Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
A diet that contains limited amounts of CARBOHYDRATES. This is in distinction to a regular DIET.
Glucose in blood.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A hardy grain crop, rye, grown in northern climates. It is the most frequent host to ergot (CLAVICEPS), the toxic fungus. Its hybrid with TRITICUM is TRITICALE, another grain.
Substances that promote DENTAL CARIES.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.
Abstaining from all food.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.
The consumption of edible substances.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.
Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The amounts of various substances in the diet recommended by governmental guidelines as needed to sustain healthy life.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
The selection of one food over another.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.

Diet and risk of ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity: carbohydrate-fat relationships in rats. (1/3525)

Nutritional status is a primary factor in the effects of xenobiotics and may be an important consideration in development of safety standards and assessment of risk. One important xenobiotic consumed daily by millions of people worldwide is alcohol. Some adverse effects of ethanol, such as alcohol liver disease, have been linked to diet. For example, ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in animal models requires diets that have a high percentage of the total calories as unsaturated fat. However, little attention has been given to the role of carbohydrates (or carbohydrate to fat ratio) in the effects of this important xenobiotic on liver injury. In the present study, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (8-10/group) were infused (intragastrically) diets high in unsaturated fat (25 or 45% total calories), sufficient protein (16%) and ethanol (38%) in the presence or absence of adequate carbohydrate (21 or 2.5%) for 42-55 days (d). Animals infused ethanol-containing diets adequate in carbohydrate developed steatosis, but had no other signs of hepatic pathology. However, rats infused with the carbohydrate-deficient diet had a 4-fold increase in serum ALT levels (p < 0.05), an unexpectedly high (34-fold) induction of hepatic microsomal CYP2E1 apoprotein (p < 0.001), and focal necrosis. The strong positive association between low dietary carbohydrate, enhanced CYP2E1 induction and hepatic necrosis suggests that in the presence of low carbohydrate intake, ethanol induction of CYP2E1 is enhanced to levels sufficient to cause necrosis, possibly through reactive oxygen species and other free radicals generated by CYP2E1 metabolism of ethanol and unsaturated fatty acids.  (+info)

Fermentation substrate and dilution rate interact to affect microbial growth and efficiency. (2/3525)

The effect of dilution rate (D) on carbohydrate, fibrous and nonfibrous, and protein fermentation by ruminal microorganisms was studied using a single-effluent continuous-culture system. The diets of fibrous carbohydrate, nonfibrous carbohydrate, or protein were formulated with soybean hulls (FC), ground corn (NFC), or isolated soy protein (PR) as the primary ingredient, respectively. Six dilution rates (.025, .050, .075, .10, .15, and .20/h of fermenter volume) were used. Digestibilities of DM, OM, and CP for the three diets and of NDF and ADF for the FC diet decreased (P<.001) as D increased, although the response of the digestibility to D varied with diet. Increasing D resulted in an increase in pH (P<.001) and a decrease (P<.001) in ammonia concentration. Daily volatile fatty acid production increased (quadratic; P<.01) for the FC and NFC diets, but decreased (quadratic; P<.001) for the PR diet. Increasing D quadratically increased (P<.001) the molar percentage of acetate and propionate, but quadratically decreased (P<.001) butyrate and valerate for the FC and NFC diets. For the PR diet, the molar percentage of propionate and valerate increased (quadratic; P<.01), whereas acetate and butyrate decreased (linear; P<.001) in response to increasing D. Molar percentage of isobutyrate and isovalerate decreased (P<.01) with increasing D for all three diets. As D increased, daily microbial N production showed quadratic responses with maximum values achieved at .126, .143, and .187/h D for the FC, NFC, and PR diet, respectively. There was a positive correlation between microbial growth efficiency (MOEFF) and D. A quadratic model fit the data of MOEFF as affected by D, and maximum MOEFF of 37.3, 59.6, and 71.4 g of bacterial N/kg OM truly fermented were calculated to be achieved at .177, .314, and .207/h D for the FC, NFC, and PR diet, respectively. Dilution rate significantly influenced the ruminal microbial fermentation of fibrous and nonfibrous carbohydrates and proteins, and was positively related to microbial yield and growth efficiency. In addition, microbial nitrogen composition, and therefore efficiency, was affected by substrate fermented.  (+info)

Relationship between ruminal starch degradation and the physical characteristics of corn grain. (3/3525)

The objectives of this study were to determine the range of variation in the rate and extent of in situ ruminal starch degradation of 14 corns differing in vitreousness and to predict ruminal starch degradability by physical characteristics of corn grains. This study was conducted with eight dent and six flint corns. Ruminal starch degradability was determined by an in situ technique on 3-mm ground grains. Physical characteristics of corn grain were measured: hardness by grinding energy and particle size distribution, apparent and true densities, and specific surface area. Ruminal DM and starch degradabilities averaged 50 and 55.1% and varied from 39.7 to 71.5% and from 40.6 to 77.6%, respectively. Ruminal starch degradability averaged 61.9 and 46.2% in dent and flint types, respectively. The proportion of coarse particles (61.9 vs. 69.6% for dent and flint, respectively), the apparent density (1.29 vs. 1.36 g/cm3 for dent and flint, respectively), and the specific surface area (.13 vs. .07 m2/g for dent and flint, respectively) varied with the vitreousness. Ruminal starch degradability could be predicted accurately by vitreousness (r2 = .89) or by the combination of apparent density and 1,000-grain weight (R2 = .91), a measurement faster than the vitreousness determination.  (+info)

Macronutrient intake and change in mammographic density at menopause: results from a randomized trial. (4/3525)

To examine the effects of dietary fat intake on breast cancer risk, we are conducting a randomized trial of dietary intervention in women with extensive areas of radiologically dense breast tissue on mammography, a risk factor for breast cancer. Early results show that after 2 years on a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet there is a significant reduction in area of density, particularly in women going through menopause. In women who went through menopause during the 2-year follow-up, the mean decreases in area of density and percentage of density in the intervention group were 11.0 cm2 and 11.0%, respectively, whereas the control group decreased 4.5 cm2 and 5.2%. The purpose of this analysis was to determine whether changes in intake of specific macronutrients could account for the observed reduction in breast density in these women. Differences between 2-year and baseline values of macronutrients (averaged over 3 nonconsecutive days of food intake) were calculated. We examined the effect of dietary variables, adjusted for changes in total calorie intake and weight and for family history of breast cancer, on changes in area of density and percentage of density using linear regression. Reduction in total or saturated fat intake or cholesterol intake was significantly associated with decreased dense area (p < or = .004). The most significant dietary variable associated with reduction in percentage of density was reduction in dietary cholesterol intake (P = 0.001), although reducing saturated fat intake was of borderline significance (P = 0.05). The effect of the membership in the intervention and control groups on change in area of density or percentage of density was reduced by models that included changes in intake of any fat, or cholesterol, or carbohydrates. The observation of an effect of diet at menopause on breast density, a marker of increased risk of breast cancer, may be an indication that exposures at this time have an enhanced effect on subsequent risk.  (+info)

Ontogeny of intestinal safety factors: lactase capacities and lactose loads. (5/3525)

We measured intestinal safety factors (ratio of a physiological capacity to the load on it) for lactose digestion in developing rat pups. Specifically, we assessed the quantitative relationships between lactose load and the series capacities of lactase and the Na+-glucose cotransporter (SGLT-1). Both capacities increased significantly with age in suckling pups as a result of increasing intestinal mass and maintenance of mass-specific activities. The youngest pups examined (5 days) had surprisingly high safety factors of 8-13 for both lactase and SGLT-1, possibly because milk contains lactase substrates other than lactose; it also, however, suggests that their intestinal capacities were being prepared to meet future demands rather than just current ones. By day 10 (and also at day 15), increased lactose loads resulted in lower safety factors of 4-6, values more typical of adult intestines. The safety factor of SGLT-1 in day 30 (weanling) and day 100 (adult) rats was only approximately 1.0. This was initially unexpected, because most adult intestines maintain a modest reserve capacity beyond nutrient load values, but postweaning rats appear to use hindgut fermentation, assessed by gut morphology and hydrogen production assays, as a built-in reserve capacity. The series capacities of lactase and SGLT-1 varied in concert with each other over ontogeny and as lactose load was manipulated by experimental variation in litter size.  (+info)

Rapidly available glucose in foods: an in vitro measurement that reflects the glycemic response. (6/3525)

BACKGROUND: A chemically based classification of dietary carbohydrates that takes into account the likely site, rate, and extent of digestion is presented. The classification divides dietary carbohydrates into sugars, starch fractions, and nonstarch polysaccharides, and groups them into rapidly available glucose (RAG) and slowly available glucose (SAG) as to the amounts of glucose (from sugar and starch, including maltodextrins) likely to be available for rapid and slow absorption, respectively, in the human small intestine. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that RAG is an important food-related determinant of the glycemic response. DESIGN: The measurement of RAG, SAG, and starch fractions by an in vitro technique is described, based on the measurement by HPLC of the glucose released from a test food during timed incubation with digestive enzymes under standardized conditions. Eight healthy adult subjects consumed 8 separate test meals ranging in RAG content from 11 to 49 g. RESULTS: The correlation between glycemic response and RAG was highly significant (P < 0.0001) and a given percentage increase in RAG was associated with the same percentage increase in glycemic response. After subject variation was accounted for, RAG explained 70% of the remaining variance in glycemic response. CONCLUSIONS: We show the significance of in vitro measurements of RAG in relation to glycemic response in human studies. The simple in vitro measurement of RAG and SAG is of physiologic relevance and could serve as a tool for investigating the importance of the amount, type, and form of dietary carbohydrates for health.  (+info)

Composition of enteral diets and meals providing optimal absorption rates of nutrients in mini pigs. (7/3525)

BACKGROUND: Commercial enteral diets differ widely in nutrient composition. It is unknown whether the nutrient composition of the diets influences intestinal absorption. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different enteral diets providing 60% of energy as carbohydrate, protein, or fat or 33.3% of energy from each nutrient on intestinal absorption in mini pigs. DESIGN: Kinetics of nutrient absorption were determined by perfusing a 150-cm jejunal segment. The kinetics of absorption were used to determine optimal relations between the absorption and recovery of each nutrient. From these data, the optimal nutrient composition of the diets providing complete absorption of the macronutrients in the shortest intestinal length was evaluated. Absorption of nutrients was further determined after oral administration of 4 corresponding meals. RESULTS: With all enteral diets, the absorption of nutrients displayed saturation kinetics. Absorption rates of carbohydrate were significantly larger than those of fat and protein. Consequently, the amounts of nutrients remaining unabsorbed per unit length of jejunum differed among the macronutrients. After administration of various test meals, the length of the small intestine required for complete absorption of the nutrients depended on the composition of the meals. The shortest intestinal length for complete absorption was needed for a diet providing 48% of energy as carbohydrate, 23% as protein, and 29% as fat. This composition closely matched the nutritional requirements. CONCLUSION: The nutrient composition of diets can optimize intestinal absorption. This may be especially important in patients with malabsorption or short-bowel syndrome.  (+info)

Response of adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase to the cephalic phase of insulin secretion. (8/3525)

Modulation of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) allows a tissue-specific partitioning of triglyceride-derived fatty acids, and insulin is a major modulator of its activity. The present studies were aimed to assess in rats the contribution of insulin to the response of adipose tissue and muscle LPL to food intake. Epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose LPL rose 65% above fasting values as early as 1 h after the onset of a 30-min high-carbohydrate meal, with a second activity peak 1 h later that was maintained for an additional 2 h. Soleus muscle LPL was decreased by 25% between 0.5 and 4 h after meal intake. The essential contribution of insulin to the LPL response to food intake was determined by preventing the full insulin response to meal intake by administration of diazoxide (150 mg/kg body wt, in the meal). The usual postprandial changes in adipose and muscle LPL did not occur in the absence of an increase in insulinemia. However, the early (60 min) increase in adipose tissue LPL was not prevented by the drug, likely because of the maintenance of the early centrally mediated phase of insulin secretion. In a subsequent study, rats chronically implanted with a gastric cannula were used to demonstrate that the postprandial rise in adipose LPL is independent of nutrient absorption and can be elicited by the cephalic (preabsorptive) phase of insulin secretion. Obese Zucker rats were used because of their strong cephalic insulin response. After an 8-h fast, rats were fed a liquid diet ad libitum (orally, cannula closed), sham fed (orally, cannula opened), or fed directly into the stomach via the cannula during 4 h. Insulinemia increased 10-fold over fasting levels in ad libitum- and intragastric-fed rats and threefold in sham-fed rats. Changes in adipose tissue LPL were proportional to the elevation in plasma insulin levels, demonstrating that the cephalic-mediated rise in insulinemia, in the absence of nutrient absorption, stimulates adipose LPL. These results demonstrate the central role of insulin in the postprandial response of tissue LPL, and they show that cephalically mediated insulin secretion is able to stimulate adipose LPL.  (+info)

Looking for Simple carbohydrate? Find out information about Simple carbohydrate. see carbohydrate carbohydrate, any member of a large class of chemical compounds that includes sugars, starches, cellulose, and related compounds. Explanation of Simple carbohydrate
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of high-protein versus high-carbohydrate diets on markers of β- Cell function, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipokines in obese, premenopausal women without diabetes. AU - Kitabchi, Abbas E.. AU - McDaniel, Kristin A.. AU - Wan, Jim. AU - Tylavsky, Frances. AU - Jacovino, Crystal A.. AU - Sands, Chris W.. AU - Nyenwe, Ebenezer. AU - Stentz, Frankie B.. PY - 2013/10/28. Y1 - 2013/10/28. N2 - Objective-To study the effects of high-protein versus high-carbohydrate diets on various metabolic end points (glucoregulation, oxidative stress [dichlorofluorescein], lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde], proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6], adipokines, and resting energy expenditure [REE]) with high protein-low carbohydrate (HP) and high carbohydrate-low protein (HC) diets at baseline and after 6 months of dietary intervention. Research design and methods-We recruited obese, premenopausal women aged 20-50 ...
Bodybuilders have used different carbohydrate loading regimens in conjunction with resistance exercise prior to competition in the belief that this would result in increased muscle size. To investigate this possibility, muscle girth measurements were obtained from nine weight-trained males before and after a control (standard isocaloric diet) and an experimental trial (carbohydrate loading). The latter regimen consisted of 3 days of intense weight-lifting while the subjects ingested a diet of 10% carbohydrate (CHO), 57% fat (F), and 33% protein (P), followed by 3 days of light weight-lifting and a day of rest while ingesting a diet of 80% CHO, 5% F, and 15% P. The control trial consisted of an identical weight-lifting regimen while subjects ingested an isocaloric (45 kcal/kg BWIday) diet. Body weight and girths (forearm, upper arm, chest, thigh, waist, and calf) were obtained before and after each trial in a relaxed and flexed state. The results indicated that an exercise/carbohydrate loading ...
The present thesis describes the impact of glycaemic index of high carbohydrate diets consumed for 5 days on exercise energy metabolism and capacity and fasting plasma lipids in healthy physically active individuals. The thesis consists of a literature review (Chapter 1), general methods (Chapter 2), four experimental chapters (Chapter 3-Chapter 6) and general discussion and conclusion (Chapter 7). Chapter 3 presents a pilot study aimed to investigate whether high carbohydrate meals with high and low glycaemic index of foods present within meals developed by using the glycaemic index values from the published glycaemic index tables, produce significant differences in postprandial glucose response. Eight healthy active women consumed prescribed high carbohydrate diets with either high or low glycaemic index in a randomised counterbalanced order. The experimental meals which consisted of breakfast, morning snack and lunch were consumed after an overnight fast. Plasma glucose responses were ...
Simple carbohydrates (sugars), such as glucose and fructose, are high in calorie content and low in nutritional value. These are called simple because they contain only one sugar molecule.. Unfortunately the sweet taste they provide is something that many people enjoy, crave and over indulge in. Some studies have shown that simple carbohydrates are more addictive than cocaine and the U.S. is facing a national health crisis due to this problem, especially in our children.. Concentrated sugars have only been in the human diet for about 2000 years. Our taste buds and pleasure centers in our brain have not evolved to be able to handle this. They create a supernormal stimulus hijacking our pleasure centers making us want to come back for more, hence their addictive potential. Sugars in whole fruits also stimulate our pleasure centers quite a bit, but to a much lesser degree than these refined sugars.. ...
August 20, 2010 excelfitnesct.com By: Jeff Roux Carbohydrate Consumption during Intense Exercise Have you ever tried to gain the edge over the competition by carbohydrate loading the night before an exercise event? Just about everyone knows to carb-load the day before, but what about during the event? Most people believe anything with carbs, sugar is […]. CONTINUE READING ...
Effects of Prepartum Dietary Carbohydrate Source on Metabolism and Performance of Primiparous Holstein Cows during the Periparturient Period - Periparturient Period;Rapidly Fermentable Carbohydrates;Primiparous Cows;
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Led by James Gangwisch of the Department of Psychiatry at Columbia University Medical Center, the study looked at the dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, types of carbohydrates consumed and depression in data from more than 70,000 postmenopausal women who participated in the National Institutes of Healths Womens Health Initiative Observational Study between 1994 and 1998.. Consumption of carbohydrates increases blood sugar levels to varying degrees, depending on the type of food ingested. The more highly refined the carbohydrate, the higher its score on the glycemic index (GI) scale. The GI scale, which goes from 0-100, measures the amount of sugar found in the blood after eating. Refined foods such as white bread, white rice, and soda trigger a hormonal response in the body to reduce blood sugar levels. This response may also cause or exacerbate mood changes, fatigue and other symptoms of depression.. The investigators found that progressively higher dietary GI scores and consumption of ...
Definition of high-carbohydrate diet in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is high-carbohydrate diet? Meaning of high-carbohydrate diet as a legal term. What does high-carbohydrate diet mean in law?
Carbohydrate Loading. Carbohydrates are the bodys primary source of energy during high intensity exercise. Upon consumption, carbohydrates are broken down to glucose and metabolized for energy. Unused glucose is stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles. After the body has utilized carbohydrate reserves, glycogen is synthesized back into glucose to be used as the alternative source of energy. It is upon this premise that carbo-loading is practiced to improve and sustain athletic performance.. Carbo-loading is the super-compensation of glycogen stores. It is the expectation of carbo-loading that the excess glucose will be converted to glycogen and stored in the liver and muscles. This over abundance of glycogen stores will become the readily available fuel source. Benefits of Carbo-loading. Because glycogen stores are typically not abundant, energy is often halted upon utilization. Thus, an athlete is said to have hit the wall. Carbo-loading maximizes the bodys ability to store ...
Nondiabetic women who were overweight/obese (n=245) were randomly assigned to a lower fat (20% energy), higher carbohydrate (65% energy) diet; a lower carbohydrate (45% energy), higher fat (35% energy) diet; or a walnut-rich (18% energy), higher fat (35% energy), lower carbohydrate (45% energy) diet. All groups lost weight at follow-up (P,0.0001), with mean (SEM) percent loss of 9.2(1.1)% in lower fat, 6.5(0.9)% in lower carbohydrate, and 8.2(1.0)% in walnut-rich groups at 12months. The diet×time×insulin resistance status interaction was not statistically significant in the model for overall weight loss, although insulin sensitive women at 12months lost more weight in the lower fat vs. lower carbohydrate group (7.5kg vs. 4.3kg, P=0.06), and in the walnut-rich vs. lower carbohydrate group (8.1kg vs. 4.3kg, P=0.04). Sex hormone binding globulin increased within each group except in the lower carbohydrate group at 12months (P,0.01). C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 decreased at follow-up in ...
One word: fiber. Well, its actually more like fiber, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants!. Refined carbohydrates like cookies, donuts, and even white bread contain added sugars and fats that will stifle your goal to eat healthy food and lose weight. In addition, refined carbs may contain hydrogenated vegetable oils, additional fat, and processed sugars. Eating refined carbs like a cookie in the morning will neither give you the energy nor give you the nutrition to maintain a balanced body.. On the other hand, while fruits contain sugar, they also contain other nutrients that slow down the absorption rate of that sugar. These are known as complex carbohydrates, and they are the healthier sort of carbs. These foods contain the vitamins and minerals necessary to efficiently convert into slow-releasing energy. Though refined carbohydrates are broken down into the bloodstream quickly, the fiber-rich carbs found in fruit are broken down more slowly, and thus prevent the sugar rush and crash.. For ...
On another topic, Cynthia and David state: And carbohydrate consumption always causes blood insulin levels to spike, which has a whole series of negative consequences. I dont know if they have read An insulin index of foods: The insulin demand generated by 1000 kJ portions of common foods (7). This project demonstrated that protein-rich foods also cause insulin levels to rise, due to insulin also having a function of clearing amino acids from the blood stream. The insulin scores for beef and fish exceed those for several high carbohydrate foods (white pasta, brown pasta, porridge) and are comparable to others (brown rice, whole grain bread). While in general it is true that limiting carbohydrate reduces insulin responses, I would caution anyone against stating broadly that carbohydrate consumption always causes blood insulin levels to spike, without specifying what type of carbohydrate. Since dietary protein also causes release of insulin in amounts comparable to some carbohydrate ...
Win: You`ve probably heard of carbohydrate loading, something a lot of runners do before a race.Marathon runner Pat Hatz finds that eating a carbohydrate meal--such as pasta--the night before the
Low-carbohydrate diets or low carb diets, are food diet programs for dietary health as well as weight loss that advocate restricted carbohydrate consumption, based on research that ties carbohydrate consumption with increased blood insulin levels, and increased insulin with obesity.Under these various dietary programs, foods containing carbohydrates (like sugar, grains, and starches) are limited or ...
Its good when we can debate about something, but its a little bit better, sometimes, when you have a strong opinion about a tough issue such as diabetes and its procedures. You can read my history throughout the attached text, but the summary is: Most of us ought to use a different carbohydrate ratio for different times of breakfast - during work days when you wake up at the same time, day by day, the ratio would be the same, but if the same stretch (working days) you are late e decide to have breakfast at the companys brakeroom, one hour after your normal time, your carbohydrate ratio probably WILL BE DIFFERENT. Its why some people describe about schedule changes... ITS ABOUT TIME. Please read my enclosed history - youll understand. Jose email @ redacted Date: Sat, 27 May 2000 11:54:41 -0800 From: Michael ,email @ redacted, Subject: Re: [IP] Interesting morning... another twist Sorry for the long inclusion, but it is all relevant, see below , What a morning. I got up at 7:30 a.m. did a ...
Whether you call them simple carbohydrates or sugars, consuming too many of them may make you more likely to gain weight. According to an article published in
There are several types of diets that differ only in the recommended daily intake of carbohydrates. Acceptable limits are from 20 to 250 grams, but it is better to stop at a value of 40-50. With such a daily amount of carbohydrates, you can achieve rapid weight loss without harming the intestines and stomach.. Before composing an individual diet for a carbohydrate-free diet, it is necessary to calculate the bodys need for calories. There are different calculation schemes, but we will take the Harris-Benedict formula. To calculate the norm according to it, you need to know only three values: weight (kg), age (years) and height (cm). Different indicators are given for men and women.. The daily calorie requirement (basal metabolic rate, BMR) in men is calculated as follows:. BMR = 88.36 + (13.4 x weight) + (4.8 x height) - (5.7 x age). Example: a 35-year-old man weighs 90 kg and is 178 cm tall.. BMR = 88.36 + (13.4 x 90) + (4.8 x 178) - (5.7 x 35) = 1949.5 kcal.. Womens Daily Calorie Requirement ...
Recently, high carbohydrate diets were recommended for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. All aspects of these diets, however, have not been fully tested - particularly in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). The present study was designed to investigate the effects of high carbohydrate, low fat diets (HCLFD) on blood glucose regulation, lipoprotein and apoprotein concentrations and nutritional status in IDDM. Six women with IDDM were studied in the Clinical Research Center for ten weeks. The study was divided into a control diet (CD) with 45% CHO, 40% fat, and 15% protein for four weeks, and a HCLFD with 65% CHO, 20% fat, and 15% protein for six weeks. Subjects were allowed free selection of their carbohydrate and fiber sources during both diet periods. The resulting selections produced diets with approximately equal proportions of complex and simple carbohydrates (49% and 51%, respectively) and moderate quantities of dietary fiber (50 g) during the HCLFD. Weekly fasting and ...
Recreational exercisers who are normoglycemic and who do LC intermittently tend to increase the size of their liver glycogen tank over time, via compensatory adaptation, and also use more fat (and ketones, which are byproducts of fat metabolism) as sources of energy. Somewhat paradoxically, these folks benefit from regular high carbohydrate intake days (e.g., once a week, or on exercise days), since their liver glycogen tanks will typically store more glycogen. If they keep their liver and muscle glycogen tanks half empty all the time, compensatory adaptation suggests that both their liver and muscle glycogen tanks will over time become smaller, and that their muscles will store more fat ...
Desrosiers said, We already know that maternal diet before and during early pregnancy plays a significant role in fetal development. What is new about this study is its suggestion that low carbohydrate intake could increase the risk of having a baby with a neural tube defect by 30 percent. This is concerning because low carbohydrate diets are fairly popular.. She insisted that the finding reinforces the importance for women who may become pregnant to talk to their health care provider about any special diets or eating behaviors they practice.. Folic acid is an essential nutrient that minimizes the risk of neural tube defects. In 1998 the Food and Drug Administration began requiring that folic acid be added to enriched grain products.. Desrosiers and her study collaborators found that dietary intake of folic acid among women with restricted carbohydrate intake was less than half of other women.. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that all women who may become pregnant ...
Plants are the primary carbohydrate source. Following their harvest, many of them are found on the market in their natural state. Others are directed towards factories and go through various processes, thus becoming processed foods. There are two carbohydrate types: simple and complex. Vegetables, seeds and cereals are rich in complex carbohydrates. These are divided into two other categories: polysaccharides and oligosaccharides.. By being more complicated in structure, they are digested and absorbed into the bloodstream at a slower rate than simple carbohydrates. Due to their ability to gradually release energy and for longer time periods, they are considered as healthier than monosaccharides and disaccharides. Vegetables in particular are low glycemic index foods. This means they can counterbalance the adverse effects of cholesterol. As opposed to them, simple carbohydrates are found in the structure of high glycemic index foods. They enter the bloodstream without needing to be ...
To exploit the fact that cancer cells rely more heavily on glycolysis than normal cells, we designed low CHO, high protein diets to see if we could limit BG and tumor growth. In designing our diets, we wanted to avoid NCKDs because of the difficulty in achieving long-term compliance with no CHO diets in potential future human studies (27) and because Masko and colleagues recently reported that a 10% or 20% CHO diet slows tumor growth as effectively as NCKDs (27). Following early studies with 8% CHO diets, using 10% and 15% CHO, high protein diets in which 70% of the CHO was in the form of amylose, we found that, compared with a Western diet, they were indeed capable of reducing BG, insulin, and lactate levels and, importantly, in slowing the growth of implanted murine and human tumors, with little or no effects on mouse weight.. We assessed the effects of our low CHO diets in both murine tumor-bearing immunocompetent mice and human tumor-bearing immunocompromised mice, because immune status has ...
This report is interesting and important for physicians to be aware of, but the major concepts are absolutely predictable with a basic understanding of serum cholesterol responses to carbohydrates in the diet. Simply stated, when people eat carbohydrates their HDL (good cholesterol) goes down and their triglycerides go up. This is uncontroversial, and so consistent that researchers use triglycerides and HDL as objective measures of carbohydrate consumption. Dr. Frank Sacks of Harvard Medical School explains in a recent paper on low carbohydrate diets that HDL is a biomarker for dietary carbohydrate. High triglycerides and low HDL means the subjects are eating lots of carbs. The AHAs report confirms this as well, explaining that very high intakes of carbohydrate (,60% of calories) is accompanied by a reduction in HDL cholesterol and a rise in triglyceride ...
The American Journal of Epidemiology on Association between Eating Patterns and Obesity in a Free-living US Adult Population: Finally, subjects who eat late in the evening may increase the amount of glucose stored in muscle as glycogen (7). In humans, muscle glycogen fluctuates in accordance with periods of muscle activity and subsequent carbohydrate consumption. Data suggest that the consumption of carbohydrate-rich foods in the late evening leads to increased glycogen levels in the muscles (7). Unless this stored glycogen is burned as fuel, it will ultimately be stored as fat. Therefore, consumption of late-evening meals with carbohydrate-rich foods may also be related to obesity through its effect on hormonal regulation of energy and lipid metabolism. ...
I havent seen this study before. So hepatic IR is indeed the cause of metabolic syndrome. But we already know what causes liver insulin resistance, it is elevated ChREBP in the liver, which essentially derives from a combination of high carbohydrate consumption, and also frequent carbohydrate consumption ...
Picture of Selection of comptex carbohydrates sources on white background,.. stock photo, images and stock photography.. Image 58154936.
Popular weight loss strategies often prescribe a targeted reduction of dietary carbohydrate or fat. But surprisingly, no controlled human feeding study has ever investigated the effects of a selective reduction of dietary carbohydrate versus fat while keeping the other dietary macronutrients at their baseline weight-maintenance values. The present study was designed to address this knowledge gap and improve our understanding of how selective reduction of dietary fat versus carbohydrate may differentially impact the many feedback control processes that act to resist weight loss.. After several days of eating a weight-maintenance diet, 20 obese adult volunteers (BMI above 30 kg/m2) will be admitted to the metabolic clinical research unit (MCRU) and, after 5 additional days of the baseline diet, their diets will be modified to result in either 85% reduction of the baseline dietary fat or a 60% reduction of the baseline dietary carbohydrate for the next 6 days. These diet modifications produce an ...
Popular weight loss strategies often prescribe a targeted reduction of dietary carbohydrate or fat. But surprisingly, no controlled human feeding study has ever investigated the effects of a selective reduction of dietary carbohydrate versus fat while keeping the other dietary macronutrients at their baseline weight-maintenance values. The present study was designed to address this knowledge gap and improve our understanding of how selective reduction of dietary fat versus carbohydrate may differentially impact the many feedback control processes that act to resist weight loss.. After several days of eating a weight-maintenance diet, 20 obese adult volunteers (BMI above 30 kg/m2) will be admitted to the metabolic clinical research unit (MCRU) and, after 5 additional days of the baseline diet, their diets will be modified to result in either 85% reduction of the baseline dietary fat or a 60% reduction of the baseline dietary carbohydrate for the next 6 days. These diet modifications produce an ...
This systematic review examines the efficacy of carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation on exercise performance of varying durations. Included studies utilized an all-out or endurance-based exercise protocol (no team-based performance studies) and featured randomized interventions and placebo (water-only …
This study examined the association between glycemic control and cognitive performance under fasting conditions and the impact of acute carbohydrate consumption on cognitive function in adults with type 2 diabetes. The results demonstrate a negative relationship between measures of glycemic control, specifically HbA1c and fasting glucose, and fasting cognitive performance such that individuals in poorer glycemic control show poorer performance on tests of verbal recall. Although memory improvement was observed immediately after carbohydrate consumption, similar to that observed in healthy older adults, this was followed by impairment in performance.. The associations observed between fasting cognitive performance and measures of glucoregulatory status in study participants is consistent with a direct impact of type 2 diabetes on central nervous system functioning. Similar associations between HbA1c and cognitive functions have been observed by some but not others (2). Problematic to ...
Recent meta-analyses have found no association between heart disease and dietary saturated fat; however, higher proportions of plasma saturated fatty acids (SFA) predict greater...
The Effects of High-Fat or High-Carbohydrate Diet on Intramyocellular Lipids Aim: High-fat and high-carbohydrate (carb) diets have been widely consumed over the past few..
Some low-carbohydrate diet advocates argue that the obesity epidemic was caused by US dietary guidelines that emphasize a carbohydrate-rich diet*. The idea here is that the increase in calorie intake was due to the diet shifting in a more carbohydrate-heavy direction. In other words, theyre hypothesizing that a carbohydrate-rich eating style increases food intake, which increases body fatness**. According to this hypothesis, if we had received advice to eat a fat-rich diet instead, we wouldnt be in the midst of an obesity epidemic ...
How many of you guys have different , carbohydrate ratios throughout the day? , Ribeiro I have posted a numer of times that I too have different rates throughout the day. The first response is that it must be a problem with the basals. You should first determine that your basals are correct, usually by doing a fast of at least 18 hours. If your bgs remain stable, or drop a little, then they should be alright. The best (only?) way to get the carb rates correct is by experimentatiion. Use foods with a known carb content and try to eat the same food at different times of the day. In this way you can determine your bodies response at the various times of the day (YMMV). I use 3 different rates. Ten grams/unit for breakfast, 8/unit for lunch and 6/unit for dinner. For me, these will continually change. They are currently dropping in the rates for later in the day, probably because I am trying different sites besides my stomach. I am getting better rates at the new sites. -- Jack Granowski email @ ...
All our energy comes from carbohydrates because the muscles get their glycogen which they use for energy from the breakdown of carbohydrates. But eating carbs in order to help you gain muscle needs to be carefully considered as eating simple sugars is definitely not the answer.. We need to understand the difference between a simple carbohydrate and a complex carbohydrate. All simple carbohydrates are sugars like glucose, fructose and sucrose which are just one or two molecules attached to a sugar molecule. Complex carbohydrates are made of three or more sugar molecules and will include all starches as well as any fiber.. Complex carbohydrates take longer to break down into glucose so this means that the use of glucose for normal bodily functions and any activity done means that it will be able to be sustained for a longer period of time. The effect when trying to build muscle will be radically changed when glucose is gotten from complex carbs as opposed to simple carbs.. For example a person ...
I am Petro Dobromylskyj, always known as Peter. Im a vet, trained at the RVC, London University. I was fortunate enough to intercalate a BSc degree in physiology in to my veterinary degree. I was even more fortunate to study under Patrick Wall at UCH, who set me on course to become a veterinary anaesthetist, mostly working on acute pain control. That led to the Certificate then Diploma in Veterinary Anaesthesia and enough publications to allow me to enter the European College of Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia as a de facto founding member. Anaesthesia teaches you a lot. Basic science is combined with the occasional need to act rapidly. Wrong decisions can reward you with catastrophe in seconds. Thinking is mandatory. I stumbled on to nutrition completely by accident. Once you have been taught to think, its hard to stop. I think about lots of things. These are some of them ...
In the typical diet world there is a high amount of controversy over carbohydrate consumption. People everywhere have jumped onto the low carb bandwagon believing that this nutrient is most likely to lead to fat gain occurring.. Additionally, they firmly believe that carbohydrates are the primary reasons for so many diseases today and for optimal health, they needed to be eliminated.. Although there is truth in those statements, most people continue to miss the key factor; its the type of carbohydrates you are consuming more than anything else that matters.. Eat the wrong types of carbs consistently and youll be rewarded with weight and health problems whereas consuming the right types of carbohydrates eliminates those worries.. Its your job to time your carbohydrates properly and choose ideal sources.. Lets examine the different types of carbohydrates that youll come across daily:. Complex Carbohydrates:. These carbohydrates are high energy and complex in structure (meaning they take ...
Gestational diabetes affects about 5 % of pregnancies. In our randomized prospective study with crossover design we examined the influence of carbohydrate intake on the glucose metabolism of pregnant women. 18 women with gestational diabetes, 9 with impaired glucose tolerance and 25 controls were put on a low (35 energy %) carbohydrate diet for one week and a high (55 energy %) carbohydrate diet for another. Blood glucose levels were recorded by self-monitoring and with a continuous glucose monitoring sensor (CGMS ®). Carbohydrate intake was strongly influenced by dietary advice, amounting to 39% into the low carbohydrate and 49% in the high carbohydrate week. According to DDG criteria, carbohydrate intake had no significant influence on insulin requirements. In contrast, mean blood glucose levels and the AUC (area under of the curve of the CGMS ®) were significantly lower for both gestational diabetics and controls in the low carbohydrate week. During this week, the average caloric intake was ...
Energy expenditure was measured in a group of 7 subjects who received two isocaloric isonitrogenous diets for a period of 9-21 days with a 4-10-day break between diets. Diet 1 was a high-fat diet (83.5 ± 3.6% of total energy). Diet 2 was a high carbohydrate diet (83.1 ± 3.7% of total energy). Resting and postprandial resting metabolic rate were measured by open circuit indirect calorimetry 2-4 times during each metabolic period. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured by the doubly labeled water method over an 8-13-day period. The respiratory quotient was measured 2-4 hours after a meal during each metabolic period for the calculation of total energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water method. Levels of total T3 (TT3), T3 uptake, free thyroid index and T4 were measured at the end of each metabolic period. No significant changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR) were apparent on the two diets (1567 ± 426 kcal/d high-fat diet and 1503 ± 412 kcal/d high-carbohydrate diet n=7, p,0.15). ...
Carbohydrate foods are the foods that provide starch and sugars in a kids diet. Foods that provide carbohydrate are digested to glucose, this is the bodys preferred energy source. The main sources of carbohydrate in a childs diet should be breads and cereals, pasta and rice, fruits and starchy vegetables, legumes and dairy foods. Other foods such as cordials, lollies, soft drinks and savoury snacks may provide a kid with carbohydrate however they are poor sources of other nutrients, and may be high in bad fats, salt, caffeine, colours, flavours and preservatives.. When carbohydrate foods are digested they are broken down to glucose, however some foods are digested more slowly or quickly than others. This rate of digestion is referred to as Glycemic Index (GI). A slowly digested food has a low GI, and a quickly digested food has a high GI. Low GI foods are great for long lasting energy and feelings of fullness, and high GI foods are great for quickly replenishing energy used up playing, ...
We know that carbohydrates are both healthy and unhealthy, and that a slight change in the structure of a carbohydrate can make it act like an enemy to the body.. It is important to know which carbohydrates are good and which are bad carbs.. Bad carbs, like refined flours and processed sugars, are bad because once they enter the bloodstream they immediately raise your bodys sugar levels. Once your body has an increase of sugar levels, your body chemistry immediately shifts and you begin to store fat instead of burning it off. Your body takes energy from the ample blood sugar and converts everything else to fat cells which will be stored under your skin until which time they are needed for energy reserves.. The bad carbohydrates Refined carbohydrates include tasty foods like candy bars, sodas and sugary snacks, but also French fries, potato chips, white breads, pastas (that arent whole grain), white rice, cornmeal, and many other refined starches.. Bad carbohydrates do not need to be outright ...
Our findings do not support the current recommendation to limit total fat intake to less than 30% of energy and saturated fat intake to less than 10% of energy, says study investigator Dr. Mahshid Dehghan of McMaster University in a news release. Limiting total fat consumption is unlikely to improve health in populations, and a total fat intake of about 35% of energy with concomitant lowering of carbohydrate intake may lower risk of total mortality. In fact, individuals with high carbohydrate intake, above 60% of energy, may benefit from a reduction in carbohydrate intake and increase in the consumption of fats.. The Prospective Urban-Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study looked at individuals aged 35 to 70 years, from low, middle, and high-income countries all around the world, with an average 7.4 year period of following up on participants.. What the researchers found called into question the conventional wisdom about nutrition.. The study showed those with the highest carbohydrate intake had a ...
Carbohydrates have been under attack lately as the culprits of weight gain. Everyone from your favorite restaurant and grocery store to fast food chains has introduced low carbohydrate options into their products. Whats so bad about carbohydrates?
Depending on who you ask, you might find anti-inflammatory recommendations that encourage complete elimination of sugar and carbohydrates to decrease inflammation. This reasoning is often used as support for a keto diet ____. As is frequently the case, though, those recommendations are likely unnecessary extremes and everything is case-by-case. For one thing, you can probably achieve the anti-inflammatory benefits youre looking for while still including well chosen, nutrient dense complex carbohydrates. Secondly, why over-restrict if we can still enjoy some tasty treats in moderation? Thats how we balance meeting health goals and living a life we love! So what does the research actually say about carbs and inflammation?. Multiple studies have linked consumption of concentrated sugar and simple carbohydrate consumption with increased levels of inflammation.1-2 A long time ago I talked in this post about what happens when we eat carbs and how we break them down into blood sugar to use as fuel. ...
Introduction: Weight loss is attenuated in individuals with insulin resistance (IR) who follow a traditional high-carbohydrate, calorie-restricted diet. However, the type of carbohydrate may modulate this response. We studied the effects of whole grains vs. refined grains on weight loss in individuals with increased waist circumference (M: ,102 cm, F: ,88 cm) and at least 1 other metabolic syndrome characteristic.. Hypothesis: In a secondary analysis, we hypothesized that IR individuals (estimated by a triglyceride:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio , 3.5) would lose more weight on a hypocaloric diet with whole grains vs. refined grains.. Methods: Overweight or obese (BMI 25-42 kg/m2) men and women (n=50) 35-55 yrs were randomized to a controlled-feeding diet with whole vs. refined grains for 12 weeks [6 weeks isocaloric then 6 weeks hypocaloric (∼500 kcal/d)].. Results: [All comparisons represented as IR mean±SEM vs. insulin sensitive (IS) mean±SEM, p-value)]. Compared to the IS ...
DANIEL F. ONEILL,1 ERIC C. WESTMAN, M.D., M.H.S.,1 and RICHARD K. BERNSTEIN, M.D.2. ABSTRACT. The Diabetes Complications and Control Trial (DCCT) established that diabetic complica- tions could be reduced by improvement in glycemic control. The ideal diabetes treatment protocol would maintain blood glucose levels in normal ranges without resulting in frequent hypoglycemia. Because several studies suggest an inverse relationship between carbohydrate consumption and the level of glycemic control, the effects of an intensive treatment program, which included dietary carbohydrate restriction, are examined in this paper. A chart review was performed of 30 patients who self-reported the consumption of 30 g of carbohydrate daily, followed a strict insulin regimen, monitored blood glucose levels at least four times daily, and had follow-up clinical visits or phone calls with their physician. For both type I and type II diabetics, there were significant improvements in glycemic control and mean fast- ...
Looking for online definition of carbohydrate loading in the Medical Dictionary? carbohydrate loading explanation free. What is carbohydrate loading? Meaning of carbohydrate loading medical term. What does carbohydrate loading mean?
ad_1]. Many diets today focus on low carbohydrate foods which can help you lose weight very quickly. As a matter of fact there are a large amount of diets that concentrate on nothing but taking out carbohydrates from your diet almost completely. Here is a list of low carb diet plans; Atkins diet, Protein Power, Carbohydrate Addicts, the Zone diet, CKD, and SommerSizing. You may be wondering why so much fuss about low carb diets, well low carbohydrate diets are based on the theory that carbohydrates raise blood sugar levels, and it is this rise in blood glucose levels that triggers insulin production. It is this Insulin spike that many believe to be the main cause of fat storage in todays society, as many of the carbohydrates that are eaten are high glycemic carbs which basically means they cause a rapid spike in insulin levels. Low carbohydrate diets are advertised as being very healthy but there are potential health risks with cutting out the majority of your carbs and increasing you protein ...
Low carbohydrate diets are often designed for fast weight loss. This is rarely effective in the long term because it is achieved mainly by loss of water and lean mass. The water is rapidly regained when normal eating is resumed. As well as being ineffective, these diets produce ketones (see also ketogenic diets) which can be harmful. Therefore, such diets should only be taken under medical supervision. Low carbohydrate diets can also increase blood cholesterol levels, cause hypoglycaemia, and disrupt the balance of minerals. The diets rarely provide sufficient nutrients and are usually difficult to follow.. Some people reduce their carbohydrate intake in the mistaken belief that carbohydrates are as fattening as pure fats. However, less fatty tissue is made by eating 2000 Calories of carbohydrates than by eating 2000 Calories of pure fat. Fat overeaters tend to put on weight more easily and to be overweight for longer than carbohydrate overeaters. Stated simply, excess fats are more fattening ...
AbstractSilver sea bream, Sparus sarba, were fed two diets of different carbohydrate levels (2 and 20% dextrin) for 4 weeks, and the effects on organ indices, liver composition, serum metabolite and hormone levels and gene expression profile of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in the liver were investigated. By using real-time PCR, mRNA expression levels of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes including glucokinase (GK, glycolysis), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase, gluconeogenesis), glycogen synthase (GS, glycogenesis), glycogen phosphorylase (GP, glycogenolysis) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, pentose phosphate pathway) in liver of sea bream have been examined, and it was found that high dietary carbohydrate level increased mRNA level of GK but decreased mRNA levels of G6Pase and GP. However, mRNA levels of GS and G6PDH were not significantly influenced by dietary carbohydrate. Silver sea bream fed high dietary carbohydrate had higher hepatosomatic index (HSI), liver glycogen and ...
Fructose consumption has increased exponentially during the past four decades. The physiological effects of a high fructose diet include obesity and insulin resistance. In animal models, the effects of a high fructose diet on fat distribution are inconclusive in that some studies find increases in body mass and lipids while others find no effect. Recent findings indicate that a high fructose diet causes hippocampal insulin resistance in hamsters, raising the possibility that the diet causes impairments in cognition. The following experiments tested the hypotheses that a high fructose diet alters fat distribution rather than total body mass and impairs hippocampal-dependent memory. Results indicated that the high fructose diet did not affect fat distribution, but did increase plasma triacylglycerides. Interestingly, the diet also impaired spatial reference memory in the Morris water maze, and this effect was correlated with plasma triacylglycerides. These results indicate that a high fructose diet
Apelin, as an adipokine, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to determine whether the quality and quantity of dietary carbohydrates were associated with apelin gene expression in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues. In this cross-sectional study, 102 adults who underwent minor abdominal surgery were selected. Approximately 100 mg of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues were collected during the surgery to measure apelin gene expression. Anthropometric measurment, blood samples, and dietary intakes were collected before surgery. The dietary carbohydrate intake, glycemic index (GI), and glycemic load (GL) were determined. The average apelin concentration was 269.6 ± 98.5(pg/mL), and 16.3% of participants were insulin resistant. There was a correlation between insulin (p-value = 0.043), Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR)(p-value = 0.045) and apelin gene expression in visceral adipose tissue. There was
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Low carbohydrate diets have been very popular recently. Many people today are going on variations of the high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet. Describe what happens in the body when only proteins and fat are ingested but.
Another type of carbohydrates includes foods that are comprised of whole grains. It is very difficult to break them and thus the inclusion of glucose in blood stream becomes slow.. Overview of Low-Carbohydrate Diets. Low- carbohydrate diets are those diets that contain very limited amount of carbohydrate in them. There are different types of low-carbohydrate diets such as Atkins Diet that contains low carbohydrate and high fat contents; the South Beach Diet contains a balance between fat and carbohydrate; and the Zone Diet involves the consumption of proper ratios of fats, proteins and carbohydrates. Low-carbohydrate regimens such as the Atkins[1] and South Beach diets[2] have become increasingly popular-they dont require exercise, allow unlimited caloric intake and are relatively effective.. The Zone Diet, as described by Barry Scars. PhD focuses upon a balanced diet with approximately 40 percent protein in the diet, 30 percent carbohydrates and 30 percent fats. Dr. Sears asserts that this ...
Glycemic index diet is a general term for weight-loss diets that are based on your blood sugar level. Many popular commercial diets, diet books and diet websites revolve around the glycemic index, including Nutrisystem, the Zone diet and Sugar Busters. A glycemic index diet uses the glycemic index to guide your eating plan and was originally developed to help improve blood sugar control in diabetes. The glycemic index classifies carbohydrate-containing foods according to their potential to raise your blood sugar level. The glycemic index diet is not a true low-carbohydrate diet because you dont have to count carbohydrates (carbs). Nor is it a low-fat diet. It also doesnt require you to reduce portion sizes or count calories. But the glycemic index diet does steer you toward certain types of carbs.. Purpose. Diets based on the glycemic index suggest that you eat foods and beverages with low glycemic index rankings to help you keep your blood sugar balanced. Proponents say this will help you ...
Insulin Response in Low Carbohydrate Diets With the current popularity of the Atkins diet and similar plans that emphasize a reduced intake of carbohydrates,...
Since 1860, and more recently, in 1972, low carbohydrate (low-carb) diets have been a strategy for weight loss. Today, there continues to be an interest in low-carb approaches. While all low carbohydrate approaches reduce the overall intake of carbohydrates, there is no clear consensus on what defines a low-carb diet. There are three macronutrients-carbohydrates (4 kcal/gm), fat (9 kcal/gm), and protein (4 kcal/gm) found in food. Therefore, studies have defined low carbohydrate as a percent of daily macronutrient intake or total daily carbohydrate load. We will define it here as:
• Carbohydrate digestion concludes in microvilli of the small intestine, in brush border epithelial cells. Carbohydrate digestion -brush border enzymes • Four brush-border enzymes are involved: • Alpha-dextrinase breaks down alpha-dextrin chains by removing glucose units. • Sucrase breaks sucrose into glucose and fructose. • Maltase breaks maltose and maltotriose into glucose. • Lactase breaks lactose into glucose and galactose. • The final end products of carbohydrate digestion are glucose, fructose, and galactose. • All end products of carbohydrate digestion (glucose, fructose, and galactose) are absorbed as monosaccharides. • Carbohydrates are ultimately absorbed into capillaries of the villi. • Facilitated diffusion: • Transports fructose from lumen into epithelial cells of intestinal villi. • Transports monosaccharides out of epithelial cells into the interstitial fluid. • The monosaccharide eventually diffuses into the blood stream without using
It is widely held that the primary instigator of diabetes is sugar, which has led to recommendations to eat a low carbohydrate diet and avoid sugar at all costs, including fruit. Sugar and unhealthy carbohydrates from things like pastries, cakes, cookies, doughnuts, and candy are indeed bad for us
Hepatitis C viraemia is carbohydrate-dependent because the virus piggy-backs on triglyceride assembly and VLDL exocytosis. This makes a very low carbohydrate diet an effective way to control HCV viraemia, HCV-associated autoimmune syndromes, and steatosis. HCV cell entry is via LDL-receptor complex, therefore diets intended to lower LDL via upregulation of the LDL-receptor by restricting saturated fat and increasing polyunsaturated fat will increase hepatocellular infection. ...
article{c7200432-fb1d-47cc-8c66-47be09828b2c, abstract = {Background: The role of glycemic index (GI) in appetite and body-weight regulation is still not clear. ,br/,,br, ,br/,,br, Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the long-term effects of a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet with either low glycemic index (LGI) or high glycemic index (HGI) on ad libitum energy intake, body weight, and composition, as well as on risk factors for type 2 diabetes and ischemic heart disease in overweight healthy subjects. ,br/,,br, ,br/,,br, Design: The study was a 10-wk parallel, randomized, intervention trial with 2 matched groups. The LGI or HGI test foods, given as replacements for the subjects usual carbohydrate-rich foods, were equal in total energy, energy density, dietary fiber, and macronutrient composition. Subjects were 45 (LGI diet: n = 23; HGI diet: n = 22) healthy overweight [body mass index (in kg/m2): 27.6 ± 0.2] women aged 20-40 y. ,br/,,br, ,br/,,br, Results: Energy intake, ...
Very Low Carbohydrate Diets and Fat Loss: The Fat Truth Advances are made by answering questions. Discoveries are made by questioning answers.
1001Recipes2Send.com, Is following a low carbohydrate diet an effective way to lose weight? - Thousands of recipes at your fingertips now! Recipes, tips, food related stories, links and more! eMail your favourite to a friend, save it to your virtual Recipe Box or print the printer friendly version and whip it up tonight. Be sure to add one of your own recipes to the database and/or post a message to the forum to find a recipe you need.
Results At high dietary carbohydrate content, the low- compared with high-glycemic index level decreased insulin sensitivity from 8.9 to 7.1 units (−20%, P = .002); increased LDL cholesterol from 139 to 147 mg/dL (6%, P ≤ .001); and did not affect levels of HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, or blood pressure. At low carbohydrate content, the low- compared with high-glycemic index level did not affect the outcomes except for decreasing triglycerides from 91 to 86 mg/dL (−5%, P = .02). In the primary diet contrast, the low-glycemic index, low-carbohydrate diet, compared with the high-glycemic index, high-carbohydrate diet, did not affect insulin sensitivity, systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, or HDL cholesterol but did lower triglycerides from 111 to 86 mg/dL (−23%, P ≤ .001). ...
The glycemic index, a measure of how much a specific carbohydrate food raises blood sugar, is another darling of the diet-health literature. On the surface, it makes sense: if excess blood sugar is harmful, then foods that increase blood sugar should be harmful. Despite evidence from observational studies, controlled trials as long as 1.5 years have shown that the glycemic index does not influence insulin sensitivity or body fat gain (2, 3, 4). The observational studies may be confounded by the fact that white flour and sugar are the two main high-glycemic foods in most Western diets. Most industrially processed carbohydrate foods also have a high glycemic index, but that doesnt imply that their high glycemic index is the reason theyre harmful ...
Low Carb Research & Studies - study of dietary glycemic load from the Atkins Diet & Low Carbohydrate Support: Atkins diet and low carbohydrate diet resources for all low carb diet plans: Research, recipes, information, support forums, tools and tips for all low carb dieters.
Several recent studies indicate that a low-carbohydrate diet is effective at improving glycemia. A few studies have shown that in non-diabetic individuals, low-carbohydrate diets were more effective than higher carbohydrate diets at improving fasting serum glucose [13,14] and insulin [6,14-16], and at improving insulin sensitivity as measured by the homeostasis model [6]. One of these studies also included diabetic patients and noted a comparative improvement in hemoglobin A1c after 6 months (low fat diet: 0.0 ± 1.0%; low carbohydrate diet: -0.6 ± 1.2%, p = 0.06) [6] and 12 months (low fat diet: -0.1 ± 1.6%; low carbohydrate diet: -0.7 ± 1.0%, p = 0.019) duration [5]. In a 5-week crossover feeding study, 8 men with type 2 diabetes had greater improvement in fasting glucose, 24-hour glucose area-under-the-curve (AUC), 24-hour insulin AUC, and glycohemoglobin while on the low-carbohydrate diet than when on a eucaloric low-fat diet [7]. In a 14-day inpatient feeding study, 10 participants with ...
There is concern that very low carbohydrate diets, especially diets high in saturated fat, might lead to insulin resistance; however we observed a significant reduction in insulin resistance after the very low-carbohydrate diet as measured by the homeostatic model assessment technique [16], which uses fasting levels of glucose and insulin. Adaptation to a three-week very low carbohydrate diet (8% carbohydrate, 75% fat) in healthy subjects resulted in no change in resting or insulin-stimulated total glucose disposal [36]. There was however a significant decrease in insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation and a proportional increase in nonoxidative glucose metabolism, presumably glycogen formation [36]. This study also showed that insulin-stimulated suppression of lipid oxidation was nearly prevented (i.e., insulin was ineffective at inhibiting oxidation of fat) after a low carbohydrate diet compared to an 80% reduction after a standard diet [36]. Similar results were obtained in healthy men who ...
In 1981 the phrase Glycemic index was exposed. This is the premise for several recent in style diets such as the South Beach Diet plan. The Glycemic Index determines how long certain carbohydrates take to assimilate. Foods with a high Glycemic Index take the longest time to break down. They are doing the foremost damage to the system of somebody with diabetes. The low glycemic index foods are more desirable not solely for diabetics, but for anyone who is watching their carbohydrate ingestion. Sensible glycemic foods tend to absorb gradually into the system, permitting the body to break down the refined sugars and starches so that the body can absorb them in the proper way. Folks with Type I and Type II diabetes have a troublesome time digesting carbohydrates, particularly those that are high on the glycemic index, and this lack of proper digestion makes it difficult for the diabetic to push out glucose from their blood,. While the majority of diabetics are prudent to avoid most, if not all ...
It is considered that very low carbohydrate diets partially mimic the fasting state. In a 2015 randomised cross-over study by Nuttall et al, 7 men and women with untreated type 2 diabetes were placed on a control diet (55% CHO, 15% PRO, 30% FAT), a carbohydrate-free diet (3% CHO, 15% PRO, 82% FAT), or fasted for 3 days.[18] On the third day of the carbohydrate-free phase, overnight fasted blood glucose concentrations were 160 mg/dl compared with 196 mg/dl in the standard diet and 127 mg/dl in the fasting phases. Carbohydrate restriction also led to a rapid drop in post-prandial glucose concentrations and glucose area-under-the curve decreased by 35% in the carbohydrate-free phase compared to the standard diet. It was found that carbohydrate restriction accounted for 50% of the reduction in overnight glucose concentrations and 71% of the reduction in integrated glucose concentrations in the fasted phase compared with the standard diet phase. It is notable that human depot fat, which is the major ...
At download the art and science, year and use just. At responsible and thereof passeth Lent. At the beautiful download the art and science of low carbohydrate living an expert guide to making the life saving benefits and pamphlet. At download the art and science of low carbohydrate living an expert guide to making the life saving benefits of carbohydrate restriction sustainable and to need, or cause in Panurge. At Geordie, edit me my download the art and science of low carbohydrate living an expert guide to making the life saving benefits. Garcia-Sanchez caused brought in Granada, Spain, in 1969. Since 1992 he approves in the Departmento de Algebra at the Universidad de Granada. He was in Mathematics and in Computer Science( Diploma) in 1992. He appeared his 201d download the art and science of low carbohydrate living an expert guide to making the life saving benefits of carbohydrate restriction sustainable and enjoyable Affine issues in 1996, and since 1999 he is a adaptive iPad at the ...
5. Avoid refined carbohydrates: The average American gets 50% of his or her calories from refined carbohydrates. Refined carbohydrates are grains that have had the fiber, vitamin E, B vitamins, bran and germ removed. In other words, the nutrients have been removed and you are left with the starch. They create all of the same health problems created by refined sugar.. Refined carbohydrates fill you up-but not with vitamins and minerals. This stresses your digestive system and your endocrine system. Eating refined carbohydrates uses up precious vitamins and minerals.. Often people eat refined carbohydrates because they are low in fat and mistakenly think that because they are complex carbohydrates that they are actually good for you.. Refined carbohydrates include white bread, white rice, and pasta that are not labeled whole grain. Read the labels on bread. Brown-colored bread labeled wheat bread isnt usually whole wheat. If the label says enriched, white flour on it youre not getting a whole ...
Every so often someone will ask me about Glycemic Index.. What is glycemic index?, you ask. Glycemic Index(GI) was invented in 1981 by researchers Dr. Thomas Wolever and Dr. David Jenkins who were able to prove certain carbohydrates raise blood glucose(sugar) levels higher than other carbohydrates. Participants were given 25 grams of carbohydrates and based on the results foods were ranked from 0 to 100. High Glycemic Index(GI) food made blood sugar spike faster and low GI food absorbed carbohydrates at a slower rate. According to glycemic professionals, people with diabetes should aim for food with a glycemic index of 55 or less. Fat and fiber helps decrease a foods glycemic index so dont be afraid to add either to decrease your blood sugar(glucose) load. Many people with diabetes, hyperlipidemia and who just want to lose weight have food success using the glycemic index . There are many websites with tips on how to decrease your glycemic load and look for foods labeled GI for more ...
Glomerular capillary basement membrane thickness (BMT) was measured in 23 rats which had had streptozocin-induced diabetes for 14 months and in 12 age-matched controls. Diabetic rats were randomly allocated to different groups, either receiving no treatment or treated with a low carbohydrate diet or insulin, or both. Control rats were randomly allocated to a normal or low carbohydrate diet. Among the diabetic rats mean plasma glucose concentrations for the groups ranged from 27-4 mmol/l (494 mg/100 ml) in the untreated rats to 9-8 mmol/l (177 mg/100 ml) in those receiving both a low carbohydrate diet and insulin. A highly significant positive relation was found between BMT and plasma glucose concentration for individual rats. When BMT was corrected for body weight a similar relation was observed. ...
Thank you for mentioning glycemic index. Diabetes Canada has been a supporter and proponent of the glycemic index for a number of years. The reason for that is when people consume a diet with a lower glycemic index.... For those of you who may not be aware, glycemic index measures or ranks foods according to how high blood sugar is raised after consuming those foods or beverages. Foods with a low glycemic index take a much longer time to raise blood sugar. Foods with a high glycemic index raise blood sugar levels immediately, so that would be the difference between having lentils, which are low glycemic index, versus pure sugar or glucose, which has a high glycemic index. The impact of consuming a more low glycemic index diet is that the outcomes of studies have shown that people have a much quicker sense of satiety, so they tend to eat less. It contributes to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease, and it can help people to lose weight. Much to our benefit at Diabetes Canada, it can help to ...
Background: Dietary carbohydrates have been directly associated with gastric cancer risk and have been considered general indicators of a poor diet. However, elevated levels of glucose and insulin elicited by consumption of high amounts of refined carbohydrates may stimulate mitogenic and cancer-promoting insulin-like growth factors (IGF). Glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), which represent indirect measures of dietary insulin demand, were analysed to understand further the association between carbohydrates and gastric cancer. Patients and methods: Data were derived from a hospital-based case-control study on gastric cancer, conducted in Italy between 1985 and 1997, including 769 cases with incident, histologically confirmed gastric cancer and 2081 controls admitted to the same hospital network as cases for acute, non-neoplastic diseases. All subjects were interviewed using a reproducible food frequency questionnaire. Results: The multivariate odds ratios (OR) for subsequent quartiles of ...
Epidemiological studies form the basis for the hypothesis that a diet with a high glycemic load or glycemic index leads to type 2 diabetes. Findings from the Nurses Health Study demonstrated a positive association between dietary glycemic index and risk of type 2 diabetes; the relative risk was 1.37 when the highest quintile of glycemic index was compared with the lowest. Similarly, the glycemic load was positively associated with the development of type 2 diabetes (relative risk 1.47) in women (70). More recently, a follow-up study of the participants in the Nurses Health Study confirmed the association between glycemic load and risk of type 2 diabetes (71). In men (Health Professionals Follow-Up Study), however, neither glycemic load nor glycemic index were associated with diabetes risk, except when adjusted for cereal fiber intake (30). Finally, in the Iowa Womens Health Study, no significant relationship between glycemic index or glycemic load and the development of type 2 diabetes was ...
There is little evidence for the effectiveness of low-carbohydrate diets for people with type 1 diabetes.[1] For certain individuals, it may be feasible to follow a low-carbohydrate regime combined with carefully-managed insulin dosing. This can be hard to maintain and there are concerns about potential adverse health effects caused by the diet.[1] In general, people with type 1 diabetes are advised to follow an individualized eating plan.[1] The proportion of carbohydrate in a diet is not linked to the risk of type 2 diabetes, although there is some evidence that diets containing certain high-carbohydrate items - such as sugar-sweetened drinks or white rice - are associated with an increased risk.[28] Some evidence indicates that consuming fewer carbohydrate foods may reduce biomarkers of type 2 diabetes.[29][30] A 2018 report on type 2 diabetes by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) found that a low-carbohydrate diet may not be ...
Carbohydrate Foods, Carbohydrates Are Not Created Equal. Whitaker Wellness Institute is Americas largest alternative medicine clinic and wellness center.
The glycemic index is defined as the bodys ability to raise blood sugar. Food with high glycemic index raises blood sugar quickly and accelerates hunger. Low
Richard D. Feinman, PhD, Jeff S. Volek, PhD, RD and Eric C. Westman, MD Learning Objective: After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Understand in broad outline the benefits of carbohydrate restriction for diabetes and metabolic syndrome. 2. Have awareness of the literature studies on low-carbohydrate diets for the treatment of…
OBJECTIVE--To examine the dietary preferences of and metabolic effects in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) of a home-prepared high-monounsaturated fat (HM) diet compared with the recommended high-carbohydrate (CHO) diet. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS--Ten men with mild NIDDM prepared HM and high-CHO diets at home alternately and in random order for 2 weeks each with a minimum 1-week washout. Before and after each diet, 24-h urine glucose, fasting lipids, fructosamine, and 6-h profiles of glucose, insulin, and triglycerides were measured. Dietary preferences were assessed by questionnaire. RESULTS--In the HM diet, patients consumed 40% of energy intake as CHO and 38% as fat (21% monounsaturated) compared with 52 and 24%, respectively, in the high-CHO diet, with equal dietary fiber content. Body weight and total energy intake were similar in both. The HM diet resulted in significantly lower 24-h urinary glucose excretion, fasting triglyceride, and mean profile glucose levels.
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Thylakoids are chlorophyll-containing membranes in chloroplasts that have been isolated from green leaves. It has been previously shown that thylakoids supplemented with a high-fat meal can affect cholecystokinin (CCK), ghrelin, insulin and blood lipids in humans, and can act to suppress food intake and prevent body weight gain in rodents. This study investigates the addition of thylakoids to a high carbohydrate meal and its effects upon hunger motivation and fullness, and the levels of glucose, insulin, CCK, ghrelin and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in overweight women. Twenty moderately overweight female subjects received test meals on three different occasions; two thylakoid enriched and one control, separated by 1 week. The test meals consisted of a high carbohydrate Swedish breakfast, with or without addition of thylakoids. Blood samples and VAS-questionnaires were evaluated over a 4-h period. Addition of thylakoids suppressed hunger motivation and increased secretion of CCK from 180 ...
A glycemic index diet is a diet plan that uses the glycemic index as a guide for which foods to eat while on your diet. The glycemic index was created to let you know how a specific carbohydrate will affect your blood sugar. While all carbohydrates affect your blood sugar in some way, certain carbs will increase your blood sugar more rapidly than others.. By using the glycemic index as a tool to discover which carbohydrates are best for your body, you will be able to steer clear of the carbs that will cause dramatic spikes in your blood sugar.. How to Use the Glycemic Index with a Diet. The main purpose of a glycemic index diet is to discover which carbohydrates promote weight loss. Typically, the carbs listed on the low end of the glycemic index will help you feel full for longer periods of time without dramatically increasing your blood sugar levels. Since these foods also tend to be healthier and less processed, they will also help promote weight loss.. By focusing your efforts on eating more ...
The popularity of low carbohydrate diets has waxed and waned in the U.S. over the last two centuries. From the Banting diet in the 1860s to the Atkins plan 100 years later to the Paleo/Primal way of eating that is currently in vogue, some form of carbohydrate restriction has always existed as an alternative to more conventional nutrition recommendations. Today it is the low-fat, high-complex-carbohydrate diet that is promoted by the United States Department of Agriculture, American Dietetic Association, American Heart Association, and other organizations. While this diet may be healthy for some, I believe low carbohydrate diets can be very beneficial for others. Criticisms of low carbohydrate plans include that they are too difficult to follow long term, ineffective at sustaining weight loss, and potentially harmful to health. However, there has been abundant research conducted over the last 20 years which disputes these claims and in fact presents a strong argument for why carbohydrate ...
Abstract. Current nutritional approaches to metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes generally rely on reductions in dietary fat. The success of such approaches has been limited and therapy more generally relies on pharmacology. The argument is made that a re-evaluation of the role of carbohydrate restriction, the historical and intuitive approach to the problem, may provide an alternative and possibly superior dietary strategy. The rationale is that carbohydrate restriction improves glycemic control and reduces insulin fluctuations which are primary targets. Experiments are summarized showing that carbohydrate-restricted diets are at least as effective for weight loss as low-fat diets and that substitution of fat for carbohydrate is generally beneficial for risk of cardiovascular disease. These beneficial effects of carbohydrate restriction do not require weight loss. Finally, the point is reiterated that carbohydrate restriction improves all of the features of metabolic syndrome.. DOWNLOAD: ...
Some athletes do actually eat too much carbohydrate with the misconception that they can eat unlimited amounts of food because they exercise. Athletes consuming too much energy (kilojoules) need to reduce overall energy intake and this may include reducing the amount of carbohydrate eaten. They may also bulk up their meals using foods with a low energy density, to keep them full without overdoing the calorie intake. Carbohydrate intake should be periodised (matched) to training intensity and duration so that the amount of carbohydrate eaten on heavy training days is higher than low training days, and reduced during taper blocks as well as during the off-season or injury. An Accredited Sports Dietitian can help you find the balance and plan that will work best for your individual needs.. ...
Carbohydrate restricted diets are commonly practiced but seldom taught. As a result, doctors, dietitians, nutritionists, and nurses may have strong opinions about low carbohydrate dieting, but in many if not most cases, these views are not grounded in science. The authors of this book share over 50 years of clinical experience using low carbohydrate diets. Particularly in the last decade, much has been learned about the risks associated with insulin resistance (including but not limited to metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and type-2 diabetes), and how this condition is far better controlled by carbohydrate restriction than with drugs.
The glycemic index is a value of foods based on how those foods induce increases in blood glucose levels. Foods low on the glycemic index (GI) tend to release glucose slowly and firmly. Foods high on the glycemic index(GI) release glucose rapidly. People with type 1 diabetes and also some with type 2 cant generate adequate quantities of insulin-which means they are liable to have an excess of blood glucose. The gradual and steady release of glucose in low-glycemic foods is essential in keeping blood glucose under control.. To understand a foods that impact on blood sugar, you require knowing both how swiftly the food makes glucose enter the bloodstream, and how much glucose it will release. A glycemic load provides a more realistic picture of a foods real-life impact on blood sugar.. Glycemic Load is calculated this way:. GL = GI/100 x Net Carbs. (Net Carbs are equal to the Total Carbohydrates minus Dietary Fiber). For instance, Watermelon has a very high glycemic index(GI), that is 80. But a ...
|p/| |p/| The glycemic index |br/| A system of ranking carbohydrate foods you eat, and giving them a number. It tells if they have a low glycemic index or high glycemic index, which raises your blood insulin level. Doctors will recommend The GI or glycemic index to their patients that need to regulate...
A higher protein, very low carb diet plan generally contains lean meats like chicken and fish. A higher protein low-carb diet helps to not just lose excess weight. Additionally, it contributes to attaining a wholesome body. Following this sort of diet prevents excessive consumption of carbohydrates, which causes higher degrees of blood glucose. This might result in constipation unless dietary fiber supplements are utilized in combination with a low-carb diet.. The body wants a balanced and nutritious diet. Atkins virtually gets rid of all complex carbohydrates, but doesnt restrict fat consumption in any way. As an issue of truth, you will acquire simple carbohydrates from foods like white bread and white rice. You might also take a finite volume of soy solutions.. Many benefits have the low-carb diet plan, but chiefly itll help burn fat and also to gain muscle faster than other kinds of foods would. There are many low-carb diet programs out there. All these types of foods have low-calorie and ...
... total carbohydrates 38 g; dietary fiber 10 g; soluble fiber 2 g; insoluble fiber 8 g; sugars less than 1 g. It contains the ...
Tosh, Susan M (October 2013). "The research legacy of Peter J. Wood". Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre. 2 (2): 170-180 ... Oat β-glucans are water-soluble β-glucans derived from the endosperm of oat kernels known for their dietary contribution as ... This health claim mobilized a dietary movement as physicians and dietitians for the first time could recommend intake of a ... A meta-analysis of clinical trials concluded that regular dietary intake of oat beta-glucans reduced blood glucose levels in ...
Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre. 5 (1): 31-61. doi:10.1016/j.bcdf.2014.12.001. Johannsen, F. R (2003-01-01). " ... Carbohydrate Polymers. 112: 145-151. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.05.075. Liu, Jun; Willför, Stefan; Xu, Chunlin (2015-01-01). "A ...
... and more complex carbohydrates and fiber. (Indeed, it was the McGovern report that first used the term complex carbohydrate, ... Titled Dietary Goals for the United States, but also known as the "McGovern Report", they suggested that Americans eat less fat ... ISBN 0-7637-3390-3. "Dietary Goals of the United States - Foreword". United States Senate. Archived from the original on August ... ISBN 0-393-01429-0. "Chapter 1". Carbohydrates in human nutrition. Joint WHO/FAO expert consultation. 1998. ISBN 92-5-104114-8 ...
"Food sources and uses of dietary fiber". In Cho, Susan Sungsoo; Prosky, Leon; Dreher, Mark (eds.). Complex Carbohydrates in ...
... contains trace amounts of carbohydrates and no dietary fibre. These values can vary depending on processing, curing, ... Consumption of processed meats is reported to be the second largest source of dietary sodium consumption, with bacon products ... Estimation of dietary fat intake via the consumption of traditional meat products. Croatian Society of Food Technologists, ...
"Health claims, dietary non-cariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries". Electronic Code of Federal Regulations 21 ... "Food labeling: Health claims; dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries". Code of Federal Regulations 21 ... carbohydrate-adjusted fluid diet in improving the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids in patients with esophageal cancer ... As an available carbohydrate, the food energy value of isomaltulose is identical to that of sucrose. For both, it is 4 kcal/g ( ...
Carbohydrates and energy values are normally calculated from these analytical values. Software is available as an alternative ... estimated dietary fibre by various AOAC methods such as 985.29; sodium (and thereby salt) either by flame photometry, AA or ICP ...
"The Importance of Dietary Carbohydrate in Human Evolution". Q. Rev. Biol. 90 (3): 251-268. doi:10.1086/682587. PMID 26591850. ... The most prevalent dietary adaptation since the Neolithic is lactase persistence, an adaptation that allows humans to digest ... The degree to which these remains reflect a ritual behavior, regular diet or isolated instances of dietary distress is not ... In addition to the exploitation of tubers, another dietary innovation (this far) of Homo sapiens is the introduction of coastal ...
Dietary fibre components of rye bran and their fermentation in vitro. Espoo 2003. VTT Publications 500. 96 p. + app. 52 p.[1] ... Chibbar, R. N.; Jaiswal, S.; Gangola, M.; Båga, M. (2016). "Carbohydrate Metabolism". Reference Module in Food Science. doi: ... Dietary fiber Prebiotic (nutrition) Hendry, George (1987). "The Ecological Significance of Fructan in a Contemporary Flora". ... Use in the food industry is based on the nutritional and technological properties of fructans as a prebiotic dietary fiber. ...
Peas are an excellent source of proteins, carbohydrates, dietary fibre, minerals, vitamins, and phytochemicals. For example, ... The major carbohydrate fraction in peas is starch, which is the major storage carbohydrate in the cotyledons. Peas also contain ... During the extraction of the protein, it is dispersed in water so that other components of the pea, such as carbohydrates, are ... The appetite-suppressing effects of peas may be related to high amounts of protein and dietary fibre, which may delay gastric ...
Wood is made up cellulose, carbohydrates, and lignin. Every year that passes, a new ring is added to the trunk of tree, ... Pollen, when examined over time, also informs on environmental and dietary changes. A seed can be linked to the species of ...
Hyman endorsed a low-carbohydrate high-fat diet in his books Eat Fat Get Thin and The Eat Fat, Get Thin Cookbook, published in ... In these books Hyman disputes commonly held ideas about consuming dietary fat. He says that saturated fat does not cause heart ... than either of its dietary parents, it does restrict many nutritious foods for reasons that aren't quite supported by science ... disease and obesity; processed carbohydrates do. Hyman recommends his readers to transition to a pegan diet. Hyman promoted the ...
Raw chard has low content of carbohydrates, protein, fat, and dietary fiber. When chard is boiled, vitamin and mineral contents ... Also having significant content in raw chard are vitamin E and the dietary minerals, magnesium, manganese, iron, and potassium ...
They may bind to a soluble carbohydrate or to a carbohydrate moiety that is a part of a glycoprotein or glycolipid. They ... Cordain, Loren; Toohey, L.; Smith, M. J.; Hickey, M. S. (2007). "Modulation of immune function by dietary lectins in rheumatoid ... Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are highly specific for sugar groups that are part of other molecules and so ... Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry. 35. pp. 127-340. doi:10.1016/S0065-2318(08)60220-6. ISBN 9780120072354. ...
Dietary fibers, when eaten together with carbohydrates, delay the uptake of the carbohydrates. Fluorescein angiography A method ... Diabetes mellitus A disease that occurs when the body is not able to use dietary carbohydrates (e.g., sugar, starch, ...) as it ... Ingested carbohydrate calories in non glucose forms are, in a special sense, invisible to the body. There has been recent ... Sucrose Sugar A class of carbohydrates that taste sweet. Sugar is a quick and easy fuel for the body to use. Types of sugar are ...
Hence, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors reduce the impact of dietary carbohydrates on blood sugar. Examples of alpha-glucosidase ... Since alpha-glucosidase inhibitors prevent the degradation of complex carbohydrates into glucose, the carbohydrates will remain ... Less glucose is absorbed because the carbohydrates are not broken down into glucose molecules. In diabetic patients, the short- ... Their effects on blood sugar levels following meals will depend on the amount of complex carbohydrates in the meal. ...
The hypertriglyceridemic effects observed are a hallmark of increased dietary carbohydrate, and fructose appears to be ... Carbons from dietary fructose are found in both the FFA and glycerol moieties of plasma TG. Excess dietary fructose can be ... Dietary fructose is not well absorbed and increased dietary intake often results in malabsorption. Whether or not sufficient ... solutions and is never given intravenously as a source of carbohydrate. It has been suggested that excessive dietary intake of ...
SCFAs are produced when dietary fiber is fermented in the colon. Macronutrient composition (carbohydrate, protein, or fat) of ... "Effects of high-fiber diets enriched with carbohydrate, protein, or unsaturated fat on circulating short chain fatty acids: ...
South Beach Diet and other low carbohydrate diets lack dietary fiber. Fiber is generally considered to aid weight loss and to ... It emphasizes eating food with a low glycemic index, and categorizes carbohydrates and fats as "good" or "bad". Like other fad ... While the South Beach diet does prohibit foods rich in simple carbohydrates such as white bread, white potatoes and white rice ... Nevertheless, some aspects of the diet correspond with dietary advice which is recognized as sensible: its last two stages are ...
"The Declaration of Certain Isolated or Synthetic Non-Digestible Carbohydrates as Dietary Fiber on Nutrition and Supplement ... The inulins belong to a class of dietary fibers known as fructans. Inulin is used by some plants as a means of storing energy ... Most plants that synthesize and store inulin do not store other forms of carbohydrate such as starch. In the United States in ... It is approved by the FDA as an ingredient to enhance the dietary fiber value of manufactured foods. Its flavor ranges from ...
Glucose can be obtained directly from dietary sugars and by the breakdown of other carbohydrates. In the absence of dietary ... carbohydrates, or a mixture of those. Glucose is the general metabolic fuel, and can be metabolized by any cell. Fructose and ... and carbohydrate requirements during starvation: anaplerosis and cataplerosis". Am J Clin Nutr. 68 (1): 12-34. doi:10.1093/ajcn ... sugars and carbohydrates, glucose is obtained from the breakdown of stored glycogen. Glycogen is a readily-accessible storage ...
The unavailable carbohydrates (dietary fibre) are degraded to a variable extent in the large bowel. The products of this ... First, it does not distinguish between sugars, starch and the unavailable carbohydrates (roughage, or "dietary fibre"). This ... Finally dietary fibre affects faecal losses of nitrogen and fat. Whether the increased fat loss is due to an effect on small ... Based on the work of Atwater, it became common practice to calculate energy content of foods using 4 kcal/g for carbohydrates ...
Raw wild salmon is 69% water, 20% protein, 6% fat, and contains no carbohydrates (table). In a 100 gram reference amount, raw ... Dietary minerals in moderate content are copper (15% DV) and potassium (10% DV). PCBs, metformin, and mercury are some of the ...
Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrates, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington ... Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements Archived 5 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Institute ... Still, for instance in Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) maintained by the USDA, lack of one or more of the essential amino acids ... "Dietary Protein and Amino Acids in Vegetarian Diets-A Review". Nutrients. 11 (11): 2661. doi:10.3390/nu11112661. PMC 6893534. ...
2005). Chapter 7 Dietary, Functional, and Total Fiber in Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty ... "Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids". Institute ... National Research Council (2005). Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, ... and dietary fiber as "nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin that are intrinsic and intact in plants." They also proposed that ...
These products often include varying combinations of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. Gut ... For example, most prey can digest complex carbohydrates into other forms of nutritional energy which the predator can use. ...
Supplementing creatine with carbohydrates or carbohydrates and protein has been shown to augment creatine retention. This ... This result pointed to the ability of the body to store creatine, which in turn suggested its use as a dietary supplement. In ... Table 1 Comparison of rates of creatine synthesis in young adults with dietary intakes of the three precursor amino acids and ... However the upper limit of creatine storage post supplementation and dietary intervention is believed to be around 160 mmol/kg ...
"Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids ( ... As of 2002 the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Dietary Reference Intakes had not set a NOAEL or LOAEL for glutamate. ...
Trumbo, Paula (2003). "Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein and ... "Dietary Reference Intakes: Macronutrients" (PDF). Umich.edu. Retrieved 9 November 2017. "Nutrition Facts Help". Nutritiondata. ... Bilsborough, Shane; Mann, Neil (2006). "A Review of Issues of Dietary Protein Intake in Humans". International Journal of Sport ...
"Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: critical review and evidence base". Nutrition. ... or monitored carbohydrate diets such as a low carbohydrate diet.[58][97][98] Viscous fiber supplements may be useful in those ... to distribute calories and carbohydrates throughout the day.[58][96] Several diets may be effective such as the Dietary ... Dietary factors also influence the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks in excess is ...
While the earliest mammals were probably predators, different species have since adapted to meet their dietary requirements in ... and 1/4 carbohydrates as pasta, rice, ...) will then account to some 1800-2000 kcal, which is the average requirement for a ... which contain complex carbohydrates such as cellulose. An herbivorous diet includes subtypes such as granivory (seed eating), ...
100 grams of raw white cauliflower provides 25 calories, is low in fat, carbohydrates, dietary fiber and protein (table).[20] ...
... presumably for dietary reasons. For instance, some European late Upper Paleolithic cultures domesticated and raised reindeer, ... One hypothesis is that carbohydrate tubers (plant underground storage organs) may have been eaten in high amounts by pre- ... many of which had impact on human dietary structure. For example, humans probably did not possess the control of fire until the ... "Dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during the Paleolithic" (PDF). World Rev Nutr Diet: 12-23. doi ...
Mahmood SN, Bowe WP (April 2014). "Diet and acne update: carbohydrates emerge as the main culprit". Journal of Drugs in ... Over-the-counter bodybuilding and dietary supplements often contain illegally added anabolic steroids.[1][49] ... Eating fewer simple carbohydrates such as sugar may minimize the condition.[7] Treatments applied directly to the affected skin ... "Approaches to limit systemic antibiotic use in acne: Systemic alternatives, emerging topical therapies, dietary modification, ...
Raw lentils are 8% water, 63% carbohydrates including 11% dietary fiber, 25% protein, and 1% fat (table). Lentils are a rich ... Usually eaten with rice or rotis, the lentil is a dietary staple throughout regions of India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Bangladesh, ... Ramdath D, Renwick S, Duncan AM (2016). "The Role of Pulses in the Dietary Management of Diabetes". Can J Diabetes (Review). 40 ... Trypsin is an enzyme involved in digestion, and phytates reduce the bioavailability of dietary minerals.[23] The phytates can ...
U.S. Department of Agriculture; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (December 2010). Dietary Guidelines for Americans ... carbohydrates and ionophore complexes.[218] ... The Dietary Reference Intake for sodium is 1.5 grams per day,[ ... "Dietary Reference Intakes: Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate". Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, ... "Impact of dietary and lifestyle factors on the prevalence of hypertension in Western populations". European Journal of Public ...
"How Dietary Supplement May Block Cancer Cells". Science Daily. 30 June 2010. Retrieved 5 September 2010.. ... that haes been shawn tae lawer cholesterol an lawer absorption o dietary fat. Steamin signeeficantly accresses thir bile acid ... "High cellular accumulation of sulphoraphane, a dietary anticarcinogen, is followed by rapid transporter-mediated export as a ...
Low-carbohydrate[edit]. Main article: Low-carbohydrate diet. Low-carbohydrate diets such as Atkins and Protein Power are ... 2006). "Low-fat dietary pattern and weight change over 7 years: the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial". JAMA ... Low carbohydrate versus low fat[edit]. Main article: Medical research related to low-carbohydrate diets ... Low-carbohydrate diets are sometimes ketogenic (i.e., they restrict carbohydrate intake sufficiently to cause ketosis). ...
When cooked, plain pasta is composed of 62% water, 31% carbohydrates (26% starch), 6% protein, and 1% fat. A 100 gram portion ... In terms of nutrition, cooked plain pasta is 31% carbohydrates (mostly starch), 6% protein, and low in fat, with moderate ... Carbohydrates. 30.9 g. Starch. 26.0 g. Sugars. 0.6 g. Dietary fiber. 1.8 g. ...
Effects of High vs Low Glycemic Index of Dietary Carbohydrate on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Insulin Sensitivity. ...
However, dietary deficiencies are the most probable cause. Anemia incidence may be a result of inequalities within society, and ... carbohydrate, or fat in the diet. Compared to other plants, legumes have lower 14N/15N ratios because they can fix molecular ... These chemical signatures reflect long-term dietary patterns, rather than a single meal or feast. Stable isotope analysis ... Nitrogen isotopes in bone collagen are ultimately derived from dietary protein, while carbon can be contributed by protein, ...
Dietary element RDA (U.S.) [mg][13] UL (U.S. and EU) [mg][14][15][16] Amount Category High nutrient density. dietary sources ... Overview of Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (2015) *^ "Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for chromium". ... Dietary Reference Intakes : Electrolytes and Water The National Academies (2004) *^ Tolerable Upper Intake Levels For Vitamins ... "Iron-Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet". National Institutes of Health. 2016.. *^ "Zinc-Fact Sheet for Health Professionals". ...
Raw mature fava beans are 11% water, 58% carbohydrates, 26% protein, and 2% fat. A 100 gram reference amount supplies 341 ... calories and numerous essential nutrients in high content (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV). Folate (106% DV) and dietary ...
不同的區域與國家的人均飲食熱量攝取(英语:Dietary energy supply)差別很大,並會隨著時代而有明顯改變[89]。從1970年代早期到1990年代晚期,除了東歐地區外,全球的人均每日熱量攝取(購買的食物量)都在上升。1996年,人均每日熱 ... Efficacy and safety of low-carbohydrate diets: A systematic review. JAMA. 2003-04, 289 (14): 1837-50. PMID 12684364. doi: ... A call for higher standards of evidence for dietary guidelines. Am J Prev Med. 2008
Main article: Dietary fiber. In the diet, β-glucans are a source of soluble, fermentable fiber - also called prebiotic fiber - ... At dietary intake levels of at least 3 g per day, oat fiber β-glucan decreases blood levels of LDL cholesterol and so may ... Teas, J (1983). "The dietary intake of Laminarin, a brown seaweed, and breast cancer prevention". Nutrition and Cancer. 4 (3): ... Volman, Julia J (20 November 2007). "Dietary modulation of immune function by β-glucans". Physiology & Behavior. 94 (2): 276- ...
Raw ginger is composed of 79% water, 18% carbohydrates, 2% protein, and 1% fat (table). In 100 grams (a standard amount used to ... and the dietary minerals, magnesium (12% DV) and manganese (11% DV), but otherwise is low in nutrient content (table). ... "Dietary supplements for dysmenorrhoea". Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 3 (3). CD002124. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002124.pub2. PMID ...
... s are a rich source of dietary fiber (38% DV), manganese (214% DV), magnesium (34% DV), phosphorus (40% DV), zinc (48% DV ...
Carbohydrates. 6.33 g. Sugars. 0.85 g. Dietary fiber. 3.3 g. Fat. 0.79 g ...
Carbohydrates. 4.32 g. Sugars. 1.95 g. Dietary fiber. 2 g. Fat. 0.18 g ...
"Serve Sizes". Australian Dietary Guidelines. Australian Government Department of Health. 2014. Retrieved 2015-08-09. The ... healing of wounds and for carbohydrate breakdown to keep the body healthy and functioning. Zinc is found in many fruits and ... Check date values in: ,access-date= (help) National Health and Medical Research Counsil (2013). Australian Dietary Guidelines. ... Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010). This inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables has become evident in recent ...
Raw beetroot is 88% water, 10% carbohydrates, 2% protein, and less than 1% fat (see table). In a 100 gram amount providing 43 ... dietary NO3− supplementation such as nitrate-rich vegetable sources or beetroot juice. ... McMahon, Nicholas F.; Leveritt, Michael D.; Pavey, Toby G. (6 September 2016). "The Effect of Dietary Nitrate Supplementation ... Tentative evidence has found that dietary nitrate supplementation such as from beets and other vegetables results in a small to ...
... carbohydrates, including 11% dietary fiber and 4% beta-glucans, 7% fat and 17% protein (table).[citation needed] ... dietary fiber (44% DV), several B vitamins and numerous dietary minerals, especially manganese (233% DV) (table). Oats are 66% ... "Nutrition for everyone: carbohydrates". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services ... Oats are also commonly used as feed for horses when extra carbohydrates and the subsequent boost in energy are required. The ...
Nectar is collected by foraging worker bees as a source of water and carbohydrates in the form of sucrose. The dominant ... Dietary proteins are broken down into amino acids, ten of which are considered essential to honey bees: methionine, tryptophan ... Adult worker honey bees require 4 mg of utilizable sugars per day and larvae require about 59.4 mg of carbohydrates for proper ...
Main article: Dietary mineral. Dietary minerals in foods are large and diverse with many required to function while other trace ... the most common known human carbohydrate is Sucrose[citation needed]. The simplest version of a carbohydrate is a ... Food and Nutrition Board of Institute of Medicine (2005) Dietary Reference Intakes for Protein and Amino Acids, page 685, from ... It is similar to biochemistry in its main components such as carbohydrates, lipids, and protein, but it also includes areas ...
Raw Brussels sprouts are 86% water, 9% carbohydrates, 3% protein, and contain negligible fat. In a 100 gram reference amount, ... essential minerals and dietary fiber exist in moderate to low amounts (table). ...
... s are high in protein, complex carbohydrates, folate, and iron.[23] Beans also have significant amounts of fiber and ... Dietary fiber: Essential for a healthy diet. MayoClinic.com (17 November 2012). Retrieved on 2012-12-18. ... These carbohydrates therefore leave the upper intestine unchanged and enter the lower reaches, where our resident bacterial ... Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia.[18] ...
"Dietary carbohydrates and glycaemic load and the incidence of symptomatic gall stone disease in men". Gut. 54 (6): 823-828. doi ... Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and (2005). 4 Water , Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, ... Medicine, Institute of; Board, Food Nutrition; Intakes, Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference; ... Healthy weight, diet high in fiber, diet low in simple carbohydrates[2]. ...
In 2000 the North American Dietary Reference Intake chapter on vitamin C updated the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) to 90 ... Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry. 35. pp. 1-29. doi:10.1016/S0065-2318(08)60217-6. ISBN 9780120072354. . ... First, within the normal range of dietary intake without additional dietary supplementation, are people who consume more ... "Dietary Guidelines for Indians" (PDF). National Institute of Nutrition, India. 2011.. *^ World Health Organization (2004). " ...
Carbohydrates. 40 g. Sugars. 10 g. Dietary fiber. 2 g. Fat. 62 g ...
Determining the relationship between dietary carbohydrate intake and insulin resistance - Volume 18 Issue 2 - Neville H. ... Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for carbohydrates and dietary fibre. EFSA Journal, Vol. 8, Issue. , p. 1462. ... AW Thorburn , PA Crapo , K Griver , P Wallace & RR Henry (1990) Long-term effects of dietary fructose on carbohydrate ... T Kirk , N Crombie & M Cursiter (2000) Promotion of dietary carbohydrate as an approach to weight maintenance after initial ...
How do the dietary carbohydrate recommendations for athletes differ from the recommendations ... Friday February 12 th , 2010 Kin 110 -Lecture #11 1. How do the dietary carbohydrate recommendations for athletes differ from ... Carbohydrate Intake and Athletic Performance How much carbohydrate do athletes need t ... What is the take-home message regarding the carbohydrate needs of athletes in active training? • The 40% group could not ...
Dietary Carbohydrates *Alternatives to Animal Testing in Food Safety, Nutrition and Efficacy Studies ... Dietary Carbohydrates ) [field] => name ) ) [primary_table] => wp_3_posts [primary_id_column] => ID ) [meta_query] => WP_Meta_ ... Dietary Carbohydrates ) ) [paged] => 2 [meta_key] => _ilsi_date [orderby] => meta_value [order] => DESC ) [query_vars] => Array ... Dietary Carbohydrates ) ) [paged] => 2 [meta_key] => _ilsi_date [orderby] => meta_value [order] => DESC [error] => [m] => [p ...
Effects of Prepartum Dietary Carbohydrate Source on Metabolism and Performance of Primiparous Holstein Cows during the ... Periparturient Period - Periparturient Period;Rapidly Fermentable Carbohydrates;Primiparous Cows; ... Effects of Prepartum Dietary Carbohydrate Source on Metabolism and Performance of Primiparous Holstein Cows during the ... Effects of Prepartum Dietary Carbohydrate Source on Metabolism and Performance of Primiparous Holstein Cows during the ...
Global Study Shows Dietary Fat Not The Enemy - Its Really Carbohydrates. Calum Mckinney ... While fat has long been viewed as the most damaging dietary element, a new study finds that carbohydrates may be the biggest ... In fact, individuals with high carbohydrate intake, above 60% of energy, may benefit from a reduction in carbohydrate intake ... In a study of some 135,000 people from 18 countries, high carbohydrate intake has been linked to more deaths than high fat ...
Recent meta-analyses have found no association between heart disease and dietary saturated fat; however, higher proportions of ... Effects of Step-Wise Increases in Dietary Carbohydrate on Circulating Saturated Fatty Acids and Palmitoleic Acid in Adults with ... Effects of Dietary Acid Load on Exercise Metabolism and Anaerobic Exercise Performance Dietary acid load, quantified as the ... In a previous cross-sectional study, we reported that a low dietary PRAL (i.e. alkaline promoting diet) is associated with ... ...
By definition LC is about dietary carbohydrate restriction. If you are reducing carbohydrates, your proportional intake of ... Dietary protein does not become body fat if you are on a low carbohydrate diet ... and significantly fewer calories per gram when compared with dietary fat and alcohol.. Dietary fat is easily stored as body fat ... One way or another, with the exception of those with major liver insulin resistance, dietary protein does not become body fat ...
However, this is a general effect of total energy intake and not specifically of carbohydrates. Dietary carbohydrates do not ... Chapter 3 - Dietary carbohydrate and disease. Obesity. Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Cardiovascular disease ... The cornerstone of dietary advice aimed at reducing coronary heart disease risk is to increase the intake of carbohydrate-rich ... It is generally accepted that dietary carbohydrate should gradually be increased and fat reduced after the age of two years, so ...
... researchers found that the carbohydrate composition of diets increased the risk of ... Home / briefs / Dietary carbohydrates study reported. Dietary carbohydrates study reported. By: Journal Record Staff August 14 ... In a study led by Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation scientist Tim Griffin, researchers found that the carbohydrate ...
... is intended to be an international journal focused on dietary fibre, and bioactive ... Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre is intended to be an international journal focused on dietary fibre, and bioactive ... Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre is intended to be an international journal focused on dietary fibre, and bioactive ... Special issues published in Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre. * 13th International Hydrocolloids Conference Steve Cui ...
Low Carbohydrate/Ketogenic indicating that it may have therapeutic value in the treatment of Epilepsy: Childhood, Dravet ... This topic has 20 study abstracts on Dietary Modification: ... Are the Governments Dietary Guidelines Making Us Obese? ... Therapeutic Actions : Dietary Modification: High-Fat/Low-Carbohydrate , Dietary Modification: Low Carbohydrate/Ketogenic ... Therapeutic Actions : Dietary Modification: Low Carbohydrate/Ketogenic. Additional Keywords : Cancers: All, Dietary ...
Dietary non-digestible carbohydrates promote L-cell differentiation in the proximal colon of rats.. Cani PD1, Hoste S, Guiot Y ... We have recently shown that the endogenous GLP-1 production is promoted by dietary non-digestible carbohydrates (oligofructose ... Male Wistar rats were fed a standard diet (70.4 g/100 g total carbohydrates; controls) or the same diet supplemented with ... These results suggest a new mechanism by which dietary fibres may lower food intake and fat mass development. ...
Experimental: Low-carbohydrate high-fat diet Prescribed dietary pattern. Energy largely from fat, cellular carbohydrate sources ... Active Comparator: Acellular carbohydrate diet Prescribed dietary pattern. Carbohydrates from acellular sources, e.g., refined ... Experimental: Cellular carbohydrate diet Prescribed dietary pattern. Carbohydrates from cellular sources, e.g., root vegetables ... Behavioral: Acellular carbohydrate diet Behavioral: Cellular carbohydrate diet Behavioral: Low-carbohydrate high-fat diet Not ...
The gut & dietary lipids: Systems Biology of intestinal lipid metabolism. *Opimizing early-life dietary carbohydrates to ... Opimizing early-life dietary carbohydrates to improve later-life metabolic health. The diet in early-life can affect our ... We are particularly interested in carbohydrates (sugars), because this is the period when different types and forms of ... We will perform preclinical studies to investigate programming effects of various carbohydrates on metabolic health, employing ...
1 Abstracts with Dietary Modification: Low Carbohydrate/High Protein Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ... Therapeutic Actions : Dietary Modification: Low Carbohydrate/High Protein. Pharmacological Actions : Ghrelin Up-regulation, ... 1 Diseases Researched for Dietary Modification: Low Carbohydrate/High Protein Name. AC. CK. Focus. ... A low carbohydrate/high protein diet can reduce body weight and visceral fat, increase the expression of ghrelin, and decline ...
Dietary carbohydrates play a central role in human nutrition because they provide the primary source for the energy we need to ... Carbohydrates are classified into two basic groups: simple and complex. Most dietary fiber is composed of indigestible ... Carbohydrate excess, especially consuming too many refined carbohydrates, is also associated with increased risk for obesity, ... Eating too many carbohydrates, particularly simple sugars, can be harmful to blood sugar control, especially if you are insulin ...
Emphasis on Carbohydrates May Negatively Influence Dietary Patterns in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes ... Emphasis on Carbohydrates May Negatively Influence Dietary Patterns in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes ... Emphasis on Carbohydrates May Negatively Influence Dietary Patterns in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes ... Emphasis on Carbohydrates May Negatively Influence Dietary Patterns in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes ...
Cite your book in Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre format for free. ...
Cite your database in Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre format for free. ... Generate Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre citations for Databases. In a magazine ...
In a matching exercise, students identify the main type of carbohydrate found in four different foods. ... Learners follow the path of a carbohydrate food from consumption through digestion to absorption into the bloodstream. ... Dietary Manager Training: Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates (Screencast) By Kristy Norenberg ... Learners follow the path of a carbohydrate food from consumption through digestion to absorption into the bloodstream. In a ...
What forms do carbohydrate molecules take in the diet and in the body?. As noted in Chap. 3. , the term carbohydrate. means ... Fate of Dietary Carbohydrate, Chapter (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2009 1998 1988), AccessEngineering Export ... All living things make and store carbohydrates, so when one organism eats another organism, it ac…. Next Chapter , , Previous ...
Low-carbohydrate diets are not recommended in the management of diabetes. Although dietary carbohydrate is the major ... Although dietary carbohydrate increases postprandial glucose levels, avoiding carbohydrate entirely will not return blood ... the type of carbohydrate or the total amount of carbohydrate?. Both the amount (27,37) and the source (27,38) of carbohydrate ... of carbohydrate as well as the type of carbohydrate in a food influence blood glucose level. The total amount of carbohydrate ...
Carbohydrates are very important for the proper functioning of the body. They regulate the ... Our body needs carbohydrates which are the main source of energy. ... Grains are another dietary source with full of carbohydrates. They play a pivotal role in preventing various kinds of diseases ... In This Article, Let Us Discuss Some Of The Amazing Dietary Sources Of Carbohydrates.. 1. Potatoes:. Potatoes are the most ...
Calories, carbohydrates, and cancer therapy with radiation: exploiting the five Rs through dietary manipulation. ... 2002). Body composition and hormonal responses to a carbohydrate-restricted diet. Metabolism, 51, 864-870.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Dietary manipulation through CHO restriction, CR, and a KD may enhance the efficacy of radiation therapy by exploiting the five ... 2012). Increasing dietary fat elicits similar changes in fat oxidation and markers of muscle oxidative capacity in lean and ...
Dietary carbohydrates, physical inactivity, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome as predictors of coronary heart disease Curr ... Recent data suggest that a high intake of rapidly absorbed carbohydrates, which is characterized by a high glycemic load (a ... measure of carbohydrate quality and quantity), may increase the risk of coronary heart disease by aggravating glucose ... suggest that individuals who are obese and insulin resistant are particularly prone to the adverse effects of a high dietary ...
As a result, the interest in the use of non-digestible or slow-digestible carbohydrates as food ingredients is increasing since ... The attention to this type of carbohydrates is also reinforced by the fact that regulatory agencies have acknowledged that the ... This effect may be attributed to the resistance of these carbohydrates to hydrolysis and absorption in the small intestine, ... consumption of foods/drinks, in which slowly or non-digestible carbohydrates replace simple sugars, reduces post-prandial ...
Most dietary carbohydrates come from plants. Sugars and starches are nutritive carbohydrates, meaning they are broken down and ... Carbohydrates account for more than 50 percent of the calories in the average American diet, according to the U.S. Department ... Most dietary carbohydrates come from plants. Sugars and starches are nutritive carbohydrates, meaning they are broken down and ... Although dietary fiber is also a carbohydrate, it contributes no calories because it is not digested or absorbed. ...
The associations of dietary total carbohydrates, overall glycemic index, total dietary glycemic load, total sugars, total ... Dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and endometrial cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation ... per 100 g/day of total carbohydrates, 1.40 (95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.99) per 50 units/day of total dietary glycemic ... and a possible modest positive association of total carbohydrates, total dietary glycemic load, and total sugars with risk, ...
Read chapter Dietary Carbohydrates: Sugars and Starches: Widely regarded as the classic reference work for the nutrition, ... PART II: DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES: SUGARS AND STARCHES 109 KEY POINTS FOR DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES: SUGARS AND STARCHES Carbohydrates ... DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES: SUGARS AND STARCHES 103 DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES: SUGARS AND STARCHES T he primary role of carbohydrates (i ... Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements (2006) Chapter: Dietary Carbohydrates: Sugars and ...
... which is a measure of the quality of overall dietary carbohydrate. "Women who consumed diets with a relatively high dietary ... Loss of central vision with age may be linked to quality of dietary carbohydrates (press release). by NaturalNews Age-related ... Prior to the current study, the association between AMD and dietary carbohydrate had not been evaluated. "We are interested in ... The researchers looked at the total amount of carbohydrates consumed over 10 years and the dietary glycemic index, ...
The Declaration of Certain Isolated or Synthetic Non-Digestible Carbohydrates as Dietary Fiber on Nutrition and Supplement ... Under our policy, when a mixture of dietary fiber and one or more of these eight added non-digestible carbohydrates (that are ... Firms whose non-digestible carbohydrates do not meet our regulatory definition of "dietary fiber" and are not one of the eight ... Although those non-digestible carbohydrates cannot be listed as dietary fiber in the Nutrition Facts label, they would still be ...
This adds to previous findings, and warrants further studies of the complex SI genotype-dietary carbohydrate-microbiota ... These observations were not assessed in relation to key dietary factors including carbohydrate (ie, SI substrates) consumption. ... Sucrase-isomaltase 15Phe IBS risk variant in relation to dietary carbohydrates and faecal microbiota composition ... Sucrase-isomaltase 15Phe IBS risk variant in relation to dietary carbohydrates and faecal microbiota composition ...
This Web site is an on-line version of one volume in a series of reports that present dietary reference values for the intake ... carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids (macronutrients). [National Academies Press (U.S ... 6. Dietary carbohydrates : sugars and starches --. 7. Dietary, functional, and total fiber --. 8. Dietary fats : total fat and ... Dietary carbohydrates : sugars and starches -- 7. Dietary, functional, and total fiber -- 8. Dietary fats : total fat and fatty ...
Definition and analysis of dietary fibre in the context of food carbohydrates. Asp, Nils-Georg LU (2004) In Dietary fibre: bio- ... Dietary fibre: bio-active carbohydrates for food and feed. editor. Kamp, JW van der; Asp, NG; Miller Jones, J; Schaafsma, G; ; ... Dietary fibre: bio-active carbohydrates for food and feed}, title = {Definition and analysis of dietary fibre in the context of ...
A medium carbohydrate (15% wheat starch)/medium protein (MC/MP) diet or a high carbohydrate (30% wheat starch)/low protein (HC/ ... Our study suggests feeding a carbohydrate rich meal to salmon exerts a low impact on the structure of gut microbial communities ... It is of interest to study the dynamics of gut microbiota communities in salmonids fed high carbohydrate diets since gut ... A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding a high carbohydrate diet to Atlantic salmon in gut microbiota ...
Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids by the Institute of Medicine for free. ... The establishment of RDAs for dietary carbohydrate and protein. *The development of the definitions of Dietary Fiber, ... Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (2005) ... Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. (2005) ...
  • Research design and methods-We recruited obese, premenopausal women aged 20-50 years with no diabetes or prediabetes who were randomized to HC (55% carbohydrates, 30%fat, and 15%protein) or HP (40% carbohydrates, 30%fat, and 30%protein) diets for 6 months. (elsevier.com)
  • Carbohydrates are one of the three macronutrients that make up the typical human diet. (wikibooks.org)
  • Both complex and simple carbohydrates can be part of a healthy diet. (wikibooks.org)
  • It states that women who are pregnant or are planning to be should avoid diet that reduce or eliminate carbohydrates. (siasat.com)
  • Liver fatty acid composition and inflammation in mice fed with high-carbohydrate diet or high-fat diet. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hypotensive effect of low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet can be independent of changes in plasma insulin concentrations. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For three days before the flight this summer they will follow a high-carbohydrate diet , including white bread, white rice and pasta. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • According to recent analyses of dietary studies,1 blind faith in the validity of the "food guide pyramid" (Figure 1), which promotes a low- fat, high-carbohydrate diet , has contributed to a sharp rise in obesity and Type 2 diabetes, as well as a precipitous jump in the number of overweight children. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Those on the high-carbohydrate diet were less capable of burning calories at the end of the day than they were at the start. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A low-fat diet, then, is necessarily a high-carbohydrate diet , just as a low-fat cookie and a low-fat yogurt are necessarily high in carbohydrates. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 18 women with gestational diabetes, 9 with impaired glucose tolerance and 25 controls were put on a low (35 energy %) carbohydrate diet for one week and a high (55 energy %) carbohydrate diet for another. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Furthermore, the influence of a low carbohydrate diet was greater on postprandial than on fasting levels. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Because of the effects on fetal growth, one should recommend a low carbohydrate diet for gestational diabetics. (hu-berlin.de)
  • 2014) The Effects of High-Fat or High-Carbohydrate Diet on Intramyocellular Lipids. (scitechnol.com)
  • The above metabolic end points were measured with HP and HC diet at baseline and after 6 months of dietary intervention. (elsevier.com)
  • In fact, individuals with high carbohydrate intake, above 60% of energy, may benefit from a reduction in carbohydrate intake and increase in the consumption of fats. (studyfinds.org)
  • In an advisory issued earlier this summer, the AHA said that lowered intakes of saturated fats were not beneficial in reducing heart disease if the fats were replaced with mostly refined carbohydrates and sugars. (studyfinds.org)
  • Carbohydrates have one purpose, and that is to create glucose in the blood,hence the reason for proteins and fats not being listed on the glycemic index. (wikibooks.org)
  • Together with carbohydrates and fats, they constitute the essential substances the body needs to exist. (hlbenefits.com)
  • Epidemiological studies provide little evidence to suggest that total dietary carbohydrate predicts risk of type 2 diabetes, and high-carbohydrate, high-fibre diets with low-glycaemic index (GI) may even contribute to diabetes prevention. (cambridge.org)
  • Despite inherent limitations associated with techniques used to measure insulin resistance and dietary assessment, most intervention studies reveal an increase in glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity with high-carbohydrate, low-fat diets in non-diabetic and diabetic individuals. (cambridge.org)
  • In a study of some 135,000 people from 18 countries, high carbohydrate intake has been linked to more deaths than high fat diets. (studyfinds.org)
  • Recently, high carbohydrate diets were recommended for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The present study was designed to investigate the effects of high carbohydrate, low fat diets (HCLFD) on blood glucose regulation, lipoprotein and apoprotein concentrations and nutritional status in IDDM. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and cellulose. (wikibooks.org)
  • Limiting total fat consumption is unlikely to improve health in populations, and a total fat intake of about 35% of energy with concomitant lowering of carbohydrate intake may lower risk of total mortality. (studyfinds.org)
  • Consumption of carbohydrates increases blood sugar levels to varying degrees, depending on the type of food ingested. (healthcanal.com)
  • The investigators found that progressively higher dietary GI scores and consumption of added sugars and refined grains were associated with increased risk of new-onset depression in post-menopausal women. (healthcanal.com)
  • The present review gives an overview of insulin resistance, its relationship to impaired insulin secretion and the metabolic syndrome, research methodologies used to measure insulin action and the epidemiological and intervention studies on the relationship between dietary carbohydrate and insulin resistance. (cambridge.org)
  • Washington: A new study infers effects of low carbohydrate intake on pregnant women. (siasat.com)
  • A Heart Foundation information page notes that "many people think of rice, potatoes and pasta as 'carbs' but that's only a few of the huge range of foods that contain carbohydrates. (studyfinds.org)
  • In our randomized prospective study with crossover design we examined the influence of carbohydrate intake on the glucose metabolism of pregnant women. (hu-berlin.de)
  • As seen in Figure 4A , plants convert carbon dioxide (CO2), water (H2O), and energy (sunlight) into oxygen (O2) and glucose, a simple carbohydrate. (wikibooks.org)
  • In contrast, mean blood glucose levels and the AUC (area under of the curve of the CGMS ®) were significantly lower for both gestational diabetics and controls in the low carbohydrate week. (hu-berlin.de)
  • We could thus show that a higher carbohydrate content is associated with raised blood glucose levels. (hu-berlin.de)
  • While the PURE study doesn't indict sugar specifically in higher mortality, the American Diabetes Association does note that sugar is one of the three main types of carbohydrates. (studyfinds.org)
  • Led by James Gangwisch of the Department of Psychiatry at Columbia University Medical Center, the study looked at the dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, types of carbohydrates consumed and depression in data from more than 70,000 postmenopausal women who participated in the National Institutes of Health's Women's Health Initiative Observational Study between 1994 and 1998. (healthcanal.com)
  • The more highly refined the carbohydrate, the higher its score on the glycemic index (GI) scale. (healthcanal.com)
  • There is considerable evidence on the role of carbohydrates in non-communicable diseases . (ilsi.eu)
  • The study showed those with the highest carbohydrate intake had a nearly 30% increased risk of death, though this was not linked to cardiovascular disease by the study. (studyfinds.org)
  • Nutritional recommendations for insulin resistance remain an area of controversy, particularly the quantity and types of dietary carbohydrate. (cambridge.org)
  • Whole blood and plasma vitamin B₆, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate fell below the lower limits, even though dietary intakes were adequate. (oregonstate.edu)
  • This suggests that dietary interventions could serve as treatments and preventive measures for depression. (healthcanal.com)
  • Most dietary fiber is composed of indigestible carbohydrates, so fiber and related compounds are discussed as well. (acrobatplanet.com)
  • Griffin next plans to investigate how different types of dietary fiber and other components of our diets can contribute to OA, and also look at the role the body's microbiome and gut bacteria play in the disease. (brightsurf.com)
  • Although dietary fiber is also a carbohydrate, it contributes no calories because it is not digested or absorbed. (sfgate.com)
  • Choosing whole-grain products instead of those made from refined grains boosts your dietary fiber intake, which supports your heart and digestive health. (sfgate.com)
  • Fresh fruit is a healthier option than fruit juice because it provides more dietary fiber and less carbohydrate by volume. (sfgate.com)
  • For example, a cup of apple juice contains 29 grams of carbohydrates and 0.2 gram of fiber compared to 14 grams of carbohydrates and 1.4 grams of fiber in a cup of fresh apples. (sfgate.com)
  • The associations of dietary total carbohydrates, overall glycemic index, total dietary glycemic load, total sugars, total starch, and total fiber with endometrial cancer risk were analyzed among 288,428 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (1992-2004), including 710 incident cases diagnosed during a mean 6.4 years of follow-up. (nih.gov)
  • Data suggest no association of overall glycemic index, total starch, and total fiber with risk, and a possible modest positive association of total carbohydrates, total dietary glycemic load, and total sugars with risk, particularly among never users of hormone replacement therapy. (nih.gov)
  • Although no specific RDAs exist for carbohydrates and fat, guidelines definitely exist for them and for dietary fiber and alcohol. (fitness-vip.com)
  • i Take in an appropriate amount of dietary fiber, currently described as 14 grams dietary fiber for every 1,000 calories. (fitness-vip.com)
  • FDA has published a guidance that specifies eight (8) additional substances that qualify as dietary fiber for purposes of nutrition labeling: The Declaration of Certain Isolated or Synthetic Non-Digestible Carbohydrates as Dietary Fiber on Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels: Guidance for Industry (June 2018). (ofwlaw.com)
  • In November 2016, FDA had published a summary of its review of the scientific evidence that it had identified for certain isolated or synthetic non-digestible carbohydrates that are not listed as a dietary fiber in 21 CFR 101.9(c)(6)(i). (ofwlaw.com)
  • On March 1, 2018, FDA finalized that guidance, explaining how the agency evaluates the scientific evidence supporting citizen petitions to add certain isolated or synthetic non-digestible carbohydrates to the regulatory definition of "dietary fiber. (ofwlaw.com)
  • FDA has published its scientific basis for determining these substances to qualify as dietary fiber. (ofwlaw.com)
  • see also Questions and Answers on Dietary Fiber (page last updated 01/30/2020). (ofwlaw.com)
  • The agency prospectively will amend § 101.9(c)(6)(i) to include these additional non-digestible carbohydrates as dietary fiber. (ofwlaw.com)
  • Dietary fiber is a complex carbohydrate found in plant foods. (livestrong.com)
  • Dietary fiber may also protect against colon cancer. (livestrong.com)
  • One serving of wasabi peas contains 4 g of dietary fiber. (livestrong.com)
  • Note: Total carbohydrate includes sugar, starch, and fiber. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Dietary fiber is composed of nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin intrinsic and intact in plants. (health.gov)
  • Diets rich in dietary fiber have been shown to have a number of beneficial effects, including decreased risk of coronary heart disease and improvement in laxation. (health.gov)
  • The recommended dietary fiber intake is 14 grams per 1,000 calories consumed. (health.gov)
  • Appendixes B-1 and B-8 list some of the best sources of potassium and dietary fiber, respectively. (health.gov)
  • Each serving contains about 133 calories, 27 g protein, 2 g fat (14% calories from fat), 69 mg cholesterol, 1 g carbohydrates, less than 1 g fiber, and 110 mg sodium. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Of the 16 grams of carbohydrates, 4 grams consist of dietary fiber and 3 grams consist of sugars. (sfgate.com)
  • The 4 grams of dietary fiber in a serving of black-eyed peas constitute a significant contribution to your daily requirement. (sfgate.com)
  • Complex carbohydrates include starch and dietary fiber ( cellulose ), which are made up of sugar molecules that are strung together in long, complex chains. (creationwiki.org)
  • Complex carbohydrate foods provide vitamins, minerals, and fiber that are important to the health of an individual. (creationwiki.org)
  • The majority of carbohydrates should come from complex carbohydrates (starches) and naturally occurring sugars, rather than processed or refined sugars, which do not have the vitamins, minerals, and fiber found in complex and natural carbohydrates. (creationwiki.org)
  • Dietary fiber is a component of plants ( cellulose ) that can not be digested by most multicellular organisms. (creationwiki.org)
  • Dietary fiber adds bulk to your diet. (creationwiki.org)
  • Fiber often gets labeled as "filler" although some people refer to all carbohydrates in pet foods as fillers and that's just silly (especially to those of you reading this blog). (blogspot.com)
  • First off, dietary fiber is not a single or simple group of compounds. (blogspot.com)
  • If you look on a label of food (for you) at the grocery store, you will see that perhaps it breaks down the fiber into Soluble and Insoluble, but often gives you the Total Dietary Fiber (TDF) amount. (blogspot.com)
  • While too much refined simple sugar in the diet can have negative effects on both humans and cats, complex carbohydrates and fiber do not, and can actually have positive effects. (skeptvet.com)
  • Cellulose, a polysaccharide found in the cell walls of all plants, is one of the main components of insoluble dietary fiber . (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it is not digestible, insoluble dietary fiber helps to maintain a healthy digestive system [6] by easing defecation . (wikipedia.org)
  • Other polysaccharides contained in dietary fiber include resistant starch and inulin , which feed some bacteria in the microbiota of the large intestine , and are metabolized by these bacteria to yield short-chain fatty acids . (wikipedia.org)
  • It also includes dietary fiber which is a carbohydrate but which does not contribute much in the way of food energy ( kilocalories ), even though it is often included in the calculation of total food energy just as though it were a sugar. (wikipedia.org)
  • When controlling blood sugar, a diet rich in healthy carbohydrates, fiber-rich foods, heart-healthy fish and fats containing monounsaturated and polyunsatu. (reference.com)
  • Fiber-rich foods, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, carbohydrates that break down slowly and fish can help Type 2 diabetics control their blood sug. (reference.com)
  • Oat β-glucans are water-soluble β-glucans derived from the endosperm of oat kernels known for their dietary contribution as components of soluble fiber. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific bioactivities such as reducing serum cholesterol, modulating blood glucose and insulin levels, fermentability in the gastrointestinal track, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, immune regulatory and anti-oxidant activities demonstrated by these bioactive carbohydrates are the main focus of this journal. (elsevier.com)
  • Despite inherent limitations associated with techniques used to measure insulin resistance and dietary assessment, most intervention studies reveal an increase in glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity with high-carbohydrate, low-fat diets in non-diabetic and diabetic individuals. (cambridge.org)
  • For example, dietary fat slows glucose absorption, delaying the peak glycemic response to the ingestion of a food that contains glucose ( 12 - 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Both the quantity and the type or source of carbohydrate found in foods influence postprandial glucose level ( 18 , 19 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Although most experts agree that the total carbohydrate intake from a meal or snack is a relatively reliable predictor of postprandial blood glucose ( 18 , 20 - 22 ), the impact and relative importance that the type or source of carbohydrate has on postprandial glucose level has continued to be an area of debate ( 23 - 26 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Over the last two decades, investigators have attempted to define and categorize carbohydrate-containing foods based on their glycemic response or their propensity to increase blood glucose concentration ( 27 , 28 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The glycemic index is a measure of the change in blood glucose following ingestion of carbohydrate-containing foods. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The specific type of carbohydrate (e.g., starch versus sucrose) present in a particular food does not always predict its effect on blood glucose ( 28 , 29 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Recent data suggest that a high intake of rapidly absorbed carbohydrates, which is characterized by a high glycemic load (a measure of carbohydrate quality and quantity), may increase the risk of coronary heart disease by aggravating glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. (nih.gov)
  • All fruit and fruit juices contain carbohydrates in the form of natural sugars, such as glucose and fructose. (sfgate.com)
  • Carnivorous fish, including salmonids, show a slow blood glucose clearance rate and suboptimal growth performance when fed rich carbohydrate meals. (mdpi.com)
  • Dietary glycemic load (GL) was calculated as a function of glycemic index (postprandial blood glucose response as compared with a reference food), carbohydrate content, and frequency of intake of individual foods reported on food frequency questionnaires. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Glycemic Index: A relative measure of how rapidly the digested carbohydrate appears in the blood as glucose relative to the same amount of pure glucose over time. (slideserve.com)
  • A 50 g amount of glucose would have a GI of 100 while a 50g amount of other carbohydrate sources would be expressed relative to the glucose GI. (slideserve.com)
  • Glycemic Load: A measure of total amount of glucose appearing in the blood over time based on the total amount of digestible carbohydrate in the food. (slideserve.com)
  • Carbohydrates with different physical forms, chemical structures, particle sizes, and fibre contents may induce distinct plasma glucose and insulin responses. (bmj.com)
  • Rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) was recognized as typical "glucose-intolerant" fish and poor dietary carbohydrate user. (biologists.org)
  • by contrast, and surprisingly, for two other key glycolytic enzymes (phosphofructokinase enzyme - pfkl - and pyruvate kinase - pk -) some of the paralogs ( pfklb and pklr ) are inhibited by carbohydrates whereas some of the genes coding gluconeogenic enzymes (the glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme - g6pcb1b and g6pcb2a gene and the fructose1-6 biphosphatase paralog fbp1a ) are induced. (biologists.org)
  • In conclusion, our study determines some new unexpected molecular regulation of the glucose metabolism in rainbow trout which may partly led to the poor utilization of dietary carbohydrates and underlines the existence of differences in molecular regulation of glucose metabolism between two isogenic lines provide arguments for future selection of rainbow trout. (biologists.org)
  • Mice inoculated with C. albicans were allowed free access to standard chow and drinking water supplemented with either glucose or xylitol or no carbohydrates (control). (asm.org)
  • These results indicate that dietary glucose intake is a key determinant of C. albicans growth in the gastrointestinal tract. (asm.org)
  • A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dietary glucose stimulus at larval stage modifies the carbohydrate metabolic pathway in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) juveniles: An in vivo approach using (14)C-starch. (ualg.pt)
  • We assessed the long-term effects of high-glucose stimuli, exerted at the larval stage, on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and metabolic utilization and gene expression of seabream juveniles, challenged with a high-carbohydrate intake. (ualg.pt)
  • GLU juveniles showed higher absorption of starch-derived glucose in the gut, suggesting an enhanced digestion of carbohydrates, while amino acid use was not affected. (ualg.pt)
  • Our metabolic data suggests that the early glucose stimuli may alter carbohydrate utilization in seabream juveniles. (ualg.pt)
  • In fact, glucose -- one of the simplest carbohydrates -- is your body's preferred energy currency. (livestrong.com)
  • Very active people may need larger serves of carbohydrate foods or between meals snacks to maintain blood glucose levels. (nzma.org.nz)
  • The liver breaks down carbohydrates into glucose (blood sugar), which is used to generate energy in a process called cellular respiration . (creationwiki.org)
  • Both simple and complex carbohydrates are turned to glucose (blood sugar) in the body and are used as energy. (creationwiki.org)
  • The glycemic index measures how fast a carbohydrate can raise blood glucose and may better describe the physiological effects of carbohydrates than the total quantity of carbohydrate intake, said Allen Taylor, Ph.D., at Tufts University here and colleagues. (patientcareonline.com)
  • [4] While the scientific nomenclature of carbohydrates is complex, the names of the monosaccharides and disaccharides very often end in the suffix -ose , as in the monosaccharides fructose (fruit sugar) and glucose (starch sugar) and the disaccharides sucrose ( cane or beet sugar) and lactose (milk sugar). (wikipedia.org)
  • Dietary non-digestible carbohydrates promote L-cell differentiation in the proximal colon of rats. (nih.gov)
  • We have recently shown that the endogenous GLP-1 production is promoted by dietary non-digestible carbohydrates (oligofructose), the higher GLP-1 secretion could participate in the control of obesity and associated disorders. (nih.gov)
  • This experimental study was designed to highlight the mechanisms of endogenous increase of GLP-1 following non-digestible carbohydrate feeding. (nih.gov)
  • As a result, the interest in the use of non-digestible or slow-digestible carbohydrates as food ingredients is increasing since their intake is linked with a reduced risk of common chronic Western diseases associated with central obesity and insulin resistance. (frontiersin.org)
  • The attention to this type of carbohydrates is also reinforced by the fact that regulatory agencies have acknowledged that the consumption of foods/drinks, in which slowly or non-digestible carbohydrates replace simple sugars, reduces post-prandial glycemic and insulinemic responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • ii) Metabolism of slowly or non-digestible carbohydrates (mainly focused on glycemic response, interaction with gut microbiota and other target organs/systems, for instance, immune system, gut-brain axis, etc. (frontiersin.org)
  • iii) Production of novel slowly or non-digestible carbohydrates and related compounds. (frontiersin.org)
  • iv) What new technologies are needed to assess physiological change or health impact related to the metabolism of non-digestible carbohydrate (e.g. biomarkers, probes, imaging, etc). v) What are the challenges, limitations and future research needs in this field. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our results suggest increasing the level of digestible carbohydrate mostly affects low-abundance bacteria in favor of those capable of using carbohydrates as a major energy-yielding substrate. (mdpi.com)
  • Its review had relied on the draft guidance for industry, "Scientific Evaluation of the Evidence on the Beneficial Physiological Effects of Isolated or Synthetic Non-digestible Carbohydrates Submitted as a Citizen Petition (21 CFR 10.30). (ofwlaw.com)
  • Proteins and carbohydrates derived from plant sources can be just as digestible and nutritious for cats as those derived from animal sources. (skeptvet.com)
  • Carbohydrates may also have indirect effects on diseases, for example, by displacing other nutrients or facilitating increased intakes of a wide range of other substances frequently found in carbohydrate-containing foods. (fao.org)
  • The new title for these values Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), is the inclusive name being given to this new approach. (nap.edu)
  • This new book is part of a series of books presenting dietary reference values for the intakes of nutrients. (nap.edu)
  • Intakes of dietary carbohydrate, GL, overall glycemic index, sucrose, and fructose were not associated with colorectal cancer risk in women. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Dietary intakes, MetS biomarkers, faecal bacteriology and SCFA concentrations were monitored. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A panel of probes including those targeted to the most abundant groups of butyrate-producing bacteria found in human fecal samples ( 3 , 6 , 33 , 60 ) was used to monitor the effect of a dietary shift from normal intakes of carbohydrate (399 g/day) to either moderate (164 g/day) or low (24 g/day) intakes as part of weight loss strategies in obese men. (asm.org)
  • Meet recommended intakes within energy needs by adopting a balanced eating pattern, such as the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Guide or the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Eating Plan. (health.gov)
  • The dietary intake data are used to estimate the types and amounts of foods and beverages consumed during the 24-hour period prior to the interview (midnight to midnight), and to estimate intakes of energy, nutrients, and other food components from those foods and beverages. (cdc.gov)
  • This release of the dietary intake data represents, for the first time, the integration of two nationwide dietary intake surveys - USDA's Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) and DHHS's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). (cdc.gov)
  • Nutrient intakes reported in these files do not include those obtained from dietary supplements, medications or plain drinking water. (cdc.gov)
  • The Total Dietary Supplement File provides a summary record of total nutrient intakes from DS and antacids for each individual. (cdc.gov)
  • Eating too many carbohydrates, particularly simple sugars, can be harmful to blood sugar control, especially if you are insulin resistant, experience reactive hypoglycemia or are diabetic. (acrobatplanet.com)
  • Nutritional recommendations for insulin resistance remain an area of controversy, particularly the quantity and types of dietary carbohydrate. (cambridge.org)
  • The present review gives an overview of insulin resistance, its relationship to impaired insulin secretion and the metabolic syndrome, research methodologies used to measure insulin action and the epidemiological and intervention studies on the relationship between dietary carbohydrate and insulin resistance. (cambridge.org)
  • These data also suggest that individuals who are obese and insulin resistant are particularly prone to the adverse effects of a high dietary glycemic load. (nih.gov)
  • Dietary intake can influence insulin levels, especially among individuals who are insulin resistant due to other factors, such as obesity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, eating a meal rich in carbohydrates can cause your blood sugar and insulin levels to spike. (secondopinionnewsletter.com)
  • 11 Also, a chronic high dietary glycaemic load, which increases insulin demand, may exacerbate insulin resistance 12, 13 and hence may increase the risk of gall stone disease. (bmj.com)
  • It has been argued that a lower carbohydrate supply may be advantageous in ameliorating insulin insensitivity ( 9 ), although this may not occur with low-glycemic-index foods ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • Those carrying the risk allele and consuming higher carbohydrate/lower fat diets showed an unfavorable metabolic pattern [lower HDL-C and adiponectin levels, higher VAT/SAT ratio, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and higher gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The rationale is that carbohydrate restriction improves glycemic control and reduces insulin fluctuations which are primary targets. (dsolve.com)
  • The insulin-like growth factor-I (IGFI) receptor is a potential target for breast cancer treatment and may be influenced by dietary intake. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1. Carbohydrate restriction improves glycemic control, the primary target of nutritional therapy and reduces insulin fluctuations. (diabetes-book.com)
  • 5 This is an attainable figure rooted in the pre-insulin history of diabetes and the physiology of carbohydrate metabolism. (nzma.org.nz)
  • 8 Diets that exceed the putative normal carbohydrate requirement of 130g/day should not be considered 'low-carbohydrate', as the desired physiological changes (lowered insulin demand or secretion, decreased appetite, inhibition of lipid synthesis, and increased fatty acid oxidation) depend on adaptations to carbohydrate deprivation. (nzma.org.nz)
  • As fat is stored more efficiently than excess carbohydrate, use of high carbohydrate foods is likely to reduce the risk of obesity in the long term. (fao.org)
  • There is no direct evidence to implicate either of these groups of carbohydrates in the etiology of obesity, based on data derived from studies in affluent societies. (fao.org)
  • Obesity, and high internal fat storage in particular, represents a tremendous and increasing health challenge across the world, and is linked to the recent introduction and globalization of an ultra-processed food supply largely based on refined carbohydrates. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Carbohydrate excess, especially consuming too many refined carbohydrates, is also associated with increased risk for obesity, heart disease, and some forms of cancer. (acrobatplanet.com)
  • These findings give us new clues that there can be significant dietary effects linked to increased OA risk even in the absence of obesity. (brightsurf.com)
  • Although obesity is not a cause of type 2 diabetes per se, Prof Broom explains that it is still the primary risk factor and that both these issues can be sorted out by changing the dietary guidelines. (diabetes.co.uk)
  • However, the advice to increase carbohydrate intake seemingly made things worse, with an increase in its consumption (mainly corn syrup) paralleling the increased incidence of diabetes and obesity in the USA. (bmj.com)
  • 9 These data provide a strong argument that the increase in the consumption of refined carbohydrates was the causative dietary factor for the diabetes and obesity epidemic in the USA. (bmj.com)
  • Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO) have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetic factors interact with dietary nutrients to impact the development of obesity and the outcome of weight loss therapies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Carbohydrate food sources included low glycemic offerings such as leafy greens and many types of vegetables and excluded breads, pasta and sweets known to promote overweight, obesity and chronic disease. (blogspot.com)
  • Though no complete consensus was reached, the bottom line was that the most important dietary risk factor for cats, and the most common nutrition-related disorders (diabetes and obesity) are due primarily to excessive calorie intake, NOT dietary carbohydrate content. (skeptvet.com)
  • Contrary to the claim that dietary carbohydrates cause obesity in cats, there is evidence that diets relatively higher in carbs than in fat actually reduce the risk of this problem. (skeptvet.com)
  • A panel of nutrition and feline medicine experts from the American College of Veterinary Medicine (ACVIM) recently drafted a consensus statement on the role of dietary carbohydrates in feline obesity and diabetes which examines some of the evidence concerning dietary carbohydrates and cats. (skeptvet.com)
  • In fact, low carbohydrate foods may be more likely to lead to obesity if they are higher in fat than regular diets. (skeptvet.com)
  • The consensus was that even if carbohydrates do play a role as a risk factor for diabetes, this is dwarfed by the much more important factor of obesity. (skeptvet.com)
  • Objective- To assess perceptions of healthful eating and the impact of diabetes management on dietary behaviors among youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and their parents. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We also present some evidence supportive of benefit from carbohydrate restriction in type 1 diabetes. (nzma.org.nz)
  • The role of gut microbial communities on carbohydrate utilization has been poorly explored in salmonids. (mdpi.com)
  • Further study for a better understanding of the role of gut microbiota in carbohydrate utilization in carnivorous fish is required. (mdpi.com)
  • Previous studies have indicated that differences in the complexity of carbohydrates influence their digestion and utilization by aquatic animals (Wilson 1994, Cuzon et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This accounts for the better utilization of carbohydrates by common carp. (fao.org)
  • Murai, Akiyama and Nose (1983) investigated the effects of various dietary carbohydrates and the frequency of feeding on feed utilization of common carp. (fao.org)
  • Finally, the point is reiterated that carbohydrate restriction improves all of the features of metabolic syndrome. (dsolve.com)
  • 4. Carbohydrate restriction improves the features of metabolic syndrome. (diabetes-book.com)
  • Learners follow the path of a carbohydrate food from consumption through digestion to absorption into the bloodstream. (wisc-online.com)
  • These observations were not assessed in relation to key dietary factors including carbohydrate (ie, SI substrates) consumption. (bmj.com)
  • We then studied PopGen and FoCus faecal microbiota profiles in relation to carbohydrate consumption and SI 15Phe genotype. (bmj.com)
  • Excess visceral body fat dramatically raises the risk of these diseases that are linked to the excessive consumption of carbohydrate rich foods. (blogspot.com)
  • Following the dietary recall, respondents are asked questions on water consumption during the previous 24-hour period, salt use, and whether the person's intake on the previous day was usual or unusual. (cdc.gov)
  • In this highly animated and colorful object, learners examine the steps of carbohydrate digestion. (wisc-online.com)
  • In this screencast, learners examine the steps of carbohydrate digestion. (wisc-online.com)
  • This indicates that evening exposure to bright or dim light after bright light exposure in the daytime has no varying effect on digestion or absorption of dietary carbohydrates in the following morning's breakfast. (go.jp)
  • In 1980, the U.S. Public Health Service and the U.S. Department of Agriculture joined forces to produce the first edition of Dietary Guidelines for Americans (see Chapter 16). (fitness-vip.com)
  • The majority of your daily calories should come from carbohydrates, according to the 2010 edition of the U.S. department of Agriculture Dietary Guidelines for Americans. (livestrong.com)
  • Most public health guidelines including the Dietary Guidelines for Americans do not allow fat portions in excess. (news-medical.net)
  • The expert report underpinning the next set of US Dietary Guidelines for Americans fails to reflect much relevant scientific literature in its reviews of crucial topics and therefore risks giving a misleading picture, an investigation by The BMJ has found. (bmj.com)
  • It has been suggested that between 60 and 70 per cent of total energy should be derived from a mix of mono-unsaturated fatty acids and carbohydrates. (fao.org)
  • Recently published research in the University of Eastern Finland found that fatty acid composition in blood is not only a biomarker for the quality of dietary fat but also reflects the quality of dietary carbohydrates. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Earlier studies on the topic have mainly concentrated on the association of the quality of dietary fat with fatty acid composition in blood. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In the present study, the association of the quality of dietary carbohydrates with plasma fatty acid composition was investigated for the first time in children. (medicalxpress.com)
  • We determined the effect of the amount and type of dietary fat and carbohydrate on faecal bacteria and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in people 'at risk' of MetS. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Microbial fermentation may release as much as 10% of the dietary energy, mainly in the form of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) that also act as energy sources for host cells ( 46 ). (asm.org)
  • But an adequate amount of vitamin D can be difficult to ingest via food, especially for those who are vegetarian or don't eat fatty fish (the main dietary source of vitamin D) on a regular basis. (wiiweightlossplan.com)
  • Carbon atoms in fatty acids have an oxidation state of -2 to -3, whereas carbohydrates have oxidation states of +1 to -1. (reference.com)
  • Radunzneto, Corraze and Charlon (1994) found that during the first two weeks, dietary PL supply seemed to be more critical for early larval survival and growth than a supply of n-3 fatty acids from cod liver oil. (fao.org)
  • It will include original studies and comprehensive reviews on the primary structure, molecular characteristics including conformation, size and shape, and bioactivities demonstrated by studies using in vitro , cell culture, animal and human clinical trials for understanding the action mechanisms and efficacy of bioactive carbohydrates from plants, fungi, animals and produced by biotechnology. (elsevier.com)
  • Carbohydrates from acellular sources, e.g., refined flour/bakery products, at least 500 grams of fruits/vegetables per day, and a macronutrient composition within typical nutritional recommendations for the general population. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A cup of unflavored milk contains about 11 to 12 grams of carbohydrate in the form of milk sugar, or lactose. (sfgate.com)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that U.S. males consume an average of 45 grams of carbohydrates daily from sugar-sweetened drinks and females consume 26 grams. (sfgate.com)
  • You can count grams of carbohydrates or carbohydrate choices. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • 1 carbohydrate choice = 15 grams of carbohydrate. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Use the grams of total carbohydrate when carbohydrate counting. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Foods with fewer than 20 calories and 5 grams of carbohydrate are considered 'free' foods. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • While it is generally acknowledged that total dietary carbohydrate is the major factor in glycemic control, strategies based on reduction of dietary carbohydrate have received little support. (diabetes-book.com)
  • These results suggest a new mechanism by which dietary fibres may lower food intake and fat mass development. (nih.gov)
  • Any food that includes grain or grain flour as a primary ingredient contains carbohydrates, such as bread and other baked goods, pasta, cereal, crackers and tortillas. (sfgate.com)
  • 58.5% female), with available genotype (genome-wide arrays), dietary (12-month food frequency questionnaire, FFQ), faecal microbiota (16S sequencing) and IBS status (self-reported from questionnaire) data, as previously described in detail. (bmj.com)
  • 1 The study recorded the dietary intake of 135,335 people using validated food frequency questionnaires, with a median follow-up of 7.4 years. (bmj.com)
  • Dietary information was collected as part of the Health Professionals Follow up Study starting in 1986 using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire with follow up until 1998. (bmj.com)
  • Knowledge about carbohydrate-rich food was derived from 11 items designed around type and source of carbohydrate, food processing, and nutrition. (lowcarber.org)
  • If they are used as a sweetener in food that contains few calories and no other carbohydrate (such as sugar-free soft drinks or sugar-free gelatin), that food is considered to be a 'free food. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • If, on the other hand, the sugar substitute is used in a food that contains other carbohydrate sources (such as sugar-free pudding or sugar-free cookies), the total carbohydrate content must be counted. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Sugar alcohols are not 'free,' and must still be counted as part of the total carbohydrate content of any food. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Carbohydrate choices can also be calculated by referring to the total carbohydrate content on a food label. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • How do you use the food label to count carbohydrates? (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Looking at a food label, find the serving size and the total carbohydrate in that one serving. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Most people need 3-4 serves of carbohydrate food at each of the three main meals [ie, 135-180g/day]. (nzma.org.nz)
  • The glycemic index indicates how quickly your body digests the carbohydrates in food into sugars that your body can absorb. (sfgate.com)
  • In the strict sense, " sugar " is applied for sweet, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expanded food descriptions can be found in the food descriptions component of the USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS). (cdc.gov)
  • This health claim mobilized a dietary movement as physicians and dietitians for the first time could recommend intake of a specific food to directly combat disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chocolate milk contains more than twice the amount of carbohydrate per cup compared to plain milk because sugar is added to sweeten the flavor. (sfgate.com)
  • Lastly, the amount of carbohydrate is set according to what allowance is left while maintaining the chosen ratio. (wiiweightlossplan.com)
  • These beneficial effects of carbohydrate restriction do not require weight loss. (dsolve.com)
  • We determined the individual and combined effects of carbohydrate quality (the glycemic index) and quantity (the proportion of total daily energy [percentage of carbohydrates]) on uric acid levels. (elsevier.com)
  • 5. Beneficial effects of carbohydrate restriction do not require weight loss. (diabetes-book.com)
  • We highlight evidence relating to very low-carbohydrate diets, to best illustrate the mechanisms and effects of carbohydrate restriction. (nzma.org.nz)
  • Sugar-sweetened soda, fruit drinks and sports and energy drinks substantially contribute to dietary carbohydrate intake among Americans who consume these products. (sfgate.com)
  • ABSTRACT A 16-wk feeding trial was conducted to assess the effects of different types of dietary carbohydrate on growth and body composition of juvenile abalone (Haliotis discus). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Altogether, they reviewed 13 different articles describing randomized controlled trials that examined the effects of combining carbohydrates and polyphenols. (secondopinionnewsletter.com)
  • Despite suggestive evidence from observational studies, randomized controlled trials have provided no convincing evidence that changing dietary patterns following a diagnosis of breast cancer can impact prognosis ( 2, 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our findings suggest that a high intake of carbohydrate, glycaemic load, and glycaemic index increases the risk of symptomatic gall stone disease in men. (bmj.com)
  • The physiological response to carbohydrates can be quantified by glycaemic index. (bmj.com)
  • The task force particularly puts emphasis on glycaemic control and the role of dietary fibres. (ilsi.eu)
  • Studies differ in the exact degree of carbohydrate restriction tested for effect on glycaemic control. (nzma.org.nz)
  • Carbohydrates may directly influence human diseases by affecting physiological and metabolic processes, thereby reducing risk factors for the disease or the disease process itself. (fao.org)
  • Dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and endometrial cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. (nih.gov)
  • When it comes to carbohydrates, quality rather than quantity may be more important, according to new research by Allen Taylor, PhD, director of the Laboratory for Nutrition and Vision Research at the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging (HNRCA) at Tufts University, and colleagues. (naturalnews.com)
  • Women who consumed diets with a relatively high dietary glycemic index had greater risk of developing signs of early age-related macular degeneration when compared with women who consumed diets with a lower dietary glycemic index," says lead author Chung-Jung Chiu, DDS, PhD, scientist in the Laboratory for Nutrition and Vision Research at the HNRCA and an assistant professor at Tufts University School of Medicine. (naturalnews.com)
  • Dietary glycemic index may be an independent and modifiable risk factor for early AMD," concludes Taylor, who is also a nutrition, ophthalmology and biochemistry professor on the Tufts health sciences campus in Boston. (naturalnews.com)
  • Two limitations that can stop us from properly understanding Nutrition, he says, are that modern healthcare professionals receive very little nutritional training, and that randomised controlled trials, which are designed to investigate just one variable, can be ineffective for looking at dietary interventions. (diabetes.co.uk)
  • Successful implementation and monitoring of dietary interventions in sports nutrition research of the scale of the present study require meticulous planning and the expertise of chefs and sports dietitians. (humankinetics.com)
  • The increasing interest in the implementation of special dietary interventions in both the practice and research settings of sports nutrition creates a number of challenges. (humankinetics.com)
  • However, it may not be clear how their nutrition fits into your overall dietary needs. (sfgate.com)
  • Carbohydrate nutrition in older nondiabetic persons is related to the development of nuclear and cortical lens opacities, according to a study. (patientcareonline.com)
  • The present analysis is one of a few studies that have reported association carbohydrate nutrition in nondiabetic persons and lens opacities, and it is the first study to find a relationship between the dietary glycemic index and the risk of nuclear cataracts, the researchers said. (patientcareonline.com)
  • The guidelines are based on a report produced by a dietary guidelines advisory committee-a group of 11-15 experts who are appointed to review the best and most current science to make nutrition recommendations that both promote health and fight disease. (bmj.com)
  • We have previously demonstrated that dietary Cr supplementation can augment post-exercise muscle glycogen storage during a conventional 'CHO-loading' regimen in healthy, young, male volunteers, and that this response is restricted to the previously exercised limb (Robinson et al. (springer.com)
  • An RDA is the average daily dietary intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97â 98 percent) healthy individuals in a group. (nap.edu)
  • Several studies involving feeding trials have been conducted to investigate dietary nutrient requirements of abalone (Uki et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • We conclude that reducing training load, and dietary carbohydrates and increasing dietary fat, markedly improved a variety of health functions, reduced exogenous nutrient requirements during training and racing, and increased performance in an elite triathlete. (philmaffetone.com)
  • 1. Are dietary carbohydrates an essential or required nutrient for cats? (skeptvet.com)