes and other complications.
10. Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (SARS): A severe inflammatory lung disease that can cause abnormal lipid metabolism and fat accumulation in the lungs.
11. X-linked dystonia-Parkinsonism: A rare genetic disorder that affects the brain and nervous system, leading to movement disorders and other symptoms.

These are just a few examples of the many different types of lipid metabolism disorders that exist. Each type has its own set of symptoms, causes, and treatment options, and it is important to work with a healthcare provider to determine the best course of treatment for each individual case.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

There are several causes of hypertriglyceridemia, including:

* Genetics: Some people may inherit a tendency to have high triglyceride levels due to genetic mutations that affect the genes involved in triglyceride metabolism.
* Obesity: Excess body weight is associated with higher triglyceride levels, as there is more fat available for energy.
* Diabetes: Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes can lead to high triglyceride levels due to insulin resistance and altered glucose metabolism.
* High-carbohydrate diet: Consuming high amounts of carbohydrates, particularly refined or simple carbohydrates, can cause a spike in blood triglycerides.
* Alcohol consumption: Drinking too much alcohol can increase triglyceride levels in the blood.
* Certain medications: Some drugs, such as anabolic steroids and some antidepressants, can raise triglyceride levels.
* Underlying medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as hypothyroidism, kidney disease, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), can also contribute to high triglyceride levels.

Hypertriglyceridemia is typically diagnosed with a blood test that measures the level of triglycerides in the blood. Treatment options for hypertriglyceridemia depend on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, dietary changes, and medications to lower triglyceride levels.

Causes of Vitamin A Deficiency:

1. Poor diet: A diet that is deficient in vitamin A-rich foods, such as dark leafy greens, liver, and dairy products, can lead to a deficiency.
2. Malabsorption: Certain medical conditions, such as celiac disease, Crohn's disease, and pancreatic insufficiency, can impair the body's ability to absorb vitamin A from food.
3. Pregnancy and lactation: The increased demand for nutrients during pregnancy and lactation can lead to a deficiency if the diet does not provide enough vitamin A.
4. Chronic diseases: Certain chronic diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and kidney disease, can increase the risk of vitamin A deficiency.

Symptoms of Vitamin A Deficiency:

1. Night blindness: Difficulty seeing in low light environments, such as at night or in dimly lit rooms.
2. Blindness: In severe cases, vitamin A deficiency can lead to complete blindness.
3. Dry skin: Vitamin A is important for healthy skin, and a deficiency can cause dry, rough skin that may be prone to dermatitis.
4. Increased risk of infections: Vitamin A plays a role in immune function, and a deficiency can increase the risk of respiratory, gastrointestinal, and other infections.
5. Bitot's spot: A condition that causes white patches on the cornea, which can be a sign of vitamin A deficiency.
6. Dry eyes: Vitamin A is important for healthy tear production, and a deficiency can cause dry, itchy eyes.
7. Weakened immune system: Vitamin A plays a role in immune function, and a deficiency can weaken the body's ability to fight off infections.
8. Increased risk of cancer: Some studies suggest that a vitamin A deficiency may increase the risk of certain types of cancer, such as colon, breast, and lung cancer.
9. Reproductive problems: Vitamin A is important for reproductive health, and a deficiency can cause irregular menstrual cycles, infertility, and other reproductive problems.
10. Poor wound healing: Vitamin A is important for healthy skin and wound healing, and a deficiency can cause poor wound healing and an increased risk of infection.

In conclusion, vitamin A deficiency is a common problem worldwide, especially in developing countries, and can have serious consequences if left untreated. It is important to ensure adequate intake of vitamin A through diet or supplements, particularly for pregnant women, children, and individuals with chronic illnesses. If you suspect you may have a vitamin A deficiency, it is important to speak with your healthcare provider to determine the appropriate course of treatment.

Unlike other dietary fats, trans fats are not essential, and they do not promote good health. The consumption of trans fats ... "Dietary fats: Know which types to choose". Mayo Clinic Staff. 2015. "Choose foods low in saturated fat". National Heart, Lung, ... "Dietary fats explained". Retrieved August 5, 2018. Yanai H, Katsuyama H, Hamasaki H, Abe S, Tada N, Sako A (2015). "Effects of ... 2009). "Major types of dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: a pooled analysis of 11 cohort studies". American ...
Dietary fats are limited. FAA suggests that its members eat a variety of foods at specified intervals and in set proportions ...
... it fueled debate over worldwide dietary advice to substitute polyunsaturated fats for saturated fats. Polyunsaturated fat ... are often referred to as good fats; while saturated fats are sometimes referred to as bad fats. Some fat is needed in the diet ... The hydrocarbon chains in trans fats align more readily than those in cis fats, but less well than those in saturated fats. In ... "Live Well, Eat well, Fat: the facts". NHS. Retrieved 20 February 2019. "Dietary Guidelines for Indians - A Manual" (PDF). ...
... recommends much higher levels of fat, especially of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat. These dietary recommendations ... The role of eating oxidized fats (rancid fats) in humans is not clear. Rabbits fed rancid fats develop atherosclerosis faster. ... ISBN 978-0-309-08525-0. Mozaffarian D, Rimm EB, Herrington DM (November 2004). "Dietary fats, carbohydrate, and progression of ... The rancid odor of an oxidized fat is readily detectable Dobarganes C, Márquez-Ruiz G (March 2003). "Oxidized fats in foods". ...
Recommendations to reduce, limit or replace dietary intake of trans fats and saturated fats, in favor of unsaturated fats, are ... A saturated fat is a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all single bonds. A fat known as a glyceride is made of ... 2006). "Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of cardiovascular disease: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary ... Other examples of foods containing a high proportion of saturated fat and dietary cholesterol include animal fat products such ...
The supply of dietary fats ... is much more diverse in Europe ... The oils mainly consumed in Europe, i.e. sunflower, olive and ... "Palm oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated, filling fat, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, ... Fat: 13.5 g (21% of the Daily Value, DV) Saturated fat: 2 g (9% of DV) Carbohydrates: 0 Fibers: 0 Protein: 0 Vitamin E: 1.9 mg ... "Fats and fatty acids contents per 100 g (click for "more details"). Example: Avocado oil (user can search for other oils)". ...
"Comparison of Dietary Fats Chart". Canola Council of Canada. Archived from the original on 2008-06-06. Retrieved 2008-09-03. ... Natural trans fats may be good for you. May 19, 2008 Avato, P; Pesante, MA; Fanizzi, FP; Santos, CA (2003). "Seed oil ... CAS Registry Number 17004-51-2. Oleic acid has 18 carbons, is found in most animal fats and olive oil, and is a cis-9- ... M. K. Nutter, E. E. Lockhart and R. S. Harris (1943). "The chemical composition of depot fats in chickens and turkeys". Journal ...
Dietary fats are chemically triglycerides. Esters of fatty acids are colorless, although degraded samples are sometime appear ... Biodiesels are typically fatty acid esters made by the transesterification of vegetable fats and oils. In this process the ...
June 1996). "Dietary fats and insulin action". Diabetologia. 39 (6): 621-31. doi:10.1007/BF00418533. PMID 8781757. Aizpurua- ... Although both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats can replace saturated fat in the diet, trans unsaturated fats should not ... see trans fat). Saturated fats are useful in processed foods because saturated fats are less vulnerable to rancidity and ... An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid chain. A fatty acid ...
June 1996). "Dietary fats and insulin action". Diabetologia. 39 (6): 621-31. doi:10.1007/BF00418533. PMID 8781757. S2CID ... Lovejoy JC (October 2002). "The influence of dietary fat on insulin resistance". Current Diabetes Reports. 2 (5): 435-40. doi: ... high in dietary fat and fructose, low in omega-3 and fiber, and which are hyper-palatable which increases risk of overeating. ... Overconsumption of fat- and sugar-rich meals and beverages have been proposed as a fundamental factor behind the metabolic ...
"Comparison of Dietary Fats Chart". Canola Council of Canada. Archived from the original on 2008-06-06. Retrieved 2008-09-03. ... When the saturated fat or trans fat in a fried food is replaced with a stable high oleic oil, consumers may be able to avoid ... It is abundantly present in many animal fats, constituting 37 to 56% of chicken and turkey fat, and 44 to 47% of lard. Oleic ... Oleic acid is the topmost monounsaturated fat in the human diet. Monounsaturated fat consumption has been associated with ...
The supply of dietary fats ... is much more diverse in Europe ... The oils mainly consumed in Europe, i.e. sunflower, olive and ... For dietary purposes, vitamin E activity of vitamin E isomers is expressed as α-tocopherol equivalents (a-TEs). One a-TE is ... A review of dietary intake studies reported that higher consumption of vitamin E from foods lowered the risk of developing AD ... Letter Regarding Dietary Supplement Health Claim for Vitamin E and Heart Disease (Docket No 99P-4375) U.S. Food and Drug ...
... dietary fiber 3.024%; fat 0.368%; and protein 1.581%. The free fatty acid content of dried fruit bodies was 4.5%, slightly more ...
... total fat 5 g; trans fat 0 g; cholesterol 0 mg; sodium 135 mg; potassium 250 mg; total carbohydrates 38 g; dietary fiber 10 g; ... Belly Fat Cure, Sugar Busters and the South Beach Diet. A 3/4 cup (60 grams) serving contains: 220 calories, 40 from fat; ...
Worldwide, dietary guidelines recommend a reduction in saturated fat, and although the role of dietary fat in cardiovascular ... High dietary intakes of saturated fat, trans-fats and salt, and low intake of fruits, vegetables and fish are linked to ... Decrease body fat if overweight or obese. The effect of weight loss is often difficult to distinguish from dietary change, and ... July 2017). "Dietary Fats and Cardiovascular Disease: A Presidential Advisory From the American Heart Association". Circulation ...
6 (June 1994). "The Role of Dietary Fats and Oils". Fats, Oleochemicals and Surfactants. Challenges in the 21st Century. V.V.S ... Oils & Fats International, January 2004 Shukla V. K. S.: Designing natural cosmetics through the dynamics of naturally derived ... and resulting speciality fats of extremely fresh quality can be delivered to customers in the scale of 500-1000 tonnes per ... a leading company in the manufacture of vegetable oils and specialty fats. In 1990 he joined Karlshamn as Research Director, ...
It was called "SRF Funds Project 226", and published as "Dietary Fats, Carbohydrates and Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease". ... "Dietary Fats, Carbohydrates and Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease". New England Journal of Medicine. 277 (4): 186-192. doi: ... "SRF Funds Project 259: Dietary Carbohydrate and Blood Lipids in Germ-Free Rats" was funded from 1967 until 1971, when, after ... O'Connor, Anahad (12 September 2016). "How the Sugar Industry Shifted Blame to Fat". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 December ...
Makris A, Foster GD (December 1, 2002). "Dietary Approaches to the Treatment of Obesity". Psychiatr Clin North Am. 34 (4): 813- ... A low-fat diet is one that restricts fat, and often saturated fat and cholesterol as well. Low-fat diets are intended to reduce ... ISBN 978-0-323-29738-7. American Heart Association: Fats British Heart Foundation: Fats Explained page NHS Choices: Fat - the ... amounts of saturated fat, even if saturated fats from animal products and tropical oils are avoided. This is because all fats ...
The deleterious effects of trans fat consumption are scientifically accepted. Intake of dietary trans fat disrupts the body's ... of the total fat in those foods containing man-made trans fats formed by partially hydrogenating plant fats may be trans fat. ... Trans fat content is limited to 4% of total fat, or 2% on products that contain more than 20% fat. The Conseil Supérieur de la ... Animal-based fats were once the only trans fats consumed, but by far the largest amount of trans fat consumed today is created ...
Risérus, Ulf; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B. (2010-01-01). "Dietary fats and prevention of type 2 diabetes". Progress in ... Dietary indiscretion frequently occurs in domesticated animals, especially in dogs. Dietary indiscretion involving the ... When doctors are treating patients with diabetes, dietary indiscretion refers to the patient not following the dietary ... Dietary indiscretion is the tendency for certain animals to feed on unusual items, or undergo drastic changes in feeding ...
Changing attitudes and behaviors towards fat: a socio-historical approach". In Mela DJ (ed.). Dietary fats determinants of ...
"Low-Fat Dietary Pattern and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: The Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary ... Ahrens, E.H. (1979). "Dietary Fats and Coronary Heart Disease: Unfinished Business". The Lancet. 314 (8156-8157): 1345-1348. ... Because fats are insoluble in water, they cannot be transported on their own in extracellular water, including blood plasma. ... Chylomicrons carry triglycerides (fat) from the intestines to the liver, to skeletal muscle, and to adipose tissue. Very-low- ...
"Trans fat". It's your health. Health Canada. Dec 2007. Archived from the original on 20 April 2012. "EFSA sets European dietary ... Milks Non-fat milk, also labeled "fat-free milk" or "skim milk", contains less than 0.5% fat Low-fat milk is 1% fat Reduced-fat ... fat Lowfat cottage cheese contains 0.5-2% fat Cottage cheese contains at least 4% fat Swiss cheese contains at least 43% fat ... fat Ice cream contains at least 10% fat Frozen custard, like ice cream, contains at least 10% fat, but it also must contain at ...
Studies have shown that substituting dietary monounsaturated fat for saturated fat is associated with increased daily physical ... "Substituting dietary monounsaturated fat for saturated fat is associated with increased daily physical activity and resting ... beef fat) is about 50% monounsaturated fat. and lard is about 40% monounsaturated fat.[citation needed] Other sources include ... Monounsaturated fats are found in animal flesh such as red meat, whole milk products, nuts, and high fat fruits such as olives ...
Dietary factors such as sugar-sweetened drinks are associated with an increased risk. The type of fats in the diet is also ... with saturated fat and trans fats increasing the risk and polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat decreasing the risk. Eating ... Risérus U, Willett WC, Hu FB (January 2009). "Dietary fats and prevention of type 2 diabetes". Progress in Lipid Research. 48 ( ... No single dietary pattern is best for all people with diabetes. Healthy dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean diet, low- ...
Abumrad, NA (November 2005). "CD36 may determine our desire for dietary fats". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 115 (11 ... Other possible fat taste receptors have been identified. G protein-coupled receptors GPR120 and GPR40 have been linked to fat ... November 2005). "CD36 involvement in orosensory detection of dietary lipids, spontaneous fat preference, and digestive ... "CD36 involvement in orosensory detection of dietary lipids, spontaneous fat preference, and digestive secretions". Journal of ...
Various sources suggest an influence of dietary fat types. Positive effects of unsaturated fats have been asserted on ... Risérus, U; Willett, WC; Hu, FB (January 2009). "Dietary fats and prevention of type 2 diabetes". Progress in Lipid Research. ... having a modest fat intake (around 30% of energy supply should come from fat), and eating sufficient fiber (e.g., from whole ... Hydrogenated fats are universally considered harmful mainly because of well known effect on cardiovascular risk factors. There ...
The composition of dietary fat intake is linked to diabetes risk; decreasing consumption of saturated fats and trans fatty ... A number of dietary factors such as sugar sweetened drinks and the type of fat in the diet appear to play a role. In one study ... Salmerón J, Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Rimm EB, Willett WC (June 2001). "Dietary fat intake and risk of type 2 ... Risérus U, Willett WC, Hu FB (January 2009). "Dietary fats and prevention of type 2 diabetes". Progress in Lipid Research. 48 ( ...
Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids, Institute of ... "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets". NIH Office of Dietary Supplements. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dietary supplements ... including the Dietary Supplement Label Database, Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database, and Dietary Supplement Facts Sheets of ... Furthermore, a dietary supplement must be labeled as a dietary supplement and be intended for ingestion and must not be ...
... s facilitate digestion of dietary fats and oils. They serve as micelle-forming surfactants, which encapsulate ... September 1980). "Effect of high-fat, high-beef diet and of mode of cooking of beef in the diet on fecal bacterial enzymes and ... Deoxycholic acid (DCA) is increased in the colonic contents of humans in response to a high fat diet. In populations with a ... Mice fed a diet with added DCA mimicking colonic DCA levels in humans on a high fat diet developed colonic neoplasia, including ...
When the rats were fed with a diet where lard was the only source of fat, though grew healthily, the female rats were unable to ... with Evans, Herbert Mclean On the existence of a hitherto unknown dietary factor essential for reproduction, Science n.s. 56: ... Journal of Metabolic Research, 3:233-316 with Evans, Herbert Mclean Existence of a hitherto unknown dietary factor essential ... Herbert Mclean On an invariable and characteristic disturbance of reproductive function in animals reared on a diet poor in fat ...
They also do not eat or drink while hibernating, but live off their stored fat. Despite long-term inactivity and lack of food ... Harlow, H.J.; Frank, C.L. (2001). "The role of dietary fatty acids in the evolution of spontaneous and facultative hibernation ... The fat accumulation enables them to provide a sufficiently warm and nurturing environment for their newborns. During ... They stay hydrated with the metabolic fat that is produced in sufficient quantities to satisfy the water needs of the bear. ...
These unhealthy eating habits are reinforced in school canteens, where high fat and high carbohydrate foods such as pizza, ... Between meal times, children prefer French fries, chocolate, and soda, which lack micronutrients and dietary fiber. Within the ...
Typically, the patient is recommended a dietary restriction table with fatty foods, enzyme preparations, antispasmodics, and ... such as a reduced fat diet, following cholecystectomy. The liver produces bile and the gallbladder acts as reservoir. From the ...
Tooth decay is also strongly linked to dietary behaviors, and in poor rural areas where nutrient dense foods, fruits and ... HIV infection can affect the production of hormones that interfere with the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In ... Mobley, Connie; Marshall, Teresa A.; Milgrom, Peter; Coldwell, Susan E. (November 2009). "The Contribution of Dietary Factors ...
Aside from fish and game, Plant foods provided over half of the dietary calories, with winter survival depending largely on ... wornout horses for the Indians to take care of and have fat and strong when Lewis and Clark should come back on their way home ...
A single serving has 3 g of total fat, no cholesterol, 220 mg of sodium, and 45 mg of potassium. One serving has 25 g of total ... carbohydrates with 2 g of dietary fiber and 9 g of sugars with 14 g of other carbohydrates. A single serving also contains 1 g ...
... stocks seven or more varieties of fresh fruits and vegetables and low-fat milk. Different countries have different dietary ... Instead, available foods are likely to be processed and high in sugar and fats, which are known contributors to obesity in the ... Instead, they have access to cheap, fast, and easy food, which typically contains excess fats, sugars, and carbohydrates. ... but social and physical environments played a significant role in stressing and in shaping their dietary behaviors. Food ...
Overall, most evidence suggests that medieval dishes had a fairly high fat content, or at least when fat could be afforded. ... Even dietary recommendations were different: the diet of the upper classes was considered to be as much a requirement of their ... While most other regions used oil or lard as cooking fats, butter was the dominant cooking medium in these areas. Its ... Instead, medieval cuisine can be differentiated by the cereals and the oils that shaped dietary norms and crossed ethnic and, ...
... dense epidermis and a thickened fat layer (blubber) to prevent drag. Wading and bottom-feeding animals (such as manatees) need ... affected by the direct loss of food supplies and in some cases the harvesting of fish has led to food shortages or dietary ... with special reference to the possible functions of fat depots" (PDF). Journal of the Marine Research Institute. 12 (2). ISSN ...
He also used Ayurvedic principles of the balanced food of three-doshas, consistent eating habits, and avoided oily and fat rich ... whether it be dietary or sexual was a problem in the West." Bonnie Greenwell, while working on her PhD in Transpersonal ...
For example, there have been meta-analyses conducted showing that testosterone supplementation increases fat-free mass, body ... in purported violation of both the Food and Drug Administration's Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA) ... treatment prevents bone loss and reduces body fat in ovariectomized rats". Pharmaceutical Research. 24 (2): 328-335. doi: ... mass, strength, and a decrease in fat mass. However, nonsteroidal SARMs purposefully differ in their mechanism of action, as ...
For example, she provided a cautionary note to The New York Times when a 2014 meta-analysis found that saturated fat was not ... "2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee". Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, U.S. Department of Health and ... She gave a summary of the 2015 scientific report for the U.S. dietary guidelines to Hari Sreenivasan for PBS Newshour. ... Lichtenstein was vice-chair of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and ...
Eaton, S. Boyd; Eaton III, Stanley B.; Sinclair, Andrew J.; Cordain, Loren; Mann, Neil J. (1998). Dietary intake of long-chain ... This was most likely due to low body fat, infanticide, high levels of physical activity among women, late weaning of infants, ... many of which had impact on human dietary structure. For example, humans probably did not possess the control of fire until the ... presumably for dietary reasons. For instance, some European late Upper Paleolithic cultures domesticated and raised reindeer, ...
Oily stools and flatulence can be controlled by reducing the dietary fat content to somewhere in the region of 15 grams per ... Orlistat prevents approximately 30% of dietary fat from being absorbed. Orlistat is available both with and without a ... Absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and other fat-soluble nutrients is inhibited by the use of orlistat. Orlistat may reduce ... although not all of this mass was necessarily fat. Between 16.4% and 24.8% achieved at least a 10% decrease in body fat. After ...
They lived in a seasonal, paratropical climate, and may have built up fat reserves for winter. European great apes likely went ... DeMiguel, D.; Alba, D. M.; Moyà-Solà, S. (2014). "Dietary Specialization during the Evolution of Western Eurasian Hominoids and ... and Dryopithecus may have relied on these fat reserves during the late winter. High uric acid levels in the blood are also ... and a greater ability to build up fat reserves. The palaeoenvironment of late Miocene Austria indicates an abundance of ...
Mozaffarian is the principal investigator of the Global Dietary Database, and Food-PRICE (Policy Review and Intervention Cost- ... In 2014, Mozaffarian co-authored a controversial meta-analysis pertaining to the association between saturated fat consumption ... Mozaffarian, Dariush; Forouhi, Nita G. (2018). "Dietary guidelines and health-is nutrition science up to the task?". BMJ. 360: ... Mozaffarian is the author of over 450 scientific publications on dietary priorities for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular ...
Add 7⁄10 oz (20 g) glycerine (from vegetable source, not hog fat, so the drink can be sold to Jews and Muslims who observe ... their respective religion's dietary restrictions) and 3⁄10 drachm (0.53 g) of vanilla extract. Add water (treated with chlorine ...
Generally, Yogurtland provides an array of dietary offerings in its flavor options including dairy-free, sugar-free, low fat, ... sorbet and plant-based treats that cater to a variety of dietary preferences. Yogurtland has stores in ten states in the United ... non-fat, gluten-free and vegan. Additionally, approximately 30 toppings, including fresh-cut fruits, chocolate bits, gummies, ...
They can go up to a week without eating and survive only off fat stores. The emu has been documented fasting as long as 56 days ... For ground feeding birds, a cursorial lifestyle is more economical and allows for easier access to dietary requirements. Flying ...
... fat, trans-fat and calories. After its purchase by TPG Capital from former parent company Diageo in 2002, the company ... 12 Promoting Kids Meals that meet its Nutrition Guidelines on its Web site Promoting healthy lifestyles and healthy dietary ... "Burger King to shift to trans-fat-free oil". NBC News. Retrieved 2008-05-30. Burger King said Friday it will use trans-fat-free ... with less than 30 percent of the calories derived from fat, less than 10 percent of the calories from saturated fat, no added ...
cGMPs for dietary supplements 170 food additives 190 dietary supplements The 200 and 300 series are regulations pertaining to ... Requirement to include trans fat values (c)(8)(iv) - Vitamin and mineral values 106-107 requirements for infant formula 110 et ...
Raw kale is composed of 84% water, 9% carbohydrates, 4% protein, and 1% fat (table). In a 100 g (3+1⁄2 oz) serving, raw kale ... vitamin E and several dietary minerals, including iron, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus (see table "Kale, raw"). ...
A panel of dietary experts recently publicly praised Waters for the use of 'good fats' in her recipes. "Lesley Waters recipes ... Goodchild, Sophie (11 March 2009). "Nigella excess celebrity chefs are roasted for fat-filled recipes". Evening Standard. ...
... is a mixture of lipids derived from rice (Oryza sativa). γ-Oryzanol occurs mainly in the fat fraction of rice bran ... Melvin Williams (2006). "Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Herbals". Journal of the International Society of Sports ...
... dietary fiber, and the essential dietary mineral manganese, each with more than 10% of its Daily Value. Other micronutrients ... Raw cranberries are 87% water, 12% carbohydrates, and contain negligible protein and fat (table). In a 100 gram reference ...
Dietary changes include avoiding meals high in fat and sugary foods, eating smaller and more frequent meals, after-meal walks, ... and increasing fluids or dietary fiber to treat constipation. Stool softeners and exercise also help with constipation. Excess ...
List of halal and kosher fish Kosher food - Kosher foods are those that conform to the regulations of kashrut (Jewish dietary ... It is produced either by Plants or Animals, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, ... List of fermented foods Halal food - Islamic jurisprudence vis-à-vis Islamic dietary laws specifies which foods are halal (" ...
It can only be added at low percentages due to the high fat content, which is unhealthy for ruminants. One study found that ... The lipid composition of wild ruminant tissues may serve as a model for dietary lipid recommendations in treating and ... Grain-fed cattle have more internal fat (i.e., marbling) which results in a more tender meat than forage-fed cattle of a ... Most grass-fed beef is leaner than feedlot beef, lacking marbling, which lowers the fat content and caloric value of the meat. ...
In fact, you need some fat in your diet. Learn about healthy fats and what to avoid. ... You need some fat in your diet but not too much. Fats give you energy and help your body absorb vitamins. Dietary fat also ... Dietary Fat and Cholesterol (Boston Childrens Hospital) Also in Spanish * Figuring Out Fat and Calories (Nemours Foundation) ... Dietary fats explained (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Facts about monounsaturated fats (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in ...
In fact, you need some fat in your diet. Learn about healthy fats and what to avoid. ... You need some fat in your diet but not too much. Fats give you energy and help your body absorb vitamins. Dietary fat also ... Dietary Fat and Cholesterol (Boston Childrens Hospital) Also in Spanish * Figuring Out Fat and Calories (Nemours Foundation) ... Dietary fats explained (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Facts about monounsaturated fats (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in ...
... the link between dietary fat and human disease is not conclusive, which could mean new opportunities for food formulators, ... Rethinking Dietary Saturated Fat. Contrary to popular opinion, the link between dietary fat and human disease is not conclusive ... Fear of Fat. I have suspected that a fear of dietary fat has been one of the reasons for reluctance of general acceptance of ... and high saturated fat) content. I suggested that the health effects of dietary saturated fat may be different in the context ...
A lab study may help explain on the molecular level why saturated fat can harm cells and unsaturated fat can be protective. ... a group that includes fats). Lipids are made, in part, from molecules called fatty acids, which come from digested dietary fats ... Dietary fats influence endoplasmic reticulum membrane At a Glance. *A lab study found that saturated fatty acids stiffened the ... These findings may help explain on the molecular level why saturated fat can harm cells and unsaturated fat can be protective. ...
Dietary fats and oils in human nutrition : report of an expert consultation held in Rome, 21-30 September 1977 / jointly ... Background: Dietary intake of fat, salt and sugar is important for prevention of noncommunicable diseases; therefore, ... Dietary fat and breast cancer in Saudi Arabia: a case-control study  ... A case-control study investigated the association between dietary fat and breast cancer in Saudi Arabian women attending a ...
Favorite foods, though, can be high in fat. Learn which fats are naughty and which are nice to your health, so you can make ... The so-called "bad" fats are saturated fats"Bad" fats found in whole milk; full-fat cheese; high-fat meats like sausage and ... "Fats are truly an essential nutrient.". Problems arise, though, if we eat too much fat. Dietary fats have more than twice as ... Fats are especially important for infants and toddlers, because dietary fat contributes to proper growth and development. ...
... national guidelines recommend low-fat dietary advice for patients who have cardiovascular disease or are at risk for diabetes. ... Although most participants with diabetes received low-fat dietary advice, almost one-third did not. Low-fat dietary advice was ... are outpacing the increasing receipt of low-fat dietary advice. In our study, the rates of low-fat dietary advice were greatest ... our results may underestimate the likelihood of low-fat dietary advice. Also, the type of low-fat dietary advice recalled by ...
Specific and sensitive biochemical/biological indicators of dietary intake, in particular total dietary fat, would greatly ... Measurement errors of dietary intake in general and of fat intake in particular, may in part account for these inconsistencies ... Some studies have shown a strong association of dietary fat with the incidence of some cancers whereas in others there is ... In addition, the title of the application, "Biomarkers of Dietary Fat in Post-Menopausal Women", and the RFA number, CA-92-14, ...
The main hypothesis of this proposal, based on the above observations, is that low body fat and dietary fat alters the ... These studies suggest that body fat and dietary fat are more meaningful than energy intake or expenditure as determinants of ... Grant Abstract: Epigenetics of Dietary and Body Fat in Drosophila. Grant Number: 5R01CA105349-02. PI Name: RUDEN, DOUGLAS M. ... Project Title: Epigenetics of Dietary and Body Fat in Drosophila. Abstract: DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Caloric ...
Experts to Challenge Dietary Myths about Fats, Salt, Plant-Based Diets. Experts to Challenge Dietary Myths about Fats, Salt, ... unfortunately, butter and other sat fats actually do cause chronic disease and physical degeneration-unless eaten with a very ... Saturdays joint session of Mythbuster lectures features experts taking aim at myths about fats, salts, industrial sweeteners ... will address dietary myths and faddish health claims during their 12th annual conference, Wise Traditions 2011-Mythbusters. The ...
A study conducted by researchers at the Cancer Center at BIDMC shows how a high-fat diet may promote the growth of prostate ... Flipping the switch: Dietary fat, changes in fat metabolism may promote prostate cancer metastasis Jacqueline Mitchell 617-667- ... Epidemiological data links dietary fats (and obesity) to many types of cancer, and rates of cancer deaths from metastatic ... These patients may be helped by starving these tumors of fat either with the fat-blocking drug or through diet. ...
Excess fat from a mothers high-fat diet triggers immune cells to over-consume serotonin in the brains of developing males, ... The research discusses measuring triglycerides as a proxy for high dietary fat intake. This is not the same thing as fat ... High fat diets combined with high sugar may cause obesity but a high fat diet alone would not. Also high fat along with high ... brain developmentbrain researchdepressiondevelopmental neurosciencedietdietary fatDuke Universitymental healthmetabolism ...
... and dietary fats modified the association of PD risk with pesticide exposure. If confirmed, these findings suggest that a diet ... high in PUFAs and low in saturated fats might reduce risk of PD. ... Dietary fat intake, pesticide use, and Parkinsons disease ... Dietary fat intake, pesticide use, and Parkinsons disease Freya Kamel et al. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2014 Jan. ... Dietary fat intake and risk of Parkinsons disease: a case-control study in Japan. Miyake Y, Sasaki S, Tanaka K, Fukushima W, ...
New trans fat dietary guidelines proposed by American Heart Association, but AHA fails to suggest consumers should avoid all ... New trans fat dietary guidelines proposed by American Heart Association, but AHA fails to suggest consumers should avoid all ... New trans fat dietary guidelines proposed by American Heart Association, but AHA fails to suggest consumers should avoid all ... Though the AHA is the first major health group in the United States to specifically urge a reduction in dietary trans fats, ...
These results suggest that dietary factors, especially sodium and SFA, are of primary importance as determinants of stroke ... Dietary sodium, potassium, saturated fat, alcohol, and stroke mortality S Sasaki 1 , X H Zhang, H Kesteloot ... Dietary sodium, potassium, saturated fat, alcohol, and stroke mortality S Sasaki et al. Stroke. 1995 May. ... The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between dietary sodium and SFA together with dietary potassium, ...
What are the best dietary fats? Recommended daily intake of fat, is a low fat diet plan healthy? How to avoid unhealthy fat? ... Dietary Fats: Good and Bad Fats. What are the best dietary fats? Recommended daily intake of fat, is a low fat diet plan ... Good Fats vs Bad Fats. Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats are considered to be heart healthy fats or "good" dietary fats. ... Saturated and trans fats are "bad" dietary fats.. Saturated fats are generally found in animal products such as cheese, butter ...
Animals, Behavior, Animal, Cerebrovascular Circulation, Cluster Analysis, Cognition Disorders, Diet, High-Fat, Dietary Fats, ... However, a brief reduction in dietary fat content in chronic HFD-fed mice led to a complete rescue of cognitive function. ... Amelioration of Metabolic Syndrome-Associated Cognitive Impairments in Mice via a Reduction in Dietary Fat Content or Infusion ... Amelioration of Metabolic Syndrome-Associated Cognitive Impairments in Mice via a Reduction in Dietary Fat Content or Infusion ...
G Special Analyses for Dietary Fats 1076-1077 * H Body Composition Data Based on the Third National Health and Nutrition ... Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (2005) ... Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids Get This ... Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington ...
Follow our tips for a balanced and healthy diet that includes good fats! ... Learn about different types of dietary fats and how they impact your health. ... Types of Dietary Fat. There are four kinds of dietary fats that come from the foods you consume: saturated fats, trans fats, ... What Are Dietary Fats?. Dietary fat is the type of fat that you get from the food you eat. It is one of the major types of ...
Dietary n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio is related to liver fat content independent of genetic effects : Evidence from the ... Dietary n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio is related to liver fat content independent of genetic effects : Evidence from the ... Bogl , L H , Kaprio , J & Pietiläinen , K H 2020 , Dietary n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio is related to liver fat content ... Liver fat Nutrition Omega-6 Omega-3 ratio PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY DISCORDANT DISEASE 3143 Nutrition 3121 General medicine, internal ...
Higher baseline dietary fat and fatty acid intake is associated with increased risk of incident prostate cancer in the SABOR ... Higher baseline dietary fat and fatty acid intake is associated with increased risk of incident prostate cancer in the SABOR ... Among all nutrients, increased risk of PCa was associated with intake of dietary fat scaled by the total caloric intake, ... After examining a large, population-based cohort for PCa diagnosis, we identified dietary total fat and certain fatty acids as ...
Dietary Fat: The good, the bad and the ugly. Posted on July 19, 2013 by Andrew Forgione ... Fats can be found in the majority of our foods, and most Australians are aware that limiting the amount of fat in the diet can ... The omega-3 fats and the omega-6, often directly compete with each other. While the omega-6 fats can lower cholesterol, they ... Some saturated fats raise blood cholesterol, while others dont. Some monounsaturated fats that are found in olive oil are ...
Dietary Fat.pdf - Accepted Version Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives. Download ... Background: Associations between dietary fats and mortality are unclear.. Methods: We evaluated the relationship between ... Association of Types of Dietary Fats and All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality: A Prospective Cohort Study and Meta-Analysis ... Association of Types of Dietary Fats and All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality: A Prospective Cohort Study and Meta-Analysis ...
Start Over You searched for: Subjects Dietary Fats -- metabolism ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Dietary Fats -- metabolism ... 1. Absorption of fat in various nutritional and environmental states: a bibliography and review of the literature ... Absorption of fat in various nutritional and environmental states: a bibliography and review of the literature1 ...
"Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease",. abstract = "Reduction and modification of dietary fats ... The ideal type of unsaturated fat is unclear.. AB - Reduction and modification of dietary fats have differing effects on ... This updated review suggested that reducing saturated fat by reducing and/or modifying dietary fat reduced the risk of ... This updated review suggested that reducing saturated fat by reducing and/or modifying dietary fat reduced the risk of ...
Lets start with some myths about fats that are still going around and break down why they are not true! ... Types of Dietary Fats. There are a few main types of fats: saturated, unsaturated and trans fats, and its important to know ... If you are someone whos trying to follow a lower fat diet and in order to avoid fats goes for fat-free or low-fat labeled ... What Are Dietary Fats Anyway? Lipids, to the most of us knows just as fats, are a macronutrient group that you get through your ...
TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin improves visceral fat remodeling through the up-regulation of Cx43. ... Long-term chronic dietary capsaicin decreased the body weights and serum lipids of WT mice, but not TRPV1-/- mice, fed a high- ... Long-term chronic dietary capsaicin reduced the weights of perirenal, mesenteric and testicular adipose tissues in WT mice fed ... However, the potential mechanism of the effect of dietary capsaicin on obesity is not completely understood. Ca2+ transfer ...
Eggs, fats, and the new dietary guidelines A new recommendation that people dont need to worry how much cholesterol is in ... Trans fats linked to memory damage A new study shows that eating trans fats may be associated with memory loss, according to a ... FDA axes trans fats Partially hydrogenated oils - the primary source of artificial trans fats in processed foods - are no ... a systematic review of randomized clinical trials comparing the long-term effectiveness of low-fat and higher-fat dietary ...
  • Excessive dietary fat intake has been linked to increased risk for obesity, coronary heart disease, and certain cancers (1,2). (cdc.gov)
  • The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), conducted by CDC's National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), provides data to monitor changes in the dietary, nutritional, and health status of the U.S. population (3) and to track progress toward achieving the national health objectives for the year 2000, including that related to dietary fat intake (1). (cdc.gov)
  • Total food energy intake (TFEI) was defined as all nutrients (i.e., protein, fat, carbohydrate, and alcohol) derived from consumption of foods and beverages (excluding plain drinking water), measured in kilocalories (kcal). (cdc.gov)
  • Total dietary fat intake was defined as all fat (i.e., saturated and unsaturated) derived from consumption of foods and beverages, measured in grams. (cdc.gov)
  • Although the findings in this report indicate a decline in the mean percentage of TFEI derived from total dietary fat and from saturated fat, these intake levels remain higher than the year 2000 objective. (cdc.gov)
  • A significant positive association was found between risk of breast cancer and intake of fats, protein and calories. (who.int)
  • Adjusted odds ratios for the highest quartile of intake versus the lowest were 2.43 for saturated fat, 2.25 for animal protein, 2.12 for polyunsaturated fat, 1.88 for cholesterol and 2.69 for total energy from dietary intake. (who.int)
  • The mean age sociation between fat intake and breast of Saudi women with breast cancer is 47 cancer [ 1 ]. (who.int)
  • With increasing prosperity and com- urated fat intake [ 2 ], whereas others dem- mercial exposure of the population of Saudi onstrated a reduced risk due to total and Arabia, there has been an influx of western polyunsaturated fat intake [ 3 ]. (who.int)
  • Recommended daily intake of fat, is a low fat diet plan healthy? (lose-weight-with-us.com)
  • Many health problems are related to excessive and poor quality fat intake. (lose-weight-with-us.com)
  • Trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1) randomised with appropriate control group, 2) intention to reduce or modify fat or cholesterol intake (excluding exclusively omega-3 fat interventions), 3) not multi factorial, 4) adult humans with or without cardiovascular disease, 5) intervention at least six months, 6) mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data available. (uea.ac.uk)
  • The objective of the dietary interview component is to obtain detailed dietary intake information from the NHANES participants. (cdc.gov)
  • The dietary intake data are used to estimate the types and amounts of foods and beverages consumed during the 24-hour period prior to the interview (midnight to midnight), and to estimate intakes of energy, nutrients, and other food components from those foods and beverages. (cdc.gov)
  • Following the dietary recall, respondents are asked questions on water consumption during the previous 24-hour period, salt use, and whether the person's intake on the previous day was usual or unusual. (cdc.gov)
  • This release of the dietary intake data represents, for the first time, the integration of two nationwide dietary intake surveys - USDA's Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) and DHHS's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). (cdc.gov)
  • Recently, dietary guidelines moved away from limiting cholesterol intake in the diet, and this has resulted in confusion. (cdc.gov)
  • To address it, Pillay stresses, requires both shifts in dietary intake at an individual level and regulation, such as the sugar tax. (who.int)
  • People in cold climates need more dietary fats than others, as a diet high in fat is superior to a carbohydrate diet for supplying internal heat. (lose-weight-with-us.com)
  • This study highlights that both carbohydrates and fat are important, but which foods you eat that contain fat or carbohydrate is even more important when it comes to how long you live. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • The analysis adds more weight to the global call to go beyond macro-nutrients (protein, fat and carbohydrate which are the major constituents of food) and to look carefully at actual food and drinks consumed. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • Our report highlighted that a number of dietary patterns that vary in fat and carbohydrate type and quality are associated with lower heart disease risk. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • Epidemiological data links dietary fats (and obesity) to many types of cancer, and rates of cancer deaths from metastatic cancers including prostate cancer are much higher in the United States than in nations where lower fat diets are more common. (bidmc.org)
  • Unfortunately, many studies have found that overconsumption of saturated fats is one of the leading causes of obesity, heart disease and several other serious health conditions , such as unhealthy LDL "bad" cholesterol levels and stroke. (communitynurse.org)
  • Growing scientific evidence is showing that dairy fat is not the bad guy and that dairy products like milk, cheese, and yoghurt - including full-fat varieties - may even be protective for heart disease and associated risk factors like blood pressure, type 2 diabetes and obesity. (fonterra.com)
  • Dietary fat, whether saturated or not, is not a cause of obesity, heart disease, or any other chronic disease of civilization. (medscape.com)
  • Obesity is a disorder of excess fat accumulation, not overeating, and not sedentary behavior. (medscape.com)
  • Just about every diet recommends reducing saturated fats, such as butter and cheese, and replacing them with unsaturated fats, such as vegetable oil and fatty fish. (cnn.com)
  • When cutting saturated fats from your diet, carefully consider what you will eat instead. (harvard.edu)
  • Fat has twice as many calories as proteins or carbohydrates. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There are 9 calories in 1 g of fat, which in comparison to the calories in 1 g of protein (4 kcal/g) or carbohydrates (4 kcal/g), is more than double the calories. (lose-weight-with-us.com)
  • When eating foods high in fat, it is easy to consume too many calories which can cause weight gain. (lose-weight-with-us.com)
  • The 2015 dietary guidelines advise limiting saturated fats to no more than 10% of daily calories. (cnn.com)
  • About half the participants received diets that contained 18.5% saturated fat and 5% unsaturated fat, based on total calories, and the other half got diets that were 9% saturated fat and 13% unsaturated fat. (cnn.com)
  • The unintended effects were so extreme and went so unrecognized because of this huge effort based on what had become dogma: that eating fat is bad (9 calories per gram vs 4 calories for protein and carbs). (medscape.com)
  • unfortunately, butter and other sat fats actually do cause chronic disease and physical degeneration-unless eaten with a very low carb diet, or else matched gram for gram with polyunsaturated fatty acids-20 gm of sat fats can be balanced by 60 fish oil capsules or 2 1/2 wine glasses of olive oil-ever tried that? (westonaprice.org)
  • Saturated fats are generally found in animal products such as cheese, butter, eggs, meats, and if regularly consumed can raise cholesterol levels in our blood. (lose-weight-with-us.com)
  • Butter is a good example of saturated fats. (communitynurse.org)
  • The new research on fat has coincided with the resurgence in popularity of butter with consumers across the world. (fonterra.com)
  • Making the switch was a well-intentioned guess, given that margarine had less saturated fat than butter, but it overlooked the dangers of trans fats. (fonterra.com)
  • Yep, that's right, this recipe replaces all the butter with bacon fat for fluffy, subtly salty-sweet results. (foodnetwork.com)
  • This report uses data from NHANES III, Phase 1 (October 1988- October 1991), to present findings about daily total food-energy, total dietary fat, and saturated fat intakes for the U.S. population. (cdc.gov)
  • At least three changes in the dietary methodology used for NHANES III may account for the differences in total dietary fat and saturated fat intakes when compared with NHANES II. (cdc.gov)
  • Nutrient intakes reported in these files do not include those obtained from dietary supplements, medications or plain drinking water. (cdc.gov)
  • They assessed dietary intakes based on questionnaires, and compared the results with death rates from heart disease and from all other causes. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • Interestingly, they found those with the highest intakes of total fat and sub-types of fat (saturated, unsaturated) compared to those with the lowest intakes, had a lower risk of dying from all causes. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • There was a 21% lower risk of stroke among those with the highest saturated fat intakes compared to the lowest. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats are considered to be heart healthy fats or "good" dietary fats. (lose-weight-with-us.com)
  • For example, a diet high in saturated and trans fats can increase bad cholesterol (LDL) levels in your blood, whereas incorporating healthy fats, such as monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, into your diet can help lower your bad cholesterol levels. (communitynurse.org)
  • Monounsaturated fats are healthy fats that only contain one unsaturated carbon bond, that are incredibly beneficial for lowering "bad" (LDL) cholesterol levels and other related risks, including a reduced risk of heart disease. (communitynurse.org)
  • You need some fat in your diet but not too much. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In a set of papers out today in the journals Nature Genetics and Nature Communications , researchers at the Cancer Center at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) shed new light on the genetic mechanisms that promote metastasis in the mouse model and also implicated the typical Western high-fat diet as a key environmental factor driving metastasis. (bidmc.org)
  • Although it is widely postulated that a Western diet can promote prostate cancer progression, direct evidence supporting a strong association between dietary lipids and prostate cancer has been lacking," said first author Ming Chen, PhD, a research fellow in the laboratory of Pier Paolo Pandolfi, MD, PhD, Director of the Cancer Center and Cancer Research Institute at BIDMC. (bidmc.org)
  • Fats are a very important part of every diet and essential for normal body function. (lose-weight-with-us.com)
  • Fat supplies our body with nutrients such as fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K and essential fatty acids, which can only be obtained from the diet to support a healthy heart and immune system. (lose-weight-with-us.com)
  • We need both saturated and unsaturated fats in our diet and should avoid trans fats. (lose-weight-with-us.com)
  • Monounsaturated fat is an excellent source of an oxidant vitamin E, which we need more of in our diet, and supplies essential nutrients for growth and repairs our body cells. (lose-weight-with-us.com)
  • Here, we highlight the malleable nature of MetS-associated cognitive dysfunction using a mouse model of high fat diet (HFD)-induced MetS. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Finally, repeated infusion of plasma collected from age-matched, low fat diet-fed mice improved memory in HFD mice, and was associated with a distinct metabolic profile. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Despite fat having a bad rap, especially when it comes to your diet, not all types are bad. (communitynurse.org)
  • In the unsaturated fat diet, the researchers increased the level of linolenic acid, an omega-6 polyunsaturated fat, found in margarine and oils such as corn and soybean. (cnn.com)
  • Researchers found, not surprisingly, that the group that got the diet rich in linolenic acid had lower cholesterol, by about 13%, than the saturated fat diet group. (cnn.com)
  • What was surprising was that lower cholesterol was actually associated with an increased risk of dying during the study period, and this was true for both the saturated fat and unsaturated fat diet groups. (cnn.com)
  • This study is less of one showing harm (associated with a diet rich in unsaturated fat), and more of one saying it is surprising how little evidence there is and what there is does not show benefit," said Dr. Christopher E. Ramsden, a medical investigator at the National Institutes of Health and lead author of the study , which was published Tuesday in the journal the BMJ. (cnn.com)
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  • Unfortunately, dietary assessment measures often capture recent behaviors (e.g., what did you eat yesterday, or over the last year) and not long-term diet that would be more relevant for chronic diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • When they compared the two types of tumor - the localized ones lacking only the PTEN gene versus the metastatic tumors lacking both genes - the researchers found that the metastatic tumors produced huge amounts of lipids, or fats. (bidmc.org)
  • Some dietary supplements are available via a doctor's prescribed whilst several can easily be bought on the racks of the neighborhood drug store or grocery store. (hockeytalk.net)
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  • Taking dietary supplements can assist you obtain these targets extra rapidly and successfully. (nikkb.com)
  • The 20 finest dietary supplements for shredding fats and constructing muscle listed under can assist you attain your health targets in 2022. (nikkb.com)
  • In case you're trying to construct muscle and shred fats on the identical time, there are a variety of dietary supplements that may assist. (nikkb.com)
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  • Different dietary supplements can assist enhance your metabolic charge, boosting your total calorie burn and serving to you burn extra fats even whenever you're at relaxation. (nikkb.com)
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  • What are the most effective dietary supplements for fats loss and muscle achieve? (nikkb.com)
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  • American nurses compared nurses who ate of food, which are rich in fat, meat and re- low-fat diets with nurses who consumed fined carbohydrates, may be a contributory higher fat diets and concluded that no rela- factor for the increase in breast cancer in- tionship existed between the risk of breast cidence in Saudi Arabia. (who.int)
  • Percent of was a null or weak association between di- energy from carbohydrates decreased etary fat and breast cancer [ 5 ]. (who.int)
  • A new study has added weight to the debate as to whether fat is better or worse for you than carbohydrates, in terms of risk of heart disease and early death. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • Unfortunately based on this study the jury's still out, but it does highlight that we should focus on what foods people are eating, rather than just looking at components such as fat and carbohydrates. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • Experts may not have counted on the fact that people would compensate for the missing fat andload up on refined carbohydrates, which may have a worse impact on health. (fonterra.com)
  • Butter's rise has seen a significant fall in sales of margarine and other spreads made from poly and mono-unsaturated fats. (fonterra.com)
  • How to cut down on unhealthy fat? (lose-weight-with-us.com)
  • Look out for trans fats on the nutrition labels of packaged foods and learn how to avoid unhealthy fat. (lose-weight-with-us.com)
  • Does being "fat" mean that you are unhealthy? (thestranger.com)
  • Not everyone in this thread who is arguing that being over weight or obese is unhealthy is doing so because we "hate" fat people or we don't like to look at fat rolls. (thestranger.com)
  • Turns out, it's not fat that makes us unhealthy. (medscape.com)
  • Bear in mind that food high in saturated fat also can be high in cholesterol, which can make your cholesterol levels soar. (lose-weight-with-us.com)
  • Fat enhances fluid metabolism. (lose-weight-with-us.com)
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  • The massive effort at culture change-stop eating this, that, or the other fat-was excessive, considering the meager amount of supporting data. (medscape.com)
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  • The results should not alter current dietary guidelines that emphasize healthy sources of polyunsaturated fats such as olive oil and other vegetables, nuts, seeds, avocado, fish and seafood in the context of a healthy dietary pattern," said Dr. Frank Hu, professor of nutrition and epidemiology at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and one of the committee members that prepared the advisory report for the 2015 dietary guidelines. (cnn.com)
  • Nutritionist Mindy Wigzell, Head of Nutrition for Fonterra, says the science surrounding attitudes towards fats has been too simplistic in the past. (fonterra.com)
  • The turnaround in thinking on fat started to gain traction in 2010 when the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition analysed 21 studies that looked at the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease. (fonterra.com)
  • Le Rôle des graisses et huiles alimentaires en nutrition humaine : rapport d' une consultation mixte d' experts tenue à Rome, 21-30 septembre 1977 / organisée conjointement par l' Organisation des Nations Unies pour l' alimentation et l' agriculture et l' Organisation mondiale de la Santé. (who.int)
  • The Role of fats in human nutrition / edited by A. J. Vergroesen and M. Crawford. (who.int)
  • Dietary fats and oils in human nutrition : report of an expert consultation held in Rome, 21-30 September 1977 / jointly organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization. (who.int)
  • Effective nutrition programs are based on understanding what people eat ("dietary assessment") and then empowering them with knowledge and ability to consume healthier diets. (cdc.gov)
  • Nutrition research has attempted to connect dietary behaviors with diseases that take years to develop. (cdc.gov)
  • Saturday's joint session of Mythbuster lectures features experts taking aim at myths about fats, salts, industrial sweeteners and plant-base diets. (westonaprice.org)
  • Few studies compared reduced with modified fat diets, so direct comparison was not possible. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Diets rich in vegetable oils and low in saturated fat might not be all they are cracked up to be in terms of heart health, according to new research. (cnn.com)
  • There have been only a few studies comparing these two types of fat head-to-head between groups of people eating otherwise similar diets. (cnn.com)
  • Dietary fat also plays a major role in your cholesterol levels . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Trans fats elevate your bad cholesterol levels and lower your good cholesterol levels. (lose-weight-with-us.com)
  • Saturated fat increases blood cholesterol levels, which can lead to atherosclerosis. (cnn.com)
  • The Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee recommended removing dietary cholesterol as a "nutrient of concern" because, it turns out saturated fat, rather than dietary cholesterol, is the main contributor to blood cholesterol levels. (cdc.gov)
  • As the science evolves, many researchers are beginning to re-draw the boundaries of nutritional knowledge, shifting away from the old thinking that saturated fats should be avoided and that the rush to 'low-fat everything' may have been misguided. (fonterra.com)
  • Fat production and consumption : technologies and nutritional implications, proceedings of a NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Advanced Technologies and Their Nutritional Implications in the Production of Edible Fats, held March 17-21, 1986, in Selvino, Italy / edited by C. Galli and E. Fedeli. (who.int)
  • This study's findings further the need to evaluate the potential health impacts of C15:0 nutritional deficiencies caused by population-wide avoidance of all dietary saturated fats, including C15:0. (nih.gov)
  • The National Academy of Science advises that there are no safe levels of trans fat consumption. (lose-weight-with-us.com)
  • This statement communicates self-control over consumption (dietary restraint). (cdc.gov)
  • From worksite health risk appraisals, we have found that both men and women who reported liking for but low consumption of high-fat foods were significantly heavier than those who reported liking and consuming these foods. (cdc.gov)
  • 60% kcal as fat) and exposed by whole-body inhalation to either air or crystalline silica (15 mg/m3, 6 hours/day, 5 days). (cdc.gov)
  • Trans fat is any oil that is damaged by heat, light or air in your own home, a restaurant or where it was produced. (lose-weight-with-us.com)
  • Daily TFEI was estimated for each respondent using a 24-hour dietary-recall interview coded reliable and complete. (cdc.gov)
  • Fortunately, we have you covered with everything you need to know to get the proper amounts of the right kind of dietary fats that your body needs to support your body's overall health and wellbeing. (communitynurse.org)
  • What's more important to examine is whether the fat and carbs come from fruits and vegetables or doughnuts and candy. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • When fat is solid at room temperature it's called saturated, if liquid - unsaturated. (lose-weight-with-us.com)
  • These types of fats tend to be more solid at room temperature, as they're made up of chains of carbon atoms that are bonded with hydrogen. (communitynurse.org)
  • Polyunsaturated fats or polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), also lower total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol when consumed sparingly and as a healthy alternative to saturated and trans fats. (lose-weight-with-us.com)
  • Under the integrated framework, DHHS is responsible for the sample design and data collection and USDA is responsible for the survey's dietary data collection methodology, maintenance of the databases used to code and process the data, and data review and processing. (cdc.gov)
  • Additionally, trans fats are commonly used within the restaurant industry for the deep fryers, as partially hydrogenated oil doesn't need to be changed as frequently as regular oil. (communitynurse.org)
  • Creatine is a well-liked complement for constructing muscle, and there may be some proof that it could additionally assist burn fats. (nikkb.com)
  • Lifestyle advice to all those at risk of cardiovascular disease and to lower risk population groups, should continue to include permanent reduction of dietary saturated fat and partial replacement by unsaturates. (uea.ac.uk)
  • It found, "there is no significant evidence for concluding that dietary saturated fat is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease. (fonterra.com)
  • Melt the bacon fat in a large cast-iron skillet over medium heat. (foodnetwork.com)
  • To assess the effect of reduction and/or modification of dietary fats on mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular morbidity and individual outcomes including myocardial infarction, stroke and cancer diagnoses in randomised clinical trials of at least 6 months duration. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Trans fats are a type of unsaturated fat that is naturally found in milk and some meat products. (communitynurse.org)
  • Now, unsaturated fats naturally have spaces along the chain of carbon atoms, so they don't become fully saturated with hydrogen. (communitynurse.org)
  • Amelioration of Metabolic Syndrome-Associated Cognitive Impairments in Mice via a Reduction in Dietary Fat Content or Infusion of Non-Diabetic Plasma. (oregonstate.edu)
  • However, a brief reduction in dietary fat content in chronic HFD-fed mice led to a complete rescue of cognitive function. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Reduction and modification of dietary fats have differing effects on cardiovascular risk factors (such as serum cholesterol), but their effects on important health outcomes are less clear. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Subgrouping suggested that this reduction in cardiovascular events was seen in studies of fat modification (not reduction - which related directly to the degree of effect on serum total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides), of at least two years duration and in studies of men (not of women). (uea.ac.uk)
  • The findings are suggestive of a small but potentially important reduction in cardiovascular risk on modification of dietary fat, but not reduction of total fat, in longer trials. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Monounsaturated fats or monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) are the good dietary fats. (lose-weight-with-us.com)
  • Polyunsaturated fat can be broken down into two types: omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. (lose-weight-with-us.com)
  • This is because your body breaks down the fat you consume into smaller parts called fatty acids. (communitynurse.org)
  • These fatty acids then enter into your bloodstream and are used to create the fats your body needs. (communitynurse.org)
  • As an emerging dietary essential fatty acid, pentadecanoic acid (C15:0) is expected to have bioactive metabolites with broad health benefits. (nih.gov)
  • Fat is a type of nutrient. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Expanded food descriptions can be found in the food descriptions component of the USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS). (cdc.gov)
  • Fats give you energy and help your body absorb vitamins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For example, vitamin A, D and E are fat-soluble vitamins , meaning that they can only be absorbed with the help of fat. (communitynurse.org)
  • It's important to be mindful of the types of fats you consume and make sure we're getting the right balance for our overall health. (communitynurse.org)
  • There are four kinds of dietary fats that come from the foods you consume: saturated fats, trans fats, monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats. (communitynurse.org)
  • Unfortunately, many health experts say that trans fats are the worst types of fats to consume and have been linked to an increased risk of heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes . (communitynurse.org)
  • Dietary fats produce body fat needed to insulate and keep us warm and to protect and hold our internal organs in place. (lose-weight-with-us.com)
  • You desire to eliminate body fat tissues within your body, to work with these stored cellular material as energy as an alternative to viewing the outcome of kept body fat on your own entire body information. (hockeytalk.net)
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  • What we are now seeing is scientific opinion shifting to the fact moderate amounts of milk, cheese and yoghurt have a neutral or even positive effect on heart health and can even help with weight loss by helping to maintain muscle mass while losing body fat. (fonterra.com)
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  • Any doctor will then run further tests to determine the condition of your health (blood pressure, cholesterol, heart rate, body fat, etc. (thestranger.com)
  • Food high in monounsaturated fat: nuts, avocado and some oils such as vegetable, canola, high oleic safflower oil, olive and sunflower oil. (lose-weight-with-us.com)
  • When eaten in moderation and instead of saturated and trans fats they are beneficial to our health - they lower bad cholesterol LDL (low-density lipoprotein) in our blood and reduce the risk of stroke and heart disease. (lose-weight-with-us.com)
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  • South Africa has done well in regulating salt and trans fats and taxing sugar-sweetened beverages," he says. (who.int)
  • In fact, when consumed in the right form and quantity, dietary fat plays a crucial role in maintaining your overall health and wellbeing . (communitynurse.org)
  • Restricted data, such as the 2002 Day 2 dietary data, may be made available at the Research Data Center located at the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) headquarters in Hyattsville, MD. A research proposal for using the restricted data must be submitted to NCHS for review and approval. (cdc.gov)
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  • A new study shows that eating trans fats may be associated with memory loss, according to a study presented last week at the American Heart Association scientific sessions. (harvard.edu)
  • Sugar raises blood pressure and levels of triglyceride (a type of fat found in your blood), leading to weight gain and increasing your heart disease risk. (cnn.com)
  • However, when it came to the risk of having a heart attack or dying from heart disease, fats had no relationship with risk. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • We recently reviewed the evidence on dietary patterns and heart disease , where most research has been done in high income countries. (cosmosmagazine.com)
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  • People with rigid dietary restraint who like and crave a food - but don't satisfy their craving - are actually at greater risk for overeating and dis-inhibition (i.e., loss of control of eating). (cdc.gov)